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Expert Review of Clinical Immunology

Ladislav Šenolt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Justin Greiwe, Jonathan A Bernstein
Chronic urticaria affects up to 1-3% of the general population and contributes to significant direct and indirect medical costs as well as decreased quality of life, which has a significant economic impact on our health care system. Areas Covered: Given the prevalence of this condition on a large sector of the population, finding lasting relief for refractory cases is essential and is the focus of this review. Expert Commentary: The choice of appropriate therapy in chronic refractory urticaria is not a "one-size fits all" approach...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Daniela Pugliese, Carla Felice, Alfredo Papa, Antonio Gasbarrini, Gian Lodovico Rapaccini, Luisa Guidi, Alessandro Armuzzi
Anti TNF-α agents have become a significant advance in the management of ulcerative colitis, proving to induce, with rapid onset, clinical and endoscopic remission. However, there is still a considerable unmet medical need in ulcerative colitis. Areas covered: The aim of this review was to summarize the patterns of use and the effectiveness of anti TNF-α in ulcerative colitis, highlighting their current position in treatment algorithms. Moreover, we set out a five-year view hypothesizing different treatment strategies...
October 14, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
M Galluzzo, S D'Adamio, L Bianchi, M Talamonti
Psoriasis is a complex disease in which the alteration of the IL-23/Th17 axis appears to be crucial for its pathogenic mechanisms, and anti-IL17 agents are rapidly becoming important therapeutic tools. Brodalumab, a fully human Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) anti-IL-17RA monoclonal antibody, is currently the most-developed treatment that binds to the IL-17RA. The authors review and provide updates of efficacy and safety by several studies on brodalumab. Areas covered: A PubMed search was performed for relevant literature...
October 10, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Maureen C Turina, Robert Landewé, Dominique Baeten
Early diagnosis, monitoring of disease activity, prediction of treatment response, and structural outcome remain major challenges in spondyloarthritis (SpA). Biomarkers could play a role in addressing these challenges, but in SpA there is a lack of suitable biomarkers. Areas covered: As SpA is clinically and pathophysiologically closely related to psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we reviewed in literature, the value of serum biomarkers in these conditions with the aim to find potential candidates for assessing SpA...
October 5, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Franceso Zulian, Marta Balzarin, Carolina Birolo
Juvenile Systemic Sclerosis (JSSc) is one of the most severe multi-systemic connective tissue conditions encountered in pediatric rheumatology. Due to its high morbidity and mortality rate, early diagnosis, proper assessment and effective treatment are crucial. Areas covered: In this review, we will focus on the recent advances on the classification and general management of JSSc based on the literature search and on the Authors' experience. Expert Commentary: Classification criteria for the pediatric forms of systemic sclerosis, the new proposed assessment tools, such as the juvenile systemic sclerosis severity score, named J4S, and new techniques for the internal organs assessment, will facilitate both daily practice and research projects...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Wang Sin Gina Tan, Stephen Kelly, Constantino Pitzalis
Biologic therapy has revolutionized treatment pathways in psoriatic joint and skin disease. It has also provided a useful tool with which pathological pathways of this condition may be explored. Areas Covered: This review presents data on the clinical and biological effects of targeted therapy in psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis. Therapeutic agents covered include inhibitors of TNFα, inhibitors of the IL-23/IL-17 axis and inhibitors of intracellular small molecules involved in the transduction of the inflammatory signal...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Fleurieke Verhagen, Jonas Kuiper, Stefan Nierkens, S M Imhof, Timothy Radstake, Joke de Boer
OBJECTIVE: In this report we describe, for the first time, the activation of the peripheral immune compartment in a patient with a CRB1 linked retinal degenerative disease, masquerading as intermediate uveitis. METHODS: To monitor the immune system during systemic immunosuppressive treatment, given for the initial diagnosis of intermediate uveitis, blood samples were taken before and during therapy, for analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell-subsets and circulating immune mediators...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Michael A Goodman, Donya Moradi Manesh, Punam Malik, Marc E Rothenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Santiago Quirce, Paloma Campo, Javier Domínguez-Ortega, Mar Fernández-Nieto, Elisa Gómez-Torrijos, Ana Martínez-Arcediano, Pilar Mur, Julio Delgado
INTRODUCTION: Work-related asthma includes two subtypes: occupational asthma or asthma caused by specific agents (sensitizers or irritants) in the workplace, and work-exacerbated asthma or pre-existing asthma worsened by workplace exposures. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an update on the definitions and the clinical features of the different work-related asthma subtypes as well as new insights into their etiology and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved...
