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Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Jin Zhang, Jake Chen
The regeneration of damaged bone tissues to a pre-disease state has been a major goal for both clinicians and researchers worldwide. However, critical-sized bone defects which are unable to heal completely are a major clinical concern because effective, evidence-based regenerative therapy is still missing. Bone tissue engineering, aiming at providing novel and effective materials to promote bone regeneration, has been considered as a promising alternative to the traditional use of autografts, allografts and xenografts based on the fact that engineered bone tissue has limitless supply and has no disease transmission...
September 21, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mohammad Reza Mokhber Dezfouli, Sirous Sadeghian Chaleshtori, Mohammad Mehdi Dehghan, Hamid Tavanaeimanesh, Hossein Baharvand, Yaser Tahamtani
Lung diseases cause remarkable morbidity and mortality. The choice of effective medical treatment is limited and the number of lung diseases respond to difficultly current treatments. The embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have the potential to differentiate into cell types of all three germinal layers, including lung epithelial cells. So they can be a potential source for new cell therapies for hereditary or acquired diseases of the airways and lungs. Therefore, a method for treatment of lung diseases is cell therapy and use of ESCs that can replace the damaged epithelial and endothelial cells...
September 14, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Sheng Yi, Fei Ding, Leilei Gong, Xiaosong Gu
The extracellular matrix is produced by the resident cells in tissues and organs, and secreted into the surrounding medium to provide biophysical and biochemical support to surrounding cells due to its containing of diverse bioactive molecules. Recently, the extracellular matrix has been used as a promising approach for tissue engineering. Emerging studies demonstrate that extracellular matrix scaffolds are able to create a favorable regenerative microenvironment, promote tissue-specific remodeling, and act as an inductive template for the repair and functional reconstruction of skin, bone, nerve, heart, lung, liver, kidney, small intestine, and other organs...
September 4, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mikhail Fedyanin, Anna Popova, Elizaveta Polyanskaya, Sergei Tjulandin
In the last decade an increasing number of studies on tumor stem cell theory stating that there is only a small fraction of tumor cells capable of inducing tumor growth have been appeared. These cells can not only differentiate into more mature tumor cells, but also can maintain their own pool, that is the capacity for self-renewal. There are distinct subpopulations of cells within a tumor that express different combinations of stem cell markers and have different functions. The following markers are typically considered as markers of colorectal adenocarcinoma stem cells: CD133, CD144, CD24, CD166, CD44, CD29, ALDH1, LGR5, and CXCR4...
September 4, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Nurul Hafizah Mohd Nor, Zurairah Berahim, Azlina Ahmad, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan
Oral mucosa is a mucous membrane lining the oral cavity. Its main function is to protect the deeper structures against the external factors; thermal, chemical, mechanical and biological stimuli. Apart from that, it also plays a significant role during mastication, deglutition and speech. Some oral diseases or injuries to oral mucosa lead to impairment of the oral functions and aesthetics which eventually result in permanent defect of oral mucosa. In order to overcome this defect, different approaches for the development of reconstructed oral mucosa models have been employed including skin/autologous grafts, guided tissue replacement, vestibuloplasty etc...
August 17, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Norhayati Luddin, Hii Siew Ching, Kannan Thirumulu Ponnuraj, Ismail Ab Rahman
The odontogenic and osteogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) have been shown clearly by various in vitro and in vivo studies. The findings are promising and demonstrated that dental tissue engineering can give a new hope to the individuals suffering from tooth loss and dental diseases. The evaluation of odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs and SHED is commonly carried out by an illustration of the expression of varied related markers...
August 14, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yohei Kawakami, Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Yutaka Mifune, Tomoaki Fukui, Kunj G Patel, Garth N Walker, Masahiro Kurosaka, Ryosuke Kuroda
Inadequate blood supply frequently impedes the viability of tissue-engineered constructs in the initial phase after implantation, and can lead to improper cell integration or cell death. Vascularization using stem cells has continued to evolve as a potential solution to this problem. In this review, we summarize studies that utilize endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for musculoskeletal regeneration. This review will also highlight recent concepts for EPC identification in conjunction with the development of EPC biology research...
August 10, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Tatjana Ivaskiene, Mykolas Mauricas, Justinas Ivaska
Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 of the European Parliament and the Council on advanced therapy medicinal products and amending Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 allowed the use of non - authorized advanced therapy medicinal products under the certain circumstances. This so-called hospital exemption rule needs to be applied in the each Member State of the European Union individually and for this purpose Member States should provide national procedures and control measures. The aim of this article is to clear up the criteria for hospital exemption listed in Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 and to contrast the difference in implementing hospital exemption rule into national legal regimes on examples of the United Kingdom, Lithuania and Poland...
July 14, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Eric Laurent Maranda, Luis Rodriquez-Menocal, Evangelos Badiavas
In this review we explore stem cell function in wounds that are resistant to healing, such as burn injuries and diabetes wounds. Diabetic ulcers are of interest due their remarkable resistance to heal; severe thermal burns are addressed due to critical need for effective therapies for the prevention shock and improvement in scarring. Cell-based therapy utilizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stromal cells, are currently being investigated as a therapeutic avenue for both chronic diabetic ulcers and severe thermal burns...
July 14, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Behnaz Bakhshandeh, Mohammad Amin Kamaleddin, Khadijeh Aalishah
Exosomes and microvesicles, which are released by most of the cells, play important roles in intracellular correspondence by transferring DNA, messenger RNA, micro RNA, and other types of RNA and proteins. Exosomes and microvesicles may contribute to the distribution of cancers and diseases through delivering the pathogenic agents to the non-infected cells and modification of these cells in the tumor niche and subsequent transformation. In addition, these vesicles can affect activity and physiological properties of stem cells; in cancers, they can modify the cells in the tumor niche and lead them to transformation...
