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Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

Mehul Agrawal, Pramod Kumar Sharma, S P Dhaneria
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be used in circumstances where efficacy has been demonstrated and benefits outweigh the risk. Each hospital must have an antibiotic policy that is implementable and fully adhered to. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 209 patients, admitted to swards of various surgical departments including surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology (O&G), otorhinolaryngology (ENT) and orthopaedics. Relevant antimicrobial use data of each patient was collected in a customized Case Record Form (CRF) from day one until patient was discharged...
September 26, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Naser Aslanabadi, Sirous Vosooghi Moghadam, Babak Kazemi, Daniel Fadaei Fouladi, Golnaz Vaseghi, Azadeh Eshraghi, Mehran Mahmoodian, Sarvnaz Tutunchi
INTRODUCTION: There are no reliable non-invasive markers of restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). The aim of our study was to measure changes incorrected QT interval (QTc), corrected QT dispersion (QTcd), corrected T wave peak to end interval (TPEc) and corrected TPE dispersion (TPEcd) after PCI and to determine whether restenosis subsequently affects these indices. METHODS: From 211 patients, who underwent successful PCI, 202 patients were referred for repeated coronary angiography in order to exclusion of coronary restenosis and included in this analysis...
September 16, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Pingfu Fu, Afshin Dowlati, Nathan Pennell, Neelesh Sharma, Qizhi Yi, Balazs Halmos
PURPOSE: There has been a long-standing interest in the investigation of interactions in science. The objective of the study is to evaluate interaction between EGFR mutation and treatment from randomized, phase II study of chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus erlotinib in patients with progressive NSCLC following clinical benefit from erlotinib. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six patients with advanced stage NSCLC and progression from erlotinib were randomized to receive chemotherapy (pemetrexed or docetaxel) or chemotherapy plus erlotinib between 2008 and 2012...
September 16, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Martha Maria Fors, Carmen Elena Viada, Paloma de Las Mercedes Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) is a very flexible non parametric algorithm that allows to classify individuals according to certain criteria, particularly in clinical trials are used to predict response to treatment or classify individuals according prognostic factors. OBJECTIVE: In this paper with examine how often RPA is used in clinical trials and in meta-analysis. METHOD: We reviewed a group of abstracts records between 1990 until 2016 and extracted data regarding clinical trial phase, year of publication, kind of treatment, medical indication, main evaluated endpoints and class of RPA...
September 16, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Christophe Toukam Tchakoute, Elaine Larson, Jianfang Liu, Bevin Cohen
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients may be at a greater risk of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) but risks factors for HAIs have not been well described in this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, temporal trends and risk factors of HAIs among adult HIV positive patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic health system in New York City which included four hospitals over a 9-year period from 2006 to 2014...
September 5, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Mohammad Abbasinazari, Jamshid Salamzadeh, Azadeh Eshraghi, Vahid Belbasi, Ashnagar Arezoo
Dyspepsia is one of the most frequent problems in the community. The public increasingly seeks out health advice from professionals such as community pharmacists due to a growing interest in understanding drugs and self-medication for common conditions such as dyspepsia. The purpose of our study was to assess dyspepsia-related knowledge of pharmacists in Iran.This study has been done among community pharmacists working in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a survey questionnaire administered to 200 community pharmacists working in Tehran...
September 5, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Suliang Chen, Xinli Lu, Ze Cui, Hongru Zhao
INTRODUCTION: With the scale-up of antiretroviral drugs, coupling with high-risk behaviors, the spread of HIV-1 resistant strains has increased the difficulty of Hebei`s HIV prevention and control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiviral treatment in eleven prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling. HIV-1 drug resistance test was performed using in-house assay. RESULTS: A total of 536 pol gene sequences, with subtype B(68...
September 2, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Juan Rosas-Guzmán, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-García
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin-America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
August 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Dongsheng Jiang, Weihong Kong, Joanna J Jiang
BACKGROUND: Physicians encounter various symptom-based complaints each day. While physicians strive to support patients with chronic illnesses, evidence indicates that patients who are actively involved in their health care have better health outcomes and sometimes lower costs. AIM: This article is to analyze how patient engagement is described when complex interventions such as Tai Chi were delivered in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). It reviews the dynamic patient-physician relationship in chronic illness management and to illustrate the patient engagement process, using Tai Chi as an example intervention...
August 15, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Padmaja Udaykumar, K Udaykumar, K Scandashree, K Anurag
: Background & Objective: We aimed to identify the signals that indicate the possible benefits of administering Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) at the initiation of meal, compared to immediately after food. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, pilot study in 160 patients who received only NSAIDs for various pain conditions. Patients were randomized to Group I (control group) -NSAID After Food (AF), Group II-NSAID Before Food (BF), Group III-NSAID BF for 2 days and then crossed over to AF for next two days (CO-1) and Group IV-NSAID AF for 2 days and then crossed over to BF for next two days (C0-2 group)...
