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Carbon Balance and Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909461/savanna-burning-methodology-for-fire-management-and-emissions-reduction-a-critical-review-of-influencing-factors
#1
REVIEW
Tek Narayan Maraseni, Kathryn Reardon-Smith, Greg Griffiths, Armando Apan
Savanna fire is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Australia, savanna fire contributes about 3% of annual GHG emissions reportable to the Kyoto Protocol. In order to reduce GHG emissions from savanna burning, the Australian government has developed and approved a Kyoto compliant savanna controlled burning methodology-the first legal instrument of this kind at a global level-under its Emission Reduction Fund. However, this approved methodology is currently only applicable to nine vegetation fuel types across northern parts of Australia in areas which receive on average over 600 mm rainfall annually, covering only 15...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909460/attribution-of-net-carbon-change-by-disturbance-type-across-forest-lands-of-the-conterminous-united-states
#2
N L Harris, S C Hagen, S S Saatchi, T R H Pearson, C W Woodall, G M Domke, B H Braswell, B F Walters, S Brown, W Salas, A Fore, Y Yu
BACKGROUND: Locating terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon (C) will be critical to developing strategies that contribute to the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement. Here we present spatially resolved estimates of net C change across United States (US) forest lands between 2006 and 2010 and attribute them to natural and anthropogenic processes. RESULTS: Forests in the conterminous US sequestered -460 ± 48 Tg C year(-1), while C losses from disturbance averaged 191 ± 10 Tg C year(-1)...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853482/improving-carbon-monitoring-and-reporting-in-forests-using-spatially-explicit-information
#3
Céline Boisvenue, Byron P Smiley, Joanne C White, Werner A Kurz, Michael A Wulder
BACKGROUND: Understanding and quantifying carbon (C) exchanges between the biosphere and the atmosphere-specifically the process of C removal from the atmosphere, and how this process is changing-is the basis for developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change. Monitoring forest systems and reporting on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals are now required components of international efforts aimed at mitigating rising atmospheric GHG. Spatially-explicit information about forests can improve the estimates of GHG emissions and removals...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656245/material-flows-accounting-for-scotland-shows-the-merits-of-a-circular-economy-and-the-folly-of-territorial-carbon-reporting
#4
Kimberley Pratt, Michael Lenaghan, Edward T A Mitchard
BACKGROUND: It is essential that the human race limits the environmental damage created by our consumption. A realistic pathway to limiting consumption would be to transition to a system where materials are conserved and cycled through the economy as many times as possible and as slowly as possible, greatly reducing the greenhouse gas intensive processes of resource extraction, resource processing and waste management. Material flow analysis (MFA) is a method used to understand how materials are consumed within a nation...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635153/modelling-forest-carbon-stock-changes-as-affected-by-harvest-and-natural-disturbances-ii-eu-level-analysis
#5
Roberto Pilli, Giacomo Grassi, Werner A Kurz, Jose V Moris, Raúl Abad Viñas
BACKGROUND: Forests and the forest sector may play an important role in mitigating climate change. The Paris Agreement and the recent legislative proposal to include the land use sector in the EU 2030 climate targets reflect this expectation. However, greater confidence on estimates from national greenhouse gas inventories (GHGI) and more comprehensive analyses of mitigation options are needed to seize this mitigation potential. The aim of this paper is to provide a tool at EU level for verifying the EU GHGI and for simulating specific policy and forest management scenarios...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635152/comparison-of-national-level-biomass-maps-for-conterminous-us-understanding-pattern-and-causes-of-differences
#6
N Neeti, R Kennedy
BACKGROUND: As Earth observation satellite data proliferate, so too do maps derived from them. Even when two co-located maps are produced with low overall error, the spatial distribution of error may not be the same. Increasingly, methods will be needed to understand differences among purportedly similar products. For this study, we have used the four aboveground biomass (AGB) maps for conterminous US generated under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System. We have developed systematic approach to (1) assess both the absolute accuracy of individual maps and assess the spatial patterns of agreement among maps, and (2) investigate potential causes of the spatial structure of agreement among maps to gain insight into reliability of methodological choices in map making...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617029/performance-of-non-parametric-algorithms-for-spatial-mapping-of-tropical-forest-structure
#7
Liang Xu, Sassan S Saatchi, Yan Yang, Yifan Yu, Lee White
