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Expert Review of Clinical Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812393/innate-lymphoid-cells-the-role-in-respiratory-infections-and-lung-tissue-damage
#1
Anna Głobińska, Marek L Kowalski
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a diverse family of cells of the innate immune system, which play an important role in regulation of tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of ILCs in both protective immunity to respiratory infections and their pathological roles in the lungs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge, interpret and integrate it into broader perspective, enabling greater insight into the role of ILCs in respiratory diseases...
August 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800401/lupus-nephritis-and-b-cell-targeting-therapy
#2
Matthias Cassia, Federico Alberici, Maurizio Gallieni, David Jayne
Lupus Nephritis (LN) is a severe manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with a significant prognostic impact. Over a prolonged course, an exhaustion of treatment alternatives may occur and further therapeutic options are needed. B cells play a pivotal role in disease pathogenesis and represent an attractive therapeutic target. Areas covered: This review provides an update regarding targeting B cells in LN. The rational for this approach, as well as currently available and future targets are discussed...
August 18, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795649/immunotherapy-of-cancers-comes-of-age
#3
Hila Yousefi, Jianda Yuan, Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi, Joseph F Murphy, Nima Rezaei
Cancer immunotherapy has evolved and is aimed at generating the efficacious therapeutic modality to enhance the specificity and power of the immune system to combat tumors. Areas covered: Current efforts in cancer immunotherapy fall into three main approaches. One approach is through the blockade of immune checkpoints, another approach is through adoptive cellular therapy, and the last approach is through vaccination. The goal of this review is to summarize the current understanding and status of cancer immunotherapy in these three categories...
August 10, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738749/an-update-on-multiple-sclerosis-in-children-diagnosis-therapies-and-prospects-for-the-future
#4
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Brenda Banwell
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, is increasingly being recognized in children and adolescents. Pediatric MS follows a relapsing-remitting course at onset, with a risk for early cognitive impairment. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the clinical features of acute demyelinating syndromes in children and risk factors that increase the likelihood of a diagnosis of MS. We also address the application of diagnostic criteria for MS in children, immunological features, therapeutic options and psychosocial considerations for children and adolescents with MS...
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749245/advances-in-our-understanding-of-immunization-and-vaccines-for-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Kassem Sharif, Mohammad Adawi, Gali Aljadeff, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease. In SLE, immune system dysfunction is postulated to result by virtue of the disease itself as well as by the impact of treatment modalities employed. A myriad of immune dysregulations occur including complement system dysfunction among others. Infectious agents are known to complicate the disease course in close to 25-45 % of SLE patients. METHODS: In this review a discussion of the immunogenicity and safety of viral and bacterial vaccinations in SLE was performed...
July 27, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633546/identification-of-specific-antibodies-against-the-ag85c-mpt51-hspx-fusion-protein-cmx-for-serological-screening-of-tuberculosis-in-endemic-area
#6
Adrielle Zagmignan, Adeliane Castro da Costa, José Lima Viana, Lídio Gonçalves Lima Neto, Cristina de Andrade Monteiro, Ariosvaldo Guimarães Gaioso Neto, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis, Eduardo Martins de Sousa
OBJECTIVES: Development of new tools for rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is considered a strategy for controlling the disease. The recombinant CMX fusion protein is composed of immunodominant epitopes of the Ag85C (Rv0129c), MPT51 (Rv3803c) and the entire HspX (Rv2031c) proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb). The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a test using the CMX protein in individuals suspected of TB. METHODS: Indirect ELISA was used to measure serum anti-CMX IgM and IgG in individuals with pulmonary TB...
