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Expert Review of Clinical Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774755/radiographic-progression-in-non-radiographic-axial-spondyloarthritis
#1
Mikhail Protopopov, Denis Poddubnyy
Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) represents a subtype of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) with no significant structural damage in sacroiliac joints and spine. Despite that, patients with nr-axSpA demonstrate a substantial burden of illness, and a considerable share of them might progress to radiographic axSpA (r-axSpA) over time. The amount and quality of published data allows crude estimation of progression rate and factors related to a higher risk of progression. Areas covered: This review discusses the available data reporting the rates and predictors of radiographic progression in the sacroiliac joints and in the spine in patients with nr-axSpA as well as predisposing factors for such a progression...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764231/important-considerations-in-pregnant-patients-with-lupus-nephritis
#2
Gabriella Moroni, Claudio Ponticelli
In the last few decades, identification of predictors of pregnancy outcome and appropriate pregnancy planning have significantly reduced the maternal and fetal risks in pregnant women with lupus nephritis. Areas covered: Successful pregnancies have been reported even in women with chronic renal disease and renal insufficiency. However, refractory hypertension and severe renal or cardiac chronic dysfunction are still considered contraindications to pregnancy. Pre-term delivery and fetal growth restriction may still occur in SLE patients more frequently than in healthy women, even in pregnancies regularly planned and monitored by a team of nephrologists and gynaecologists...
May 15, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764228/anti-infective-chemoprophylaxis-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#3
Paul J Deziel, Raymund Razonable
Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of opportunistic infections due to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic pathogens. Anti-infective prophylaxis is a time-tested proven strategy for the prevention of these infections after solid organ transplantation. Areas covered: The current recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, invasive fungal infections, and selected parasitic diseases are highlighted. Recent peer-reviewed publications on the prevention of infection after solid organ transplantation were reviewed and their significance was discussed in the context of the current recommendations for preventing infectious complications...
May 15, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757021/advagraf%C3%A2-with-or-without-an-induction-therapy-for-de-novo-kidney-transplant-recipients
#4
Johan Noble, Thomas Jouve, Lionel Rostaing, Paolo Malvezzi
Cornerstone immunosuppressive therapy currently relies on immediate-release tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) that is potentially nephrotoxic and is more diabetogenic than cyclosporine A. Two new formulations of tacrolimus have been launched: an extended-release formulation (Advagraf®/Astagraf XL®, Astellas company) and a long-lasting formulation (Envarsus®, Veloxis company). Area covered: Herein, we assess the efficacy of an extended-release formulation of tacrolimus (Advagraf®/Astagraf XL®) used in conjunction with or without an induction therapy (i...
May 14, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757016/icatibant-for-the-treatment-of-hereditary-angioedema-with-c1-inhibitor-deficiency-in-adolescents-and-in-children-aged-over-2-years
#5
Henriette Farkas, Kinga Viktória Kőhalmi
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disorder with life-threatening complications if untreated. It begins during childhood, and reduces the patient's quality of life. Therefore, the availability of an easily administered agent to relieve unpredictable HAE episodes is indispensable for this age group. Areas covered: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, open-label extensions and prospective observational studies have proven the safety and efficacy of the subcutaneously administered bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, icatibant, in the acute treatment of HAE episodes in adult C1-INH-HAE patients...
May 14, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754519/the-role-of-imaging-in-early-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-joint-damage-in-inflammatory-arthritis
#6
Jiang Yue, Dongze Wu, Lai-Shan Tam
Inflammatory arthritis is characterized by chronic inflammation in the synovium, associated with degradation of cartilage and erosion of juxta-articular bone. The bone loss and joint destruction mediated by aberrant immunological responses resulting in proinflammatory cytokine release and various immune cell activation are known as osteoimmunology. Areas covered: A structured literature search including Medline and PubMed, Cochrane meta-analyses and abstracts of international congresses was performed to review joint damage in inflammatory arthritis in terms of pathogenesis, novel imaging assessment and prevention...
May 13, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730959/microparticles-culprits-in-the-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#7
Niclas Stefan Rasmussen, Søren Jacobsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724134/cigarette-smoking-and-the-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
Cameron B Speyer, Karen H Costenbader
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system inflammatory autoimmune disease of incompletely understood etiology. It is thought that environmental exposures "trigger" or accelerate the disease in genetically-predisposed individuals. Areas covered: Substantial epidemiological evidence exists to support the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of incident SLE. Recent evidence points to current smoking as the specific risk factor, with decreasing risk 5 years after smoking cessation, and the greatest risk for disease characterized by the presence of SLE- specific autoantibodies...
May 3, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676201/prognosis-and-monitoring-of-giant-cell-arteritis-and-associated-complications
#9
Tanaz A Kermani, Kenneth J Warrington
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis in people over the age of 50 years. Prospective imaging studies in GCA highlight the systemic nature of this vasculitis. Areas covered: This review summarizes literature using PubMed on complications of GCA and its treatment. Emphasis was placed on articles published within the past 5 years. Disease associated complications including vision loss from arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, large-artery stenoses and ischemia, and, aortic aneurysms and dissections...
April 26, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658384/complications-of-adult-onset-still-s-disease-and-their-management
#10
Stéphane Mitrovic, Bruno Fautrel
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic auto-inflammatory disorder in which management and treatment have considerably progressed over the past decade. Despite wide use of interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 inhibitors, serious complications remain possible. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE via Pubmed was performed to review AOSD's severe and sometimes life-threatening complications: reactive hemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis, coagulation disorders, fulminant hepatitis, cardiac or pulmonary complications and amyloid A amyloidosis...
