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Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Payam Zarrintaj, Farnaz Mostafapoor, Peiman Brouki Milan, Mohammad Reza Saeb
It is a near-to-impossible not to accept that cancer takes position as the main cause of global burden of disease, for it is hard to ignore the outnumbered people dying from cancer. Looking at the statistics proves that progress in cancer therapy is always beyond cancer in a race of pessimism about the future; for various kinds of cancers yearly cause death in the world, whereas the conventional and even modern therapies often exhibit lack of reliability in treatment of cancer. In principal, various reasons are identified for cancer resistance and recurrence...
October 2, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Junaid Khan, Amit Alexander, Mukta Agrawal, Ajazuddin, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Sabahuddin Siddique, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf
Diabetes and its complications are a significant health concern throughout the globe. There are physiological differences in the mechanism of type-I and type-II diabetes and the conventional drug therapy as well as insulin administration seem insufficient to address the problem at large successfully. Hypoglycemic swings, frequent dose adjustments and resistance to the drug are major problems associated with drug therapy. Cellular approaches through stem cell based therapeutic interventions offer a promising solution to the problem...
October 2, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mukta Agrawal, Amit Alexander, Junaid Khan, Tapan Kumar Giri, Sabahuddin Siddique, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Ajazuddin, Ravish J Patel, Umesh Gupta, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf
The unique self-renewal and differentiation ability of stem cells drag the attention of many scientists and researchers towards the clinical application of stem cells. Stem cells are basically the normal living cells of multicellular organisms with some special ability to proliferate and transform into any kind of the body cells with their characteristic feature. Talking about human stem cells, it is originated from various sources like embryonic stem cells, somatic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, neural stem cells etc...
October 2, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Gabriele D Bigoni-Ordonez, Daniel Czarnowski, Tyler Parsons, Gerard J Madlambayan, Luis G Villa-Diaz
Cancer is a highly prevalent and potentially terminal disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Here, we review the literature exploring the intricacies of stem cells bearing tumorigenic characteristics and collect evidence demonstrating the importance of integrin α6 (ITGA6, also known as CD49f) in cancer stem cell (CSC) activity. ITGA6 is commonly used to identify CSC populations in various tissues and plays an important role sustaining the self-renewal of CSCs by interconnecting them with the tumorigenic microenvironment...
October 2, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Asrin Babahajian, Arash Sarveazad, Fereshteh Golab, Gelareh Vahabzadeh, Akram Alizadeh, Homa Rasoolijazi, Naser Amini, Maedeh Entezari, Mansoureh Soleimani, Majid Katebi
INTRODUCTION: One of the serious complications of stroke is memory impairment, which is considered as one of the complications of reperfusion of tissue. The present study was designed to compare the effect of administration of Trolox, carnosic acid and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) immediately after reperfusion of the stroke tissue on the memory and hippocampal histology. METHOD: Ischemia reperfusion model (IRI) was created by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery for 15 minutes and the first dose was administered immediately after reperfusion...
September 17, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Aravinth P Jawahar, Siddharth Narayanan, Gopalakrishnan Loganathan, Jithu Pradeep, Gary C Vitale, Christopher M. Jones, Michael G Hughes, Stuart K Williams, Appakalai N Balamurugan
Islet cell auto-transplantation is a novel strategy for maintaining blood glucose levels and improving the quality of life in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Despite the many recent advances associated with this therapy, obtaining a good yield of islet infusate still remains a pressing challenge. Reprogramming technology, by making use of the pancreatic exocrine compartment, can open the possibility of generating novel insulin-producing cells. Several lineage-tracing studies present evidence that exocrine cells undergo dedifferentiation into a progenitor-like state from which they can be manipulated to form insulin-producing cells...
