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Current Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969534/perioperative-management-of-female-hormone-medications
#1
Lynsey A Seim, Joan M Irizarry-Alvarado
BACKGROUND: No clear guideline exists for the management of female hormone therapy in the perioperative period. Besides oral contraceptives (OCPs), hormone medications have been prescribed to treat cancer, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of OCPs in the 1960s, the thromboembolic risk associated with these medications has been studied and alterations have been made in the hormone content. The continuation of hormone therapy in the perioperative period and its possible interactions with commonly used anesthetic agents are important information for all perioperative health care providers...
September 26, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925861/perioperative-pulmonary-medication-management
#2
Johnathan Ross Renew, Stephen Aniskevich
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common conditions that warrant special consideration in the perioperative period. When these patients undergo surgical interventions, they have risk of complications such as bronchospasm, hypoxia, and even postoperative respiratory failure that warrants unplanned intensive care unit admission. Thus, clinicians must be familiar with pulmonary medication regimens that are critical for maintaining stable homeostasis of these chronic conditions...
September 18, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925860/pharmacologic-and-perioperative-considerations-for-antihypertensive-medications
#3
Sher-Lu Pai, Ryan M Chadha, Joan M Irizarry Alvarado, Johnathan Ross Renew, Stephen Aniskevich
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, physicians routinely encounter patients preoperatively receiving one or more cardiovascular medications to manage hypertension. Thus, the physician's knowledge of perioperative antihypertensive medication management is crucial to ensure patient safety. OBJECTIVE: We discuss the decisions to continue or stop antihypertensive medications to reduce the risk of perioperative complications. METHOD: We conducted a review of the original research studies, review articles, and editorials present on PubMed within the past 60 years...
September 18, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914190/perioperative-considerations-of-herbal-medications
#4
Ryan M Chadha, Brian J Egan
BACKGROUND: A considerable portion of the US population uses herbal supplements on a daily basis for their various proposed beneficial effects. However, the over-the-counter nature of these medications and lack of knowledge of adverse effect profiles can have unexpected serious impact on the perioperative course. The growing list of supplements presents a pharmacologic conundrum to the anesthesiologist. OBJECTIVE: To compile a comprehensive list of vitamins, herbals, and supplements used commonly by patients, describe the risks associated with them, and identify recommendations for perioperative management...
September 13, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847277/evaluating-scientific-research-knowledge-and-attitude-among-medical-representative-in-jordan-a-cross-sectional-survey
#5
Tareq Mukattash, Meys Alattar, Rana Abu Farha, Mervat Alsous, Anan Jarab, Feras El-Hajii, Ibrahim L Mukattash
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical companies provide a broad range of different mandatory trainings to their medical representatives to keep the business running, however research related training has often been neglected by these companies. Thus, this study was developed to assess the amount of scientific research knowledge and interest among pharmacy medical representatives in Jordan. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. During the study period, a questionnaire was administered to 250 medical representatives working in pharmaceutical companies to evaluate their scientific research knowledge and attitudes...
August 28, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847276/perioperative-management-of-beta-blockers-and-other-antiarrhythmic-medications
#6
Joan M Irizarry-Alvarado
BACKGROUND: Antiarrhythmic medications are an important tool in preventing recurrence of intraoperative and postoperative arrhythmias. OBJECTIVE: To review current literature and recommendations for perioperative management of antiarrhythmic medications. METHODS: Literature review is presented along with the pharmacology of antiarrhythmics. RESULTS: Antiarrhythmic medications should be continued perioperatively for the prevention of arrhythmias intra- and postoperatively...
August 28, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847275/pharmacologic-considerations-during-the-preoperative-evaluation-of-neurologic-patients
#7
Christian Mabry
BACKGROUND: Optimizing a patient for surgery is a central goal during the preoperative period. Patients with common neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis, may require special attention on the perioperative management of their neurologic medications. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to organize the most current recommendations for neurologic medication management during the perioperative period to minimize the risk of postoperative neurologic decline...
August 28, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831913/pharmacology-and-perioperative-considerations-for-psychiatric-medications
#8
Neeti Sadana, Girish P Joshi
BACKGROUND: Psychotropic medications are being used increasingly as analgesics and for other off-label indications for patients with and without psychiatric conditions. While the pharmacology of most of these drugs is now known, their interaction with anesthetic drugs and implications of regular use are still relatively unclear. OBJECTIVE: We discuss the pharmacology, side effects, and potential medication interactions with anesthetic agents of various commonly prescribed psychotropic medications and the current recommendations regarding the continuation of these medications during the patients' perioperative care...
