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Current Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084336/how-to-design-and-validate-a-questionnaire-a-guide
#1
Jaspreet Kaur Sidhu, Surjit Singh, Priyanka Kathuria
BACKGROUND: A questionnaire is a commonly used data collection method and is a very crucial part of the research. However, designing a questionnaire can be a daunting task for postgraduate students. METHODS: This manuscript illustrates the various steps required in questionnaire designing and provides an insight into the essentials of questionnaire construction and validation. Data from a questionnaire should be able to comprehend the objectives of the study; else it may lead to wrong interpretation or bias, decreased power of study and inability to generalize the study results...
August 7, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084335/sglt-2-inhibitors-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#2
Dimitrios Patoulias, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Vasilios Athyros, Michael Doumas
BACKGROUND: Sodium - glucose cotransporter 2 (SGTL-2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetics, which have been approved for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Besides their beneficial metabolic effects, they exert favourable results in cardiovascular events and risk factors along with renoprotection. However, SGLT-2 inhibitors have not been yet approved as adjunct therapy to insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This review aims at presenting both clinical and experimental data that reinforce the role of SGLT-2 inhibitors as adjunctive treatment in patients with T1DM along with the main restrictions of their use, namely diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)...
August 7, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084334/a-recent-update-on-the-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith
Dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids belong to omega (ω)-3, -6 or -9 series. Both experimental and clinical studies demonstrated the beneficial effect of ω -3 fatty acids of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) against human ailments including cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. They are metabolized in cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways and also by cytochrome P450 isozymes. Biological importance of DHA in the development of brain and retina are established as well...
August 7, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084333/therapeutic-approach-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-old-and-new-strategies
#4
Paolo Usai-Satta, Massimo Bellini, Mariantonia Lai, Francesco Oppia, Francesco Cabras
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most frequently diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is characterised by abdominal pain, bloating and changes in bowel habits that can have a serious impact on the patient's quality of life. Treatment strategies are based on the nature and severity of the symptoms, the degree of functional impairment of the bowel habits, and the presence of psychosocial disorders. The purpose of this review is to update our current knowledge of therapeutic approach of this disorder...
August 7, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073929/differentially-enhancing-effects-of-long-term-treatment-with-serrazyme-boswellia-and-pine-on-seminal-bacterial-detection-in-patients-with-chronic-bacterial-or-inflammatory-prostatitis-probably-related-to-several-degrees-of-bacterial-adherence
#5
Enzo Vicari, Giulia Malaguarnera, Beatrice Ornella Vicari, Mario Salmeri, Michele Salemi, Roberto Castiglione
BACKGROUND: Prostatitis is a recurrent urinary infection in males and is often difficult to cure. The aim of the study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory effects of enhanced drainage of prostatic secretions, obtained through two months treatment with a proteolytic enzyme mucoactive (PEM) compound (Serrazyme and other constituents), influenced qualitative or quantitative expressions of bacterial growth in seminal cultures. METHODS: 450 patients with prostatitis syndromes were randomized either to PEM therapy (intervention group) or to no treatment group...
August 2, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073930/antibody-drug-conjugates-a-review-on-the-epitome-of-targeted-anti-cancer-therapy
#6
Mahmudul Hasan, Safaet Alam, Saikat Kumar Poddar
Cancer is one of the deadly diseases which is characterized by unchecked cell division or abnormal cell growth due to the incapability of cell cycle arrest. As the treatment for this is to kill the cancerous cells the main challenge for scientists is to direct the cell killing to cancerous cells while leaving the normal cells unharmed. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are one such targeted anti-cancer therapy. It is an effective drug delivery system that utilizes the targeting action of antibody along with cell death by potent cytotoxic agent, linked up with one another by a linker molecule and thus helps to reduce toxicity to non-target cells, ensure broad therapeutic window and overcome multi-drug resistance...
August 1, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992894/second-line-treatment-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-non-oncogene-addicted-new-treatment-algorithm-in-the-era-of-novel-immunotherapy
#7
Cesare Gridelli, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Francesco Grossi, Editta Baldini, Adolfo Favaretto, Maria Chiara Garassino, Alessandro Morabito, Maria Rita Migliorino, Antonio Rossi, Filippo de Marinis
BACKGROUND: Most patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a poor prognosis and receive limited benefit from conventional treatments, especially in later lines of therapy. In recent years, several novel therapies have been approved for second- and third-line treatment of advanced NSCLC beyond old chemotherapy agents (docetaxel and pemetrexed) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI, erlotinib). In particular, the new antiangiogenetics (nindetanib and ramucirumab) in combination with docetaxel and immunotherapy (nivolumab, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab) have been recently approved and represent new treatment options...
