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Journal of Physiological Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739454/l-menthol-attenuates-the-magnitude-of-cold-induced-vasodilation-on-the-extremities-of-young-females
#1
Siyeon Kim, Joo-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Menthol chemically triggers cold-sensitive receptors in the skin without conductive skin cooling. We investigated the effects of menthol-induced activation of cutaneous cold receptors on the cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) of the finger. We hypothesized that the menthol application would attenuate typical CIVD responses. METHODS: 1.5% L-menthol was fully applied over the left hand and forearm, and then, the middle finger of the left hand was immersed into 4 °C water for 30 min...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699592/effects-of-feet-warming-using-bed-socks-on-sleep-quality-and-thermoregulatory-responses-in-a-cool-environment
#2
Yelin Ko, Joo-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: As a way of helping to sleep in winter, methods of warming the feet through footbaths or heating pads before bedtime are tried. In particular, bed socks are popular during winter sleeping in Korea, but scientific evidence about the physiological effects of bed socks on sleep quality is rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of feet warming using bed socks on sleep quality and thermoregulatory responses during sleep in a cool environment. METHODS: Six young males (22...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685171/ageing-vision-and-falls-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Liana Nafisa Saftari, Oh-Sang Kwon
BACKGROUND: Falls are the leading cause of accidental injury and death among older adults. One of three adults over the age of 65 years falls annually. As the size of elderly population increases, falls become a major concern for public health and there is a pressing need to understand the causes of falls thoroughly. While it is well documented that visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereo acuity are correlated with fall risks, little attention has been paid to the relationship between falls and the ability of the visual system to perceive motion in the environment...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685169/impact-of-a-single-short-morning-bright-light-exposure-on-tryptophan-pathways-and-visuo-and-sensorimotor-performance-a-crossover-study
#4
Wolfgang Schobersberger, Cornelia Blank, Friedrich Hanser, Andrea Griesmacher, Markus Canazei, Veronika Leichtfried
BACKGROUND: Bright light (BL) has been shown to be effective in enhancing both cognitive and physical performances. Alterations in nighttime melatonin levels have also been observed. However, evaluations of light-induced changes in the preceding biochemical processes are absent. Therefore, the impact of a single morning BL exposure on sensorimotor and visuomotor performance, as well as tryptophan (trp) and trp metabolites, was evaluated in this study. METHODS: In a crossover design, 33 healthy volunteers were randomly exposed to 30 min of < 150 lx at eye level (office light, OL) and 5000 lx at eye level (bright light, BL) of 6500 K in the morning hours...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661255/serotonergic-gene-polymorphisms-5-httlpr-5htr1a-5htr2a-and-population-differences-in-aggression-traditional-hadza-and-datoga-and-industrial-russians-populations-compared
#5
Marina L Butovskaya, Polina R Butovskaya, Vasiliy A Vasilyev, Jane M Sukhodolskaya, Dania I Fekhredtinova, Dmitri V Karelin, Julia N Fedenok, Audax Z P Mabulla, Alexey P Ryskov, Oleg E Lazebny
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge on genetic basis of aggressive behavior is still contradictory. This may be due to the fact that the majority of studies targeting associations between candidate genes and aggression are conducted on industrial societies and mainly dealing with various types of psychopathology and disorders. Because of that, our study was carried on healthy adult individuals of both sex (n = 853). METHODS: Three populations were examined: two traditional (Hadza and Datoga) and one industrial (Russians), and the association of aggression with the following polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR, rs6295 (5HTR1A gene), and rs6311 (5HTR2A gene) were tested...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625625/association-of-egln1-genetic-polymorphisms-with-spo-2-responses-to-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia-in-a-japanese-cohort
#6
Yoshiki Yasukochi, Takayuki Nishimura, Midori Motoi, Shigeki Watanuki
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have explored various genetic and physiological factors related to high-altitude adaptation in highlander populations. However, the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), influencing such adaptation, on physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia have not been examined in lowlanders with lowlander ancestry. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between SNPs around the EGLN1 genomic region, possibly involved in high-altitude adaptation, and physiological changes to hypobaric hypoxia exposure in a cohort of Japanese lowlanders...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609641/enhanced-nogo-p3-amplitudes-of-mothers-compared-with-non-mother-women-during-an-emotional-go-nogo-task