August 23, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828987/perioperative-management-of-anticoagulants
#9
Joan M Irizarry-Alvarado, Lynsey A Seim
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of anticoagulant use has increased in the United States. Medical providers have the responsibility to explain to patients the management of anticoagulant regimens before an invasive procedure. The pharmacologic characteristics of these medications-specifically, their half-lives-are important in timing an interruption of anticoagulant therapy. OBJECTIVE: The authors review the current guidelines and recommendations for therapeutic interruption of anticoagulants and the involved pharmacologic factors...
August 21, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799484/pharmacology-and-perioperative-considerations-for-diabetes-mellitus-medications
#10
Stephen Aniskevich, J Ross Renew, Ryan M Chadha, Joan M Irizarry-Alvarado
BACKGROUND: Given the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in modern society, health care providers are frequently tasked with managing glucose control in the perioperative period. When determining perioperative diabetes management, the clinician must balance the need to maintain relative euglycemia at the time of surgery with preventing hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia in a fasting surgical patient. This balance requires an understanding of the pharmacology of these medications, the type of surgery, and the patient's degree of diabetic control...
August 10, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799485/monoclonal-antibodies-a-review
#11
Surjit Singh, Nitish Kumar, Pradeep Dwiwedi, Jaykaran Charan, Rimplejeet Kaur, Preeti Sidhu, Vinay Kumar Chugh
Over the last three decades, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have made a striking transformation from scientific tools to powerful human therapeutics. Muromonab CD3 a murine MAb, was first FDA approved therapeutic MAb for prevention of kidney transplant rejection. Since its approval in 1986, there has been decline in the further application and approvals until the late 1990s when the first chimeric Mab, Rituximab was approved for the treatment of low grade B cell lymphoma in 1997. With the approval by licensing authorities of chimeric, followed by humanized and then fully human monoclonal antibodies, rate of approval and monoclonal antibodies available in the market for the treatment of various diseases has increased dramatically...
August 9, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676009/aging-eye-microbiota-in-dry-eye-syndrome-in-patients-treated-with-enterococcus-faecium-and-saccharomyces-boulardii
#12
Giuseppe Chisari, Eleonora Margherita Chisari, Antonio Maria Borzì, Erdogan Ozyalcin, Clara Grazia Chisari
Aging seem to have a key role in the onset and progression of ocular surface diseases. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface in which symptoms may interfere with the ability to work and carry out daily functions. METHODS: This clinical trial was a pilot study to evaluate the effects of supplementation with mixture (MYA796 and Enterococcus faecium SGEf01) on the tear film. Following the run-in period subjects were randomized in two groups: group A (n...
July 4, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676008/repurposing-pharmaceuticals-as-neuroprotective-agents-for-cerebral-malaria
#13
Hannah M Brooks, Michael T Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection which may result in death or developmental disability. The pathologic processes leading to CM are not fully elucidated; however, widely accepted mechanisms include parasite sequestration, release of infected red blood cell contents, activation of endothelial cells, increased inflammatory responses, and ultimately dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU). The endothelium plays a central role in these processes as the site of parasitized erythrocyte sequestration and as the regulator of fluid extravasation into the central nervous system...
July 4, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676007/the-role-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-platelet-aggregation-and-reperfusion-injury-in-recent-years
#14
Mohammadreza Nikbakht, Farhad Ahmadi, Golnaz Vaseghi, Azita Hajhossein Talasaz, Azadeh Eshraghi, Jamal Naderi, Mohammad Ali Daneshmehr
BACKGROUND: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an amino acid that contains a cysteine group and is currently used widely in various fields of medical research especially in cardiology. In this review, potential benefits of NAC in the aggregation of platelet and reperfusion injury are evaluated. METHODS: The available evidence was collected by searching Scopus, Pub-Med, Medline, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, and Cochrane database systematic reviews. Our searching was performed without time limitation and only English language articles were included in this review...
