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Vascular Health and Risk Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920548/platelet-count-and-platelet-indices-in-women-with-preeclampsia
#1
Muneera A AlSheeha, Rafi S Alaboudi, Mohammad A Alghasham, Javed Iqbal, Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia. OBJECTIVE: To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls. SETTING: Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: A case-control study...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920547/predictive-value-of-nt-probnp-for-30-day-mortality-in-patients-with-non-st-elevation-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-comparison-with-the-grace-and-timi-risk-scores
#2
Dirk Aam Schellings, Ahmet Adiyaman, Jan-Henk E Dambrink, At Marcel Gosselink, Elvin Kedhi, Vincent Roolvink, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Arnoud Wj Van't Hof
BACKGROUND: The biomarker N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Whether NT-proBNP has incremental prognostic value beyond established risk strategies is still questionable. PURPOSE: To evaluate the predictive value of NT-proBNP for 30-day mortality over and beyond the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores in patients with NSTE-ACS...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895488/advances-in-the-management-of-heart-failure-the-role-of-ivabradine
#3
REVIEW
Ursula Müller-Werdan, Georg Stöckl, Karl Werdan
A high resting heart rate (≥70-75 b.p.m.) is a risk factor for patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF), probably in the sense of accelerated atherosclerosis, with an increased morbidity and mortality. Beta-blockers not only reduce heart rate but also have negative inotropic and blood pressure-lowering effects, and therefore, in many patients, they cannot be given in the recommended dose. Ivabradine specifically inhibits the pacemaker current (funny current, If) of the sinoatrial node cells, resulting in therapeutic heart rate lowering without any negative inotropic and blood pressure-lowering effect...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895487/combination-therapy-with-lercanidipine-and-enalapril-in-the-management-of-the-hypertensive-patient-an-update-of-the-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Christina Antza, Stella Stabouli, Vasilios Kotsis
Hypertension is an important risk factor for premature death as it increases the probability of stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Antihypertensive drugs can decrease cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. The majority of hypertensive patients need more than one antihypertensive agent to attain blood pressure (BP) targets. Monotherapy can effectively reduce BP only in 20%-40% of patients. Multiple mechanisms including increased peripheral vascular resistance, increased cardiac work, and hypervolemia are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877050/development-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-inhibitors-and-the-clinical-potential-of-monoclonal-antibodies-in-the-management-of-lipid-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Sanjiv Gupta
The aim of this manuscript is to review available data to evaluate the present status of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Relevant literature since 2003 is reviewed. The effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other atherogenic lipid fractions was studied in various Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials of Alirocumab, Evolocumab, and Bococizumab. The results of published long-term ODYSSEY and OSLER studies are summarized...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877049/a-review-about-biomarkers-for-the-investigation-of-vascular-function-and-impairment-in-diabetes-mellitus
#6
REVIEW
Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli
The aim of this review was to analyze the main biomarkers of vascular function and impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes. Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched. We concluded that proatherogenic adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1, and soluble E selectin) and inflammatory cytokines (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were elevated in type 2 diabetes mellitus...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822055/treatment-adherence-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-on-antihypertensive-medications-in-a-middle-eastern-population-adherence
#7
Imad A Alhaddad, Omar Hamoui, Ayman Hammoudeh, Samir Mallat
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to antihypertensive treatment remains a clinical challenge worldwide. The objectives of this study were to assess the adherence level to antihypertensive treatment and to identify its associated factors in a sample of hypertensive patients in Lebanon and Jordan. METHODS: We conducted an observational study between May 2011 and September 2012. A total of 1,470 eligible hypertensive patients were enrolled in our study and followed up for a period of 6 months...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822054/impact-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-on-blood-pressure
#8
REVIEW
James W Reed
SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP) lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin) on BP in patients with T2DM...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789955/carbohydrate-composition-of-circulating-multiple-modified-low-density-lipoprotein
#9
Emile R Zakiev, Igor A Sobenin, Vasily N Sukhorukov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Ekaterina A Ivanova, Alexander N Orekhov
Atherogenic modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as modified LDL, but not native LDL, induces pronounced accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in the arterial wall. It is likely that LDL particles undergo multiple modifications in human plasma: desialylation, changes in size and density, acquisition of negative electric charge, oxidation, and complex formation. In a total LDL preparation isolated from pooled plasma of patients with coronary atherosclerosis and from healthy subjects, two subfractions of LDL could be identified: desialylated LDL bound by a lectin affinity column and normally sialylated (native) LDL that passed through the column...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785043/international-normalized-ratio-self-testing-and-self-management-improving-patient-outcomes
#10
REVIEW
Matteo Pozzi, Julia Mitchell, Anna Maria Henaine, Najib Hanna, Ola Safi, Roland Henaine
Long term oral anti-coagulation with vitamin K antagonists is a risk factor of hemorrhagic or thromebomlic complications. Periodic laboratory testing of international normalized ratio (INR) and a subsequent dose adjustment are therefore mandatory. The use of home testing devices to measure INR has been suggested as a potential way to improve the comfort and compliance of the patients and their families, the frequency of monitoring and, finally, the management and safety of long-term oral anticoagulation. In pediatric patients, increased doses to obtain and maintain the therapeutic target INR, more frequent adjustments and INR testing, multiple medication, inconstant nutritional intake, difficult venepunctures, and the need to go to the laboratory for testing (interruption of school and parents' work attendance) highlight those difficulties...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713633/comparison-of-the-acute-phase-response-after-laparoscopic-versus-open-aortobifemoral-bypass-surgery-a-substudy-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Anne H Krog, Mehdi Sahba, Erik M Pettersen, Irene Sandven, Per M Thorsby, Jørgen J Jørgensen, Jon O Sundhagen, Syed Ss Kazmi
