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Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446747/crispr-cas9-genome-editing-a-promising-tool-for-therapeutic-applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Yanli Zhang, Danuta Sastre, Feng Wang
Induced pluripotent stem cells hold tremendous potential for biological and therapeutic applications. The development of efficient technologies for the targeted genome alteration of stem cells in disease models is a prerequisite for utilizing stem cells to their full potential. The revolutionary technology for genome editing known as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is recently recognized as a powerful tool for editing DNA at specific loci...
February 14, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412118/antibody-administration-for-bone-tissue-engineering-a-systematic-review
#2
Sepanta Hosseinpour, Maryam Rezai Rad, Arash Khojasteh, Homa Zadeh
BACKGROUND: Currently, antibodies are progressively applied in medicine for different purposes from diagnosis to treatments. Over twenty monoclonal antibodies utilized for many therapeutic reasons from therapy of cancers, immune disorders, and osteoporosis to localized bony defects. In addition, therapeutic antibodies represented various findings in bone tissue engineering. OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to systematically review the available literature on antibody assisted bone regeneration in animal models...
February 6, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380704/the-role-of-ageing-and-gender-in-musculoskeletal-stem-cell
#3
Amir H Gahanbani Ardakani, Wasim S Khan
BACKGROUND: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are the most common type of stem cell used in the regeneration of skeletal tissue. These cells have multipotent, angiogenic, paracrine, anti-fibrotic and immunological properties. They are readily available, easily isolated and have many therapeutic applications. The ageing population is on the increase and with this comes an upsurge in medical conditions that may benefit from novel stem cell-based therapies to treat ageing-associated diseases...
January 29, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380705/the-use-of-novel-electrospun-scaffolds-in-musculoskeletal-tissue-engineering-a-focus-on-the-rotator-cuff
#4
Navraj S Nagra, Edward T Stace, Saket Tibrewal, Wasim Khan, Andrew J Carr
Rotator Cuff tears affect 15% of 60 years olds and carry a significant social and financial burden. Current operative techniques and repair adjuncts are associated with unacceptably high failure rates, stimulating investigation into novel tissue engineering for regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches in the field of rotator cuff surgery. In this review we explore the most recent advances in the field of electrospinning, focussing on proposed tissue-engineered solutions in the rotator cuff niche. Methods The MEDLINE/PubMed database was reviewed for English language papers and publication date within the last 5 years, using the search string "electrospinning AND tendon"...
January 28, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359678/different-sources-of-stem-cells-and-their-application-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#5
Quanquan Ma, Jinfeng Liao, Xiaoxiao Cai
BACKGROUND: The articular cartilage is unique in that it contains only a single type of cell and shows poor ability for spontaneous healing. Currently, approaches for treating cartilage defects include surgical and nonsurgical approaches, as well as cartilage tissue engineering. For standard cartilage tissue engineering, three elements are required, i.e., a scaffold, growth factors, and seed cells. With advancements in in stem cell research, the main sources of cells for cartilage tissue engineering are embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, which have been shown to be promising alternatives in recent years...
January 22, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336267/stem-cells-derived-from-amniotic-fluid-a-potential-pluripotent-like-cell-source-for-cellular-therapy
#6
Thamil Selvee Ramasamy, Vithya Velaithan, Yelena Yeow, Fazlul H Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Regenerative medicine aims to provide therapeutic treatment for disease or injury, and cell-based therapy is a newer therapeutic approach that the conventional medicine cannot do. The ethical issues rose by the utilisation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and the limited capacity of adult stem cells, however, hinder the application of these stem cells in regenerative medicine. Recently, isolation and characterisation of c-kit positive cells from human amniotic fluid, which possess intermediate characteristics between hESCs and adult stem cells, provided a new approach towards realising their promise for fetal and adult regenerative medicine...
January 14, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303079/stem-cells-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-liver-failure
#7
Ya-Chao Tao, Meng-Lan Wang, En-Qiang Chen, Hong Tang
BACKGROUND: Liver failure is life-threatening liver disease encompassing a severe acute deterioration of liver function. Emergency liver transplantation is the only curative treatment for liver failure, but is restricted by the severe shortage of organ donors. Stem cell, including embroyonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells and hepatic progenitor cells, have capacity to proliferate and differentiate and could be used in a variety of liver diseases including hereditary liver diseases, cirrhosis and liver failure...
January 5, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295700/physical-cues-drive-chondrogenic-differentiation
#8
Qi Zhang, Shiyu Lin, Jinfeng Liao, Xiaoxiao Cai
BACKGROUND: Cellular differentiation occurs in a complicated microenvironment containing multiple components including soluble factors and physical cues. In addition to biochemical composition, physical cues are also crucial in determining cellular behaviors. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the interaction between physical signals and cells, we discuss the effects of physical cues on cellular behaviors, especially chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which these physical signals are transmitted from the extracellular matrix into the cell are also considered...
January 2, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285998/structure-function-evaluation-of-stem-cell-therapies-for-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Fuguo Zhang
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are prevalent, devastating for quality and expectancy of life, and causing heavy economic burdens. Stem cell therapies hold promise in complete structural and functional restoration of SCI. Various kinds of stem cells involving embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are extensively used in regenerative research of SCI. For evaluation, the survival and integration of transplanted cells, spinal cord reconstruction and functional recovery, should all be considered...