August 1, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Dongsheng Jiang, Weihong Kong, Joanna J Jiang
BACKGROUND: Many people seek alternative treatments to reduce stress and to manage anxiety. To counsel people appropriately, physicians need to understand current evidence and recognize both the value and defects in the facts. OBJECTIVE: To review the effect of Tai Chi interventions on improvement of mental health and to learn lessons from current evidence through various clinical studies. METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify research studies that assessed Tai Chi's mental health benefits...
July 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Andrea Rognoni, Chiara Cavallino, Alessandro Lupi, Sara Bacchini, Roberta Rosso, Francesco Rametta, Federico Nardi, Angelo Sante Bongo
INTRODUCTION: Atherothrombosis and coronary artery disease affect more than 13 million individuals only in the United States, about 8 millions in Europe and are the major causes of death worldwide. In particular chronic stable angina impairs patient quality of life, is associated with an important health spending and increased patient mortality; it is a prominent symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD), the latter being prevalent worldwide in patients. A key role in pathophysiology of cardiovascular acute events is played by activated platelets...
July 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Da-Yong Lu, Hong-Ying Wu, Jian Ding, Nagendra Sastry, Ting-Ren Lu
HIV/AIDS was once a highly deadly infective disease that killed the global people of a million annually two decades ago. While we are enjoying the HIV therapeutic advances (mostly important from HAART invention), one obvious drawback is still unresolved-unable to clearance all HIV from infected human bodies. As a result, a series of different therapeutic attempts have been proposed based on present knowledge of different features of HIV-induced pathogenesis and human mortalities. Facing this shortcoming, innovative designs and update of HIV vaccines and other types of HIV therapeutic inventions can be a final solution for completely HIV clearance and infection managements in human beings...
July 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Anshu Giri, Simrit S Walia, Ajeet Gajra
INTRODUCTION: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor overall survival that accounts for up to 85% of lung cancer diagnoses. The use of immunotherapy in the form of checkpoint inhibition, to enhance the immune system's ability to attack malignant cells, has been a promising addition to treatment options in advanced NSCLC. RESULTS: Such therapeutic agents aimed at the Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) receptor or Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) have revealed promising results against many types of cancer including NSCLC...
July 24, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Atsushi Izumi, Masahiro Kitamura, Kazuhiro P Izawa
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important public health problem throughout the world. The effects of exercise training are unclear in patients with CKD . This review aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training to delay the progression of CKD and which training style is most effective. We developed individualized search strategies for the National Library of Medicine including the PubMed MeSH database to June 2015. We searched articles related to exercise training and kidney disease using the terms "CKD", "renal disease", "renal insufficiency", "renal failure", "end-stage renal disease (ESRD)" and "physical therapy"...
July 24, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Alessandro Federico, Vittorio Maria Ormando, Marcello Dallio, Ludovico Abenavoli, Mario Masarone, Marcello Persico, Carmela Loguercio
Alcoholic and virus C hepatitis currently represent the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Every year many people die and are subjected to complex hospitalization and medical assistance due to these pathologies. Alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C virus chronic infection are often present in the same patient. These two pathologies sinergically act in determining the onset and progression of liver damage that, from the chronic hepatitis staging, may rapidly progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
July 23, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Davide Tassinari, Emiliano Tamburini, Lorenzo Gianni, Fabrizio Drudi, Manuela Fantini, Carlotta Santelmo, Lucia Stocchi, Francesco Montanari, Sergio Sartori
BACKGROUND: To assess the role of docetaxel plus androgen deprivation in metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. METHODS: A qualitative systematic review of literature was performed. All the randomized phase III trials comparing docetaxel plus androgen deprivation with androgen deprivation alone in patients with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were considered eligible and included into the analysis. The outcomes were classified into 3 classes: Overall Survival (OS), Time to Progression and Safety...
July 19, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Vikrant Chadrakant Sangar, Balasaheb Ghongane, Gaurav Mathur
The casual relationship concerning Human papillomaviruses (HPV) and cervical cancer already established. Therefore, such HPV-associated malignancies might be prevented by prophylactic HPV vaccines. From 2009, two prophylactic HPV L1 Virus-Like Particle vaccines namely, Gardasil® - quadrivalent (Merck) and Cervarix™ - bivalent (GlaxoSmithKline) are widely commercially available. By Aug 2014, 58 countries had introduced HPV vaccination in their national immunization program; this has led to numerous publications on safety and real world effectiveness...
May 2, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Ludovico Abenavoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Giacomo Germani, Alberto Zanetto, Alberto Ferrarese, Francesco P Russo, Marco Senzolo, Patrizia Burra
Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) represents the second most common indication for Liver Transplantation (LT) worldwide. Outcomes of LT for ALD are comparable with those of liver transplantation for other aetiologies of liver disease; however, it's still considered a controversial indication to LT, mainly because ALD is considered a self inflicted disease, and for the risk of relapse after LT. Most transplant programs require 6 months of abstinence in order to consider a patient suitable for LT, however the role of the length of pre transplant abstinence as predictor of alcohol relapse after LT is still controversial...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
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