BACKGROUND: Mapping tropical forest structure is a critical requirement for accurate estimation of emissions and removals from land use activities. With the availability of a wide range of remote sensing imagery of vegetation characteristics from space, development of finer resolution and more accurate maps has advanced in recent years. However, the mapping accuracy relies heavily on the quality of input layers, the algorithm chosen, and the size and quality of inventory samples for calibration and validation...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617028/shade-tree-diversity-and-aboveground-carbon-stocks-in-theobroma-cacao-agroforestry-systems-implications-for-redd-%C3%A2-implementation-in-a-west-african-cacao-landscape
#8
Evans Dawoe, Winston Asante, Emmanuel Acheampong, Paul Bosu
BACKGROUND: The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594897/allometric-models-and-aboveground-biomass-stocks-of-a-west-african-sudan-savannah-watershed-in-benin
#9
Adéyèmi Chabi, Sven Lautenbach, Vincent Oladokoun Agnila Orekan, Nicholas Kyei-Baffour
BACKGROUND: The estimation of forest biomass changes due to land-use change is of significant importance for estimates of the global carbon budget. The accuracy of biomass density maps depends on the availability of reliable allometric models used in combination with data derived from satellites images and forest inventory data. To reduce the uncertainty in estimates of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, better information on allometric equations and the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass stocks in each land use/land cover (LULC) class is needed for the different ecological zones...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525036/a-methodological-framework-to-assess-the-carbon-balance-of-tropical-managed-forests
#10
Camille Piponiot, Antoine Cabon, Laurent Descroix, Aurélie Dourdain, Lucas Mazzei, Benjamin Ouliac, Ervan Rutishauser, Plinio Sist, Bruno Hérault
BACKGROUND: Managed forests are a major component of tropical landscapes. Production forests as designated by national forest services cover up to 400 million ha, i.e. half of the forested area in the humid tropics. Forest management thus plays a major role in the global carbon budget, but with a lack of unified method to estimate carbon fluxes from tropical managed forests. In this study we propose a new time- and spatially-explicit methodology to estimate the above-ground carbon budget of selective logging at regional scale...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429643/indirect-approach-for-estimation-of-forest-degradation-in-non-intact-dry-forest-modelling-biomass-loss-with-tweedie-distributions
#11
Klaus Dons, Sushma Bhattarai, Henrik Meilby, Carsten Smith-Hall, Toke Emil Panduro
BACKGROUND: Implementation of REDD+ requires measurement and monitoring of carbon emissions from forest degradation in developing countries. Dry forests cover about 40 % of the total tropical forest area, are home to large populations, and hence often display high disturbance levels. They are susceptible to gradual but persistent degradation and monitoring needs to be low cost due to the low potential benefit from carbon accumulation per unit area. Indirect remote sensing approaches may provide estimates of subsistence wood extraction, but sampling of biomass loss produces zero-inflated continuous data that challenges conventional statistical approaches...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418944/mapping-and-estimating-the-total-living-biomass-and-carbon-in-low-biomass-woodlands-using-landsat-8-cdr-data
#12
Belachew Gizachew, Svein Solberg, Erik Næsset, Terje Gobakken, Ole Martin Bollandsås, Johannes Breidenbach, Eliakimu Zahabu, Ernest William Mauya
BACKGROUND: A functional forest carbon measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) system to support climate change mitigation policies, such as REDD+, requires estimates of forest biomass carbon, as an input to estimate emissions. A combination of field inventory and remote sensing is expected to provide those data. By linking Landsat 8 and forest inventory data, we (1) developed linear mixed effects models for total living biomass (TLB) estimation as a function of spectral variables, (2) developed a 30 m resolution map of the total living carbon (TLC), and (3) estimated the total TLB stock of the study area...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398091/comparison-of-calculation-methods-for-estimating-annual-carbon-stock-change-in-german-forests-under-forest-management-in-the-german-greenhouse-gas-inventory
#13
Steffi Röhling, Karsten Dunger, Gerald Kändler, Susann Klatt, Thomas Riedel, Wolfgang Stümer, Johannes Brötz
BACKGROUND: The German greenhouse gas inventory in the land use change sector strongly depends on national forest inventory data. As these data were collected periodically 1987, 2002, 2008 and 2012, the time series on emissions show several "jumps" due to biomass stock change, especially between 2001 and 2002 and between 2007 and 2008 while within the periods the emissions seem to be constant due to the application of periodical average emission factors. This does not reflect inter-annual variability in the time series, which would be assumed as the drivers for the carbon stock changes fluctuate between the years...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398090/using-fragmentation-to-assess-degradation-of-forest-edges-in-democratic-republic-of-congo
