Read by QxMD icon Read

Targeted Oncology

Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Chia-Jen Liu, Yuh-Min Chen, Teh-Ying Chou, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Sang-Hue Yen, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jin-Hwang Liu, Yu-Wen Hu
BACKGROUND: Currently, no large study addressing the relationship between lung cancer patients with different therapies and second primary malignancies (SPMs) is available. METHODS: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a population-based cohort study. Patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer between 1997 and 2005 were enrolled and followed up until Dec. 31, 2011. The endpoint of the study was SPM occurrence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancers were calculated to compare the cancer incidence of the study cohort to that of the general population...
October 20, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Katerina Kopeckova, Tomas Buchler, Zbynek Bortlicek, Karel Hejduk, Renata Chloupkova, Bohuslav Melichar, Petra Pokorna, Jiri Tomasek, Zdenek Linke, Lubos Petruzelka, Igor Kiss, Jana Prausova
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of regorafenib for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in clinical practice in the Czech Republic, and to describe the clinical outcomes of patients in terms of safety and survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The data of patients treated with regorafenib were extracted from the national CORECT registry. The CORECT registry is a non-interventional post-marketing database, gathering information about patients with CRC and treated with targeted agents...
September 14, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Estelle Willems, Arnaud Lombard, Matthias Dedobbeleer, Nicolas Goffart, Bernard Rogister
The main obstacle for the cure of glioblastoma (GBM) is systematic tumor recurrence after treatment. More than 90 % of GBM tumors are indeed recurrent within 5 years after diagnosis and treatment. We urgently need new therapies to specifically address these deadly relapses. A major advance in the understanding of GBM recurrence is the identification of GBM-Initiating Cells (GIC), characterized by their abilities for self-renewal, multilineage differentiation, and proliferation. It appears that these features of GIC could be modulated by the mitotic kinase Aurora A (AurA)...
August 29, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Xiaoli Zhu, Qianming Bai, Yongming Lu, Peng Qi, Jianhui Ding, Jialei Wang, Xiaoyan Zhou
BACKGROUND: The rare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation S768I has only been reported sporadically in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (AC). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the S768I mutation in Chinese patients with lung AC and to retrospectively analyze the response of S768I mutants to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 6698 tissue specimens of lung AC were collected from the Department of Pathology of Shanghai Cancer Center of Fudan University between 2013 and 2015 and screened for EGFR mutations...
August 18, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Masatomo Nishikawa, Hideaki Miyake, Martin Gleave, Masato Fujisawa
BACKGROUND: It has not been well documented that the modulation of stress response mediates the efficacy of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the activity of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus against RCC could be enhanced by OGX-011, an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) targeting the stress-activated chaperone clusterin. METHODS: We investigated the efficacy of combined treatment with temsirolimus plus OGX-011 in a human RCC Caki-1 model focusing on the effects on apoptotic and autophagic pathways...
August 15, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Radoslaw Kwapiszewski, Sebastian D Pawlak, Karolina Adamkiewicz
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most important and attractive targets for specific anticancer therapies. It is a robust regulator of pathways involved in cancer pathogenesis and progression. Thus far, clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of monoclonal antibodies and synthetic tyrosine kinase inhibitors in targeting this receptor; however, novel strategies are still being developed. This article reviews the current state of efforts in targeting the EGFR in cancer therapy. Following a brief characterization of EGFR, we will present a complete list of anti-EGFR agents that are already approved, and available in clinical practice...
August 11, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Supritha G Swamy, Vivek H Kameshwar, Priya B Shubha, Chung Yeng Looi, Muthu K Shanmugam, Frank Arfuso, Arunasalam Dharmarajan, Gautam Sethi, Nanjunda Swamy Shivananju, Anupam Bishayee
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common forms of liver cancer diagnosed worldwide. HCC occurs due to chronic liver disease and is often diagnosed at advanced stages. Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are currently used as first-line agents for HCC therapy, but these are non-selective cytotoxic molecules with significant side effects. Sorafenib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the only approved targeted drug for HCC patients. However, due to adverse side effects and limited efficacy, there is a need for the identification of novel pharmacological drugs beyond sorafenib...
August 11, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Giovan Giuseppe Di Costanzo, Raffaella Tortora, Filomena Morisco, Luigi Addario, Maria Guarino, Gabriella Cordone, Luigia Falco, Nicola Caporaso
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and have a poorer prognosis as compared to non-diabetics when HCC occurs. Diabetics with non-HCC cancers are at higher risk of toxicity related to systemic therapy, but data on HCC are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and effectiveness of sorafenib in HCC patients according to the presence/absence of diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From October 2008 to June 2014, 313 patients with HCC treated with sorafenib were enrolled...
August 9, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Cara M Statz, Sara E Patterson, Susan M Mockus
BACKGROUND: The progression of prostate cancer to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often a result of somatic alterations in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, suggesting that therapies targeting this pathway might lead to improved survival and efficacy. Here, we systematically evaluate the results of clinical trials investigating mTOR inhibition in CRPC and utilize preclinical data to predict clinical outcomes. METHODS: Trials included in the study were identified through PubMed and via review of conference abstracts cited by relevant review articles...
