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Carbon Balance and Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326127/detecting-peatland-drains-with-object-based-image-analysis-and-geoeye-1-imagery
#1
J Connolly, N M Holden
BACKGROUND: Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA) was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1) to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326126/scenarios-in-tropical-forest-degradation-carbon-stock-trajectories-for-redd
#2
REVIEW
Rafael B de Andrade, Jennifer K Balch, Amoreena L Parsons, Dolors Armenteras, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Janette Bulkan
BACKGROUND: Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests-such as logging and fire-causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Using best available information, we: (i) develop short-term emissions factors (per area) for logging and fire degradation scenarios in tropical forests; and (ii) describe the temporal pattern of degradation emissions and recovery trajectory post logging and fire disturbance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255334/from-berries-to-blocks-carbon-stock-quantification-of-a-california-vineyard
#3
Jorge Andres Morandé, Christine M Stockert, Garrett C Liles, John N Williams, David R Smart, Joshua H Viers
BACKGROUND: Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we used destructive sampling to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a vineyard in California's northern San Joaquin Valley...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255333/impact-of-data-model-and-point-density-on-aboveground-forest-biomass-estimation-from-airborne-lidar
#4
Mariano Garcia, Sassan Saatchi, Antonio Ferraz, Carlos Alberto Silva, Susan Ustin, Alexander Koltunov, Heiko Balzter
BACKGROUND: Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass (AGB) and its dynamics is of paramount importance in understanding the role of forest in the carbon cycle and the effective implementation of climate change mitigation policies. LiDAR is currently the most accurate technology for AGB estimation. LiDAR metrics can be derived from the 3D point cloud (echo-based) or from the canopy height model (CHM). Different sensors and survey configurations can affect the metrics derived from the LiDAR data...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246544/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-tropical-forest-degradation-an-underestimated-source
#5
Timothy R H Pearson, Sandra Brown, Lara Murray, Gabriel Sidman
BACKGROUND: The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194224/carbon-uptake-by-mature-amazon-forests-has-mitigated-amazon-nations-carbon-emissions
#6
Oliver L Phillips, Roel J W Brienen
BACKGROUND: Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184238/a-carbon-balance-model-for-the-great-dismal-swamp-ecosystem
#7
Rachel Sleeter, Benjamin M Sleeter, Brianna Williams, Dianna Hogan, Todd Hawbaker, Zhiliang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123447/erratum-to-allometric-models-and-aboveground-biomass-stocks-of-a-west-african-sudan-savannah-watershed-in-benin
#8
Adéyèmi Chabi, Sven Lautenbach, Vincent Oladokoun Agnila Orekan, Nicholas Kyei-Baffour
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13021-016-0058-5.].
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018480/assessing-the-indcs-land-use-land-use-change-and-forest-emission-projections
#9
Nicklas Forsell, Olga Turkovska, Mykola Gusti, Michael Obersteiner, Michel den Elzen, Petr Havlik
BACKGROUND: In preparation for the 2015 international climate negotiations in Paris, Parties submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) expressing each countries' respective post-2020 climate actions. In this paper we assess individual Parties' expected reduction of emissions/removals from land use, land use change, and forest (LULUCF) sector for reaching their INDC target, and the aggregate global effect on the INDCs on the future development of emission and removals from the LULUCF sector...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909461/savanna-burning-methodology-for-fire-management-and-emissions-reduction-a-critical-review-of-influencing-factors
#10
REVIEW
Tek Narayan Maraseni, Kathryn Reardon-Smith, Greg Griffiths, Armando Apan
Savanna fire is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Australia, savanna fire contributes about 3% of annual GHG emissions reportable to the Kyoto Protocol. In order to reduce GHG emissions from savanna burning, the Australian government has developed and approved a Kyoto compliant savanna controlled burning methodology-the first legal instrument of this kind at a global level-under its Emission Reduction Fund. However, this approved methodology is currently only applicable to nine vegetation fuel types across northern parts of Australia in areas which receive on average over 600 mm rainfall annually, covering only 15...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909460/attribution-of-net-carbon-change-by-disturbance-type-across-forest-lands-of-the-conterminous-united-states
#11
N L Harris, S C Hagen, S S Saatchi, T R H Pearson, C W Woodall, G M Domke, B H Braswell, B F Walters, S Brown, W Salas, A Fore, Y Yu
BACKGROUND: Locating terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon (C) will be critical to developing strategies that contribute to the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement. Here we present spatially resolved estimates of net C change across United States (US) forest lands between 2006 and 2010 and attribute them to natural and anthropogenic processes. RESULTS: Forests in the conterminous US sequestered -460 ± 48 Tg C year(-1), while C losses from disturbance averaged 191 ± 10 Tg C year(-1)...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853482/improving-carbon-monitoring-and-reporting-in-forests-using-spatially-explicit-information
#12
Céline Boisvenue, Byron P Smiley, Joanne C White, Werner A Kurz, Michael A Wulder
BACKGROUND: Understanding and quantifying carbon (C) exchanges between the biosphere and the atmosphere-specifically the process of C removal from the atmosphere, and how this process is changing-is the basis for developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change. Monitoring forest systems and reporting on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals are now required components of international efforts aimed at mitigating rising atmospheric GHG. Spatially-explicit information about forests can improve the estimates of GHG emissions and removals...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656245/material-flows-accounting-for-scotland-shows-the-merits-of-a-circular-economy-and-the-folly-of-territorial-carbon-reporting
