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Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

Mehul Agrawal, Pramod Kumar Sharma, S P Dhaneria
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be used in circumstances where efficacy has been demonstrated and benefits outweigh the risk. Each hospital must have an antibiotic policy that is implementable and fully adhered to. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 209 patients, admitted to swards of various surgical departments including surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology (O&G), otorhinolaryngology (ENT) and orthopaedics. Relevant antimicrobial use data of each patient was collected in a customized Case Record Form (CRF) from day one until patient was discharged...
September 26, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Naser Aslanabadi, Sirous Vosooghi Moghadam, Babak Kazemi, Daniel Fadaei Fouladi, Golnaz Vaseghi, Azadeh Eshraghi, Mehran Mahmoodian, Sarvnaz Tutunchi
INTRODUCTION: There are no reliable non-invasive markers of restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). The aim of our study was to measure changes incorrected QT interval (QTc), corrected QT dispersion (QTcd), corrected T wave peak to end interval (TPEc) and corrected TPE dispersion (TPEcd) after PCI and to determine whether restenosis subsequently affects these indices. METHODS: From 211 patients, who underwent successful PCI, 202 patients were referred for repeated coronary angiography in order to exclusion of coronary restenosis and included in this analysis...
September 16, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Pingfu Fu, Afshin Dowlati, Nathan Pennell, Neelesh Sharma, Qizhi Yi, Balazs Halmos
PURPOSE: There has been a long-standing interest in the investigation of interactions in science. The objective of the study is to evaluate interaction between EGFR mutation and treatment from randomized, phase II study of chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus erlotinib in patients with progressive NSCLC following clinical benefit from erlotinib. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six patients with advanced stage NSCLC and progression from erlotinib were randomized to receive chemotherapy (pemetrexed or docetaxel) or chemotherapy plus erlotinib between 2008 and 2012...
September 16, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Martha Maria Fors, Carmen Elena Viada, Paloma de Las Mercedes Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) is a very flexible non parametric algorithm that allows to classify individuals according to certain criteria, particularly in clinical trials are used to predict response to treatment or classify individuals according prognostic factors. OBJECTIVE: In this paper with examine how often RPA is used in clinical trials and in meta-analysis. METHOD: We reviewed a group of abstracts records between 1990 until 2016 and extracted data regarding clinical trial phase, year of publication, kind of treatment, medical indication, main evaluated endpoints and class of RPA...
September 16, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Christophe Toukam Tchakoute, Elaine Larson, Jianfang Liu, Bevin Cohen
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients may be at a greater risk of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) but risks factors for HAIs have not been well described in this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, temporal trends and risk factors of HAIs among adult HIV positive patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic health system in New York City which included four hospitals over a 9-year period from 2006 to 2014...
September 5, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Mohammad Abbasinazari, Jamshid Salamzadeh, Azadeh Eshraghi, Vahid Belbasi, Ashnagar Arezoo
Dyspepsia is one of the most frequent problems in the community. The public increasingly seeks out health advice from professionals such as community pharmacists due to a growing interest in understanding drugs and self-medication for common conditions such as dyspepsia. The purpose of our study was to assess dyspepsia-related knowledge of pharmacists in Iran.This study has been done among community pharmacists working in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a survey questionnaire administered to 200 community pharmacists working in Tehran...
September 5, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Suliang Chen, Xinli Lu, Ze Cui, Hongru Zhao
INTRODUCTION: With the scale-up of antiretroviral drugs, coupling with high-risk behaviors, the spread of HIV-1 resistant strains has increased the difficulty of Hebei`s HIV prevention and control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiviral treatment in eleven prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling. HIV-1 drug resistance test was performed using in-house assay. RESULTS: A total of 536 pol gene sequences, with subtype B(68...
September 2, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Juan Rosas-Guzmán, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-García
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin-America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
August 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Dongsheng Jiang, Weihong Kong, Joanna J Jiang
BACKGROUND: Physicians encounter various symptom-based complaints each day. While physicians strive to support patients with chronic illnesses, evidence indicates that patients who are actively involved in their health care have better health outcomes and sometimes lower costs. AIM: This article is to analyze how patient engagement is described when complex interventions such as Tai Chi were delivered in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). It reviews the dynamic patient-physician relationship in chronic illness management and to illustrate the patient engagement process, using Tai Chi as an example intervention...
