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Journal of Molecular Signaling

Alexander C Bertalovitz, Milly S Pau, Shujuan Gao, Craig C Malbon, Hsien-Yu Wang
The carboxy (C)-termini of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) dictate essential functions. The KTXXXW motif C-terminus of Frizzleds (FZD) has been implicated in recruitment of Dishevelled (DVL). Through study of FZD4 and its associated ligand Norrin, we report that a minimum of three residues distal to the KTXXXW motif in the C-terminal tail of Frizzled-4 are essential for DVL recruitment and robust Lef/Tcf-dependent transcriptional activation in response to Norrin.
2016: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Shauna A Rasmussen, Michelle Kwon, Jeffrey D Pressly, Joe B Blumer, Kevin R Regner, Frank Park
Activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3) is an accessory protein that functions to regulate the activation status of heterotrimeric G-protein subunits. To date, however, the downstream signaling pathways regulated by AGS3 remain to be fully elucidated, particularly in renal epithelial cells. In the present study, normal rat kidney (NRK-52E) proximal tubular epithelial cells were genetically modified to regulate the expression of AGS3 to investigate its role on MAPK and mTOR signaling to control epithelial cell number...
2015: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Milly S Pau, Shujuan Gao, Craig C Malbon, Hsien-Yu Wang, Alexander C Bertalovitz
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a disease state characterized by aberrant retinal angiogenesis. Norrin-induced activation of Frizzled-4 (Fz4) has a major role in regulating beta-catenin levels in the eye that, in turn, modulate the blood retina barrier (BRB). Here we gain insight on the basis of the pathology of a FEVR implicated F328S Fz4 mutant by study. The receptor exhibits a substantially reduced ability to activate Lef/Tcf-dependent transcription. This impaired activation correlates with a decreased ability to stabilize and recruit Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) to the cell surface...
2015: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Michael P Kahle, Bruce D Cuevas
The cell signaling molecule MEK kinase 2 (MEKK2) is a key upstream regulator of MAPK activity that regulates numerous cellular functions, but the mechanisms that control MEKK2 activity are not well understood. Recently, we reported that MEKK2 both binds and promotes ubiquitylation of the scaffold protein paxillin, and thereby modulates the composition of adhesion complexes. In this study, we have extended our examination of this interaction and report that recombinant paxillin is sufficient to induce MEKK2 auto-phosphorylation...
2015: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Mingda Yan, Ji Hee Ha, Danny N Dhanasekaran
The G12 family of heterotrimeric G proteins is defined by their α-subunits, Gα12 and Gα13. These α-subunits regulate cellular homeostasis, cell migration, and oncogenesis in a context-specific manner primarily through their interactions with distinct proteins partners that include diverse effector molecules and scaffold proteins. With a focus on identifying any other novel regulatory protein(s) that can directly interact with Gα13, we subjected Gα13 to tandem affinity purification-coupled mass spectrometric analysis...
2015: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Thomas R Hynes, Evan A Yost, Stacy M Yost, Cassandra M Hartle, Braden J Ott, Catherine H Berlot
BACKGROUND: The role of cAMP in regulating T cell activation and function has been controversial. cAMP is generally known as an immunosuppressant, but it is also required for generating optimal immune responses. As the effect of cAMP is likely to depend on its cellular context, the current study investigated whether the mechanism of activation of Gαs and adenylyl cyclase influences their effect on T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA levels. METHODS: The effect of blocking Gs-coupled receptor (GsPCR)-mediated Gs activation on TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels in CD4(+) T cells was compared with that of knocking down Gαs expression or inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity...
2015: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Thomas R Hynes, Evan A Yost, Cassandra M Hartle, Braden J Ott, Catherine H Berlot
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of G-protein βγ (Gβγ) signaling was found previously to enhance T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated increases in interleukin 2 (IL-2) mRNA in CD4(+) T helper cells, suggesting that Gβγ might be a useful drug target for treating autoimmune diseases, as low dose IL-2 therapy can suppress autoimmune responses. Because IL-2 may counteract autoimmunity in part by shifting CD4(+) T helper cells away from the Type 1 T helper cell (TH1) and TH17 subtypes towards the TH2 subtype, the purpose of this study was to determine if blocking Gβγ signaling affected the balance of TH1, TH17, and TH2 cytokine mRNAs produced by CD4(+) T helper cells...
2015: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Ann-Kristin Fjällström, Kim Evertsson, Marlene Norrby, Sven Tågerud
BACKGROUND: Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors and E3 ubiquitin ligases such as Muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) are believed to participate in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The function of FoxO transcription factors is regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. In the present study FoxO1 protein expression, phosphorylation and acetylation as well as MuRF1 protein expression, were examined in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated skeletal muscle...
2014: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Anthonio O Adefuye, Kurt J Sales, Arieh A Katz
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1α is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis...
2014: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Edith Yuk Ting Tse, Yick Pang Ching
The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are downstream effectors of the Rho family small GTPases as well as a wide variety of mitogenic factors and have been implicated in cancer formation, development and metastasis. PAKs phosphorylate a wide spectrum of substrates to mediate extracellular signals and regulate cytoskeletal remodeling, cell motility and survival. In this review, we aim to summarize the findings regarding the oncogenic role and the underlying mechanisms of PAKs signaling in various cancers, and in particular highlight the prime importance of PAKs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and metastasis...