PURPOSE: Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been shown to reduce the inflammatory response related to a surgical procedure. The main objective of our study was to measure the inflammatory response in patients undergoing a totally laparoscopic versus open aortobifemoral bypass surgery. This is the first randomized trial on subjects in this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a substudy of a larger randomized controlled multicenter trial (Norwegian Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery Trial)...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660458/overview-of-guidelines-for-the-management-of-dyslipidemia-eu-perspectives
#12
Vicente Giner-Galvañ, María José Esteban-Giner, Vicente Pallarés-Carratalá
Modern medicine is characterized by a continuous genesis of evidence making it very difficult to translate the latest findings into a better clinical practice. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) emerge to provide clinicians evidence-based recommendations for their daily clinical practice. However, the high number of existing CPG as well as the usual differences in the given recommendations usually increases the clinician's confusion and doubts. It has apparently been the case for the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621646/critical-appraisal-of-paclitaxel-balloon-angioplasty-for-femoral-popliteal-arterial-disease
#13
REVIEW
Monika Herten, Giovanni B Torsello, Eva Schönefeld, Stefan Stahlhoff
Peripheral arterial disease, particularly critical limb ischemia, is an area with urgent need for optimized therapies because, to date, vascular interventions often have limited life spans. In spite of initial encouraging technical success after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting, postprocedural restenosis remains the major problem. The challenging idea behind the drug-coated balloon (DCB) concept is the biological modification of the injury response after balloon dilatation. Antiproliferative drugs administered via DCBs or drug-eluting stents are able to suppress neointimal hyperplasia, the main cause of restenosis...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574437/blood-pressure-and-fasting-lipid-changes-after-24-weeks-treatment-with-vildagliptin-a-pooled-analysis-in-2-000-previously-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Marc Evans, Anja Schweizer, James E Foley
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown modest weight loss with vildagliptin treatment. Since body weight balance is associated with changes in blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipids, we have assessed these parameters following vildagliptin treatment. METHODS: Data were pooled from all double-blind, randomized, controlled, vildagliptin mono-therapy trials on previously drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received vildagliptin 50 mg once daily (qd) or twice daily (bid; n=2,108) and wherein BP and fasting lipid data were obtained...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563246/risk-impact-of-edoxaban-in-the-management-of-stroke-and-venous-thromboembolism
#15
REVIEW
Katherine V Hurst, John Matthew O'Callaghan, Ashok Handa
The new generation of target-specific oral anticoagulants is being prescribed for increasing numbers of patients at risk of stroke or venous thromboembolism (VTE). These drugs offer valuable benefits due to fast onset anticoagulation, a fixed anticoagulation effect (allowing administration of specified doses), and no requirement for routine monitoring. Edoxaban is a fast-acting oral anticoagulant, approved for use in the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the treatment of acute VTE...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536127/predictors-of-high-central-blood-pressure-in-young-with-isolated-systolic-hypertension
#16
G D Radchenko, O O Torbas, Yu M Sirenko
OBJECTIVE: According to the European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension 2013 guidelines, evaluation of aortic blood pressure (BP) is needed in young with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), but using special devices is not common, especially in Ukraine, where only a few centers have these devices. The purpose of our study was to identify the simple clinical predictors for differentiation (with or without elevated aortic systolic BP [SBP]) of the young with ISH without the need for further extensive work-up...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536126/effect-of-nitroglycerin-administration-on-cardio-ankle-vascular-index
#17
Kazuhiro Shimizu, Tomoyuki Yamamoto, Mao Takahashi, Shuji Sato, Hirofumi Noike, Kohji Shirai
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference between effects of nitroglycerin (NTG) on the functional stiffness in patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) using a newly developed stiffness index, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The two subject groups in this study were normal controls (n=31) and CAD patients (n=25). The normal controls had no medical history and were not on regular medications. On the other hand, the CAD patients had received various treatments like antihypertensive drugs, hypoglycemic agents, and statins...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536125/detection-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-with-an-improved-automated-device-comparison-of-a-new-oscillometric-device-and-the-standard-doppler-method
#18
Matjaž Špan, Gregor Geršak, Sandrine C Millasseau, Marko Meža, Andrej Košir
In occidental countries, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important health issue; however, most subjects are asymptomatic (~50%) and therefore undiagnosed and untreated. Current guidelines recommend screening for PAD in primary care setting using ankle brachial index (ABI) in all patients with cardiovascular risks. This is, however, not performed strictly because the standard Doppler method is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ABI measurements obtained by an improved automated oscillometric device, the MESI ABPI MD(®) device, and the standard Doppler method...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486329/biomarkers-and-the-prediction-of-atrial-fibrillation-state-of-the-art
#19
REVIEW
Wesley T O'Neal, Sanjay Venkatesh, Stephen T Broughton, William F Griffin, Elsayed Z Soliman
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice, and it places a substantial burden on the health care system. Despite improvements in our understanding of AF pathophysiology, we have yet to develop targeted preventive therapies. Recently, numerous biological markers have been identified to aid in the prediction of future AF events. Subclinical markers of atrial stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, kidney dysfunction, and atherosclerosis have been linked to AF...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471391/matrix-metalloproteinases-in-exercise-and-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan Jaoude, Yunsuk Koh
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs' functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic) on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
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