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Current Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908252/the-combination-of-new-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy-a-new-potential-treatment-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Paola Claudia Sacco, Paolo Maione, Cesare Guida, Cesare Gridelli
Lung cancer is the main reason of cancer death worldwide. About 30% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases are diagnosed with locally advanced disease (stage III). This is a mixed population including patients who have far more extensive and bulky disease than others. Management of these patients continue to be a challenge; frequently, patients have both local recurrence and distant metastases in this stage and the prognosis is very poor with a 5-year overall survival estimated between 3% and 7% for inoperable disease...
December 1, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784216/ivabradine-a-current-overview
#2
Kaushik Guha, Christopher J Allen, Adam Hartley, Rakesh Sharma
Ivabradine, acting on the funny channel in the sino-atrial node, is a promising drug in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease and heart failure. There has been much clinical research conducted exploring its role in these fields. This review discusses the drug development and trial data, and highlights future directions for research.
October 25, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748175/in-vitro-anti-urolithiasis-potentials-of-argemone-mexicana-l-leaves
#3
Chilivery Ravi Kiran, Sangilimuthu Alagar, D Priya Darsini Teepica
BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-urolithiatic activity of Argemone mexicana L. leaves extracts. METHODS: In vitro experiments (nucleation, aggregation and microscopic assay's) were performed to test the anti-urolithiasis activity of A. mexicana extracted using the four different solvents i.e. petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and water. These extracts were tested at increasing concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/ml and compared with the standard drug cystone...
October 10, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748174/positive-neonatal-urine-comprehensive-drug-screen-low-birth-weight-and-withdrawal-symptoms-in-a-neonatal-unit-a-case-control-study
#4
Kam Lun Hon, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Ming Him James Ng, Chi Cheung Ho, Yin Ching Kathy Tsang, Wing Hung Tam, Chung Shun Ho
OBJECTIVE: Maternal drug abuse may influence neonatal outcomes. We compared neonatal outcomes of patients with urine screened positive for commonly abused drugs (CAD) versus those who were screened negative, and reviewed the pattern of drugs detected at a university teaching hospital. METHODS: Urine samples collected from babies with suspected illicit drug exposure who were admitted to the neonatal unit were sent for comprehensive drug screen (CDS) performed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS)...
October 10, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697071/an-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-local-hemostatic-measures-in-dental-patients-taking-oral-anticoagulants-a-critical-review-of-the-literature-over-the-past-two-decades
#5
Salomão Israel Monteiro Lourenço Queiroz, Helenilton Soares Alves, Gleysson Matias de Assis, Thalita Santana Conceição, Adriano Rocha Germano, José Sandro Pereira da Silva
Several local hemostatic measures have been used to control bleeding in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT); however, the effectiveness of these measures has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of local hemostatic measures in patients taking oral anticoagulants. Various databases were searched using key terms. Selection criteria included publications in English, Spanish, or Portuguese within the last 20 years. The titles and abstracts of papers were initially screened, and reports of 18 clinical trials were selected for a critical review and scored according to CONSORT 2010 guidelines...
October 3, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697039/therapeutic-effects-of-rivastigmine-and-alfa-lipoic-acid-combination-in-the-charles-bonnet-syndrome-electroencephalography-correlates
#6
Lutfu Hanoglu, Sultan Yildiz, Burcu Polat, Sema Demirci, Ahmet Mithat Tavli, Nesrin Yilmaz, Burak Yulug
BACKGROUND: Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is a rare clinical condition which is characterized with complex hallucinations by visually impaired patients. The pathophysiology of this disorder remains largely unknown, and there is still no proven treatment for this disease. In our study, we aimed to investigate the neural activity through Electroencephalography (EEG) power and evaluate the effect of rivastigmine in combination with alpha-lipoic acid on hallucination in two CBS patients with diabetic retinopathy...
October 3, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659611/an-8-year-retrospective-study-of-human-visceral-leishmaniasis
#7
Juliana Ferreira Barbosa, Sônia Maria de Figueiredo, Sandra Lyon, Rachel Basques Caligiorne
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is azooanthroponosis affecting both rural and peri-urban areas, and can also spread into urban areas. Although more than 90% of new cases are reported from six countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan and Sudan, VL has emerged in many countries in the world, presenting new cases in new countries of occurrence. Thus, studies concerning epidemiological aspects in different world regions are very meaningful.In this purpose, this study aimed analyze 89 cases of VL, treated between June 2006 and June 2014 at Eduardo de Menezes Hospital (HEM), a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases situated in Belo Horizonte, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil...
