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Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

E Mariel Toledo-Guzman, Ibanez Hernandez Miguel, A Angel Gomez-Gallegos, Ortiz-Sanchez Elizabeth
Aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH] is an enzyme that participates in important cellular mechanisms as aldehyde detoxification and retinoic acid synthesis; moreover, ALDH activity is involved in drug resistance, a characteristic of cancer stem cells [CSCs]. Even though ALDH is found in stem cells, CSCs and progenitor cells, this enzyme has been successfully used to identify and isolate cell populations with CSC properties from several tumor origins. ALDH is allegedly involved in cell differentiation through its product, retinoic acid...
August 10, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ivan Flores-Ramirez, Noemi Baranda-Avila, Elizabeth Langley
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are a small population of tumor-initiating cells that express stem cell-associated markers. In recent years, their properties and mechanisms of regulation have become a focus for intense research due to their intrinsic resistance to conventional cancer therapies. This review describes breast cancer stem cell origin, signaling pathways involved in self-renewal, such as Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog, biomarkers linked to stemness, and the role of sex steroid hormones on BCSC regulation...
August 10, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Sheng Bi, Qing Nie, Wei-Qun Wang, Yan-Li Zhu, Xue-Mei Ma, Chun-Min Wang, Bao-Chen Zhang, Han-Yang Li, Qiang Zhang, Guang Chen
There is increasing evidence reporting that as a common phenomenon in MetS relative diseases (TDM2), insulin resistance (IR) is regarded as an independent etiological factor and a warning indicator of MetS occurrence. Therefore, for the special group (overweight or obesity), clinical regular monitoring of IR is an important basis for the prevention and early intervention of MetS relative diseases. This surveys reveals that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs)possess a kind of potential: it may become a possible theraphy for IR in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related diseases...
August 10, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
E Archer Danielle, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
BACKGROUND: Knee joint trauma may result in damage of the intra-articular ligaments, with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) a common and troublesome injury due to poor capabilities for spontaneous regeneration. Autograft and allograft surgical reconstructions are the mainstay of treatment, but have associated risks of failure, therefore tissue-engineering techniques aiming to regenerate the native ACL are being researched as a potential alternative treatment. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review the current evidence produced by ex vivo and in vivo studies investigating biomaterial scaffolding and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) techniques in orthopaedic tissue engineering of ACL injuries...
August 8, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Amirhosein Maali, Amir Atashi, Sasan Ghaffari, Reza Kouchaki, Fereshteh Abdolmaleki, Mehdi Azad
Leukemia is an uncontrollable growth of hematopoietic cells due to a mutation in DNA followed by cellular dysregulation and one or more chromosomal disorder that generally leads to a clonal abnormality. Theoretical and technical inability in early screening and distinguishing cancer, tumor tolerance to common treatment methods, repeated relapses of cancer after remission phase, heterogeneous chromosomal abnormality, and the side effects of current chemotherapies are some challenges that we face with leukemia and other malignancies...
July 31, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Hong Fan, Yahui Shen, Xinyu Liu, Siwei Chen, Yu Huan, Junjia Shan, Zifeng Zhang, Yazhou Wang
BACKGROUND: Characterization of the fate changes of stem cells is essential to understand the roles of certain stem cells both during development and in diseases, such as cancer. In the past two decades, more and more importance has been paid to the studies of in vivo lineage tracing, because they could authentically reveal the differentiation, migration and even proliferation of stem cells. However, specific genetic tools have only been developed until recently. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the progresses of genetic tools for specific lineage tracing with emphasis on their applications in investigating the stem cell niche signals...
July 25, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Alireza Mohammadi, Ali Maleki-Jamshid, Peiman Brouki Milan, Kaveh Ebrahimzadeh, Faezeh Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with consequent cognitive impairment and behavioral deficits. AD is characterized by loss of cholinergic neurons and the presence of beta-amyloid protein deposits. Stem cell transplantation seems to be a promising strategy for regeneration of defects in brain. METHOD: One of suitable type of stem cells originated from fetal membrane is Chorion-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (C-MSCs)...
