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Current Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651962/phase-iv-studies-some-insights-clarifications-and-issues
#1
Elia Mario Biganzoli, Bruno Mario Cesana
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need to face regulatory aspects as well as ethics and scientific ones in the pharmaceutical research phase after the authorization of a drug. Traditionally, the Phase IV studies, after the authorization for a drug to be marketed by the Competent Authority like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (in Europe, European Medicine Agency -EMA- through National Procedures or Community Procedures) have been considered mainly aimed to the assessment of the new drug safety profile...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651961/the-benefit-of-prescribing-vitamin-d-as-add-on-therapy-on-the-electrocardiographic-changes-in-epileptic-patients
#2
Marwan S M Al-Nimer
BACKGROUND: Epileptic children and adolescent have a significantly low serum level of vitamin D due to the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the vitamin D metabolism. Those patients are at risk of cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to show that epileptic patients who treated with antiepileptic drugs supplemented with vitamin D are free from the electrocardiograph changes compared with those treated with antiepileptic drugs. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included, 121 epileptic patients aged < 18 years of both genders with a history of idiopathic generalized tonic clonic seizure...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651960/targeting-brain-tumors-with-nanomedicines-overcoming-challenges-of-blood-brain-barrier
#3
Nagendra S Ningaraj, Polluru L Reddy, Divya Khaitan
This review elucidates ongoing research, which show improved delivery of anticancer drugs alone and/ or enclosed in carriers collectively called nanomedicines to cross the Blood brain barrier (BBB) / blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) to kill tumor cells and impact patient survival. We highlighted various advances in understanding the mechanism of BTB function that impact on anticancer therapeutics delivery. We discussed latest breakthroughs in developing pharmaceutical strategies, including nanomedicines and delivering them across BTB for brain tumor management and treatment...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611488/lupus-nephritis-a-treatment-update
#4
Fahad Aziz, Kunal Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common complication in many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, although renal-limited lupus nephritis has been reported as well. Early diagnosis of lupus nephritis is critical as early detection and effective treatment can improve renal outcomes in such patients. OBJECTIVE: The treatment of lupus nephritis is largely determined based on the histological class present on the renal biopsy specimen. In most cases, Class I and II of lupus nephritis do not require any specific treatment, but class III and IV lupus nephritis require immunosuppressive therapy...
April 3, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577863/hepatic-elimination-of-drugs-in-gestational-diabetes
#5
Claudio Daniel Gonzalez, Jorge Alvarinas, Ricardo Bolanos, Guillermo Di Girolamo
BACKGROUND: The liver is the major metabolic clearance organ for chemical agents from the human body. Pregnancy is associated with several physiological changes that may affect one or more of these factors, and also induces changes in the hepatic clearance of certain drugs.The aim of this paper was to review some of the currently available information in the field to provide some insights about the relevance of these changes on the clearance of some drugs. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify eligible studies from MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and SCIELO databases through 1970 first semester...
March 25, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521214/formulation-of-herbal-fast-disintegrating-tablets-and-its-ex-vivo-study-for-anti-histaminic-activity-in-guinea-pig-ileum
#6
Dinesh Puri, Anil Bhandari, Praveen Kumar Gaur, Mohd Yasir, S Sadish Kumar, Deepak Choudhary
OBJECTIVE: The aim of present research work was to develop a herbal fast disintegrating tablet containing Fagonia schweinfurthii Hadidi dried extract and determining its antihistaminic activity using guinea pig ileum. METHOD: The tablets were formulated by wet granulation technique using three different superdisintegrants (croscarmillose, crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate) at three different use levels. The tablets were evaluated for various physical properties like hardness, friability weight variation etc...
March 9, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521246/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-pharmacovigilance-and-adrs-spontaneous-reporting-among-pediatricians-and-pediatric-residents-in-jordan
#7
Tareq Lewis Mukattash, Maysa Wadah Alwadi, Rana K Abu-Farha, Anan Jarab, Sameh A Alzubiedi, Tareq Alwedyan
INTRODUCTION: Parmacovigilance (PV) is the science that responsible for ADRs reporting and accordingly medication safety. Pediatrics age group is a special concern as they have a higher risk for developing ADRs; this put more burdens on pediatricians for early detection and reporting of ADRs. The present study aims to explore pediatricians' knowledge, attitude, and practices of pharmacovigilance. METHOD: A structured validated questionnaire was designed to achieve the study goals...