September 21, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633039/relationships-between-metformin-paraoxonase-1-and-the-chemokine-c-c-motif-ligand-2
#8
Jordi Camps, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Anabel García-Heredia, Noemí Cabré, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Meritxell Arenas, Jorge Joven
Metformin is a biguanide used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. The main mechanism of action is to decrease the intestinal glucose absorption and the hepatic glucose production. It does not influence insulin secretion. Metformin also increases the affinity of the insulin receptor, reduces high insulin levels and improves insulin resistance. Additionally, it promotes weight loss. Metformin is a pleiotropic compound but acts, largely, by activating 5' adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
September 15, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633038/pharmacological-interactions-of-paraoxonase-1-pon1-a-hdl-bound-antiatherogenic-enzyme
#9
Abdolkarim Mahrooz
A growing interest exists in documenting the role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in different human diseases including, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancers, aging, and several neurological disorders. Three aspects of PON1 has attracted the attention of researchers: (1) hydrolyzing and detoxifying of toxic organophosphorous compounds such as nerve gases; (2) antioxidative activity in hydrolyzing oxidized phospholipids in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL); (3) interaction with various drugs...
September 15, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592837/the-therapeutic-role-of-lamotrigine-and-topiramate-in-a-depressive-patient-with-anxiety-symptoms-and-cognitive-decline-neurometabolic-correlates
#10
Lutfu Hanoglu, Burak Yulug, Tansel Cakir, Kubra Sogukkanli, Ozge Arıcı Duz, Tamer Atasever
We describe here 67 years old women presented with symptoms of anxiety and cognitive impairment that responded well to the combined treatment of lamotrigine and topiramate. In contrast to recent data, we have shown that lamotrigine and topiramate treatment additively increased the cerebral glucose metabolism that was associated with complete resolution of the neuropsychiatric symptoms. Our findings indicate that the therapeutic effect of both agents involve a cortico-subcortical network and suggest the functional role of a bi-directional hippocampal-cingulate connectivity...
September 4, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554392/in-vivo-measurement-in-pigs-of-wash-in-kinetics-of-xenon-at-its-site-of-action
#11
Oliver Adolph, Gebhard Froeba
BACKGROUND: Xenon (Xe) in many respects is an ideal anaesthetic agent. Its blood/gas partition coefficient is lower than that of any other anaesthetic, enabling rapid induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. While the whole body kinetics during wash-in of inhalational anaesthesia is well known, data describing the pharmacokinetics of xenon in the cerebral compartment at the site of action are still largely missing. METHODS: In order to illuminate xenon´s cerebral pharmacokinetics, we anaesthetised five pigs and measured arterial, mixed- and sagittal sinus-venous blood, as well as end-expiratory gas concentrations of xenon by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) up to 30 minutes after starting the anaesthetic gas mixture...
August 23, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526697/ethosomes-as-vesicles-for-effective-transdermal-delivery-from-bench-to-clinical-implementation
#12
Nida Akhtar, Anurag Verma, Kamla Pathak
BACKGROUND: Drug delivery across the deeper layers of skin to make it systemically available is a considerable challenge in the development of a carrier. A number of efforts have been put forward to find ways to get therapeutic actives overcome the formidable barrier of stratum corneum. Various lipid based vesicles viz liposomes, transfersomes, and invasomes have gained prominent deliberations across the globe. More recently, ethosomes have been investigated for its potential where high proportion of ethanol enables them to ameliorate transdermal delivery of several drugs in comparison to other carriers...
August 13, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526696/humic-acids-as-therapeutic-compounds-in-lead-intoxication
#13
Klara Krempaska, Ladislav Vasko, Janka Vaskova
BACKGROUND: The toxicity of lead and its compounds is well known, causing anemia by inhibiting the synthesis of porphyrins. The neurotoxic effects, particularly in the young, alter the structure of cell membranes and DNA. Chronic exposure to lead has adverse effects on the body by disrupting the mechanisms of energy production and tissue damage, in particular in its links with thiol groups and competition for binding sites with zinc. OBJECTIVE: This review is therefore a description of the mechanism of lead toxicity as well as of possible interventions for the detoxification of the body...
