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Carbon Balance and Management

Camille Dezécache, Jean-Michel Salles, Bruno Hérault
BACKGROUND: REDD+ is being questioned by the particular status of High Forest/Low Deforestation countries. Indeed, the formulation of reference levels is made difficult by the confrontation of low historical deforestation records with the forest transition theory on the one hand. On the other hand, those countries might formulate incredibly high deforestation scenarios to ensure large payments even in case of inaction. RESULTS: Using a wide range of scenarios within the Guiana Shield, from methods involving basic assumptions made from past deforestation, to explicit modelling of deforestation using relevant socio-economic variables at the regional scale, we show that the most common methodologies predict huge increases in deforestation, unlikely to happen given the existing socio-economic situation...
October 30, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Carlos Roberto Sanquetta, Ana Paula Dalla Corte, Allan Libanio Pelissari, Margarida Tomé, Greyce Charllyne Benedet Maas, Mateus Niroh Inoue Sanquetta
BACKGROUND: We analyzed the dynamics of carbon (C) stocks and CO2 removals by Brazilian forest plantations over the period 1990-2016. Data on the extent of forests compiled from various sources were used in the calculations. Productivities were simulated using species-specific growth and yield simulators for the main trees species planted in the country. Biomass expansion factors, root-to-shoot ratios, wood densities, and carbon fractions compiled from literature were applied. C stocks in necromass (deadwood and litter) and harvested wood products (HWP) were also included in the calculations...
October 22, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Hamdan Omar, Muhamad Afizzul Misman
BACKGROUND: Malaysia typically suffers from frequent cloud cover, hindering spatially consistent reporting of deforestation and forest degradation, which limits the accurate reporting of carbon loss and CO2 emissions for reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) intervention. This study proposed an approach for accurate and consistent measurements of biomass carbon and CO2 emissions using a single L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor system. A time-series analysis of aboveground biomass (AGB) using the PALSAR and PALSAR-2 systems addressed a number of critical questions that have not been previously answered...
October 19, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Eric J M M Arets, Mart-Jan Schelhaas
BACKGROUND: In June 2018, the European Parliament and Council of the European Union adopted a legislative regulation for incorporating greenhouse gas emissions and removals from Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (EU-LULUCF) under its 2030 Climate and Energy Framework. The LULUCF regulation aim to incentivise EU Member States to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and increase removals in the LULUCF sector. The regulation, however, does not set a target for increasing the LULUCF carbon sink, but rather includes a 'no net debit' target for LULUCF (Forests and Agricultural soils)...
October 16, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Meghan Pawlowski, Manyowa N Meki, James R Kiniry, Susan E Crow
BACKGROUND: The environmental costs of fossil fuel consumption are globally recognized, opening many pathways for the development of regional portfolio solutions for sustainable replacement fuel and energy options. The purpose of this study was to create a baseline carbon (C) budget of a conventionally managed sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) production system on Maui, Hawaii, and compare it to three different future energy cropping scenarios: (1) conventional sugarcane with a 50% deficit irrigation (sugarcane 50%), (2) ratoon harvested napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach...
September 24, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
K L Webster, J S Bhatti, D K Thompson, S A Nelson, C H Shaw, K A Bona, S L Hayne, W A Kurz
BACKGROUND: Peatlands are an important component of Canada's landscape, however there is little information on their national-scale net emissions of carbon dioxide [Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE)] and methane (CH4 ). This study compiled results for peatland NEE and CH4 emissions from chamber and eddy covariance studies across Canada. The data were summarized by bog, poor fen and rich-intermediate fen categories for the seven major peatland containing terrestrial ecozones (Atlantic Maritime, Mixedwood Plains, Boreal Shield, Boreal Plains, Hudson Plains, Taiga Shield, Taiga Plains) that comprise > 96% of all peatlands nationally...
September 20, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
David M Bell, Matthew J Gregory, Van Kane, Jonathan Kane, Robert E Kennedy, Heather M Roberts, Zhiqiang Yang
BACKGROUND: Satellite-based aboveground forest biomass maps commonly form the basis of forest biomass and carbon stock mapping and monitoring, but biomass maps likely vary in performance by region and as a function of spatial scale of aggregation. Assessing such variability is not possible with spatially-sparse vegetation plot networks. In the current study, our objective was to determine whether high-resolution lidar-based and moderate-resolution Landsat-base aboveground live forest biomass maps converged on similar predictions at stand- to landscape-levels (10 s to 100 s ha) and whether such differences depended on biophysical setting...
September 14, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Negasi Solomon, Opoku Pabi, Ted Annang, Isaac K Asante, Emiru Birhane
BACKGROUND: Forests play an important role in mitigating global climate change by capturing and sequestering atmospheric carbon. Quantitative estimation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon storage in forest ecosystems is critical for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. This study explored the effects of land cover change on carbon stock dynamics in the Wujig Mahgo Waren forest, a dry Afromontane forest that covers an area of 17,000 ha in northern Ethiopia...
September 6, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
C E Smyth, B P Smiley, M Magnan, R Birdsey, A J Dugan, M Olguin, V S Mascorro, W A Kurz
BACKGROUND: We determine the potential of forests and the forest sector to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by changes in management practices and wood use for two regions within Canada's managed forest from 2018 to 2050. Our modeling frameworks include the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector, a framework for harvested wood products that estimates emissions based on product half-life decay times, and an account of marginal emission substitution benefits from the changes in use of wood products and bioenergy...