August 9, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Emma D Deeks
Ceritinib (Zykadia™) is an oral, selective inhibitor of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a receptor tyrosine kinase which, after genetic rearrangement, acts as an oncogenic driver in a proportion of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). The drug is approved in several countries worldwide for the treatment of patients with ALK-positive, advanced NSCLC who have previously received the first-generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib (indication details may vary by country). Approval was based on its clinical benefit in this setting in the phase I and II trials known as ASCEND-1 and -2...
October 2016: Targeted Oncology
Mario Scartozzi, Loic Vincent, Marielle Chiron, Stefano Cascinu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading tumour worldwide, and the median survival of metastatic patients with the latest therapeutic options today reaches 30 months. Therefore, it is important to plan a therapeutic strategy, able to optimize the use of the available drugs (fluoropyrimides, oxaliplatin, irinotecan and target biologic therapy), with the objective of maximizing the long-term efficacy, reducing toxicities and assuring better quality of life for the patients with mCRC. Among the most recently available drugs for the treatment of mCRC, aflibercept, a new antiangiogenetic agent, should be considered a promising therapeutical option for the second line setting...
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
Sandrine Faivre, Armand de Gramont, Eric Raymond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
Jayaprakasam Madhumathi, Surapally Sridevi, Rama Shanker Verma
BACKGROUND: Human TNF-related apoptotic-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been used successfully for targeted therapy of almost all cancers. Leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children, and despite the advances in therapeutic strategies, the survival rate in leukemia cases is very low. Overexpression of interleukin 2 receptor (IL2R) in hematological malignancies has been utilized to target leukemia. Here, we report an immunotoxin fusion construct of human IL2α and TRAIL for targeting leukemia...
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
Jeremy W Vandiver, Zachary Singer, Cara Harshberger
Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab are becoming increasingly important in the treatment of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. These agents are known to induce many immune-related adverse events, but rapid-onset nephritis and immune-related hyponatremia have not been described to date. We describe the case of an adult patient who developed severe hyponatremia and rapid-onset nephritis following the first infusion of nivolumab for metastatic melanoma.
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
Chenxi Hu, Xiaodong Jiang
Recent studies suggest that neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) promotes angiogenesis mainly via VEGF and its receptors. It promotes tumorigenesis via formation of the NRP-1/ VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)/VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) complex. In addition to VEGF and its receptors, NRP-1 also binds with other growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). PDGF plays important roles in cellular proliferation and, in particular, blood vessel formation...
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
E Bondon-Guitton, S Combret, M C Pérault-Pochat, M Stève-Dumont, H Bagheri, F Huguet, F Despas, A Pathak, J L Montastruc
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, data have suggested that severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is associated with nilotinib exposure. However, the characteristics of this adverse drug reaction are poorly described since its frequency is low. As far as we know, no study using a spontaneous adverse drug reactions reporting system was performed to describe the characteristics of cases of PAOD related to nilotinib. OBJECTIVE: We performed a study to describe the cardiovascular risk profile of cases of PAOD in patients treated with nilotinib spontaneously reported to the French Pharmacovigilance Database (FPVD)...
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
Amparo Sanchez-Gastaldo, Reyes Gonzalez-Exposito, Rocío Garcia-Carbonero
Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B, LY3009806) is a fully human G1 monoclonal antibody that specifically targets vascular endotelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) with a substantially greater binding affinity than that of its natural ligands. Early clinical trials in patients with advanced solid tumors demonstrated that biologically relevant blood target concentrations are achievable with tolerable doses, and also showed some preliminary evidence of clinical activity. Several pivotal phase III trials have now been concluded and have led regulatory agencies to grant marketing authorization to ramucirumab for use as second line therapy in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma (as single agent or in combination with paclitaxel), in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) (in combination with infusional fluorouracil and irinotecan (FOLFIRI regimen)) and in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (in combination with docetaxel)...
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
Maria Alsina, Markus Moehler, Cinta Hierro, Raquel Guardeño, Josep Tabernero
Gastric cancer (GC) is a major world-wide health problem. It is the third leading cause of death from cancer. The treatment of advanced GC by chemotherapy has limited efficacy. The addition of some targeted therapies like trastuzumab and ramucirumab have added a modest benefit, but only in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2 or HER2)-positive patients and in the second-line setting, respectively. The development of new and effective therapeutic strategies must consider the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of GC; prognostic and predictive biomarkers should be identified for clinical implementation...
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
Jun Gong, Gauri Kelekar, James Shen, John Shen, Sukhpreet Kaur, Monica Mita
Metformin has been used for nearly a century to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Epidemiologic studies first identified the association between metformin and reduced risk of several cancers. The anticancer mechanisms of metformin involve both indirect or insulin-dependent pathways and direct or insulin-independent pathways. Preclinical studies have demonstrated metformin's broad anticancer activity across a spectrum of malignancies. Prospective clinical trials involving metformin in the chemoprevention and treatment of cancer now number in the hundreds...
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
Andrew J Dooley, Avinash Gupta, Mark R Middleton
The selective BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib yield high response rates and improved overall survival in patients with BRAF V600E-mutant metastatic melanoma. Treatment traditionally continues until disease progression or the development of unacceptable toxicity. Acquired drug resistance and toxicity are key challenges with the use of these drugs. Resistance to vemurafenib usually develops within 6-8 months. Management of drug toxicity typically involves stopping vemurafenib until resolution, before restarting at a lower dose, or permanently ceasing vemurafenib therapy...
August 2016: Targeted Oncology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"