September 17, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Kaishun Xia, Zhe Gong, Jian Zhu, Wei Yu, Yitian Wang, Junjie Wang, Ankai Xu, Xiaopeng Zhou, Huimin Tao, Fangcai Li, Chengzhen Liang
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the world's most common musculoskeletal diseases, and is frequently associated with intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). While the main cause of IDD is commonly attributed to a reduced number of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, current treatment strategies (both surgical and more conservative) fail to replenish NP cells or reverse the pathology. Cell replacement therapies are an attractive alternative for treating IDD. However, injecting intervertebral disc (IVD) cells, chondrocytes, or mesenchymal stem cells into various animal models of IDD indicate that transplanted cells generally fail to survive and engraft into the avascular IVD niche...
September 17, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ali Golchin, Tahereh Zarnoosheh Farahany, Arash Khojasteh, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Skin is one of the crucial body organs which its anatomy and physiology are linked with various disorders including congenital or acquired diseases. Nowadays, mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs)-based therapy has become a promising therapeutic field, which is expected to help in the treatment of the most costly and incurable diseases. However, it could be questioned whether the use of MSCs has improved in clinical trials studies and diseases treatment. In this study, we review the clinical trials using MSCs in skin diseases...
September 13, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mehdi Najar, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Makram Merimi, Arsene Burny, Dominique Bron, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Nathalie Meuleman, Laurence Lagneaux
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), characterized by both multidifferentiation potential and potent immunomodulatory capacity, represent a promising, safe and powerful cell based-therapy for repairing tissue damage and/or treating diseases associated with aberrant immune responses. Natural killer (NK) cells are granular lymphocytes of the innate immune system that function alone or in combination with other immune cells to combat both tumors and virally infected cells. After their infusion, MSCs are guided by host inflammatory elements and can interact with different immune cells, particularly those of the innate immune system...
September 12, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Shabnam Mohebbi, Mojtaba Nasiri Nezhad, Payam Zarrintaj, Seyed Hassan Jafari, Saman Seyed Gholizadeh, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Masoud Mozafari
Biomedical engineering seeks to enhance the quality of life by developing advanced materials and technologies. Chitosan-based biomaterials have attracted significant attention because of having unique chemical structures with desired biocompatibility and biodegradability, which play different roles in membranes, sponges and scaffolds, along with bring about promising biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Therefore, chitosan derivatives have been widely used in a vast variety of uses, chiefly pharmaceuticals and biomedical engineering...
September 12, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Kentaro Nakamura
In the field of stem cell therapy, research on the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has flourished because of the various functions. On the other hand, research on the method of cell transplantation has developed from the administration of cell suspensions to cell-sheet engineering and 3D technology. In the trend, a cell transplantation platform named CellSaic, which is a combination of xeno-free recombinant scaffolds in a cell aggregate-like shape, was developed. CellSaic is the cell transplantation platform that can prevent the central necrosis within cell aggregates by arranging the cells and petaloid pieces of recombinant peptide (RCP) in a mosaic...
September 12, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Wen Yang, Bo Ma
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with its capacity of multi-directional differentiation, low immunogenicity and high portability, which made BMSCs serve as ideal "seed cells" in ophthalmological disease therapy. Therefore, in this mini-review we examined recent literature concerning the potential application of MSCs for the treatment of ophthalmological disease, which including : activity of transplanted cells, migration and homing of MSCs, immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of MSCs and signaling involved...
September 12, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Maryam Farzaneh, Fatemeh Rahimi, Masoumeh Alishahi, Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of a world-wide healthcare problem that involves the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes myocardial infarction and coronary artery diseases (CAD). Dysfunctional myocardial cells are leading causes of low cardiac output or ventricular dysfunction after cardiac arrest and may contribute to the progression of CVD which could not to generate new cardiomyocytes in human adult heart. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which are present in adult marrow can self-renew and have the capacity of differentiation into multiple types of cells including cardiomyocytes...
August 21, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Marco A Velasco-Velazquez, Ines Velazquez-Quesada, Luz X Vasquez-Bochm, Sonia M Perez-Tapia
Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) constitute a subpopulation at the top of the tumor cell hierarchy that contributes to tumor heterogeneity and is uniquely capable of seeding new tumors. Because of their biological properties, CSCs have been pointed out as therapeutic targets for the development of new therapies against breast cancer. The identification of drugs that selectively target breast CSCs requires a clear understanding of their biological functions and the experimental methods to evaluate such hallmarks. Herein, we review the approaches to study breast CSCs properties and discuss their value in the preclinical evaluation of CSC-targeting drugs...