2014: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Crystal Y Chia, Udhaya Kumari, Patrick J Casey
BACKGROUND: Recent studies on the involvement of the G12 family of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα12 and Gα13, the products of the GNA12 and GNA13 genes, respectively) in oncogenic pathways have uncovered a link between G12 signaling and cancer progression. However, despite a well characterized role of Rho GTPases, the potential role of secreted factors in the capacity of G12 signaling to promote invasion of cancer cells is just beginning to be addressed. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A breast cancer cell lines were employed as a model system to explore the involvement of secreted factors in G12-stimulated cell invasion...
2014: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Osamu Ishibashi, Takashi Inui
BACKGROUND: The periodontal ligament (PDL), connective tissue located between the cementum of teeth and alveolar bone of the mandibula, plays an important role in the maintenance and regeneration of periodontal tissues. We reported previously that endoglin was involved in the BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of mouse PDL cells, which is associated with Smad-2 phosphorylation but not Smad-1/5/8 phosphorylation. In this study, to elucidate the detailed mechanism underlying the BMP-2 signalling pathway unique to PDL cells, we performed a microarray analysis to identify BMP-2-inducible genes in PDL-L2 cells, a mouse PDL-derived cell line, with or without endoglin knockdown...
2014: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Krisztina Takács-Vellai
NM23-H1 (also known as NME1) was the first identified metastasis suppressor, which displays a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and histidine protein kinase activity. NDPKs are linked to many processes, such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, but the exact mechanism whereby NM23-H1 inhibits the metastatic potential of cancer cells remains elusive. However, some recent data suggest that NM23-H1 may exert its anti-metastatic effect by blocking Ras/ERK signaling. In mammalian cell lines NDPK-mediated attenuation of Ras/ERK signaling occurs through phosphorylation (thus inactivation) of KSR (kinase suppressor of Ras) scaffolds...
2014: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Shujuan Gao, Craig Malbon, Hsien-Yu Wang
BACKGROUND: Protein phosphorylation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) is central to the myriad of functions that these ubiquitous receptors perform in biology. Although readily addressable with the use of phospho-specific antibodies, analysis phosphorylation at the level of stoichiometry requires receptor isolation and advanced proteomics. We chose two key sites of potential phosphorylation of human beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR residues S355 and S356) to ascertain the feasibility of applying targeted mass spectrometry to establishing the stoichiometry of the phosphorylation...
2014: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Kim Evertsson, Ann-Kristin Fjällström, Marlene Norrby, Sven Tågerud
BACKGROUND: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase has been implicated in both skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. T317 phosphorylation of the p38 substrate mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) correlates with muscle weight in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated muscle and may influence the nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of p38 and/or MK2. The present study investigates expression and phosphorylation of p38, MK2 and related proteins in cytosolic and nuclear fractions from atrophic and hypertrophic 6-days denervated skeletal muscles compared to innervated controls...
2014: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Kenji Watari, Michio Nakaya, Hitoshi Kurose
Desensitization is a physiological feedback mechanism that blocks detrimental effects of persistent stimulation. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) was originally identified as the kinase that mediates G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization. Subsequent studies revealed that GRK is a family composed of seven isoforms (GRK1-GRK7). Each GRK shows a differential expression pattern. GRK1, GRK4, and GRK7 are expressed in limited tissues. In contrast, GRK2, GRK3, GRK5, and GRK6 are ubiquitously expressed throughout the body...
2014: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Janani Panneerselvam, Anupama Munshi, Rajagopal Ramesh
Cancer remains a major health issue in the world and the effectiveness of current therapies is limited resulting in disease recurrence and resistance to therapy. Therefore to overcome disease recurrence and have improved treatment efficacy there is a continued effort to develop and test new anticancer drugs that are natural or synthetic - (conventional chemotherapeutics, small molecule inhibitors) and biologic (antibody, tumor suppressor genes, oligonucleotide) product. In parallel, efforts for identifying molecular targets and signaling pathways to which cancer cells are "addicted" are underway...
December 30, 2013: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Chun-Hao Chen, Yen-Chih Chen, Hao-Ching Jiang, Chung-Kuan Chen, Chun-Liang Pan
The heterogeneity and multigenetic nature of nervous system aging make modeling of it a formidable task in mammalian species. The powerful genetics, simple anatomy and short life span of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offer unique advantages in unraveling the molecular genetic network that regulates the integrity of neuronal structures and functions during aging. In this review, we first summarize recent breakthroughs in the morphological and functional characterization of C. elegans neuronal aging. Age-associated morphological changes include age-dependent neurite branching, axon beading or swelling, axon defasciculation, progressive distortion of the neuronal soma, and early decline in presynaptic release function...
December 10, 2013: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Shidrokh Ardestani, Desirae L Deskins, Pampee P Young
BACKGROUND: Programmed necrosis is a form of caspase-independent cell death whose molecular regulation is poorly understood. While tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been identified as an activator of programmed necrosis, the specific context under which this can happen is unclear. Recently we reported that TNF-alpha can be expressed by human tumor cells as both a membrane tethered (mTNF-alpha) and a soluble (sTNF-alpha) form. Whereas low level, tumor-derived sTNF-alpha acts as a tumor promoter, tumor cell expression of mTNF-alpha significantly delays tumor growth in mice, in large part by induction of programmed necrosis of tumor associated myeloid cells...
November 1, 2013: Journal of Molecular Signaling
Pratima Pandey, Mahlet D Mersha, Harbinder S Dhillon
The importance of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the nervous system is underscored by its role in a wide variety of physiological and neural functions in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Binding of dopamine to its membrane receptors initiates precise signaling cascades that result in specific cellular responses. Dopamine receptors belong to a super-family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are characterized by seven trans-membrane domains. In mammals, five dopamine receptors have been identified which are grouped into two different categories D1- and D2-like receptors...
2013: Journal of Molecular Signaling
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