December 29, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284397/stem-progenitor-cells-and-biodegradable-scaffolds-in-the-treatment-of-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#10
Yuyao Wang, Dandan Zhang, Bingqiao Shen, Yi Zhang, Ping Gu
Visual impairment caused by retinal degeneration is primarily attributed to the irreversible degradation of retinal neurons or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). No efficient clinical therapies to restore or improve visual ability are currently available. Cell therapy has been touted as a promising strategy to overcome this challenge. Progenitor/stem cells may be obtained from both ocular and non-ocular tissues. The former mainly includes retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), whereas the latter comprises embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which have been utilized in stem cell replacement therapy studies ranging from proof-of-concept animal models to clinical trials in humans...
December 27, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210663/dna-methylation-a-frontier-in-tooth-organogenesis-and-developmental-dental-defects
#11
Liwei Zheng, Hongyu Li, Zhou Yachuan, Wei Du, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Mian Wan
Tooth development relies on interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, which is controlled by sophisticated networks of conserved signaling. The signaling networks regulating odontogenesis have been well characterized, but the mechanisms underlying remain to be elucidated. Researches on mammals have revealed that the genomic methylation, which occurs on cytosine residues, regulates certain genes transcription. Consequently, DNA methylation plays a crucial role in spatiotemporal organization of signaling pathways, and is essential for organogenesis...
December 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461175/editorial-epigenetics-in-oromaxillafacial-development-and-disease
#12
EDITORIAL
Liwei Zheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310565/editorial-epigenetic-regulation-on-stem-cells-fate-and-regeneration
#13
EDITORIAL
Liwei Zheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310564/preface
#14
Anthony Atala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141554/insight-into-the-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-during-osteogenesis-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Sibei Huo, Yachuan Zhou, Xinyu He, Mian Wan, Wei Du, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Instead of being "transcriptional noise", lncRNAs are emerging as a key modulator in various biological processes and disease development. Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from various adult tissues, such as bone marrow and dental tissues. The differentiation processes into multiple lineages, such as osteogenic differentiation, are precisely orchestrated by molecular signals in both genetic and epigenetic ways...
November 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141553/epigenetic-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-epithelial-stem-cells-fate
#16
Hongyu Li, Dixin Cui, Si Wu, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Mian Wan, Liwei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Epithelial tissues have the ability to self-renew throughout animal's life due to the presence of the epithelial stem cells. Except for complicated genes regulation, the fate of epithelial stem cells is also regulated by the epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNAs, which are emerging as vital elements of epigenetic regulation for epithelial stem cells self-renewal and differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying these are still poorly understood...
November 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110621/functional-germ-cells-from-non-testicular-adult-stem-cells-a-dream-or-reality
#17
Mohammad Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Mohammadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Maryam Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei
BACKGROUND: Some research studies provided evidence for the differentiation capacity of adult stem cells (ASCs) into germ cells (GCs). Since the generation of GCs from stem cells (SCs) has been proposed as a potential way for treatment of infertility, many research groups, have begun their creative studies on generation of new GCs both in vitro and in vivo, and utilized different ASC types such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), skin stem cells, pancreatic stem cells, and adipose tissue MSCs...
November 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076432/the-alkb-family-of-fe-ii-alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent-dioxygenases-modulate-embryogenesis-through-epigenetic-regulation
#18
Yuting Liu, Liang Xie, Quan Yuan
BACKGROUND: The study of epigenetic regulation has made substantial progress in recent years. The AlkB family in E. coli was identified as a type of DNA repair enzyme that removes alkyl adducts from nucleobases. Recently, nine mammalian homologs, ALKBH1-9, have been successfully identified and defined as diverse demethylases. ALKBH1, ALKBH5, ALKBH8 and ALKBH9 act as RNA demethylases, while ALKBH2-3 and ALKBH7 correct methyl and etheno adducts in DNA. Moreover, ALKBH4 focuses primarily on actin...
October 26, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046163/application-of-hydrogels-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#19
Ximu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Maobin Yang
Cartilage has limited ability for self-repairing, prompting the search for cartilage substitutes that can repair cartilage defects. Hydrogels have attracted attention as cartilage substitutes, since their mechanical properties, swelling ability and lubricating behavior are similar to extracellular matrix of articular cartilage. Hydrogels can be of natural, synthetic or hybrid origin, and hydrogels can encapsulate stem cells and/or be loaded with growth factors to promote cell differentiation into a chondrogenic phenotype...
October 17, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034841/ppar-%C3%AE-and-wnt-regulate-the-differentiation-of-mscs-into-adipocytes-and-osteoblasts-respectively
#20
Yue Li, Daxiang Jin, Weixing Xie, Longfei Wen, Weijian Chen, Jixi Xu, Jinyong Ding, Dongcheng Ren
Under the transcriptional control of numerous factors and intracellular signals, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. However, the precise cellular signaling factors that determine the cell fate of MSCs in bone marrow remain largely unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is well established as a prime inducer of adipogenesis, while the Wnt pathway is regarded as the master moderator of osteogenesis. A theoretical inverse relationship exists between adipogenic and osteogenic lineage commitment and differentiation: the differentiation toward an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocyte phenotype...
October 12, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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