August 21, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Eduardo Alvarado-Ortiz, Miguel Angel Sarabia-Sanchez, Alejandro Garcia-Carranca
Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) generally constitute a minor cellular population within tumors that exhibits some capacities of normal stem cells. The existence of CSC, able to self-renew and differentiate, influences central aspects of tumor biology. In part because they are the ones that can continue tumor growth, give rise to metastasis, and acquire drug and radio resistance, which opens new avenues for therapeutics. It is well known that Stem Cells (SC) constantly interact with their niche, which includes mesenchymal cells, extracellular ligands, and the Extracellular Matrix (ECM)...
August 21, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Young-Dan Cho, Kyung-Hwa Kim, Hyun-Mo Ryoo, Yong-Moo Lee, Young Ku, Yang-Jo Seol
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that can result in destruction of the tooth attachment apparatus. Therefore, periodontal tissue regeneration is currently an important focus of research in the field. Approaches using stem cells and reprogrammed cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or trans-differentiated cells, represent the cutting edge in periodontal regeneration, and have led to many trials for their clinical application. Objectives and Results: In this review, we consider all available stem cell sources, methods to obtain the cells, their capability to differentiate into the desired cells, and the extent of their utilization in periodontal regeneration...
August 15, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mahboobeh Razmkhah, Shabnam Abtahi, Abbas Ghaderi
Mesenchymal Stem Cells [MSCs] are a heterogeneous population of fibroblast-like cells which maintain self-renewability and pluripotency. Many studies have demonstrated the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune cells. As a result of interactions with tumor cells, microenvironment and immune-stimulating milieu, MSCs contribute to tumor progression by several mechanisms, including sustained proliferative signal in cancer stem cells [CSCs], inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis, transition to tumor associated fibroblasts [TAFs], promotion of angiogenesis, stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition [EMT], suppression of immune responses, and consequential promotion of tumor metastasis...
August 15, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mariel E Toledo-Guzmán, Miguel Ibañez Hernández, Angel A Gomez-Gallegos, Elizabeth Ortiz-Sánchez
Aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH] is an enzyme that participates in important cellular mechanisms as aldehyde detoxification and retinoic acid synthesis; moreover, ALDH activity is involved in drug resistance, a characteristic of cancer stem cells [CSCs]. Even though ALDH is found in stem cells, CSCs and progenitor cells, this enzyme has been successfully used to identify and isolate cell populations with CSC properties from several tumor origins. ALDH is allegedly involved in cell differentiation through its product, retinoic acid...
August 10, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ivan Flores-Ramirez, Noemi Baranda-Avila, Elizabeth Langley
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are a small population of tumor-initiating cells that express stem cell-associated markers. In recent years, their properties and mechanisms of regulation have become a focus for intense research due to their intrinsic resistance to conventional cancer therapies. This review describes breast cancer stem cell origin, signaling pathways involved in self-renewal, such as Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog, biomarkers linked to stemness, and the role of sex steroid hormones on BCSC regulation...
August 10, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Sheng Bi, Qing Nie, Wei-Qun Wang, Yan-Li Zhu, Xue-Mei Ma, Chun-Min Wang, Bao-Chen Zhang, Han-Yang Li, Qiang Zhang, Guang Chen
There is increasing evidence reporting that as a common phenomenon in MetS relative diseases (TDM2), insulin resistance (IR) is regarded as an independent etiological factor and a warning indicator of MetS occurrence. Therefore, for the special group (overweight or obesity), clinical regular monitoring of IR is an important basis for the prevention and early intervention of MetS relative diseases. This surveys reveals that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs)possess a kind of potential: it may become a possible theraphy for IR in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related diseases...
August 10, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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