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Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210663/dna-methylation-a-frontier-in-tooth-organogenesis-and-developmental-dental-defects
#1
Liwei Zheng, Hongyu Li, Zhou Yachuan, Wei Du, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Mian Wan
Tooth development relies on interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, which is controlled by sophisticated networks of conserved signaling. The signaling networks regulating odontogenesis have been well characterized, but the mechanisms underlying remain to be elucidated. Researches on mammals have revealed that the genomic methylation, which occurs on cytosine residues, regulates certain genes transcription. Consequently, DNA methylation plays a crucial role in spatiotemporal organization of signaling pathways, and is essential for organogenesis...
December 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141554/insight-into-the-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-during-osteogenesis-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Sibei Huo, Yachuan Zhou, Xinyu He, Mian Wan, Wei Du, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Instead of being "transcriptional noise", lncRNAs are emerging as a key modulator in various biological processes and disease development. Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from various adult tissues, such as bone marrow and dental tissues. The differentiation processes into multiple lineages, such as osteogenic differentiation, are precisely orchestrated by molecular signals in both genetic and epigenetic ways...
November 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141553/epigenetic-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-epithelial-stem-cells-fate
#3
Hongyu Li, Dixin Cui, Si Wu, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Mian Wan, Liwei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Epithelial tissues have the ability to self-renew throughout animal's life due to the presence of the epithelial stem cells. Except for complicated genes regulation, the fate of epithelial stem cells is also regulated by the epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNAs, which are emerging as vital elements of epigenetic regulation for epithelial stem cells self-renewal and differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying these are still poorly understood...
November 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110621/functional-germ-cells-from-non-testicular-adult-stem-cells-a-dream-or-reality
#4
Mohammad Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Mohammadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Maryam Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei
BACKGROUND: Some research studies provided evidence for the differentiation capacity of adult stem cells (ASCs) into germ cells (GCs). Since the generation of GCs from stem cells (SCs) has been proposed as a potential way for treatment of infertility, many research groups, have begun their creative studies on generation of new GCs both in vitro and in vivo, and utilized different ASC types such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), skin stem cells, pancreatic stem cells, and adipose tissue MSCs...
November 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076432/the-alkb-family-of-fe-ii-alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent-dioxygenases-modulate-embryogenesis-through-epigenetic-regulation
#5
Yuting Liu, Liang Xie, Quan Yuan
BACKGROUND: The study of epigenetic regulation has made substantial progress in recent years. The AlkB family in E. coli was identified as a type of DNA repair enzyme that removes alkyl adducts from nucleobases. Recently, nine mammalian homologs, ALKBH1-9, have been successfully identified and defined as diverse demethylases. ALKBH1, ALKBH5, ALKBH8 and ALKBH9 act as RNA demethylases, while ALKBH2-3 and ALKBH7 correct methyl and etheno adducts in DNA. Moreover, ALKBH4 focuses primarily on actin...
October 26, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046163/application-of-hydrogels-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#6
Ximu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Maobin Yang
Cartilage has limited ability for self-repairing, prompting the search for cartilage substitutes that can repair cartilage defects. Hydrogels have attracted attention as cartilage substitutes, since their mechanical properties, swelling ability and lubricating behavior are similar to extracellular matrix of articular cartilage. Hydrogels can be of natural, synthetic or hybrid origin, and hydrogels can encapsulate stem cells and/or be loaded with growth factors to promote cell differentiation into a chondrogenic phenotype...
October 17, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034841/ppar-%C3%AE-and-wnt-regulate-the-differentiation-of-mscs-into-adipocytes-and-osteoblasts-respectively
#7
Yue Li, Daxiang Jin, Weixing Xie, Longfei Wen, Weijian Chen, Jixi Xu, Jinyong Ding, Dongcheng Ren
Under the transcriptional control of numerous factors and intracellular signals, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. However, the precise cellular signaling factors that determine the cell fate of MSCs in bone marrow remain largely unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is well established as a prime inducer of adipogenesis, while the Wnt pathway is regarded as the master moderator of osteogenesis. A theoretical inverse relationship exists between adipogenic and osteogenic lineage commitment and differentiation: the differentiation toward an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocyte phenotype...
