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Current Clinical Pharmacology

M E Sales, A J Español, A R Salem, P Pulido Martínez, Y Sanchez, F Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have attracted interest as targets for therapeutic interventions in different illnesses like Alzheimer´s disease, viral infections and different tumors. Regarding the latter, many authors have studied each subtype of mAChRs, which seem to be involved in the progression of distinct types of malignancies. METHODS: We carefully revised research literature focused on mAChRs expression and signaling as well as in their involvement in cancer progression and treatment...
December 2, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Radha Goel, Prasoon Saxena
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most common and severe brain disorders in the world, characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures due to an imbalance between cerebral excitability and inhibition. Oxidative stress is a biochemical state in which reactive oxygen species are generated and associated with various diseases including epilepsy. Pycnogenol, a polyphenol obtained from the pine tree and has antioxidant& anti-inflammatory activity. So, The aim of the study was carried out to evaluate the effect of pycnogenol on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice...
November 21, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Palanirajan Vijayaraj Kumar, Marwan Abdelmahmoud Abdelkarim Maki, Yeong Siew Wei, Lee Ming Tatt, Manogaran Elumalai, Shiau-Chuen Cheah, Bharathy Raghavan, Abu Bakar Bin Abdul Majeed
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF) has gained considerable attention by researchers as epithelial cells proliferating agent. Moreover, intravenous truncated rHuKGF (palifermin) has been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and small intestine ulceration. The labile structure and short circulation time of rHuKGF in-vivo are the main obstacles that reduce the oral bioactivity and dosage of such proteins at the target site...
November 19, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Luxitaa Goenka, R Padmanaban, Melvin George
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is defined as a decline in the renal function and an increase in the amount of albuminuria (>300 mg/day). The well-established first-line drug therapies for DN include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and the second line drug therapies include calcium channel blockers or diuretics. The interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by ACEi and ARBs has been beneficial in reducing the progression of renal diseases; however, there is an increase in the levels of aldosterone due to the aldosterone escape phenomenon...
November 15, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
R S Kilari, A I J Bashir, A Devitt, C J Perry, S T Safrany, Iain D Nicholl
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer (OC) is a deadly cancer because of its aggressive nature with survival rates that have barely improved in decades. Epidemiologic studies have shown that low-dose daily intake of aspirin can decrease the incidence of OC. METHODS: The toxicity of aspirin and aspirin derivatives to OC and a colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line were investigated in the presence and absence of platins. RESULTS: The data in this study show the effects of a number of aspirin analogues and aspirin on OC cell lines that originally presented as squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC)...
November 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Sapan Kumar Behera, Saibal Das, K G Chengappa, Alphienes Stanley Xavier, Sandhiya Selvarajan
Aim Multiple drug intolerance syndrome (MDIS) is a unique clinical entity distinct from other drug hypersensitivity syndromes. The aim of this review was to critically appraise the various aspects of MDIS. Methods A review was conducted to search for the causes, mechanism, clinical features, and management of MDIS. Results The most common cause of MDIS is antibiotics followed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Although some non-specific immunological mechanisms are involved, the immunological tests for MDIS are negative...
November 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Muhammad Farhan, Fatima Riaz, Sana Wali, Hamna Rafiq
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants can induce behavioral sensitization by their chronic use. The main target for the action of these drugs is dopamine, nor epinephrine and serotonin transporters. Serotonin is synthesized by the precursor L-tryptophan. Tryptophan and methylphenidate being 5-HT agonists both increase the level of serotonin thereby may cause desensitization of 5-HT1a receptors. Present study investigated whether behavioral sensitization induced by Methylphenidate is decreased in tryptophan administrated animals...
November 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Georgios Papazisis, Spyridon Siafis
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs are the cornerstone of schizophrenia treatment but are also indicated for other psychotic and mood disorders. Different antipsychotic drugs and their formulations are available, though liquid forms have been overlooked. METHODS: Herein the added value of liquid antipsychotics is reviewed, with a focus on the recently introduced liquid quetiapine, a frequently used antipsychotic. RESULTS: Liquid antipsychotics are easily administrated via the preferable oral route, while compliance under supervised administration is transparent...
November 2, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Stefano Omboni, Claudio Borghi
Hypertension and kidney disease often coexist, further increasing the risk of future cardiovascular events. Treatment of hypertensive adults with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in case of concomitant kidney disease may slow disease progression. The third-generation liphophilic angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor zofenopril, administered alone or combined with a thiazide diuretic, has proved to be effective in lowering blood pressure in hypertensive patients and to reduce the risk of fatal and non-fatal events in post-acute myocardial infarction and heart failure...
October 25, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Keywan Mortezaee, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi, Bagher Farhood
Nowadays, ionizing radiation is used for several applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, and nuclear power generation. Besides the beneficial roles of ionizing radiation, there are some concerns for accidental exposure to radioactive sources. The threat posed by its use in terrorism is of global concern. Furthermore, there are several side effects to normal organs for patients had undergone radiation treatment for cancer. Hence, modulation of radiation response in normal tissues was one of the most important aims of radiobiology...