#7
Sayuri Hayashi, Hiroko Wada, Sung-Phil Kim, Yuki Motomura, Shigekazu Higuchi, Yeon-Kyu Kim
BACKGROUND: It is known that emotion regulatory responses of humans are changed by the experiences they have, but in particular, they are changed by becoming a mother. A recent study has found how a woman's emotion regulatory response to a child's crying changes after becoming a mother. However, mothers' emotion regulatory responses other than those to children and the association between emotion regulatory response and parental stress are still unknown. METHODS: Eighteen healthy Japanese females (nine mothers and nine non-mothers) participated in the experiment...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587872/sequencing-the-exons-of-human-glucocorticoid-receptor-nr3c1-gene-in-han-chinese-with-high-altitude-pulmonary-edema
#8
Hui Du, Jing Zhao, Zhanhai Su, Yongnian Liu, Yingzhong Yang
BACKGROUND: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a serious acute mountain sickness that mainly occurs in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The precise etiology of HAPE remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether NR3C1 gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to HAPE. METHODS: The exons of NR3C1 gene were sequenced by a ABI 3730 DNA analyzer in 133 HAPE patients and matched 135 healthy Han Chinese controls from the Yushu area in Qinghai (the altitude greater than 3500 m)...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467034/seasonal-differences-in-brown-adipose-tissue-density-and-pulse-rate-variability-in-a-thermoneutral-environment
#9
Shinsuke Nirengi, Naoki Sakane, Shiho Amagasa, Sawako Wakui, Toshiyuki Homma, Yuko Kurosawa, Takafumi Hamaoka
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is sympathetically activated and induces thermogenesis during cold exposure, thereby influencing energy expenditure and body fat levels. The very low frequency (VLF) components of pulse rate variability could be a form of thermogenic sympathetic nervous activity, but no clear relationship has yet been reported between VLF activity and BAT density. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between them. METHODS: We enrolled 20 adults in winter and 20 matched adults in summer...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454386/telomere-elongation-protects-heart-and-lung-tissue-cells-from-fatal-damage-in-rats-exposed-to-severe-hypoxia
#10
Yaping Wang, Zhen Zhao, Zhiyong Zhu, Pingying Li, Xiaolin Li, Xiaohong Xue, Jie Duo, Yingcai Ma
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute hypoxia at high altitude on the telomere length of the cells in the heart and lung tissues remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the change in telomere length of rat heart and lung tissue cells in response to acute exposure to severe hypoxia and its role in hypoxia-induced damage to heart and lung tissues. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats (6-week old) were randomized into control group (n = 10) and hypoxia group (n = 30)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454381/human-cerebrovascular-function-in-health-and-disease-insights-from-integrative-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Erin D Ozturk, Can Ozan Tan
BACKGROUND: The marked increase in the size of the brain, and consequently, in neural processing capability, throughout human evolution is the basis of the higher cognitive function in humans. However, greater neural, and thus information processing capability, comes at a significant metabolic cost; despite its relatively small size, the modern human brain consumes almost a quarter of the glucose and oxygen supply in the human body. Fortunately, several vascular mechanisms ensure sufficient delivery of glucose and oxygen to the active neural tissue (neurovascular coupling), prompt removal of neural metabolic by-products (cerebral vasoreactivity), and constant global blood supply despite daily variations in perfusion pressure (cerebral autoregulation)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361988/black-tea-aroma-inhibited-increase-of-salivary-chromogranin-a-after-arithmetic-tasks
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ai Yoto, Natsuki Fukui, Chisa Kaneda, Shoko Torita, Keiichi Goto, Fumio Nanjo, Hidehiko Yokogoshi
BACKGROUND: Growing attention has been paid to the effects of food flavor components on alleviating negative brain functions caused by stressful lifestyles. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effect of two kinds of black tea aromas on physical and psychological stress induced by the Uchida-Kraepelin test, based on salivary chromogranin-A (CgA) levels as a stress marker and subjective evaluations (Profile of Mood States). RESULTS: Compared with the water exposure control, inhaling black tea aroma (Darjeeling and Assam in this study) induced lower salivary CgA concentration levels after 30 min of mental stress load tasks...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321065/developmental-changes-in-shortening-of-pro-saccade-reaction-time-while-maintaining-neck-flexion-position
#13
Kenji Kunita, Katsuo Fujiwara, Naoe Kiyota, Chie Yaguchi, Takeo Kiyota