July 22, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yu-Qiang Li
Oct4 is uniformly expressed by all types of pluripotent cells and is essential for pluripotency. Oct4 is also the central reprogramming factor that is constant in most transcription factor cocktails used to generate iPS cells. This article discusses the mechanisms of regulating Oct4 expression by confluence-based Hgf and hypoxia signalling in mouse somatic cells. Stat3 is activated ligand-independently in confluent cells and triggers the formation of cell aggregates. Hgf signalling is preserved after confluence, stimulating β-catenin and Stat3 activity, which are both crucial for Oct4 transcription...
July 22, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Cong Tang, Guodong Zhu
The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is consist of a family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of a wide variety of biological responses. Growing evidence support that NF-κB plays a major role in oncogenesis as well as its well-known function in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation. Therefore, we made a review of the diverse molecular mechanisms which the NF-κB pathway is constitutively activated in different types of human cancers, and the potential role of various oncogenic genes regulated by this transcription factor in cancer development and progression...
July 22, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Naser Amini, Nasim Vousooghi, Akram Alizade, Sara Ramezani, Mohammad T Joghataei, Peiman Brouki Milan, Soraya Mehrabi, Shima Ababzadeh, Farshid Sefat, Masoud Mozafari
Cell therapy is an important strategy for the treatment of incurable diseases including those that occur in the central nervous system (CNS). Among different strategies, the method of delivering or transplantation of cells into the brain has shown significant effects on regeneration. In this study, a new protocol has been developed for the transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells into the brain through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rat models. For this purpose, a wide range of ages (7-30 days old) of male neonates of Wistar rats was used...
July 19, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yuhao Wang, Jian Pan, Dianri Wang, Jiyuan Liu
Nerve injury is a large problem that produces much pain in patients. Injury to the nervous system causes serious consequences and affects a person's quality of life. The development of tissue engineering has created a brighter future for nerve regeneration, and research has not stopped since the discovery of stem cells. Stem cells are a type of pluripotent cell that exhibits the capacity of self-differentiation and proliferation. Many studies have demonstrated the ability of stem cells to differentiate into other types of cells, including neurons, after induction with trophic factors in vivo and vitro...
July 19, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
M Chenani, A Behnamghader, M Khorasani, M Ahmadinejadd
The pH variation of the injury site is an important factor in the failure of styptic and its structural damage. In this study, the behaviour of a gelatin-silica hybrid in severe bleeding was evaluated under different pH values. On the other hand, the effect of the hybrid particle size, which is one of the key physical properties of the hybrid, has been studied in rapid control of haemostasis. The hybrid haemostatic behaviour varied drastically by changing the particle size, so that the hybrid containing SiO2 with the average particle size of about 1 micro-meter (Hyb Gel-MSiO2) demonstrated very poor ability in platelet adhesion in neutral pH, about 24%...
July 3, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Amit Alexander, Shailendra Saraf, Swarnlata Saraf, Mukta Agrawal, Ravish J Patel, Palak Agrawal, Junaid Khan, Ajazuddin
In last few years, the stem cell therapy gets much popularity among researchers and scientists of biomedical field. It became an effective and alternative approach for the treatment of various physiological conditions (like accidental injuries, burn damage, organ failure, bone marrow transfusion, etc.) and chronic disorders (diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, periodontal diseases, etc.). Due to the unique ability of cellular differentiation and regeneration stem cell therapy serves as the last hope for various incurable conditions and severe damages...