October 12, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969580/the-potential-for-synovium-derived-stem-cells-in-cartilage-repair
#8
Eva Johanna Kubosch, Gernot Michael Lang, David Fürst, David Christopher Kubosch, Kaywan Izadpanah, Bernd Rolauffs, Norbert P Südkamp, Hagen Schmal
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage defects often result in pain, loss of function and finally osteoarthritis. Developing cell-based therapies for cartilage repair is a major goal of orthopaedic research. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is currently the gold standard cell-based surgical procedure for the treatment of large, isolated, full thickness cartilage defects. Several disadvantages such as the need for two surgical procedures or hypertrophic regenerative cartilage, underline the need for alternative cell sources...
October 2, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969579/identification-and-characterization-of-intraoral-and-dermal-fibroblasts-revisited
#9
Nurul Hafizah Mohd Nor, Zurairah Berahim, Ahmad Azlina, Khairani Idah Mokhtar, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan
BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are the common cells used in clinical regenerative medicine and dentistry. These cells are known to appear heterogeneous in vivo. Previous studies have only investigated the biological properties of these cell subpopulations in vitro. Despite sharing similarity in their spindle-shaped appearance, previous literatures revealed that they play distinguished functional and biological activities in the body. OBJECTIVE: This paper highlights the similarities and differences among these cell subpopulations, particularly between intraoral fibroblasts (human periodontal ligament, gingival and oral mucosa fibroblasts) and dermal fibroblasts based on several factors including their morphology, growth and proliferation rate...
September 29, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969578/regenerative-medicine-applications-in-wound-care
#10
Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Mahsa Mollapour Sisakht, Alexander Marcus Seifalian, Mohammad Amir Amirkhani, Hamid Reza Banafsheh, Javad Verdi, Farzaneh Sharifzad, Ehsan Taghiabadi
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades, a number of studies have been published on different aspects of regenerative medicine in the field of dermatology. OBJECTIVE: The following article aims at integrating all available information about regenerative dermatology, from the past to the present. In addition, we focused on most well-known application of regenerative medicine in dermatology field, wound healing, especially for burns and non-healing wounds based on available skin replacement in market...
September 29, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969537/advances-in-the-production-and-application-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Ibrahim Mortada, Nadeem Bilani
Background Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they have the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into cells of the 3 germ layers. In 2006, Takahashi et al. reprogrammed somatic cells into stem cells using exogenetic gene expression. These new cells became known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Research continues to develop new tools and techniques in order to reprogram cells with higher output and quality, so that iPSCs can be used in modeling of human disorders, drug discovery and of course, regenerative medicine...
September 26, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969536/progress-of-stem-cell-transplantation-for-treating-myocardial-infarction
#12
Zhi Chen, Chunyu Zeng, Wei Eric Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal treatment, myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major cause of death worldwide. Stem cell transplantation, as a promising therapy hoping to improve myocardial function and generate new myocardium, has been intensely studied for treating MI. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the recent advance of stem cell transplantation for treating MI in clinical trials and in preclinical studies. RESULTS: Several types of adult stem cells have been applied to clinical trials and exerted beneficial effects against MI...
September 26, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914209/knee-ligament-injury-and-the-clinical-application-of-tissue-engineering-techniques-a-systematic-review
#13
Thomas Riley, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Background The incidence of knee ligament injury is increasing and represents a significant cost to healthcare providers. Current interventions include tissue grafts, suture repair and non-surgical management. These techniques have demonstrated good patient outcomes but have been associated graft rejection, infection, long term immobilization and reduced joint function. The limitations of traditional management strategies have prompted research into tissue engineering of knee ligaments. Objective This paper aims to evaluate whether tissue engineering of knee ligaments offers a viable alternative in the clinical management of knee ligament injuries...