April 26, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683362/immunogenicity-of-biologic-therapies-causes-and-consequences
#11
Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Nicolo Costantino Brembilla
Antibodies or fusion proteins termed biologics allow the targeted therapy of diseases. Many of these agents have proven superior efficacy and safety to conventional therapies, and subsequently revolutionized the management of numerous chronic diseases. Repetitive administration of these protein-based therapeutics to immunocompetent patients elicit immune responses in the form of Anti Drug Antibodies (ADAs), which in turn impact their pharmacological properties and may trigger adverse events. Areas covered: Structural characteristics determining the immunogenicity of biologics are reviewed along with strategies to minimize it...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681202/quality-of-life-in-psoriatic-arthritis
#12
Tania Gudu, Laure Gossec
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a multi-organ chronic inflammatory disease which impacts patients both physically and psychologically. The highest priority for patients goes to pain relief, but also to ability to function and participate in social life, fatigue, and psychological distress. Areas covered: In the present article, we will review current knowledge on impairments of health-related quality of life related to PsA, as well as patient priorities and patient-reported outcome measures such as the PsA Impact of Disease or the PsA Quality of Life questionnaires...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681186/role-of-dendritic-cells-in-peanut-allergy
#13
Raquel Aguilera-Insunza, Luis F Venegas, Mirentxu Iruretagoyena, Leticia Rojas, Arturo Borzutzky
The prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) has increased, affecting approximately 1.1% of children in Western countries. PA causes life-threatening anaphylaxis and frequently persists for life. There are no standardized curative therapies for PA, and avoidance of peanuts remains the main therapeutic option. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of PA is essential to identify new treatment strategies. Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) are essential in the induction and maintenance of food tolerance because they present dietary allergens to T cells, thereby directing subsequent immune responses...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676602/tocilizumab-for-the-treatment-of-giant-cell-arteritis
#14
Michael Schirmer, Francesco Muratore, Carlo Salvarani
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most frequent type of vasculitis, occurring in people older than 50 years. So far, treatment has been limited to corticosteroids and methotrexate only. Areas covered: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a role in the pathophysiology of GCA. This review covers recent advances in the treatment of GCA with tocilizumab (TCZ), which specifically binds to both soluble and membrane-bound IL-6R and inhibits IL-6R-mediated signaling. Expert commentary: Two randomized controlled trials recently showed the efficacy of the IL-6 receptors inhibitor monoclonal antibody TCZ for the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with new-onset and relapsing GCA...
April 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641934/the-challenge-of-establishing-treatment-efficacy-for-cutaneous-vascular-manifestations-of-systemic-sclerosis
#15
John D Pauling
The cutaneous vascular manifestations of systemic sclerosis (SSc) comprise Raynaud's phenomenon, cutaneous ulceration, telangiectasia formation and critical digital ischaemia; each of which are associated with significant disease-related morbidity. Despite the availability of multiple classes of vasodilator therapy, many of which have been the subject of RCTs, a limited number of pharmacological interventions are currently approved for the management of cutaneous vascular manifestations of SSc. Areas covered: A major challenge has been demonstrating treatment efficacy with examples of promising therapies yielding contrasting results in controlled trial settings...
April 11, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637786/corrigendum
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629613/the-search-for-drug-targetable-diagnostic-prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#17
Hong-Gang Ren, Djamilatou Adom, Sophie Paczesny
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) continues to be the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), which is an increasingly applied curative method for both benign and malignant hematologic disorders. Biomarker identification is crucial for the development of noninvasive and cost-effective cGVHD diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive test for use in clinic. Furthermore, biomarkers may help to gain a better insight on ongoing pathophysiological processes...
April 9, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595347/relationship-between-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1-infection-and-chronic-periodontitis
#18
Tábata Larissa S Pólvora, Átila Vinícius V Nobre, Camila Tirapelli, Mário Taba, Leandro Dorigan de Macedo, Rodrigo Carvalho Santana, Bruno Pozzetto, Alan Grupioni Lourenço, Ana Carolina F Motta
Current studies show that, even in the era of antiretroviral therapies, HIV-1 infection is associated with more severe and frequent refractory chronic periodontitis. Areas covered: This review, based on a systematic analysis of the literature, intends to provide an update on factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease in HIV-1-infected patients, including local immunosuppression, oral microbial factors, systemic inflammation, salivary markers, and the role of gingival tissue as a possible reservoir of HIV-1...
March 29, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557200/new-therapies-versus-first-generation-biologic-drugs-in-psoriasis-a-review-of-adverse-events-and-their-management
#19
J M Carrascosa, E Del-Alcazar
Biologic drugs have revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis in recent years because of their high efficacy and low risk of toxicity. However, even within the group of biologic therapies, there are differences related to the different mechanisms of action. Areas covered: We review the main adverse events associated with the biologic agents currently available for the treatment of psoriasis and the new inhibitors targeting the p19 subunit of interleukin (IL) 23 and the IL-17A receptor. This review covers injection site reactions, infections, cardiovascular events, demyelinating disorders, tumours, class effects secondary adverse events, immunogenicity, safety in pregnancy and vaccines efficacy...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667454/prediction-of-response-to-methotrexate-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
Stephanie Ling, James Bluett, Anne Barton
Methotrexate (MTX) is the first-line disease-modifying drug of choice in controlling active inflammation of the synovium that characterises rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic autoimmune inflammatory condition. However, many patients do not respond to treatment with MTX or cannot tolerate the medication. Pre-treatment characteristics that predict response to MTX are, therefore, of particular interest and potential clinical utility. Areas covered: This narrative review seeks to cover various genotypic and phenotypic characteristics that have been investigated as predictors of treatment response to MTX in RA...
May 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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