March 8, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493463/determination-of-parameters-of-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-models-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-review
#8
Chistiane Mendes Feitosa
Oxidative stress is a major mechanism underlying the development of various neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen (RNSs) can overburden the ability of the enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (uric acid, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and reduced glutathione) causing the development of oxidative stress and consequently impairing the neuronal system cells by means of oxidative damage to a variety of important biological molecules such as lipids, DNA and proteins...
February 28, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493462/minocycline-in-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-and-alcohol-relapse-in-rats
#9
Snehalata V Gajbhiye, Raakhi K Tripathi, Anup Uttam Petare, Anirudha Vyankatesh Potey, Arun Shankar
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and negative sensations due to alcohol withdrawal are factors leading to alcohol relapse and addiction. Minocycline, an antibiotic, can decrease alcohol consumption in rats, however, its effects on alcohol withdrawal anxiety and relapse have not been studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Part 1: Forced alcohol drinking in gradually increasing concentration was administered till day 22 in rats. Effect of drugs on anxiety was assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM) and two chambered box apparatus, after removal of alcohol...
February 27, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493461/more-evidence-for-the-therapeutic-role-of-dopamine-agonists-in-upper-limb-restlessness-due-to-cervical-disc-pathology
#10
Burak Yulug, Sema Brandmeier, Lutfu Hanoglu
BACKGROUND: The causal link between upper limb restlessness and cervical disc prolapsus is still unclear, and the exact role of the spinal cord in the origination of limb restlessness is not yet completely understood. METHODS: Here we have evaluated the therapeutic effect of pramipexole (0.5 mg/kg) in a 47-year old male with cervical disc prolapsus who described restlessness in his upper limb and neck. RESULTS: The patient felt significantly better, and his symptoms improved near to complete after five days after we have initiated 0...
February 27, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473523/drug-induced-qt-interval-prolongation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#11
Cecilia Villa Etchegoyen, Guillermo Alberto Keller, Sebastian Mrad, Sixuan Cheng, Guillermo DiGirolamo
Drug-induced QT interval prolongation is the most frequent cause of Long QT syndrome (LQTS) in the clinical practice. This electrophysiological entity, produced by an extended duration of the myocardial repolarization and reflected as a prolonged QT interval in the superficial electrocardiogram (EKG), increases the risk of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsades de Pointes) appearance and sudden death. Certain antiarrhythmic drugs such as amiodarone, sotalol, quinidine, procainamide, verapamil and diltiazem are known as drugs that, due to their mechanism of action, prolong the QT interval, demanding constant monitorization...
February 23, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473522/an-evidence-based-review-of-off-label-uses-of-polidocanol
#12
Seyyed Reza Sadat Ebrahimi, Elgar Enamzadeh, Hossein Babaei
BACKGROUND: Polidocanol is approved for its competence in treatment of varicose veins and spider veins; however, unfortunately, many of its off-label uses are still underappreciated. OBJECTIVE: Lack of an appropriate comprehensive review for off-label uses of this medication troubles physicians about making evidence-based decisions on prescribing it for its various outstanding off-label uses. This article attempts to provide physicians with the latest information concerning successful and unsuccessful use of polidocanol as an alternative treatment for esophageal and gastric varices, tendinopathy and epicondylitis, vascular malformations, varicocele, hydrocele and spermatocele, aneurysmal bone cysts, itching, management of gastrointestinal bleeding, simple renal cysts, reducing the incidence and severity of radio-induced dermatitis, and hemorrhoids...
February 23, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473524/pharmacogenetics-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Spyridon Karras, Eleni Rapti, Theocharis Koufakis, Angeliki Kyriazou, Dimitrios Goulis, Kalliopi Kotsa
BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenetics is a promising area of medical research, providing methods to identify the appropriate pharmaceutical agent and dosing for each unique patient. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists are a novel therapeutic choice used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), demonstrating efficacy regarding glycemic control and weight loss. Therapeutic response to GLP-1 agonist treatment is a complex biophenomenon, dependent on a plethora of modifiable (diet, exercise, adherence) and non-modifiable (genetic individual variants, ethnic characteristics) parameters...