September 21, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Abolhassani, Mohammad Hosein Asgardoon, Tina Alinia, Reza Yazdani, Javad Mohammadi, Nima Rezaei, Hans D Ochs, Asghar Aghamohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a large heterogeneous group of patients with primary antibody deficiency. AREAS COVERED: The affected patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and low levels of serum immunoglobulin. However, enteropathy, granulomatous organ infiltrates, malignancy, inflammatory and autoimmune conditions are also prevalent. The concomitance of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity appears to be paradoxical and creates difficulties in the management of autoimmune complications affecting these patients...
September 16, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Pascal Demoly, Yoshitaka Okamoto, William H Yang, Philippe Devillier, Karl-Christian Bergmann
INTRODUCTION: The once-daily 300 index of reactivity (IR) house dust mite (HDM) tablet (Actair®; Stallergenes Greer, Antony, France/Shionogi & Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan) is the first sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet to be approved for the treatment of HDM-induced allergic rhinitis. AREAS COVERED: This drug profile reviews the current body of evidence on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the 300 IR HDM tablet, its pharmacodynamics, and its role in clinical practice...
September 15, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
John D Carter, Alan P Hudson
INTRODUCTION: Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an inflammatory disease that can follow gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. The primary etiologic agent for post-venereal ReA is the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis; its relative, C pneumoniae, has also been implicated in disease induction although to a lesser degree. Studies have indicated that the arthritis is elicited by chlamydiae infecting synovial tissue in an unusual biologic state designated persistence. We review clinical aspects, host-pathogen interactions, and treatments for the disease...
September 14, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Artem Vorobyev, Ralf J Ludwig, Enno Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a rare autoimmune blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes. EBA is caused by autoantibodies against type VII collagen, which is a major component of anchoring fibrils, attaching epidermis to dermis. Binding of autoantibodies to type VII collagen leads to skin fragility and, finally, blister formation. The clinical picture of EBA is polymorphic, with several distinct phenotypes being described. Despite recent progress in understanding the pathophysiology of EBA, its diagnosis is still challenging...
September 8, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Alan P Knutsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Brian P Vickery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Shreya Agarwal, Devendra K Agrawal
INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis that predominantly occurs in children below five years of age. Its etiopathogenesis is still not clear, but it is thought to be a complex interplay of genetic factors, infections and immunity. AREAS COVERED: This review article discusses in detail Kawasaki disease, with particular emphasis on the recent updates on its pathogenesis and upcoming alternate treatment options. Though self-limiting in many cases, it can lead to severe complications like coronary artery aneurysms and thrombo-embolic occlusions, and hence requires early diagnosis and urgent attention to avoid them...
September 2, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
John Berry, Timothy Vreeland, Alfred Trappey, Diane Hale, Kaitlin Peace, Joshua Tyler, Avery Walker, Ramon Brown, Garth Herbert, Fi Yi, Doreen Jackson, Guy Clifton, George E Peoples
INTRODUCTION: Great advances have been made in screening for and treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), but recurrence rates remain high and additional therapies are needed. There is great excitement around the field of immunotherapy and many attempts have been made to bring immunotherapy to CRC through a cancer vaccine. AREAS COVERED: This is a detailed review of the last decade's significant CRC vaccine trials. Expert Commentary: Monotherapy with a CRC vaccine is likely best suited for adjuvant therapy in disease free patients...
August 24, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Andreas A Hombach, Hinrich Abken
INTRODUCTION: Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells redirected towards CD19 produces remissions of B cell malignancies, however, it also eradicates healthy B cells sharing the target antigen. Such 'on-target off-tumor' toxicity raises serious safety concerns when the target antigen is also expressed by tissue stem cells, with the risk of lasting tissue destruction. AREAS COVERED: We discuss CAR T cell targeting of activation antigens versus lineage associated antigens on the basis of recent experimental and animal data and the literature in the field...
August 22, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Sergio E Chiarella, Leslie C Grammer
INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent disease with a high annual cost of treatment. Immune deficiencies are more common in individuals with CRS and should be especially considered in those patients who are refractory to medical and surgical therapy. AREAS COVERED: We performed a literature search in PubMed of the terms "immunodeficiency" and "sinusitis" or "rhinosinusitis" from 2006 through March 2016. All abstracts were reviewed to determine if they pertained to human disease; relevant articles were evaluated in their entirety and included in this review...
August 18, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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