October 25, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Efraín Esteban, Rosa-Helena Bustos, Julio-César García, Edwin Jauregui
Developing new biological medicaments has led to the regulations and norms regarding such drugs, in terms of marketing, prescription, use, interchangeability and switching, have become fundamental aspects guaranteeing their safety, quality and effectiveness. Biologics are of great importance in treating patients suffering rheumatic, autoimmune, inflammatory, neoplastic and other diseases. The expiry/lapse of reference biologics or originators' patents has meant that developing biosimilars needs accompanying legal requirements for their approval in countries worldwide...
October 25, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Vivek Dave, Renu Bala Yadav, Sachdev Yadav, Swapnil Sharma, Ram Kumar Sahu, Ayodeji Folorunsho Ajayi
Computer has wide applicability in many field, and in pharmaceutical science the computer play a crucial role as a commander of all the theoretical aspects and provide a workbench to improve the overall quality system of the pharmaceutical research and development. The aim of this article is to provide computational approach in development of the many booming technology of computer software in the field of clinical pharmacokinetics. The computational technique practiced by clinical pharmacist and scientist with the applied knowledge and skills of dealing with clinical pharmacokinetics problems, which can be applied in routine clinical practices...
October 25, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Nusaiba Salisu, Fatima Sulaiman Aliyu, Hussaini Garba, Mikail Hudu Garba
BACKGROUND: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the most commonly used food additives for the enhancement of food taste and flavour. There are several conflicting reports of toxicity or otherwise safety of the compound, which raises a growing concern regarding the safety of monosodium glutamate as food additive. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we sought to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate on body weight, feed consumption, body temperature and some haematological parameters...
October 2, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Marwa Hassan, Mohamad A Ibrahim, Heba M Hafez, Mervat Z Mohamed, Nagwa M Zenhom, Hend M Abd Elghany
BACKGROUND: Cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor (PDE3I), is a platelet aggregation inhibitor and vasodilator that is useful for treating intermittent claudication. Experimental studies have shown that cilostazol has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant effects effects Objectives: Although the hepatoprotective effect cilostazol has been studied, the molecular mechanisms of such protection, including: the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) / hemoxygenase (HO-1) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) /serine/threonine kinase (Akt) pathways are not fully explored, which is the aim of this study...
September 3, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Sebastian Ezequiel Perez, Adriana Monica Carlucci
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism of silencing genes using small interference RNA is as particular and innovative phenomenon as the proposed delivery systems to release them. Recent advances in RNAi have resulted in the development of multiple siRNA candidates that are currently being evaluated in preclinical / clinical instances. SNALP®, Atuplex® and Rondel® technologies stand out; they are mainly based on polymers, ciclodextrins or lipids. METHODS: The objective of this work is to review the main features that Gene Therapy Medicinal Product under current clinical evaluation present from a pharmaceutical technology point of view; it tries to bring up theoretical concepts that give scientific support to the interpretation of data obtained during pharmaceutical development process...
August 29, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
OBJECTIVES: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a rare metabolic disorder associated with reduced mineralization of bone and corresponds to increased fracture risk. We carried out the present network meta-analysis comparing all the medical interventions for osteogenesis imperfecta. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the use of drugs in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Percent change in BMD was the primary and fracture risk reduction and adverse events were the secondary outcome measures...
August 29, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Anahita Ahmadvand, Ameneh Yazdanfar, Fatemeh Yasrebifar, Younes Mohammadi, Reza Mahjoub, Maryam Mehrpooya
OBJECTIVES: Acne vulgaris is a common dermatologic disorder which results in psychological consequences. Inflammation plays an important role in the formation of acne lesions. Recently, many studies demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of statins; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral and topical Simvastatin as adjunct treatment in acne vulgaris. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In 76 patients with moderate to very severe acne vulgaris, beside antibiotic treatment including oral azithromycin (250 mg, 3 times a week, orally) and topical benzoyl peroxide gel (5%, once daily), oral group received 20mg/day of oral simvastatin and blank solution, topical group received simvastatin 1% topical solution and oral placebo, and placebo group received oral placebo and blank solution...
August 21, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Jaspreet Kaur Sidhu, Surjit Singh, Priyanka Kathuria
BACKGROUND: A questionnaire is a commonly used data collection method and is a very crucial part of the research. However, designing a questionnaire can be a daunting task for postgraduate students. METHODS: This manuscript illustrates the various steps required in questionnaire designing and provides an insight into the essentials of questionnaire construction and validation. Data from a questionnaire should be able to comprehend the objectives of the study; else it may lead to wrong interpretation or bias, decreased power of study and inability to generalize the study results...
August 7, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Dimitrios Patoulias, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Vasilios Athyros, Michael Doumas
BACKGROUND: Sodium - glucose cotransporter 2 (SGTL-2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetics, which have been approved for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Besides their beneficial metabolic effects, they exert favourable results in cardiovascular events and risk factors along with renoprotection. However, SGLT-2 inhibitors have not been yet approved as adjunct therapy to insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This review aims at presenting both clinical and experimental data that reinforce the role of SGLT-2 inhibitors as adjunctive treatment in patients with T1DM along with the main restrictions of their use, namely diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)...
August 7, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith
Dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids belong to omega (ω)-3, -6 or -9 series. Both experimental and clinical studies demonstrated the beneficial effect of ω -3 fatty acids of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) against human ailments including cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. They are metabolized in cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways and also by cytochrome P450 isozymes. Biological importance of DHA in the development of brain and retina are established as well...
August 7, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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