July 4, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637418/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-crocus-sativus-on-the-serum-cytokines-levels-in-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Tayebe Kermani, Maedeh Zebarjadi, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Seyed-Reza Mirhafez, Maryam Shemshian, Faezeh Ghasemi, Elham Mohammadzadeh, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Abdolreza Norouzy, Toktam Moghiman, Akram Sadeghi, Gordon Ferns, Amir Avan, Elaheh Mahdipour, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A growing body of evidence supports an important role of inflammatory-cytokines in development and progression of metabolic-syndrome (MetS), which explain, at least in part, its relationship with an increased cardiovascular-risk. Several studies have reported the therapeutic-impact of crocus-sativus in preclinical/clinical setting. Here we have explored the effects of crocus-sativus, saffron, on the modulation of twelve serum cytokines in subjects with MetS in a randomized control trial...
June 21, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637417/effect-of-heteropterys-aphrodisiaca-on-anxiety-and-male-exposure-of-female-mice-with-advanced-age
#16
Daniela Miranda Farias, Maria Silvia Ostetto, Rozimeri Colleti, Thais Barbosa, Jorge Aparecido Barros, Sergio Machado, Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Susana E Moreno, André Barciela Veras
BACKGROUND: Effect of Heteropterys aphrodisiac (dog-node) on anxiety and function Of adult female wistar mice. The Project is an experiment with the use of Of H. aphrodisiac root extract, in order to observe the frequency of Sexual exposure of females exposed to the extract, quantify the effect of the extract on the Concentration of total testosterone and observe the anxiety levels of the animals Exposed. Results will be measured with the laboratory testosterone test and LCE and CA tests...
June 21, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578646/clonidine-but-not-dexamethasone-prolongs-ropivacaine-induced-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-nerve-block-duration
#17
Dawood Nasir, Irina Gasanova, Shaina Drummond, John Alexander, Jo Howard, Emily Melikman, Gary Hill, Abu Minhajuddin, Babatunde Ogunnaike, Charles Whitten
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (USSB) provides excellent postoperative analgesia after upper extremity surgery. Dexamethasone and clonidine have been added to local anesthetics to enhance and prolong the duration of analgesia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized prospective study is to evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone, clonidine, or combination of both as adjuvants to ropivacaine on the duration of USSB for postoperative analgesia...
June 4, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578645/the-anti-migraine-effects-of-m2000-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-on-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-as-a-case-report
#18
Mahdi Vojdanian, Hossein Ahmadi, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Farhad Gharibdoost, Anis Barati, Abbas Mirshafiey
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and migraine are both common disorders which are caused by a faulty immune system and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, respectively. Although current treatment outlook has been shown a great improvement in these two diseases, however many side effects have been reported. CASE REPORT: We report a case of 43-years-female that has been suffered from rheumatoid arthritis for 3 years with a 6 years history of migraine. She had used different types of medication for both rheumatoid arthritis and migraine but during these 6 years no improvement was observed and even migraine progression in this patient became worse...
June 4, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486907/effect-of-crocin-on-antibody-titers-to-heat-shock-protein-27-in-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Mina Nosrati, Irandokht Nikbakht-Jam, Saeid Eslami, M Khademi, Mojtaba Foroutan-Tanha, Farzin Hadizadeh, Amir Hosein Sahebkar, Shima Tavallaie, Zhila Taherzadeh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon A A Ferns
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that antibody titers to heat shock protein 27 (anti-hsp27) and hs-CRP concentrations are elevated in patients with MetS, and may be associated with an increased cardiovascular diseases risk. Crocin is a natural carotenoid with, cardio protective effects. OBJECTIVE: Owing to the previous evidence on the beneficial effects of saffron in patients with MetS, this study investigated the effect of supplementation with crocin, as the active ingredient of saffron, on serum anti-hsp27 and hs-CRP in patients with MetS...
May 9, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486906/safety-and-toxicological-considerations-of-nanomedicines-the-future-directions
#20
Parmi Patel, Jigna Shah
Nanomedicine, an emerging nanotechnology, imparts special biological features due to their quantum size and is a promising candidate for targeted drug delivery. At present, in spite of its novel applications in medical sciences, certain existing gaps still needs to be addressed such as fate of nanoparticles and its toxicity assessment on human health. Behaviour of the entities post human body exposure and its deposition up to certain extent are some of the crucial factors to be considered for a successful treatment approach...
May 9, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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