February 21, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412117/strategies-empowering-paediatric-drug-safety
#14
Marta Gentili, Marco Pozzi, Gabrielle Peeters, Sonia Radice, Carla Carnovale
Background Knowledge of drugs safety collected during the pre-marketing phase is inevitably limited because the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are rarely designed to evaluate safety. The small and selective groups of enrolled individuals and the limited duration of trials may hamper the ability to characterise fully the safety profiles of drugs. Addionally, information about rare adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in special groups or drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is often incomplete or not available for most of the drugs commonly used in the daily clinical practice...
February 6, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318975/evaluation-of-the-antiproliferative-activity-of-some-nanoparticulate-essential-oils-formulated-in-microemulsion-on-selected-human-carcinoma-cell-lines
#15
Ahmed Abd-Rabou, Amr E Edris
BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EOs) are natural volatile plant extract that have different biological activities including antiproliferative potentials. OBJECTIVE: the current study aims at evaluating the antiproliferative activities of six EOs in their neat state compared to their nanoparticulate form after fabrication in microemulsion against some cancer cell lines. The EOs included marjoram (Origanum majorana), turmeric (Curcuma longa), sweet basil (Ocimum basillicum), clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum), geranium (plargonium graviolenis), and black cumin (Nigella sativa)...
January 10, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299989/curcuminoids-plus-piperine-modulate-adipokines-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Yunes Panahi, Nahid Khalili, Ebrahim Sahebi, Soha Namazi, Stephen L Atkin, Muhammed Majeed
OBJECTIVE: Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol derived from tumeric that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties with effects on adipokine and ghrelin levels. Adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin modulate energy homeostasis but each have modulatory effects on inflammatory cytokines and the immune system. Therefore this analysis was performed to investigate the effect of curcumin on adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin. METHODS: A double blind randomised control trial comparing curcumin 1000mg with 10mg of piperine daily to placebo over a 12 week period...
January 3, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231146/comparison-of-two-naloxone-regimens-in-addicted-methadone-overdosed-patients-a-clinical-trial-study
#17
Navid Khosravi, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Ali Ostadi, Mitra Rahimi, Ali Kabir
BACKGROUND: Methadone toxicity is one of the major causes of death in opioid dependent individuals. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare two different protocols for naloxone in terms of reversal of overdose and frequency of complications in opioid-dependent methadone-intoxicated patients. METHODS: One-hundred opioid-dependent patients with signs/symptoms of methadone overdose were included. The patients were consecutively assigned into Tintinalli (group 1) or Goldfrank regimen protocol (group 2) of naloxone administration...
December 11, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119935/perioperative-management-of-hyperlipidemia-medications
#18
J Ross Renew
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is a common comorbidity encountered during the perioperative period. Whether patients are scheduled for cardiac or noncardiac surgery, this cardiovascular disease must be addressed in the preoperative period to decrease the accompanying risks and potential postoperative problems. Lipid-lowering medications are often used to treat hyperlipidemia, a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the medications most commonly used to treat hyperlipidemia and to describe strategies for handling these treatment regimens in the perioperative period...
November 7, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076431/pharmacology-and-perioperative-considerations-of-pain-medications
#19
Ryan M Chadha, Stephen Aniskevich, Brian J Egan
BACKGROUND: Pain continues to be the most common medical concern, and perioperative health care providers are encountering increasing numbers of patients with chronic pain conditions. It is important to have a clear understanding of how long-term use of pain medications impacts anesthesia during the intraoperative and postoperative periods. OBJECTIVE: To review common medications used to treat chronic pain and summarize current recommendations regarding perioperative care...
October 27, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969534/perioperative-management-of-female-hormone-medications
#20
Lynsey A Seim, Joan M Irizarry-Alvarado
BACKGROUND: No clear guideline exists for the management of female hormone therapy in the perioperative period. Besides oral contraceptives (OCPs), hormone medications have been prescribed to treat cancer, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of OCPs in the 1960s, the thromboembolic risk associated with these medications has been studied and alterations have been made in the hormone content. The continuation of hormone therapy in the perioperative period and its possible interactions with commonly used anesthetic agents are important information for all perioperative health care providers...
September 26, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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