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Current Drug Safety

Lisa Mondet, Fanny Radoubé, Valérie Gras, Kamel Masmoudi
INTRODUCTION: Cefixime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is commonly used in different infections. Tolerance is pretty good even if some side effects can be frequent like digestive disorders. Other effects, not mentioned in the Summary of Product Characteristics, can occur. METHODS: We report a case of recurrent, acute oromandibular dystonia in a cefixime-treated adult. CASE-REPORT: After the third dose of cefixime, prescribed for a bronchial infection, a patient experienced a first episode of oromandibular dystonia...
March 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
Kazutoshi Hori, Tetsuya Takagawa, Nobuyuki Hida, Shiro Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Standard triple therapy with the proton pump inhibitors, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for Helicobacter pylori infection is considered to be safe; however, the development of significant adverse events (AEs), such as skin rashes, has been reported. OBJECTIVE: To reconfirm the safety of this treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. After the exclusion of patients allergic to penicillin, 322 consecutive patients, consisting of 305 outpatients and 17 inpatients, had received the first-line eradication treatment with lansoprazole (30 mg), clarithromycin (200 mg), and amoxicillin (750 mg) twice daily for 7 days...
March 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
Nidhi S Patel, Bhavesh C Chavada, Viren N Naik, Hiteshkumar N Patel, C B Tripathi
INTRODUCTION: Fluoroquinolones are most widely used for empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disease due to emergence of drug resistant strains to other antimicrobials. They are also indulged in cutaneous adverse drug reactions with varying form of severity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43 year old male patient developed fixed drug eruptions after administration of tablet norfloxacin and metronidazole for treatment of colicky abdominal pain with diarrhoea. Erythematous rashes involved whole body including buccal mucosa...
February 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
Wendy Moyle, Najwan El Saifi, Brian Draper, Cindy Jones, Elizabeth Beattie, David Shum, Lukman Thalib, Cindy Mervin, Siobhan O Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia are often treated through the prescription of one or more psychotropic medications. However, limited efficacy and potential harmful side-effects has resulted in efforts to reduce the use of psychotropic medication in this population, particularly for those living in long-term care. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the pattern of central nervous system medication usage in older adults with dementia living in long-term care; assess the appropriateness of prescribing against Beers criteria; and detect potential drug interactions from co-administered medications...
February 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
Maliha Khan, Shilpa Paul, Saad Farooq, Thein Hlaing Oo, Priya Ramshesh, Nitin Jain
BACKGROUND: Rasburicase is commonly used in patients with hematologic malignancies for tumor lysis syndrome prophylaxis and management. Methemoglobinemia is a serious rare adverse effect of rasburicase, more common in patients with G6PD deficiency. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management of this condition can make the difference between successful recovery and significant morbidity. Here we discuss the link of rasburicase with methemoglobinemia and the pathophysiology behind increased incidence of this side effect in G6PD deficient patients...
January 11, 2017: Current Drug Safety
Therése Kairuz, Ilse Truter, Laurence Rossato, Alex Pudmenzky
BACKGROUND: Dispensing patterns reflect drug usage trends. Benzodiazepines are known as drugs with potential for misuse, and frequent dispensing may be a surrogate marker of misuse. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to obtain a comparative snapshot of anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic dispensing in a developing country and a developed country, to determine whether further research about benzodiazepines is warranted. METHOD: A cross-national, cross-sectional retrospective drug utilisation study was conducted on benzodiazepines and z-drugs...
January 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
Joseph P Rindone, Chadwick Mellen, Jennifer Ryba
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested an increased risk of nephrotoxicity when piperacillin-tazobactam is added to vancomycin, although the data are confliciting. OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of identified studies to assess if adding piperacillin-tazobactam to vancomycin increases the incidence of nephrotoxicity. METHOD: A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar was conducted to identify studies...
October 24, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Elena Succurro, Caterina Palleria, Maria Francesca Ruffo, Raffaele Serra, Franco Arturi, Luca Gallelli
The fixed dose combination of sitagliptin 50 mg and metformin 850 mg (Janumet ®), is indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in addition to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients treated with metformin alone. METHODS: We report a 69-year-old man with type 2 diabetes that developed sudden loss of eyebrows and eyelashes about 4 months after the beginning of Janumet ®. Clinical and laboratory findings excluded the presence of systemic or skin diseases able to induce these manifestations, while the Naranjo probability scale documented a possible association between the drug and the adverse drug reaction...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Sami Joseph Giryes, Zaher Azzam, Reem Ismael-Badarneh, Norberto Krivoy, Gidon Berger
Herein, we report a 70-year-old male patient, with recurrent multiple hepatic abscesses, that was admitted to the internal medicine department for treatment of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia Coli (CRE) bacteremia. The patient was treated with Tigecycline and few days later he developed "Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)" like coagulation study abnormality. Tigecycline was suspected to cause this coagulation study abnormality and was stopped, and few days later coagulation studies return to normal values...
September 19, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Nasser Mikhail
Technoshere insulin (TI), Afrezza, is a form of short-acting human insulin taken by oral inhalation with meals. Compared to subcutaneous insulin aspart, TI is slightly less effective, the difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction being 0.19%. Use of TI is associated with lower risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain compared with insulin aspart. Apart from hypoglycemia, cough is the most common adverse effect of TI reported by 24-33% of patients. Cough induced by TI is mostly dry, occurs within 10 minutes after inhalation and usually subsides after few weeks of use...