August 13, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450363/pramipexole-responsive-neck-numbness-the-therapeutic-role-of-dopamine-agonists-in-the-spinal-cord-indicating-to-a-common-spinal-pathophysiology-with-restless-leg-syndrome-rls
#14
Burak Yulug, Lutfu Hanoglu
BACKGROUND: There is still speculative data regarding the role spinal dopaminergic neurotransmission in restless leg syndrome (RLS). METHODS: We have evaluated the therapeutic role of pramipexole in a patient with cervical disc prolapsus who was exceptionally presented with neck restlessness Results: We have found that pramipexole leads to a significant improvement in restlessness symptoms in the neck region. DISCUSSION: The therapeutic role of pramipexole may not only suggest secondary deficits due to spinal pathologies but also indicate that specialized spinal dopaminergic neurons may play an important role in the pathogenesis of region specific restlessness symptomatology...
July 19, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397091/polymorphism-in-endothelin-1-gene-an-overview
#15
Musa A Ahmed, Abir Rghigh
Endothelin-1, (ET-1, EDN1) is endogenous polypeptide demonstrates dominant vasoconstriction activity and mitogenic effect, on the heart it has positive inotropic and chronotropic properties, stimulates the sympathetic and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems and modify homeostasis. The human ET-1 gene which consists of 6836 nucleotides located on chromosome 6p23-p24 produces Pre-pro-ET-1, which consequently cleaved to big-ET-1. The mature 21-amino acid ET-1 is generated by subsequent enzymatic cleavage of the big-ET-1...
June 30, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412779/preoperative-plasma-aldosterone-levels-and-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-occurrence-following-cardiac-surgery-a-review-of-literature-and-design-of-the-aldo-poaf-study-aldosterone-for-prediction-of-post-operative-atrial-fibrillation
#16
REVIEW
Mathieu Chequel, Pierre Ollitrault, Eric Saloux, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Marc-Olivier Fischer, Julien Desgué, Stéphane Allouche, Paul Milliez, Joachim Alexandre
BACKGROUND: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a major and frequent complication occurring after cardiac surgery, contributing to prolonged intensive care and hospital stays and is associated with several cardiovascular complications. The exact mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in the development of POAF seem to be multifactorial and remain to date incompletely understood. β-blockers and amiodarone are the first line preventive drugs but are partially effective and near 30% of POAF resist to these strategies...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281554/remineralizing-agents-the-next-frontier
#17
REVIEW
Preetika Chandna, Nikhil Srivastava, Sabika Ali
Remineralizing agents represent a new frontier in dentistry. They may be classified as fluoride agents, calcium and phosphate based agents, herbal agents or combinations. The modes of delivery of remineralizing agents may be as dentifrices, mouth rinses, lozenges or chewing gums. The applications of remineralizing agents may be extrapolated to virtually every branch of dentistry ranging from pediatric to geriatric dentistry.
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262323/incorporating-natural-products-pharmaceutical-drugs-self-care-and-digital-mobile-health-technologies-into-molecular-behavioral-combination-therapies-for-chronic-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Grzegorz Bulaj, Margaret M Ahern, Alexis Kuhn, Zachary S Judkins, Randy C Bowen, Yizhe Chen
Merging pharmaceutical and digital (mobile health, mHealth) ingredients to create new therapies for chronic diseases offers unique opportunities for natural products such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), curcumin, resveratrol, theanine, or α-lipoic acid. These compounds, when combined with pharmaceutical drugs, show improved efficacy and safety in preclinical and clinical studies of epilepsy, neuropathic pain, osteoarthritis, depression, schizophrenia, diabetes and cancer. Their additional clinical benefits include reducing levels of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188575/axitinib-in-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-malignancies
#19
REVIEW
Paul L Swiecicki, Matthew Spector, Francis P Worden
Head and neck cancers (thyroid and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)) are relatively common malignancies and although often curable at initial diagnosis, treatment of advanced disease is palliative in intent. There is a scarcity of treatment options, many of which are traditionally associated with significant toxicities and poor survival. Translational studies have identified numerous dysregulated pathways amongst head and neck cancers, including VEGFR and EGFR, highlighting the potential role for targeted therapies...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164965/advanced-glycation-end-products-association-with-the-pathogenesis-of-diseases-and-the-current-therapeutic-advances
#20
REVIEW
Thekkuttuparambil A Ajith, Puzhikunathu Vinodkumar
Advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as N-ε-carboxy-ethyl-lysine (CEL), N-ε-carboxy-methyl-lysine (CML), imidazolone, methyl-glyoxal-lysine dimer (MOLD), glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD), pyrraline and pentosidine have been imparted in the development and worsening of complications of diabetes. They are also involved in atherosclerosis, normal aging process, arthritis, cancer and progression of age-related neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer`s disease. Endogenously, they are formed by nonenzymatic glycation by aldoses/ketoses to form intermediate precursor that were slowly converted into AGE...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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