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Expert Review of Clinical Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633546/identification-of-specific-antibodies-against-the-ag85c-mpt51-hspx-fusion-protein-cmx-for-serological-screening-of-tuberculosis-in-endemic-area
#1
Adrielle Zagmignan, Adeliane Castro da Costa, José Lima Viana, Lídio Gonçalves Lima Neto, Cristina de Andrade Monteiro, Ariosvaldo Guimarães Gaioso Neto, Ana Paula Junqueira Kipnis, Eduardo M de Sousa
OBJECTIVES: Development of new tools for rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is considered a strategy for controlling the disease. The recombinant CMX fusion protein is composed of immunodominant epitopes of the Ag85C (Rv0129c), MPT51 (Rv3803c) and the entire HspX (Rv2031c) proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb). The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a test using the CMX protein in individuals suspected of TB. METHODS: Indirect ELISA was used to measure serum anti-CMX IgM and IgG in individuals with pulmonary TB...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617055/new-treatment-strategies-for-ulcerative-colitis
#2
Julian Panés, Ignacio Alfaro
Therapeutic strategies in ulcerative colitis are evolving. A personalized and optimal use of available drugs and the integration of new drug classes are the cornerstones underpinning the new treatment paradigms. Areas covered: A structured literature search in Medline and PubMed, Cochrane meta-analyses, and abstracts of international congresses has been performed to review therapeutic approaches to ulcerative colitis. The primary therapeutic objective of therapy is to achieve clinical remission since persistence of active disease, even if mild, leads to a significant reduction in quality of life...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532268/allergen-immunotherapy-in-allergic-rhinitis-current-use-and-future-trends
#3
Ludger Klimek, Oliver Pfaar, Jean Bousquet, Gabriela Senti, Thomas Kündig
Type-1 allergies are among the most chronic common diseases of humans. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causative and disease-modifying treatment option besides allergen avoidance. Severe systemic adverse allergic reactions may be induced by every AIT treatment. Different approaches have been used to provide safer AIT preparations to lower or even totally overcome this risk. Areas covered: A structured literature recherche in Medline and Pubmed under inclusion of national and international guidelines and Cochrane meta-analyses has been performed aiming at reviewing clinical use of such approaches in AIT...
June 15, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562113/anaphylaxis-epidemiology-aetiology-and-relevance-for-the-clinic
#4
Sangeeta Dhami, Aziz Sheikh
Anaphylaxis is responsible for considerable morbidity and may in some cases prove fatal. Areas covered: This review summarises the findings from recent studies on the epidemiology and aetiology of anaphylaxis and draws on the insights from this work and recent international guidelines to consider the implications for clinical care. Acute management of anaphylaxis is centred on early recognition, treatment with adrenaline (epinephrine) and other essential life-support measures. The importance of longer-term care of patients with a history of or at risk of anaphylaxis are also considered with a view to minimising the risk of further reactions...
June 7, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540751/treatment-of-adult-onset-still-s-disease-up-to-date
#5
Dae Hyun Yoo
Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, and approximately 60-70% of patients may develop a chronic polyphasic form of the disease or a chronic polyarthritis. Due to rarity of disease, treatment of AOSD is not based on controlled study, but on case based experiences. Areas covered: Recently, the application of anti-cytokine therapy based on pathophysiology has resulted in significant progress in the treatment of AOSD. Here, we review current knowledge of the pathogenesis, disease progression, currently available biomarkers of disease activity, standard therapeutic agents, utility of biologic agents, future perspectives for treatment and treatment of macrophage activation syndrome...
June 5, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471690/the-evolving-concept-of-sle-comorbidities
#6
Luis Alonso González, Graciela S Alarcón
The survival of SLE patients has improved significantly over the past few decades placing them at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), malignancies, and osteoporosis, among other comorbidities. The aim of this review was to assess the incidence and prevalence of comorbidities in these patients as well as their prevention and treatment focusing in CVD, malignancies and osteoporosis. Areas covered: We focused on CVD, malignancies and osteoporosis as SLE comorbidities. A literature search (PubMed database) was performed using the words 'comorbidities', 'cardiovascular disease', 'osteoporosis', 'malignancy', 'cancer' and 'lupus' between January 1976 and December 2016...
May 22, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480763/diagnostic-approach-to-autoimmune-hepatitis
#7
Paolo Muratori, Marco Lenzi, Fabio Cassani, Claudine Lalanne, Luigi Muratori
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease which, if left without treatment, can evolve into cirrhosis and possibly liver failure. The diagnosis of AIH is hampered by the lack of specific and reliable markers of the disease and a number of clinical, biochemical, immunological, histological and genetic factors should be considered to reach a confident diagnosis Areas covered: Clinical expression of AIH, histological features, serological and genetic profiles, differential diagnosis, overlap with other autoimmune liver diseases, assessed on the basis of personal experience and review of published literature in the last 10 years through a systematic Medline search (keywords: autoimmune hepatitis, diagnosis) Expert commentary: Notwithstanding numerous efforts to identify simple and reliable markers of the disease, the diagnosis of AIH is still based on the combination of histological, immunological and biochemical features and often can represent a real challenge for the hepatologist...