August 29, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Nicole Palazzolo, Bridgette Kram, Andrew J Muzyk
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of QTc prolongation following administration of an atypical antipsychotic in critically ill patients diagnosed with delirium and to conduct an assessment of risk factors to identify the presence of specific risk factors associated with QTc prolongation in this patient population. METHODS: Patients were included if they were at least 18 years of age, admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at the study institution from July 1, 2013 through January 30, 2014, had a documented diagnosis of delirium within their electronic medical record, and received an atypical antipsychotic for delirium during their hospital admission...
August 15, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Andrew D Fraser, Boshi Zhang, Henry Ma, Hassan Khan, Elliot V Hersh
As the use of prescription opioid drugs for non-therapeutic means increases, rampant dental decay is a serious disease that can develop. The dentist must prepare to treat these complex patients with comprehensive care while working in cooperation with an entire healthcare team. The article explores this phenomenon in a twenty-six year-old who abused prescription opioids for three years.
August 3, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Emanuele A Alves, Pedro Brandão, Teresa Magalhães, Félix Carvalho, Ricardo J Dinis-Oliveira
Fatal intoxications are a topic of great relevance in today's society. This study retrospectively reviews fatal intoxication cases autopsied at the northern forensic medicine services of Portugal, between 2001 and 2013. For this purpose, we analyzed postmortem forensic medical reports with positive results for the presence of xenobiotics. A total of 27,778 autopsy reports were analyzed, of which 1,269 cases fulfilled the selection criteria, representing 4.6% of total number of individuals autopsied during the period under analysis...
July 24, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Khyati Doshi, Radha Yegnanarayan, Neeta Gokhale
OBJECTIVES: Find possible causative agents causing cutaneous adverse reactions; clinical patterns, causality and severity of Drug induced cutaneous adverse reactions (CADR) and treatment outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study was undertaken including cases of CADR. Causality, preventability and severity of Drug Induced cutaneous reactions were judged with the use of Naranjo's algorithm, WHO causality scale, modified Schumock and Thorton scale, and Hartwig's scale respectively...
July 24, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Subramoniam Madhusoodanan, Leah R Steinberg, Alisa Coleman, Samuel Bavli
BACKGROUND: Hyperprolactinemia can be caused by medications, primarily antipsychotics, or by anterior pituitary tumors. The consequences of hyperprolactinemia including gynecomastia, galactorrhea, and sexual dysfunction are very disturbing for males and females. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate the etiology of hyperprolactinemia from a clinical perspective. OBJECTIVE: Identification of the etiology of hyperprolactinemia requires a careful review of the causes and appropriate work-up...
July 19, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Benjamin Maslin, Lawrence Lipana, Brandon Roth, Gopal Kodumudi, Nalini Vadivelu
BACKGROUND: Ketorolac use has significantly expanded for postoperative pain management since it first became available in the United States, primarily due to well established effects on patient pain scores and its ability to reduce perioperative opioid requirements. As an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, ketorolac use has raised clinical concern including particular controversy regarding its potential effects on bone healing, postoperative kidney function and perioperative bleeding. OBJECTIVE: To review the supporting data from clinical studies addressing the safety of ketorolac use for postoperative pain...
July 19, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Harmeet Singh Rehan, Ravinder Sah, Anubhuti Gupta, Parvesh Nagar
BACKGROUND: The Pharmacovigilance Program of India recently initiated a process for direct patient reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) with a designated form. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A survey of 200 patients reporting ADRs filling the form. Forms were analyzed for patient data, the suspected medication(s), ADRs and possible causality. RESULTS: 54.3% of respondents provided their contact information; the implicated medicine was mentioned in 60% and the description of ADRs in 80% although 46...
May 18, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Khushboo Gajjar, Hiren Hirapara, Chandra S Jaiswal, Manish Barvaliya, Hita Shah, C B Tripathi
We report a case of 25 years old male patient with antitubercular drugs induced exanthematous reaction and hepatotoxicity that was complicated by levofloxacin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis. The patient was allergic to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Cross reactivity between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin might be responsible for causing this reaction. Issues of cross sensitivity should be kept in mind and the same class of drugs should strictly be avoided to prevent such complications.
April 26, 2016: Current Drug Safety
M S Brochet, M Harry, F Morin
BACKGROUND: It is known that calcium channel blockers are associated with a risk of gingival hyperplasia. These drugs are widely used in the management of gestational hypertensive disorders. CASE: A 27-year-old G1 woman presented with gingival hyperplasia at 27 weeks gestation during a hospitalisation for preeclampsia. She had been on nifedipine for hypertension for the last 9 weeks. Nifedipine was discontinued and replaced by methyldopa and already after 48 hours the gingival hyperplasia improved...
April 26, 2016: Current Drug Safety
Piero Vasapollo, Erika Cione, Filippo Luciani, Luca Gallelli
Selective agents able to locate and identify unique targets represent a crucial aspect of modern pharmacology. The exclusive location of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLUT2) on kidneys prompt companies to develop SGLT2 inhibitors that today are the latest class of drugs for diabetes treatment. In particular, canagliflozin blocks the re-absorption of glucose in the kidney lowering blood glucose levels by increasing glucose excretion. We report a 61-year old woman who developed an intense and severe pruritus during the treatment with canagliflozin...
April 5, 2016: Current Drug Safety
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