September 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914208/a-systematic-review-of-clinical-studies-investigating-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-fracture-non-union-and-bone-defects
#14
Kieran Killington, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Fracture non-union is a significant problem with a wide demographic and massive socioeconomic elements, as well as the clinical difficulties it presents. Conventional treatments with autograft and allograft bone grafting pose serious difficulties, thus, it is necessary to develop novel techniques with our ever increasing knowledge of bioengineering using natural materials. Papers were searched from a variety of sources, not limited to English-language studies or only published papers. Papers had to meet the definition of fracture non-union or bone defect and had to be clinical trials, using human MSCs...
September 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914207/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-cartilage-repair
#15
A Borakati, Reza Mafi, P Mafi, Wasim Khan
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major global burden creating significant morbidity worldwide. Current curative therapies are expensive, challenging to access and have significant risks, making them infeasible and difficult in many cases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be applied to joints and may regenerate the cartilage damaged in OA, this therapy may be advantageous to existing treatments. We systematically reviewed clinical trials of MSCs for cartilage repair and provide an overview of the literature in this area here...
September 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914206/mesenchymal-stem-cell-as-a-potential-therapeutic-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-myth-or-reality
#16
Sanjucta Adak, Sayani Mukherjee, Dwaipayan Sen
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis, are inflammatory autoimmune diseases which severely affect the quality of life. Till date, no long-lasting cure has been found for the disease and all the current treatment strategies are mainly focused on dampening the symptomatic inflammatory process that has certain side effects. In addition, a large number of patients remain refractory to conventional therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be looked upon as a biodrug to treat IBD owing to their immune-suppressive and regenerative capabilities...
September 13, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901252/the-origin-and-identification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-teeth-from-odontogenic-to-non-odontogenic
#17
Dixin Cui, Hongyu Li, Mian Wan, Yiran Peng, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in teeth have been exploited as vital seed cells for stem cell-based dental medicine. To date, several mesenchymal stem cell populations originated from odontogenic tissue have been isolated and characterized by their expression of MSC surface markers and capacity of multi-lineage differentiation, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and so on. However, their identity in vivo remains elusive, which hinders further understanding of their application in stem cell-based tooth regeneration...
September 13, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891440/a-systematic-review-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-spinal-cord-injury-intervertebral-disc-repair-and-spinal-fusion
#18
Shujhat Khan, Pouya Mafi, Reza Mafi, Wasim Khan
Spinal surgery presents a challenge for both neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery. Due to the heterogeneous differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells, there is much interest in the treatment of spine surgery. Animal and human trials focussing on the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in spinal cord injury, spine fusion and disc degeneration were included in this systematic review. Published articles up to January 2016 from MEDLINE, PubMed and Ovid were used by searching for specific terms. Of the 2595 articles found, 53 met the selection criteria and were included for analysis (16 on spinal cord injury, 28 on intervertebral disc repair and 9 on spinal fusion)...
September 7, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891441/tissue-engineering-in-achilles-tendon-reconstruction-a-systematic-review-of-preclincal-studies
#19
Saqib Mir, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Background Tissue engineering is now being used in Achilles tendon (AT) repair in animal models. There are many preclinical studies that have used different types of stem cells for AT repair. However, there are no systematic reviews that evaluate all these studies to see which type of stem cell provides the most improvement for AT repair in animal models. Sahni V et al.,(1) divided the multiple stem cell types into three broad categories; Tendon derived stem cells (TDSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)...
September 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891439/the-regulation-of-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-skeletal-muscle-a-look-at-signalling-molecules-involved-in-myogenesis
#20
Bethany Hodgson, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are an attractive option for the development of treatment for musculoskeletal pathologies due to their wide availability, clinical safety and multiple techniques available. Understanding the control of MSC differentiation into skeletal muscle is vital for developing protocols and therapeutic applications that are safe and effective. This paper therefore aims to review the current understanding of factors that regulate the differentiation of MSCs into skeletal muscle. Medline, Embase, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched December 2015 using the terms 'differentia*, skeletal*, skeleton*, myocyt*, myogen* and mesenchym* stem-cell*...
September 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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