July 9, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Zhengrui Xiao, Jianyong Li, Kourong Miao
Since the improvement of chemotherapy and innovation of rituximab, about 60% of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) could receive long-term survival after firstline therapy. Around 30% fail to respond or experience relapse considered as the relapsed/refractory DLBCL, the high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) has used as the second-line treatment. However, the patients relapse after auto-HSCT or not eligible for the auto-HSCT have a poor prognosis...
June 30, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Baktash Khozoee, Pouya Mafi, Reza Mafi, Wasim Khan
Mechanical stimulation is a key factor in articular cartilage generation and maintenance. Bioreactor systems have been designed and built in order to delivery specific types of mechanical stimulation. The focus has been twofold, applying a type of preconditioning in order to stimulate cell differentiation, and to simulate in vivo conditions in order to gain further insight into how cells respond to different stimulatory patterns. Due to the complex forces at work within joints, it is difficult to simulate mechanical conditions using a bioreactor...
June 13, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Wafa Zahari, Siti Nurnasihah Md Hashim, Muhammad Fuad Hilmi Yusof, Zul Faizuddin Osman, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Khairani Idah Mokhtar, Azlina Ahmad, Khairul Bariah Ahmad Amin Noordin
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal origin cells with multi-lineage differentiation capacity. The immunoregulatory properties of MSCs can be interfered effectively by cytokines. Cytokines, produced by a broad range of cells, act at the systemic level to influence biological phenomena such as inflammation, wound healing, organogenesis and oncogenesis. Cytokines also play vital roles in the differentiation of MSCs into several cell lineages. This review summarizes on how cytokines can affect MSCs differentiation and their relative signaling pathways, which may serve to understand the possible underlying mechanisms...
June 13, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Katherine L Sinclair, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Aim The aim was to look at current evidence for treating non-unions or delayed fracture healing in regard to novel methods applying mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and growth factors (GF). Methods Pre-clinical and clinical trials focusing on the use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Growth Factors for fracture healing were included in this review. Published articles were identified using specific search terms in Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Results Of the 580 articles found, 82 met my selection criteria and were included, with 39 papers involving trials on the effects of GFs and MSCs on non-unions or bone repair...
June 13, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Irina Titorencu, Madalina Georgiana Albu, Miruna Nemecz, Victor V Jinga
The major goal of bone tissue engineering is to develop bioconstructs which substitute the functionality of damaged natural bone structures as much as possible if critical-sized defects occur. Scaffolds that mimic the structure and composition of bone tissue and cells play a pivotal role in bone tissue engineering applications. First, composition, properties and in vivo synthesis of bone tissue are presented for the understanding of bone formation. Second, potential sources of osteoprogenitor cells have been investigated for their capacity to induce bone repair and regeneration...
June 13, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
A Wheelton, J Mace, W S Khan, S Anand
Tissue engineering has emerged as a promising scientific field potentially yielding in vitro developed tissue to replace degenerative or injured tissues in vivo, thus avoiding the donor site morbidity associated with reconstructive surgery. Integral to the process is the role of scaffolds and the biomaterials used to form them. This review explores the concept of scaffold based tissue engineering and design considerations. The scaffold needs to have certain mechanical and architectural properties, it needs to be biocompatible and biodegradable, and allow combination with bioactive molecules...
June 13, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Rohit P Nagare, S Sneha, Syama Krishna Priya, Trivadi S Ganesan
The identification of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in leukemia has opened a new field in cancer research. This has been a 'lead' for identification of similar cells in other types of cancer. CSCs possess some distinct surface markers and functional properties which distinguishes them from the rest of the cells within a tumour. Due to variability in identification CSCs in a particular type of cancer (except brain, breast and leukaemia), these surface markers alone may not be sufficient. It is critical to identify and isolate this small population of cells from the heterogeneous tumours to understand their pathogenesis...
June 7, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
A Mildmay-White, W Khan
Since the discovery and isolation of a mesenchymal stem cell population from within the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue, there has been a concerted effort to discover the characteristics of these cells. Particular attention has been paid to their morphology, self-renewal capacity, multilineage differentiation capabilities and, as is of greatest interest in this instance, their cell surface profile. The identification of a common set of positive and negative cell surface markers would allow for a much more consistent and reliable method of identifying this stem cell population both in vitro and in vivo...
April 29, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
S Shaunak, B S Dhinsa, W S Khan
Orthopaedic surgery lends itself well to advances in technology. An area of interest and ongoing research is that of the production of scaffolds for use in trauma and elective surgery. 3D printing provides unprecedented accuracy in terms of micro- and macro-structure and geometry for scaffold production. It can also be utilised to construct scaffolds of a variety of different materials and more recently has allowed for the construction of bio-implants which recapitulate bone and cartilage tissue. This review seeks to look at the various methods of 3DP, the materials used, elements of functionality and design, as well as modifications to increase the biomechanics and bioactivity of 3DP scaffolds...
April 29, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Hiba Khan, Pouya Mafi, Reza Mafi, Wasim Khan
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into one of many lineage possibilities. It is therefore integral to preserve these qualities to prevent the far reaching effects of a defective stem cell. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are precursors for and can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. They were originally found in the bone marrow, but have also been located in the umbilical cord, adipose tissue and muscle...
April 29, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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