July 11, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992895/nanovehicle-based-small-interfering-rna-sirna-delivery-for-therapeutic-purposes-a-new-molecular-approach-in-the-pharmacogenomics
#8
Javad Akhtari, Alireza Tafazoli, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Abdolkarim Mahrooz
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process for regulating the gene expression in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) silence target genes. siRNA-based therapy as a new molecular treatment approach, offers therapeutic prospects for many common diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, the efficacy of siRNA delivery has, so far, remained a challenging issue. This is due to their easy degradation through the circulation system and the difficulties in the intracellular delivery to specific tissues where they silence the target genes...
July 9, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866013/trends-of-clinical-trials-for-drug-development-in-rare-diseases
#9
Ryuichi Sakate, Akiko Fukagawa, Yuri Takagaki, Hanayuki Okura, Akifumi Matsuyama
BACKGROUND: Drug development for rare diseases is challenging because very few patients suffer from such diseases, and thus it is difficult to obtain relevant data. In these difficult conditions, it must be informative to assess a trend of drug development so far, to plot a new strategy such as drug repositioning. OBJECTIVE: In this study, data from clinical trials belonging to three international registries were first outlined and compared. METHODS: ClinicalTrials...
June 3, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773068/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-relationship-of-blinatumomab-in-patients-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#10
Youssef Hijazi, Matthias Klinger, Andrea Kratzer, Benjamin Wu, Patrick A Baeuerle, Peter Kufer, Andreas Wolf, Dirk Nagorsen, Min Zhu
OBJECTIVE: We describe the relationship between pharmacokinetics (PK) of blinatumomab and pharmacodynamic (PD) changes in peripheral lymphocytes, serum cytokines, and tumor size in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: In a phase 1 study, 76 patients with relapsed/refractory NHL received blinatumomab by continuous intravenous infusion at various doses (0.5 to 90 µg/m2/day). PD changes were analyzed with respect to dose, blinatumomab concentration at steady state (Css), and cumulative area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUCcum)...
May 17, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766823/analysis-of-toxicity-effects-of-buspirone-cetirizine-and-olanzapine-on-human-blood-lymphocytes-in-vitro-model
#11
Jalal Pourahmad, Ahmad Salimi, Mosleh Razian
The current study investigates the cytotoxicity mechanism of common drugs with piperazine ring such as cetirizine, olanzapine and buspirone on human lymphocytes. The viability of lymphocytes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, lysosomal integrity, content of glutathione and lipid peroxidation were determined. Buspirone and cetirizine showed more toxicity than olanzapine on human lymphocytes with an IC50 value of 200 μg/ml, after 6 h of incubation. Significant ROS formation, MMP collapse, lipid peroxidation, lysosomal damage and elevation of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were observed in treated lymphocytes concentrations (4, 20, 40 µg/ml) of buspirone and cetirizine...
May 15, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732978/the-effect-of-tranexamic-acid-on-preventing-post-partum-hemorrhage-due-to-uterine-atony-a-triple-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Mahvash Zargar, Roshan Nikbakht, Mahzad Ahmadi
BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is an important cause of early maternal death which needs to be controlled. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the effect of intravenous tranexsmic acid (TXA) and prostaglandin analogue on reducing PPH resulted from uterine atony in women undergoing C section or vaginal delivery. METHOD: A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 248 pregnant women with PPH due to uterine atony who were randomly assigned into two groups of TXA as the intervention group (n=124) and prostaglandin analogue as the control group (n=124)...
