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Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969580/the-potential-for-synovium-derived-stem-cells-in-cartilage-repair
#1
Eva Johanna Kubosch, Gernot Michael Lang, David Fürst, David Christopher Kubosch, Kaywan Izadpanah, Bernd Rolauffs, Norbert P Südkamp, Hagen Schmal
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage defects often result in pain, loss of function and finally osteoarthritis. Developing cell-based therapies for cartilage repair is a major goal of orthopaedic research. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is currently the gold standard cell-based surgical procedure for the treatment of large, isolated, full thickness cartilage defects. Several disadvantages such as the need for two surgical procedures or hypertrophic regenerative cartilage, underline the need for alternative cell sources...
October 2, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969579/identification-and-characterization-of-intraoral-and-dermal-fibroblasts-revisited
#2
Nurul Hafizah Mohd Nor, Zurairah Berahim, Ahmad Azlina, Khairani Idah Mokhtar, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan
BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are the common cells used in clinical regenerative medicine and dentistry. These cells are known to appear heterogeneous in vivo. Previous studies have only investigated the biological properties of these cell subpopulations in vitro. Despite sharing similarity in their spindle-shaped appearance, previous literatures revealed that they play distinguished functional and biological activities in the body. OBJECTIVE: This paper highlights the similarities and differences among these cell subpopulations, particularly between intraoral fibroblasts (human periodontal ligament, gingival and oral mucosa fibroblasts) and dermal fibroblasts based on several factors including their morphology, growth and proliferation rate...
September 29, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969578/regenerative-medicine-applications-in-wound-care
#3
Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Mahsa Mollapour Sisakht, Alexander Marcus Seifalian, Mohammad Amir Amirkhani, Hamid Reza Banafsheh, Javad Verdi, Farzaneh Sharifzad, Ehsan Taghiabadi
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades, a number of studies have been published on different aspects of regenerative medicine in the field of dermatology. OBJECTIVE: The following article aims at integrating all available information about regenerative dermatology, from the past to the present. In addition, we focused on most well-known application of regenerative medicine in dermatology field, wound healing, especially for burns and non-healing wounds based on available skin replacement in market...
September 29, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969537/advances-in-the-production-and-application-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
Ibrahim Mortada, Nadeem Bilani
Background Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they have the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into cells of the 3 germ layers. In 2006, Takahashi et al. reprogrammed somatic cells into stem cells using exogenetic gene expression. These new cells became known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Research continues to develop new tools and techniques in order to reprogram cells with higher output and quality, so that iPSCs can be used in modeling of human disorders, drug discovery and of course, regenerative medicine...
September 26, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969536/progress-of-stem-cell-transplantation-for-treating-myocardial-infarction
#5
Zhi Chen, Chunyu Zeng, Wei Eric Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal treatment, myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major cause of death worldwide. Stem cell transplantation, as a promising therapy hoping to improve myocardial function and generate new myocardium, has been intensely studied for treating MI. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the recent advance of stem cell transplantation for treating MI in clinical trials and in preclinical studies. RESULTS: Several types of adult stem cells have been applied to clinical trials and exerted beneficial effects against MI...
September 26, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914209/knee-ligament-injury-and-the-clinical-application-of-tissue-engineering-techniques-a-systematic-review
#6
Thomas Riley, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Background The incidence of knee ligament injury is increasing and represents a significant cost to healthcare providers. Current interventions include tissue grafts, suture repair and non-surgical management. These techniques have demonstrated good patient outcomes but have been associated graft rejection, infection, long term immobilization and reduced joint function. The limitations of traditional management strategies have prompted research into tissue engineering of knee ligaments. Objective This paper aims to evaluate whether tissue engineering of knee ligaments offers a viable alternative in the clinical management of knee ligament injuries...
September 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914208/a-systematic-review-of-clinical-studies-investigating-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-fracture-non-union-and-bone-defects
#7
Kieran Killington, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Fracture non-union is a significant problem with a wide demographic and massive socioeconomic elements, as well as the clinical difficulties it presents. Conventional treatments with autograft and allograft bone grafting pose serious difficulties, thus, it is necessary to develop novel techniques with our ever increasing knowledge of bioengineering using natural materials. Papers were searched from a variety of sources, not limited to English-language studies or only published papers. Papers had to meet the definition of fracture non-union or bone defect and had to be clinical trials, using human MSCs...