September 6, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Alexa J Dugan, Richard Birdsey, Vanessa S Mascorro, Michael Magnan, Carolyn E Smyth, Marcela Olguin, Werner A Kurz
BACKGROUND: United States forests can contribute to national strategies for greenhouse gas reductions. The objective of this work was to evaluate forest sector climate change mitigation scenarios from 2018 to 2050 by applying a systems-based approach that accounts for net emissions across four interdependent components: (1) forest ecosystem, (2) land-use change, (3) harvested wood products, and (4) substitution benefits from using wood products and bioenergy. We assessed a range of land management and harvested wood product scenarios for two case studies in the U...
September 4, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Cristina-Maria Iordan, Xiangping Hu, Anders Arvesen, Pekka Kauppi, Francesco Cherubini
BACKGROUND: Forests and forest products can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation by stabilizing and even potentially decreasing the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the atmosphere. Harvested wood products (HWP) represent a common widespread and cost-efficient opportunity for negative emissions. After harvest, a significant fraction of the wood remains stored in HWPs for a period that can vary from some months to many decades, whereas atmospheric carbon (C) is immediately sequestered by vegetation re-growth...
September 4, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Phil Wilkes, Mathias Disney, Matheus Boni Vicari, Kim Calders, Andrew Burt
BACKGROUND: Urban trees have long been valued for providing ecosystem services (mitigation of the "heat island" effect, suppression of air pollution, etc.); more recently the potential of urban forests to store significant above ground biomass (AGB) has also be recognised. However, urban areas pose particular challenges when assessing AGB due to plasticity of tree form, high species diversity as well as heterogeneous and complex land cover. Remote sensing, in particular light detection and ranging (LiDAR), provide a unique opportunity to assess urban AGB by directly measuring tree structure...
June 26, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Stephen M Ogle, Grant Domke, Werner A Kurz, Marcelo T Rocha, Ted Huffman, Amy Swan, James E Smith, Christopher Woodall, Thelma Krug
Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Governments report all emissions and removals from managed land to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change based on this proxy, and policy interventions to reduce emissions from land use are expected to focus on managed lands...
May 29, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Giacomo Grassi, Roberto Pilli, Jo House, Sandro Federici, Werner A Kurz
BACKGROUND: The credibility and effectiveness of country climate targets under the Paris Agreement requires that, in all greenhouse gas (GHG) sectors, the accounted mitigation outcomes reflect genuine deviations from the type and magnitude of activities generating emissions in the base year or baseline. This is challenging for the forestry sector, as the future net emissions can change irrespective of actual management activities, because of age-related stand dynamics resulting from past management and natural disturbances...
May 17, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
M Schwieder, P J Leitão, J R R Pinto, A M C Teixeira, F Pedroni, M Sanchez, M M Bustamante, P Hostert
BACKGROUND: The quantification and spatially explicit mapping of carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems is important to better understand the global carbon cycle and to monitor and report change processes, especially in the context of international policy mechanisms such as REDD+ or the implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Especially in heterogeneous ecosystems, such as Savannas, accurate carbon quantifications are still lacking, where highly variable vegetation densities occur and a strong seasonality hinders consistent data acquisition...
May 15, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Eunji Byun, Sarah A Finkelstein, Sharon A Cowling, Pascal Badiou
BACKGROUND: Natural wetlands can mitigate ongoing increases in atmospheric carbon by storing any net balance of organic carbon (peat) between plant production (carbon uptake) and microbial decomposition (carbon release). Efforts are ongoing to quantify peat carbon stored in global wetlands, with considerable focus given to boreal/subarctic peatlands and tropical peat swamps. Many wetlands in temperate latitudes have been transformed to anthropogenic landscapes, making it difficult to investigate their natural/historic carbon balance...
April 20, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Mikhail Urbazaev, Christian Thiel, Felix Cremer, Ralph Dubayah, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Christiane Schmullius
BACKGROUND: Information on the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) over large areas is needed for understanding and managing processes involved in the carbon cycle and supporting international policies for climate change mitigation and adaption. Furthermore, these products provide important baseline data for the development of sustainable management strategies to local stakeholders. The use of remote sensing data can provide spatially explicit information of AGB from local to global scales...
February 21, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Bernice M Sainepo, Charles K Gachene, Anne Karuma
BACKGROUND: The changes in land use and land cover have a strong effect on the total soil organic carbon, its fractions and its overall soil health. This study carried out in Olesharo Catchment, Kenya, was to quantify the differences in total organic carbon (TOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), mineral organic carbon (MOC) and carbon management index (CMI) among four land use types: grasslands, shrublands, agricultural lands and barelands. It was also purported to evaluate the use of CMI as an indicator for soil degradation or improvement in response to land use and land cover changes...
February 12, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Catherine M Yule, Yau Yan Lim, Tse Yuen Lim
BACKGROUND: Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration...
February 7, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Christopher Potter
BACKGROUND: In the summer of 2015, hundreds of wildfires burned across the state of Alaska, and consumed more than 1.6 million ha of boreal forest and wetlands in the Yukon-Koyukuk region. Mapping of 113 large wildfires using Landsat satellite images from before and after 2015 indicated that nearly 60% of this area was burned at moderate-to-high severity levels. Field measurements near the town of Tanana on the Yukon River were carried out in July of 2017 in both unburned and 2015 burned forested areas (nearly adjacent to one-another) to visually verify locations of different Landsat burn severity classes (low, moderate, or high; LBS, MBS, HBS)...
January 8, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
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