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Journal of Physiological Anthropology

Yuki Nishimura, Yuki Ikeda, Shigekazu Higuchi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of the inhibition of automatic imitation in social interactions. Additionally, cognitive traits are known to vary among individuals. According to the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) model, personality can be quantified by empathizing and systemizing drives in causal cognition. Since inhibition of automatic imitation is strongly related to social cognition, the level of inhibition may be explained by personal cognitive traits...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Tomoaki Kozaki, Yuki Hidaka, Jun-Ya Takakura, Yosuke Kusano
BACKGROUND: Bright light at night is known to suppress melatonin secretion. Novel photoreceptors named intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are mainly responsible for projecting dark/bright information to the suprachiasmatic nucleus and thus regulating the circadian system. However, it has been shown that the amplitude of the electroretinogram of ipRGCs is considerably lower under flickering light at 100 Hz than at 1-5 Hz, suggesting that flickering light may also affect the circadian system...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Masahiro Itoh, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Tatsuya Hojo, Miho Yoshimura, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka
BACKGROUND: We investigated cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic challenge in trained spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals compared to able-bodied (AB) individuals. METHODS: A total of 23 subjects participated, divided into three groups: seven were trained as spinal cord-injured (Tr-SCI) individuals, seven were able-bodied individuals trained as runners (Tr-AB), and nine were untrained able-bodied individuals (UnTr-AB). We measured the cardiovascular autonomic responses in all three groups during each 5-min head-up tilt (HUT) of 0°, 40°, and 80°...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Soomin Lee, Shougo Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that the abstract was missing from this article.
August 30, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Sweta Koirala, Masayuki Nakano, Hiroaki Arima, Shouhei Takeuchi, Tomo Ichikawa, Takayuki Nishimura, Hiromu Ito, Basu Dev Pandey, Kishor Pandey, Takayuki Wada, Taro Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Epidemiology of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) are influenced by multiple hosts and environmental factors. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of NCDs and determine their risk factors among the adults residing in an isolated village situated at a rural highland of Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village located at 3570 m. Each 188 randomly selected participants of age ≥ 18 years old answered a questionnaire and took a full physical exam that included biomedical measurements of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Nirmala Rathnayake, Gayani Alwis, Janaka Lenora, Sarath Lekamwasam
BACKGROUND: Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) is a measure of body muscle content, and it correlates with nutrition and physical status. Estimation of ASMM using anthropometric models is a well-established strategy to overcome issues related to the restricted availability of sophisticated techniques in measuring ASMM. This study aimed to assess the validity of four selected anthropometric models in estimating ASMM in middle-aged women in Sri Lanka. METHODS: A group of women (n = 165) aged 30-60 years underwent a series of anthropometric measurements such as body weight, height, circumferences, and skin fold thickness at specific sites...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Takafumi Maeda, Masahiro Horiuchi
BACKGROUND: Energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT) against speed shows U-shaped fashion in walking and linear fashion in running, indicating that there exists a specific walking speed minimizing the CoT, being defined as economical speed (ES). Another specific gait speed is the intersection speed between both fashions, being called energetically optimal transition speed (EOTS). We measured the ES, EOTS, and muscle activities during walking and running at the EOTS under hyperoxia (40% fraction of inspired oxygen) on the level and uphill gradients (+ 5%)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Tomoaki Kozaki, Yuki Hidaka
BACKGROUND: Salivary melatonin levels have been analyzed in many research fields, including physiological anthropology. Although various devices have been utilized for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common. However, previous studies have reported that cotton swabs may interfere with melatonin assay results, whereas synthetic swabs may not. These studies compared only mean melatonin levels between passive and synthetic-polymer swab collection methods but did not evaluate relative and proportional biases...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yuki Nishimura, Yuki Ikeda, Airi Suematsu, Shigekazu Higuchi
BACKGROUND: The human mirror neuron system exists in adults, and even in children. However, a significant, unanswered question in the literature concerns age differences in the effect of visual orientation of human body movements. The observation of actions performed by others is known to activate populations of neural cells called mirror neuron system. Moreover, the power of mu rhythms (8-13 Hz) in the EEG is known to decrease while performing and observing human movements. Therefore, the mu rhythm could be related to the activity of the mirror neuron system...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Alan C Logan, Susan L Prescott, Tari Haahtela, David L Katz