BACKGROUND: We investigated developmental changes in shortening of pro-saccade reaction time while maintaining neck flexion. METHODS: Subjects comprised 135 children (3-14 years) and 29 young adults (19-23 years). Children were divided into six groups in 2-year age strata. Pro-saccade reaction tasks for 30 s were performed in neck rest and flexion positions. Reaction times under each position were averaged in every 10-s period. RESULTS: Under neck rest position, reaction time in the 0-10 s period was significantly longer in the 3- to 4-year-old group than in the 5- to 6-year-old group and above...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310714/timings-of-attentional-switching-to-perturbation-and-postural-preparation-during-transient-forward-or-backward-floor-translation
#14
Katsuo Fujiwara, Chie Yaguchi, Maki Maekawa, Naoe Kiyota
BACKGROUND: Relationships between the timings of attentional switching and postural preparation were investigated using a choice-reaction paradigm with transient floor translation (S2), with the direction indicated by a warning auditory signal (S1). METHODS: Thirteen healthy young adults participated in this study. S2 started 2 s after S1 onset while standing on the platform. The platform moved forward when S1 was a high tone, and backward when S1 was a low tone...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273080/activation-timing-of-postural-muscles-of-lower-legs-and-prediction-of-postural-disturbance-during-bilateral-arm-flexion-in-older-adults
#15
Chie Yaguchi, Katsuo Fujiwara, Naoe Kiyota
BACKGROUND: Activation timings of postural muscles of lower legs and prediction of postural disturbance were investigated in young and older adults during bilateral arm flexion in a self-timing task and an oddball task with different probabilities of target presentation. Arm flexion was started from a standing posture with hands suspended 10 cm below the horizontal level in front of the body, in which postural control focused on the ankles is important. METHODS: Fourteen young and 14 older adults raised the arms in response to the target sound signal...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246187/muscle-co-contraction-in-elderly-people-change-due-to-postural-stability-during-single-leg-standing
#16
Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Makoto Takahashi, Koichi Shinkoda
BACKGROUND: Muscle co-contraction is the simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles crossing a joint, and it increases with age. This study primarily aimed to clarify the difference in the effect of a light fingertip contact to stationary surface on postural sway and muscle co-contraction during single-leg standing (SLS) between young and elderly groups; the secondary aim was to reveal the quantitative difference in the muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint among the three different support structure conditions in the elderly group...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212523/relationship-between-maximum-oxygen-uptake-and-peripheral-vasoconstriction-in-a-cold-environment
#17
Takafumi Maeda
BACKGROUND: Various individual characteristics affect environmental adaptability of a human. The present study evaluates the relationship between physical fitness and peripheral vasoconstriction in a cold environment. METHODS: Seven healthy male students (aged 22.0 years) participated in this study. Cold exposure tests consisted of supine rest for 60 min at 28 °C followed by 90 min at 10 °C. Rectal and skin temperatures at seven sites, oxygen consumption, and the diameter of a finger vein were measured during the experiment...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202824/cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-right-posterior-parietal-cortex-enhances-human-temporal-discrimination-ability
#18
Fuyuki Oyama, Keita Ishibashi, Koichi Iwanaga
BACKGROUND: Time perception associated with durations from 1 s to several minutes involves activity in the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC). It is unclear whether altering the activity of the rPPC affects an individual's timing performance. Here, we investigated the human timing performance under the application of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) that altered the neural activities of the rPPC. METHODS: We measured the participants' duration-discrimination threshold by administering a behavioral task during the tDCS application...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165166/correction-to-anthropometric-and-metabolic-indices-in-assessment-of-type-and-severity-of-dyslipidemia
#19
Muhammad Zaid, Fatima Ameer, Rimsha Munir, Rida Rashid, Nimrah Farooq, Shahida Hasnain, Nousheen Zaidi
After the publication of this work [1] an error was noticed in one of the formulas.
November 22, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149913/subadditive-responses-to-extremely-short-blue-and-green-pulsed-light-on-visual-evoked-potentials-pupillary-constriction-and-electroretinograms
#20
Soomin Lee, Yuria Uchiyama, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
BACKGROUND: The simultaneous exposure to blue and green light was reported to result in less melatonin suppression than monochromatic exposure to blue or green light. Here, we conducted an experiment using extremely short blue- and green-pulsed light to examine their visual and nonvisual effects on visual evoked potentials (VEPs), pupillary constriction, electroretinograms (ERGs), and subjective evaluations. METHODS: Twelve adult male subjects were exposed to three light conditions: blue-pulsed light (2...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
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