#14
Aurélie C Shapiro, Naikoa Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Patrick Hostert, Jean-François Bastin
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that fragmentation is an increasing threat to global forests, which has major impacts on biodiversity and the important ecosystem services provided by forested landscapes. Several tools have been developed to evaluate global patterns of fragmentation, which have potential applications for REDD+. We study how canopy height and above ground biomass (AGB) change across several categories of forest edges determined by fragmentation analysis. We use Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as an example...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375771/estimating-carbon-sequestration-in-the-piedmont-ecoregion-of-the-united-states-from-1971-to-2010
#15
Jinxun Liu, Benjamin M Sleeter, Zhiliang Zhu, Linda S Heath, Zhengxi Tan, Tamara S Wilson, Jason Sherba, Decheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Human activities have diverse and profound impacts on ecosystem carbon cycles. The Piedmont ecoregion in the eastern United States has undergone significant land use and land cover change in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to use newly available land use and land cover change data to quantify carbon changes within the ecoregion. Land use and land cover change data (60-m spatial resolution) derived from sequential remotely sensed Landsat imagery were used to generate 960-m resolution land cover change maps for the Piedmont ecoregion...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340428/carbon-storage-in-ghanaian-cocoa-ecosystems
#16
Askia M Mohammed, James S Robinson, David Midmore, Anne Verhoef
BACKGROUND: The recent inclusion of the cocoa sector as an option for carbon storage necessitates the need to quantify the C stocks in cocoa systems of Ghana. RESULTS: Using farmers' fields, the carbon (C) stocks in shaded and unshaded cocoa systems selected from the Eastern (ER) and Western (WR) regions of Ghana were measured. Total ecosystem C (biomass C + soil C to 60 cm depth) ranged from 81.8 to 153.9 Mg C/ha. The bulk (~89 %) of the systems' C stock was stored in the soils...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340427/modelling-forest-carbon-stock-changes-as-affected-by-harvest-and-natural-disturbances-i-comparison-with-countries-estimates-for-forest-management
#17
Roberto Pilli, Giacomo Grassi, Werner A Kurz, Raúl Abad Viñas, Nuria Hue Guerrero
BACKGROUND: According to the post-2012 rules under the Kyoto protocol, developed countries that are signatories to the protocol have to estimate and report the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals from forest management (FM), with the option to exclude the emissions associated to natural disturbances, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. To increase confidence in GHG estimates, the IPCC recommends performing verification activities, i.e. comparing country data with independent estimates...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340426/harvested-wood-products-and-redd-looking-beyond-the-forest-border
#18
Tunggul Butarbutar, Michael Köhl, Prem Raj Neupane
BACKGROUND: The focus of REDD+ is sensu stricto on maintaining forest carbon stocks. We extend the scope of sustainable management of forest from forests to timber utilization, and study carbon offsets resulting from the utilization of harvested timber for bio energy or harvested wood products (HWPs). The emission budget of harvesting operations depends on the loss of standing biomass by timber extracted from the forest site and logging losses on the one side, and on the other on the wood end use and the utilization of processing residues...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335582/spatially-explicit-analysis-of-field-inventories-for-national-forest-carbon-monitoring
#19
David C Marvin, Gregory P Asner
BACKGROUND: Tropical forests provide a crucial carbon sink for a sizable portion of annual global CO2 emissions. Policies that incentivize tropical forest conservation by monetizing forest carbon ultimately depend on accurate estimates of national carbon stocks, which are often based on field inventory sampling. As an exercise to understand the limitations of field inventory sampling, we tested whether two common field-plot sampling approaches could accurately estimate carbon stocks across approximately 76 million ha of Perúvian forests...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330549/evaluation-of-modelled-net-primary-production-using-modis-and-landsat-satellite-data-fusion
#20
Steven Jay, Christopher Potter, Robert Crabtree, Vanessa Genovese, Daniel J Weiss, Maggi Kraft
BACKGROUND: To improve estimates of net primary production for terrestrial ecosystems of the continental United States, we evaluated a new image fusion technique to incorporate high resolution Landsat land cover data into a modified version of the CASA ecosystem model. The proportion of each Landsat land cover type within each 0.004 degree resolution CASA pixel was used to influence the ecosystem model result by a pure-pixel interpolation method. RESULTS: Seventeen Ameriflux tower flux records spread across the country were combined to evaluate monthly NPP estimates from the modified CASA model...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
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