June 30, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617055/new-treatment-strategies-for-ulcerative-colitis
#7
Julian Panés, Ignacio Alfaro
Therapeutic strategies in ulcerative colitis are evolving. A personalized and optimal use of available drugs and the integration of new drug classes are the cornerstones underpinning the new treatment paradigms. Areas covered: A structured literature search in Medline and PubMed, Cochrane meta-analyses, and abstracts of international congresses has been performed to review therapeutic approaches to ulcerative colitis. The primary therapeutic objective of therapy is to achieve clinical remission since persistence of active disease, even if mild, leads to a significant reduction in quality of life...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742984/single-versus-combined-immunoregulatory-approach-using-pd-1-and-ctla-4-modulators-in-controlling-sepsis
#8
Courtney P Rudick, David L Cornell, Devendra K Agrawal
Sepsis is a disease process characterized by an extreme inflammatory response followed by a period of severe immunosuppression. In recent years, there has been improved survival in the initial immune response during systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and compensatory anti-inflammatory response, yet is mostly unchanged with 18-30% mortality during the later stage of sepsis despite numerous Phase 3 clinical trials. Areas covered: This review article presents a critical evaluation of the most promising newer studies aimed at improving the immunosuppressive stage of sepsis...
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701054/diagnostic-and-treatment-workup-for-igg4-related-disease
#9
Mary Abraham, Arezou Khosroshahi
IgG4-Related Disease is a newly recognized condition which is increasingly diagnosed by practitioners due to improvement in clinical awareness. Men and women have been found to be affected by this disease in various organs, more commonly with involvement of the salivary and lacrimal glands as well as pancreas and liver. Areas covered: The diagnosis and management of this condition remain challenging as biomarkers and therapies are being investigated. Hallmark features on histology are still the gold standard for confirmation of diagnosis, whereas serum IgG4 level has been shown to be neither necessary nor sufficient for the diagnosis...
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678626/optimising-use-of-thiopurines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Robin J Dart, Peter M Irving
Thiopurines are central to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapeutics, either as monotherapy or in combination with newer biologic therapies, however it is only recently that focus has increased on improving effectiveness and tolerability through optimisation. Areas covered: We review the role of thiopurines in IBD and the importance of the timing of initiation of therapy. Drug metabolism and pharmacogenetics have increasingly played a role in determining dosing and dose optimisation and we review the rationale for this in both thiopurine monotherapy and in combination with biologic agents...
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562113/anaphylaxis-epidemiology-aetiology-and-relevance-for-the-clinic
#11
Sangeeta Dhami, Aziz Sheikh
Anaphylaxis is responsible for considerable morbidity and may in some cases prove fatal. Areas covered: This review summarises the findings from recent studies on the epidemiology and aetiology of anaphylaxis and draws on the insights from this work and recent international guidelines to consider the implications for clinical care. Acute management of anaphylaxis is centred on early recognition, treatment with adrenaline (epinephrine) and other essential life-support measures. The importance of longer-term care of patients with a history of or at risk of anaphylaxis are also considered with a view to minimising the risk of further reactions...
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540751/treatment-of-adult-onset-still-s-disease-up-to-date
#12
Dae Hyun Yoo
Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, and approximately 60-70% of patients may develop a chronic polyphasic form of the disease or a chronic polyarthritis. Due to rarity of disease, treatment of AOSD is not based on controlled study, but on case based experiences. Areas covered: Recently, the application of anti-cytokine therapy based on pathophysiology has resulted in significant progress in the treatment of AOSD. Here, we review current knowledge of the pathogenesis, disease progression, currently available biomarkers of disease activity, standard therapeutic agents, utility of biologic agents, future perspectives for treatment and treatment of macrophage activation syndrome...
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532268/allergen-immunotherapy-in-allergic-rhinitis-current-use-and-future-trends
#13
Ludger Klimek, Oliver Pfaar, Jean Bousquet, Gabriela Senti, Thomas Kündig
Type-1 allergies are among the most chronic common diseases of humans. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causative and disease-modifying treatment option besides allergen avoidance. Severe systemic adverse allergic reactions may be induced by every AIT treatment. Different approaches have been used to provide safer AIT preparations to lower or even totally overcome this risk. Areas covered: A structured literature recherche in Medline and Pubmed under inclusion of national and international guidelines and Cochrane meta-analyses has been performed aiming at reviewing clinical use of such approaches in AIT...