September 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914207/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-cartilage-repair
#8
A Borakati, Reza Mafi, P Mafi, Wasim Khan
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major global burden creating significant morbidity worldwide. Current curative therapies are expensive, challenging to access and have significant risks, making them infeasible and difficult in many cases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be applied to joints and may regenerate the cartilage damaged in OA, this therapy may be advantageous to existing treatments. We systematically reviewed clinical trials of MSCs for cartilage repair and provide an overview of the literature in this area here...
September 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914206/mesenchymal-stem-cell-as-a-potential-therapeutic-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-myth-or-reality
#9
Sanjucta Adak, Sayani Mukherjee, Dwaipayan Sen
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis, are inflammatory autoimmune diseases which severely affect the quality of life. Till date, no long-lasting cure has been found for the disease and all the current treatment strategies are mainly focused on dampening the symptomatic inflammatory process that has certain side effects. In addition, a large number of patients remain refractory to conventional therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be looked upon as a biodrug to treat IBD owing to their immune-suppressive and regenerative capabilities...
September 13, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901252/the-origin-and-identification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-teeth-from-odontogenic-to-non-odontogenic
#10
Dixin Cui, Hongyu Li, Mian Wan, Yiran Peng, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in teeth have been exploited as vital seed cells for stem cell-based dental medicine. To date, several mesenchymal stem cell populations originated from odontogenic tissue have been isolated and characterized by their expression of MSC surface markers and capacity of multi-lineage differentiation, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and so on. However, their identity in vivo remains elusive, which hinders further understanding of their application in stem cell-based tooth regeneration...
September 13, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891440/a-systematic-review-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-spinal-cord-injury-intervertebral-disc-repair-and-spinal-fusion
#11
Shujhat Khan, Pouya Mafi, Reza Mafi, Wasim Khan
Spinal surgery presents a challenge for both neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery. Due to the heterogeneous differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells, there is much interest in the treatment of spine surgery. Animal and human trials focussing on the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in spinal cord injury, spine fusion and disc degeneration were included in this systematic review. Published articles up to January 2016 from MEDLINE, PubMed and Ovid were used by searching for specific terms. Of the 2595 articles found, 53 met the selection criteria and were included for analysis (16 on spinal cord injury, 28 on intervertebral disc repair and 9 on spinal fusion)...
September 7, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891441/tissue-engineering-in-achilles-tendon-reconstruction-a-systematic-review-of-preclincal-studies
#12
Saqib Mir, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Background Tissue engineering is now being used in Achilles tendon (AT) repair in animal models. There are many preclinical studies that have used different types of stem cells for AT repair. However, there are no systematic reviews that evaluate all these studies to see which type of stem cell provides the most improvement for AT repair in animal models. Sahni V et al.,(1) divided the multiple stem cell types into three broad categories; Tendon derived stem cells (TDSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)...
September 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891439/the-regulation-of-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-skeletal-muscle-a-look-at-signalling-molecules-involved-in-myogenesis
#13
Bethany Hodgson, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are an attractive option for the development of treatment for musculoskeletal pathologies due to their wide availability, clinical safety and multiple techniques available. Understanding the control of MSC differentiation into skeletal muscle is vital for developing protocols and therapeutic applications that are safe and effective. This paper therefore aims to review the current understanding of factors that regulate the differentiation of MSCs into skeletal muscle. Medline, Embase, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched December 2015 using the terms 'differentia*, skeletal*, skeleton*, myocyt*, myogen* and mesenchym* stem-cell*...