July 3, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Seyed Mohammad Ahmadi, Aliasghar Behnamghader, Azadeh Asefnejaad
BACKGROUND: Bioactive glasses with different compositions have been extensively used as bone tissue engineering. Preparation, development and characterization of alginate pastes containing bioglass for bone repair applications were the purpose of this study. OBJECTIVE: The injectable bone pastes were produced from sol-gel derived bioactive glass nanoparticles with various CaO/P2O5 ratios of 19, 9.5 and 4.75 and sodium alginate solutions with different concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 wt...
July 3, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yao Liu, Li Liu, Zhi Wang, Guangsen Zheng, Qianming Chen, En Luo
Cartilage, constituted with a relatively hypocellular structure and lacking of neural and vascular connections, is not a well self-repairing tissue. Cartilage tissue engineering involving bulk of biomaterials has put forward as a strategy for articular cartilage lesions. The most complicated issue for cartilage repairing is to simulate the highly hierarchical structure, extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and even mechanical features. Electrospinning can produce flexible, dense fibrous membranes with moderate mechanical properties and biological features with different constitution of polymer, orientation, diameter and morphology of fibers, or cooperation forms with other strategies...
June 28, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Sathya Narayanan Patmanathan, Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Moon Nian Lim, Roslina Husaini, Kamal Shaik Fakiruddin, Zubaidah Zakaria
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 or CRISPR/Cas9 system is one of the hottest topics discussed lately due to its robustness and effectiveness in genome editing. The technology has been widely used in life science research including microbial, plant, animal, and human cell studies. Combined with the pluripotency of stem cells, the technology represents a powerful tool to generate various cell types for disease modeling, drug screening, toxicology, and targeted therapies...
June 12, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo, Amarpal, Vikash Chandra, Mohd Yaqoob Wani, Kuldeep Dhama, Gutulla Taru Sharma
BACKGROUND: The stem cells due to their unique characteristic features like self-renewal, multiplication, immuno-modulation and differentiation, are seen and hoped to bring new horizons in the field of biology, in general and medicine, in particular. OBJECTIVE: Among various stem cell types, currently mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are extensively studied in regenerative medicine owing to their readily available sources, easy harvesting and ability to differentiate both into mesodermal as well as non-mesodermal tissues with little associated ethical issues...
May 16, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Chuntie Zhu, Qiong Wu, Xu Zhang, Fubo Chen, Xiyang Liu, Qixiang Yang, Lei Zhu
Focal cartilage or osteochondral lesions can be painful and detrimental. Besides pain and limited function of joints, cartilage defect is considered as one of the leading extrinsic risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, clinicians and scientists have paid great attention to regenerative therapeutic methods for the early treatment of cartilaginous defects. Regenerative medicine, showing great hope for regenerating cartilage tissue, rely on the combination of biodegradable scaffolds and specific biological cues, such as growth factors, adhesive factors and genetic materials...
May 14, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xueping Xie, Qi Zhang, Tengfei Zhou, Quanquan Ma, Liao JinFeng
Cartilage, as a nanostructured tissue, because of its awfully poor capacity for inherent regeneration and complete hierarchical structure, is severely difficult to regenerate after damages. Tissue engineering methods have provided great contribution for cartilage repair. Nanomaterials have special superiority in regulating stem cell behaviors due to their special mechanical and biological properties and biomimetic characteristics, therefore, they have been given great attention in tissue regeneration. Nanomaterials are divided into organic and inorganic nanomaterials...
May 11, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Tapan Kumar Giri, Amit Alexander, Mukta Agrawal, Swarnalata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Ajazuddin
Tissue engineering is a multi-disciplinary field such as material science, life science, and bioengineering that are necessary to make artificial tissue or rejuvenate damaged tissue. Numerous tissue repair techniques and substitute now exist even though it has several shortcomings; these shortcomings give a good reason for the continuous research for more acceptable tissue-engineered substitutes. The search for and use of a suitable stem cell in tissue engineering is a promising concept. Stem cells have a distinctive capability to differentiate and self-renew that make more suitable for cell-based therapies in tissue repair and regeneration...
May 1, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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