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468517/immuno-epileptology
#14
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689441/update-of-sarilumb-to-treat-rheumatoid-arthritis-based-on-randomized-clinical-trials-a-systematic-review
#15
Aly M Aly, Daniel E Furst
Sarilumab is a human monoclonal antibody against Interleukin 6 α (IL-6α) receptor. Compared to tocilizumab, another IL-6 α receptor antibody, sarilumab has a different structure and higher affinity. Areas covered: In a systematic literature review, we examined all sarilumab randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in rheumatoid arthritis. The 6 reviewed RCTs included patients who were inadequate MTX, DMARD and/or TNFi responders. Sarilumab 150-200 mg every 2 weeks improved RA signs, symptoms, function and decreased radiological progression up to 52 weeks...
August 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571501/ct-p13-in-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Dae Hyun Yoo
The first biosimilar infliximab, CT-P13 infliximab-dyyb was approved in 2013 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and in 2016 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for 4 years. Areas covered: CT-P13 with the three brand names on the market has highly similar efficacy and safety profiles but lower price than originator infliximab and are approved in more than 80 countries. One of the most important determinants of the implementation of CT-P13 in the treatment of RA is scientific evidence from clinical studies and real-world pharmacovigilance data...
July 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443384/biological-and-targeted-therapies-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-evidence-and-the-state-of-the-art
#17
Chi Chiu Mok
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic disease characterized by an unpredictable disease course and periods of remission and flare, leading to organ damage and mortality. Novel biological agents are being developed (targeting the lymphocytes, accessory molecules and cytokines) that aim to enhance the therapeutic efficacy when combined with standard therapies. Areas covered: This article updates recent data on the use of biological and targeted therapies in SLE. Expert commentary: B cells remain the main target of development of novel therapeutics in SLE...
July 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347164/inflammatory-biomarkers-for-asthma-endotyping-and-consequent-personalized-therapy
#18
Giorgio Ciprandi, Maria Angela Tosca, Michela Silvestri, Fabio Luigi Massimo Ricciardolo
We argue that asthma be considered a syndrome caused by multiple inflammatory pathogenic processes. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, reversible airflow limitation, and chronic airway inflammation characterize asthma pathophysiology. Personalized Medicine, i.e. a tailored management approach, is appropriate for asthma management and is based on the identification of discrete phenotypes and endotypes. Biomarkers can help define phenotypes and endotypes. Several biomarkers have been described in asthma, but most of them are not commonly available or still need external validation...
July 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494214/the-role-and-therapeutic-targeting-of-il-6-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Masashi Narazaki, Toshio Tanaka, Tadamitsu Kishimoto
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune chronic disease with joint and systemic inflammation and it has been found that interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a key role in RA. Indeed, various clinical studies have proved that the first-in-class IL-6 inhibitor, tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, showed outstanding efficacy in RA. Areas covered: We review here the role of IL-6 in the inflammatory conditions and how IL-6 contributes to pathogenesis of RA, what induces IL-6 and how IL-6 expression is regulated...
June 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494213/tumor-like-microenvironment-in-oral-lichen-planus-evidence-of-malignant-transformation
#20
Qiao Peng, Jing Zhang, Xiaojing Ye, Gang Zhou
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T-cell-mediated chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting 0.1% to 4% of the world population. The WHO has already recognized it as an oral potentially malignant disorder. However, the reasons for the malignant transformation of OLP are far from being elucidated clearly. The purpose of this review is to clarify how the tumor-like microenvironment in OLP mediates its potentially malignant transformation. Areas covered: We review published articles on the microenvironment characteristics of tumors, the pathogenesis of OLP, and clinical studies of OLP...
June 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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