#13
Kimberley Pratt, Michael Lenaghan, Edward T A Mitchard
BACKGROUND: It is essential that the human race limits the environmental damage created by our consumption. A realistic pathway to limiting consumption would be to transition to a system where materials are conserved and cycled through the economy as many times as possible and as slowly as possible, greatly reducing the greenhouse gas intensive processes of resource extraction, resource processing and waste management. Material flow analysis (MFA) is a method used to understand how materials are consumed within a nation...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635153/modelling-forest-carbon-stock-changes-as-affected-by-harvest-and-natural-disturbances-ii-eu-level-analysis
#14
Roberto Pilli, Giacomo Grassi, Werner A Kurz, Jose V Moris, Raúl Abad Viñas
BACKGROUND: Forests and the forest sector may play an important role in mitigating climate change. The Paris Agreement and the recent legislative proposal to include the land use sector in the EU 2030 climate targets reflect this expectation. However, greater confidence on estimates from national greenhouse gas inventories (GHGI) and more comprehensive analyses of mitigation options are needed to seize this mitigation potential. The aim of this paper is to provide a tool at EU level for verifying the EU GHGI and for simulating specific policy and forest management scenarios...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635152/comparison-of-national-level-biomass-maps-for-conterminous-us-understanding-pattern-and-causes-of-differences
#15
N Neeti, R Kennedy
BACKGROUND: As Earth observation satellite data proliferate, so too do maps derived from them. Even when two co-located maps are produced with low overall error, the spatial distribution of error may not be the same. Increasingly, methods will be needed to understand differences among purportedly similar products. For this study, we have used the four aboveground biomass (AGB) maps for conterminous US generated under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System. We have developed systematic approach to (1) assess both the absolute accuracy of individual maps and assess the spatial patterns of agreement among maps, and (2) investigate potential causes of the spatial structure of agreement among maps to gain insight into reliability of methodological choices in map making...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617029/performance-of-non-parametric-algorithms-for-spatial-mapping-of-tropical-forest-structure
#16
Liang Xu, Sassan S Saatchi, Yan Yang, Yifan Yu, Lee White
BACKGROUND: Mapping tropical forest structure is a critical requirement for accurate estimation of emissions and removals from land use activities. With the availability of a wide range of remote sensing imagery of vegetation characteristics from space, development of finer resolution and more accurate maps has advanced in recent years. However, the mapping accuracy relies heavily on the quality of input layers, the algorithm chosen, and the size and quality of inventory samples for calibration and validation...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617028/shade-tree-diversity-and-aboveground-carbon-stocks-in-theobroma-cacao-agroforestry-systems-implications-for-redd-%C3%A2-implementation-in-a-west-african-cacao-landscape
#17
Evans Dawoe, Winston Asante, Emmanuel Acheampong, Paul Bosu
BACKGROUND: The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594897/allometric-models-and-aboveground-biomass-stocks-of-a-west-african-sudan-savannah-watershed-in-benin
#18
Adéyèmi Chabi, Sven Lautenbach, Vincent Oladokoun Agnila Orekan, Nicholas Kyei-Baffour
BACKGROUND: The estimation of forest biomass changes due to land-use change is of significant importance for estimates of the global carbon budget. The accuracy of biomass density maps depends on the availability of reliable allometric models used in combination with data derived from satellites images and forest inventory data. To reduce the uncertainty in estimates of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, better information on allometric equations and the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass stocks in each land use/land cover (LULC) class is needed for the different ecological zones...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525036/a-methodological-framework-to-assess-the-carbon-balance-of-tropical-managed-forests
#19
Camille Piponiot, Antoine Cabon, Laurent Descroix, Aurélie Dourdain, Lucas Mazzei, Benjamin Ouliac, Ervan Rutishauser, Plinio Sist, Bruno Hérault
BACKGROUND: Managed forests are a major component of tropical landscapes. Production forests as designated by national forest services cover up to 400 million ha, i.e. half of the forested area in the humid tropics. Forest management thus plays a major role in the global carbon budget, but with a lack of unified method to estimate carbon fluxes from tropical managed forests. In this study we propose a new time- and spatially-explicit methodology to estimate the above-ground carbon budget of selective logging at regional scale...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429643/indirect-approach-for-estimation-of-forest-degradation-in-non-intact-dry-forest-modelling-biomass-loss-with-tweedie-distributions
#20
Klaus Dons, Sushma Bhattarai, Henrik Meilby, Carsten Smith-Hall, Toke Emil Panduro
BACKGROUND: Implementation of REDD+ requires measurement and monitoring of carbon emissions from forest degradation in developing countries. Dry forests cover about 40 % of the total tropical forest area, are home to large populations, and hence often display high disturbance levels. They are susceptible to gradual but persistent degradation and monitoring needs to be low cost due to the low potential benefit from carbon accumulation per unit area. Indirect remote sensing approaches may provide estimates of subsistence wood extraction, but sampling of biomass loss produces zero-inflated continuous data that challenges conventional statistical approaches...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
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