May 6, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651962/phase-iv-studies-some-insights-clarifications-and-issues
#13
Elia Mario Biganzoli, Bruno Mario Cesana
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need to face regulatory aspects as well as ethics and scientific ones in the pharmaceutical research phase after the authorization of a drug. Traditionally, the Phase IV studies, after the authorization for a drug to be marketed by the Competent Authority like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (in Europe, European Medicine Agency -EMA- through National Procedures or Community Procedures) have been considered mainly aimed to the assessment of the new drug safety profile...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651961/the-benefit-of-prescribing-vitamin-d-as-add-on-therapy-on-the-electrocardiographic-changes-in-epileptic-patients
#14
Marwan S M Al-Nimer
BACKGROUND: Epileptic children and adolescent have a significantly low serum level of vitamin D due to the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the vitamin D metabolism. Those patients are at risk of cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to show that epileptic patients who treated with antiepileptic drugs supplemented with vitamin D are free from the electrocardiograph changes compared with those treated with antiepileptic drugs. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included, 121 epileptic patients aged < 18 years of both genders with a history of idiopathic generalized tonic clonic seizure...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651960/targeting-brain-tumors-with-nanomedicines-overcoming-challenges-of-blood-brain-barrier
#15
Nagendra S Ningaraj, Polluru L Reddy, Divya Khaitan
This review elucidates ongoing research, which show improved delivery of anticancer drugs alone and/ or enclosed in carriers collectively called nanomedicines to cross the Blood brain barrier (BBB) / blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) to kill tumor cells and impact patient survival. We highlighted various advances in understanding the mechanism of BTB function that impact on anticancer therapeutics delivery. We discussed latest breakthroughs in developing pharmaceutical strategies, including nanomedicines and delivering them across BTB for brain tumor management and treatment...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611488/lupus-nephritis-a-treatment-update
#16
Fahad Aziz, Kunal Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common complication in many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, although renal-limited lupus nephritis has been reported as well. Early diagnosis of lupus nephritis is critical as early detection and effective treatment can improve renal outcomes in such patients. OBJECTIVE: The treatment of lupus nephritis is largely determined based on the histological class present on the renal biopsy specimen. In most cases, Class I and II of lupus nephritis do not require any specific treatment, but class III and IV lupus nephritis require immunosuppressive therapy...
April 3, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577863/hepatic-elimination-of-drugs-in-gestational-diabetes
#17
Claudio Daniel Gonzalez, Jorge Alvarinas, Ricardo Bolanos, Guillermo Di Girolamo
BACKGROUND: The liver is the major metabolic clearance organ for chemical agents from the human body. Pregnancy is associated with several physiological changes that may affect one or more of these factors, and also induces changes in the hepatic clearance of certain drugs.The aim of this paper was to review some of the currently available information in the field to provide some insights about the relevance of these changes on the clearance of some drugs. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify eligible studies from MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and SCIELO databases through 1970 first semester...
March 25, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521214/formulation-of-herbal-fast-disintegrating-tablets-and-its-ex-vivo-study-for-anti-histaminic-activity-in-guinea-pig-ileum
#18
Dinesh Puri, Anil Bhandari, Praveen Kumar Gaur, Mohd Yasir, S Sadish Kumar, Deepak Choudhary
OBJECTIVE: The aim of present research work was to develop a herbal fast disintegrating tablet containing Fagonia schweinfurthii Hadidi dried extract and determining its antihistaminic activity using guinea pig ileum. METHOD: The tablets were formulated by wet granulation technique using three different superdisintegrants (croscarmillose, crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate) at three different use levels. The tablets were evaluated for various physical properties like hardness, friability weight variation etc...
March 9, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521246/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-pharmacovigilance-and-adrs-spontaneous-reporting-among-pediatricians-and-pediatric-residents-in-jordan
#19
Tareq Lewis Mukattash, Maysa Wadah Alwadi, Rana K Abu-Farha, Anan Jarab, Sameh A Alzubiedi, Tareq Alwedyan
INTRODUCTION: Parmacovigilance (PV) is the science that responsible for ADRs reporting and accordingly medication safety. Pediatrics age group is a special concern as they have a higher risk for developing ADRs; this put more burdens on pediatricians for early detection and reporting of ADRs. The present study aims to explore pediatricians' knowledge, attitude, and practices of pharmacovigilance. METHOD: A structured validated questionnaire was designed to achieve the study goals...
March 8, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493463/determination-of-parameters-of-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-models-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-review
#20
Chistiane Mendes Feitosa, George Layson da Silva Oliveira, Antonio do Nascimento Cavalcante, Soane Kaline Morais Chaves, Mahendra Rai
Oxidative stress is a major mechanism underlying the development of various neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen (RNSs) can overburden the ability of the enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (uric acid, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and reduced glutathione) causing the development of oxidative stress and consequently impairing the neuronal system cells by means of oxidative damage to a variety of important biological molecules such as lipids, DNA and proteins...
February 28, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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