August 15, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Alessandro Federico, Vittorio Maria Ormando, Marcello Dallio, Ludovico Abenavoli, Mario Masarone, Marcello Persico, Carmela Loguercio
Alcoholic and virus C hepatitis currently represent the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Every year many people die and are subjected to complex hospitalization and medical assistance due to these pathologies. Alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C virus chronic infection are often present in the same patient. These two pathologies sinergically act in determining the onset and progression of liver damage that, from the chronic hepatitis staging, may rapidly progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
July 23, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Neda Eslami, Azadeh Eshraghi, Golnaz Vaseghi, Mona Mehdizadeh, Moein Masjedi, Maryam Mehrpooya
OBJECTIVES: To identify the knowledge and attitudes of community pharmacists towards upper respiratory infections. SETTING: The pharmacists, who participated in an annual clinical pharmacy congress in Tehran, were enrolled in this study. INTERVENTION: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the knowledge and attitudes of 72 community pharmacists towards upper respiratory infections (URI) using a questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We investigated the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists towards rational antibiotics use in URI in Iran...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Ludovico Abenavoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Giacomo Germani, Alberto Zanetto, Alberto Ferrarese, Francesco P Russo, Marco Senzolo, Patrizia Burra
Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) represents the second most common indication for Liver Transplantation (LT) worldwide. Outcomes of LT for ALD are comparable with those of liver transplantation for other aetiologies of liver disease; however, it's still considered a controversial indication to LT, mainly because ALD is considered a self inflicted disease, and for the risk of relapse after LT. Most transplant programs require 6 months of abstinence in order to consider a patient suitable for LT, however the role of the length of pre transplant abstinence as predictor of alcohol relapse after LT is still controversial...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Alejandra Altamirano-Barrera, Misael Uribe, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) can be defined as the hepatic manifestations caused by excessive alcohol intake. ALD comprises a spectrum from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: To review diverse clinical and metabolic characteristics and their impact in ALD. CONCLUSION: The concurrence of metabolic alterations, including obesity and diabetes, and alcohol consumption increase the risk of liver injury and also the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic liver disease...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Simona Grad, Ludovico Abenavoli, Dan L Dumitrascu
The Gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most affected systems by alcohol consumption. Alcohol can affect the esophagus in several ways: induces mucosal inflammation, increases the risk for Barrett esophagus and esophageal cancer, and also impairs the esophageal motility. Numerous studies have reported an increased prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) or erosive esophagitis in alcoholics. Some alcoholics exhibit an abnormality of esophageal motility known as a "nutcracker esophagus". Alcohol effect on gastric motility depends on the alcohol concentration...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Valentina Peta, Djamel Elaribi, Ludovico Abenavoli
Alcohol is considered one of the most common hepatotoxin, and chronic alcoholic liver disease is affecting millions of subjects worldwide. The three most frequently manifestations of alcoholic liver disease are steatosis, acute alcoholic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The diagnosis of Alcoholic Liver Diseases (ALD) is made by clinical and laboratory analysis. Actually do not exist a single laboratory test able to confirm the diagnosis of ALD, but in the last years several serum markers and laboratory abnormalities have been discovered in these patients...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Manuele Furnari, Iftikhar Ahmed, Karel J van Erpecum, Vincenzo Savarino, Edoardo G Giannini
The prevalence of Alcohol related Liver Disease (ALD) continues to rise all over the world due to changing drinking behaviour of the population. Liver disease due to excessive alcohol consumption causes significant morbidity and mortality, and poses a substantial economic burden to the health care resources. Early diagnosis and treatment of ALD may help prevent progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The last decade has seen a rising interest in potential use of non-invasive tests in clinical practice, including diagnosis and monitoring of chronic liver diseases...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Giuseppe Frieri, Brigida Galletti, Donatella Serva, Angelo Viscido
Alcohol, in addition to well-known damages on the liver and pancreas, produces direct and indirect injuries in the mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large bowel. Different damages can be produced both when a large amount of alcohol is acutely drunk and when this is taken chronically. Almost all these lesions can be detected and treated by endoscopy as shown in the present article. When, over time, cirrhosis ensues the role of endoscopy is not different from that played with cirrhosis of different etiology...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Emidio Scarpellini, Mariana Forlino, Marinella Lupo, Carlo Rasetti, Giammarco Fava, Ludovico Abenavoli, Adriano De Santis
The gut-liver axis model has often explained liver disease physiopathology. Among the latter we can mention Non-Alcoholic Liver Steatosis (NAFLD), Liver Steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis. In this frame an altered Intestinal Permeability (IP) is the gate for antigenic/toxic substances from gut lumen until target organs such as liver in NAFLD. Altered intestinal permeability was discovered almost forty years ago as consequence of acute and chronic alcohol ingestion. Alcohol Liver Disease (ALD) is a systemic pathology whose beginning and end belong to the intestine...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Mario Masarone, Valerio Rosato, Marcello Dallio, Ludovico Abenavoli, Alessandro Federico, Carmela Loguercio, Marcello Persico
Alcohol represents the oldest substance of abuse known, existed at least as early as the Neolithic period. In the present era, almost half of the world's population consumes alcohol and it represents the third largest risk factor for disease and disability and the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease worldwide. In fact, when alcohol consumption reaches "unsafe quantities" an Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) is very likely. ALD comprises a large spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis with fibrosis and cirrhosis...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
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