September 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875863/the-basic-mechanism-of-hair-growth-stimulation-by-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-their-secretory-factors
#14
Chong-Hyun Won, Gyeong-Hun Park, Xunwei Wu, Thanh-Nga Tran, Ki-Young Park, Byung-Soon Park, Dong Young Kim, Ohsang Kwon, Kyu-Han Kim
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue. ADSCs secrete growth factors and other proteins, and have been used to regenerate skin with satisfactory results. ADSCs promote hair growth in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. The conditioned media of ADSCs (ADSC-CM) increases the proliferation rate of human follicular cells. ADSCs-derived proteins improve hair growth and protect human dermal papilla cells against cytotoxic injury caused by androgen and reactive oxygen species...
August 29, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831915/translating-the-potential-of-stem-cells-for-diabetes-mellitus-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Muhammad Qasim, Muhammad Umar Ali
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, the widely prevalent disease of pancreas, is a metabolic disorder caused by autoimmune destruction of β cells or insulin insufficiency or insulin resistance. Replacement of damaged β cells by cell therapy can mitigate the condition and re-establish normal metabolic control. This has opened up new horizons for research, such as stem cells, cellular reprogramming and β cell regeneration. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to summarize the available literature on the use of stem cells for the regeneration of pancreatic β cells and treatment of diabetes mellitus...
August 22, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828969/application-of-bioreactors-to-improve-functionality-of-bone-tissue-engineering-constructs-a-systematic-review
#16
Hanieh Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Maryam Rezai Rad, Mohammad Mehdi Khani, Shayan Shahriari, Nasser Nadjmi, Arash Khojasteh
BACKGROUND: Traditional attempts to grow bone grafts in vitro have been based on culturing cell-scaffold constructs under static culture conditions. However, limitations associated with this approach have led to development of various types of technologies and equipments. One of these is a bioreactor acting as an intermediate between static (in vitro) and dynamic (in vivo) conditions, which can mimic physiological and mechanical body conditions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically review the available literature on application of different types of bioreactors in bone tissue engineering...
August 21, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820059/histone-modifications-in-aging%C3%AF-the-underlying-mechanisms-and-implications
#17
Yuan Wang, Quan Yuan, Liang Xie
Aging is characterized by time-dependent functional decline, which results in the reduced ability to cope with physiological challenges. The aging process can be affected by genetic factors, environment factors, epigenetic factors, and several stochastic factors. Epigenetic marker alteration during aging has been widely monitored and studied recently, since these epigenetic alterations are theoretically reversible. Histone post-translational modifications have been found to play a crucial role in epigenetic alteration during aging, among which histone methylation and histone acetylation are emerging as two well-documented modification methods...
August 17, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721820/epigenetic-regulations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-periodontitis
#18
Yu Luo, Xian Peng, Dingyu Duan, Chengcheng Liu, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou
Periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease that affects a large population worldwide. It involves progressive alveolar bone loss, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Oral microorganisms and susceptible host have been proposed to be the prerequisite for the development of periodontitis. Aberrant host immune response is the key factor that leads to the destruction of periodontal tissues. Recently, the involvement of epigenetic modifications in the development of periodontitis has attracted increasing attentions...
July 18, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721819/research-progress-of-the-types-and-preparation-techniques-of-scaffold-materials-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#19
Na Fu, Tengzhe Dong, Ai Meng, Zhaosong Meng, Bofeng Zhu, Yunfeng Lin
The management of chondral defects has been a challenge for a long time because of the poor self-healing capacity of articular cartilage. Many approaches ranging from symptomatic treatment to structural cartilage regeneration are not that successful with very limited satisfactory results. Chondral defects caused by tumor, trauma, infection, congenital malformations are very common in clinical trials. It seriously affects the patient's physical function and quality of life. Cartilage tissue engineering, which involves novel natural scaffolds, has emerged as a promising strategy for cartilage regeneration and repair...
July 18, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707582/the-modulation-of-micrornas-in-tooth-root-development
#20
Ran Zhang, Tiejun Li
Tooth root development begins after the completion of tooth crown development, both of them undergo a series of interactions between epithelium and the adjacent mesenchymal cells. In contrast to the study in tooth crown formation, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of tooth root development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate protein expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms. They participate in a broad aspect of biological processes from the control of development to tumorigenesis...
July 13, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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