May 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453304/mold-allergy-is-it-real-and-what-do-we-do-about-it
#8
Amanda Rudert, Jay Portnoy
fungi produce substances that contain pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps) and damage-associated molecular patterns (damps) which bind to pattern recognition receptors, stimulating innate immune responses in humans. they also produce allergens that induce production of specific ige. Areas covered: In this review we cover both innate and adaptive immune responses to fungi. Some fungal products can activate both innate and adaptive responses and in doing so, cause an intense and complex health effects...
May 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485176/the-role-of-il-17-in-the-treatment-of-psoriatic-arthritis
#9
Ennio Lubrano, Fabio Massimo Perrotta
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory articular disease characterized by psoriasis, synovitis and enthesitis. Current treatment of PsA is mainly based on the use of classical and biological DMARDs; however, 30-40% of patients could not respond to these or have a loss of response. Areas covered: Recently, the discovery of new pathogenic mechanisms have made possible the development of new drugs that target the IL-17 with the possibility to interfere with the Th17 cells that are considered the cell type mainly involved in the development of the inflammation in PsA...
May 16, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471259/epidemiology-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
Guillermo J Pons-Estel, Manuel F Ugarte-Gil, Graciela S Alarcón
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease distributed worldwide, which occurs in both genders, and across racial/ethnic and age groups; however, higher rates are observed in adults, in women and in non-Caucasians. Genetic, environmental, sociodemographic and methodological issues are responsible not only for these differences but for the variable course and outcome of the disease. Non-Caucasians have a more severe disease with a higher risk for early mortality and damage accrual. Males also have a more severe disease; however, a negative impact of male gender on lupus outcomes has not been firmly established...
May 16, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468517/immuno-epileptology
#11
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463023/when-to-use-belimumab-in-sle
#12
Mariele Gatto, Luca Iaccarino, Margherita Zen, Andrea Doria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443384/biological-and-targeted-therapies-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-evidence-and-the-state-of-the-art
#13
Chi Chiu Mok
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic disease characterized by an unpredictable disease course and periods of remission and flare, leading to organ damage and mortality. Novel biological agents are being developed (targeting the lymphocytes, accessory molecules and cytokines) that aim to enhance the therapeutic efficacy when combined with standard therapies. Areas covered: This article updates recent data on the use of biological and targeted therapies in SLE. Expert commentary: B cells remain the main target of development of novel therapeutics in SLE...
May 5, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425819/early-intervention-in-multiple-sclerosis-how-can-we-maximise-patient-prospects
#14
Thomas Berger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440089/corrigendum
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406324/evolving-paradigm-of-treatment-for-autoimmune-hepatitis
#16
Albert J Czaja
Current medications for autoimmune hepatitis have broad anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions, and their effects are short-lived and inconsistent. The goals of this review were to describe the actions and shortcomings of these medications, indicate the key pathogenic mechanisms that might be targeted by site-directed interventions, and present the pivotal studies supporting development of these alternative agents. Areas covered: Abstracts cited in PubMed from April 1964 to February 2017 were identified using the search words 'treatment of autoimmune hepatitis'...
April 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379047/benralizumab-for-the-treatment-of-asthma
#17
Tara Vinyette Saco, Amber N Pepper, Richard F Lockey
The classification of asthma into phenotypes and endotoypes allows for the use of targeted therapies, including three biologics which target interleukin 5 (IL-5) signaling in eosinophilic asthma. Areas covered: As of December 2016, two monoclonal antibodies, mepolizumab and reslizumab, are approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration and one, benralizumab, is in clinical development. Two phase 3 trials for benralizumab, SIROCCO and CALIMA, were published in September 2016. Although there are no direct comparisons among these three anti-IL-5 therapies, the goal of this review is to summarize the current data and discuss their potential similarities and differences, with a focus on benralizumab...
April 19, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395558/defining-success-in-treating-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
K Theede, J Burisch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347164/inflammatory-biomarkers-for-asthma-endotyping-and-consequent-personalized-therapy
#19
Giorgio Ciprandi, Maria Angela Tosca, Michela Silvestri, Fabio Luigi Massimo Ricciardolo
We argue that asthma be considered a syndrome caused by multiple inflammatory pathogenic processes. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, reversible airflow limitation, and chronic airway inflammation characterize asthma pathophysiology. Personalized Medicine, i.e. a tailored management approach, is appropriate for asthma management and is based on the identification of discrete phenotypes and endotypes. Biomarkers can help define phenotypes and endotypes. Several biomarkers have been described in asthma, but most of them are not commonly available or still need external validation...
April 11, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362189/canakinumab-for-the-treatment-of-familial-mediterranean-fever
#20
Huri Ozdogan, Serdal Ugurlu
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent of all hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes. It is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. If not treated it may be complicated with AA amyloidosis. It is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene that encodes pyrin which is involved in the regulation of IL-1β. The mainstay of treatment is colchicine, however a subset of patients requires an alternative treatment either due to inadequate response or intolerance. The accumulating data indicates that anti IL-1 drugs are effective in treating colchicine resistant FMF cases and improving their quality of life...
April 10, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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