In 1980, Jonas Salk (1914-1995) encouraged professionals in anthropology and related disciplines to consider the interconnections between "planetary health," sociocultural changes associated with technological advances, and the biology of human health. The concept of planetary health emphasizes that human health is intricately connected to the health of natural systems within the Earth's biosphere; experts in physiological anthropology have illuminated some of the mechanisms by which experiences in natural environments (or the built environment) can promote or detract from health...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Siyeon Kim, Joo-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Menthol chemically triggers cold-sensitive receptors in the skin without conductive skin cooling. We investigated the effects of menthol-induced activation of cutaneous cold receptors on the cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) of the finger. We hypothesized that the menthol application would attenuate typical CIVD responses. METHODS: 1.5% L-menthol was fully applied over the left hand and forearm, and then, the middle finger of the left hand was immersed into 4 °C water for 30 min...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yelin Ko, Joo-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: As a way of helping to sleep in winter, methods of warming the feet through footbaths or heating pads before bedtime are tried. In particular, bed socks are popular during winter sleeping in Korea, but scientific evidence about the physiological effects of bed socks on sleep quality is rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of feet warming using bed socks on sleep quality and thermoregulatory responses during sleep in a cool environment. METHODS: Six young males (22...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Liana Nafisa Saftari, Oh-Sang Kwon
BACKGROUND: Falls are the leading cause of accidental injury and death among older adults. One of three adults over the age of 65 years falls annually. As the size of elderly population increases, falls become a major concern for public health and there is a pressing need to understand the causes of falls thoroughly. While it is well documented that visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereo acuity are correlated with fall risks, little attention has been paid to the relationship between falls and the ability of the visual system to perceive motion in the environment...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Wolfgang Schobersberger, Cornelia Blank, Friedrich Hanser, Andrea Griesmacher, Markus Canazei, Veronika Leichtfried
BACKGROUND: Bright light (BL) has been shown to be effective in enhancing both cognitive and physical performances. Alterations in nighttime melatonin levels have also been observed. However, evaluations of light-induced changes in the preceding biochemical processes are absent. Therefore, the impact of a single morning BL exposure on sensorimotor and visuomotor performance, as well as tryptophan (trp) and trp metabolites, was evaluated in this study. METHODS: In a crossover design, 33 healthy volunteers were randomly exposed to 30 min of < 150 lx at eye level (office light, OL) and 5000 lx at eye level (bright light, BL) of 6500 K in the morning hours...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Marina L Butovskaya, Polina R Butovskaya, Vasiliy A Vasilyev, Jane M Sukhodolskaya, Dania I Fekhredtinova, Dmitri V Karelin, Julia N Fedenok, Audax Z P Mabulla, Alexey P Ryskov, Oleg E Lazebny
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge on genetic basis of aggressive behavior is still contradictory. This may be due to the fact that the majority of studies targeting associations between candidate genes and aggression are conducted on industrial societies and mainly dealing with various types of psychopathology and disorders. Because of that, our study was carried on healthy adult individuals of both sex (n = 853). METHODS: Three populations were examined: two traditional (Hadza and Datoga) and one industrial (Russians), and the association of aggression with the following polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR, rs6295 (5HTR1A gene), and rs6311 (5HTR2A gene) were tested...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yoshiki Yasukochi, Takayuki Nishimura, Midori Motoi, Shigeki Watanuki
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have explored various genetic and physiological factors related to high-altitude adaptation in highlander populations. However, the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), influencing such adaptation, on physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia have not been examined in lowlanders with lowlander ancestry. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between SNPs around the EGLN1 genomic region, possibly involved in high-altitude adaptation, and physiological changes to hypobaric hypoxia exposure in a cohort of Japanese lowlanders...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Sayuri Hayashi, Hiroko Wada, Sung-Phil Kim, Yuki Motomura, Shigekazu Higuchi, Yeon-Kyu Kim
BACKGROUND: It is known that emotion regulatory responses of humans are changed by the experiences they have, but in particular, they are changed by becoming a mother. A recent study has found how a woman's emotion regulatory response to a child's crying changes after becoming a mother. However, mothers' emotion regulatory responses other than those to children and the association between emotion regulatory response and parental stress are still unknown. METHODS: Eighteen healthy Japanese females (nine mothers and nine non-mothers) participated in the experiment...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Hui Du, Jing Zhao, Zhanhai Su, Yongnian Liu, Yingzhong Yang
BACKGROUND: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a serious acute mountain sickness that mainly occurs in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The precise etiology of HAPE remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether NR3C1 gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to HAPE. METHODS: The exons of NR3C1 gene were sequenced by a ABI 3730 DNA analyzer in 133 HAPE patients and matched 135 healthy Han Chinese controls from the Yushu area in Qinghai (the altitude greater than 3500 m)...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Shinsuke Nirengi, Naoki Sakane, Shiho Amagasa, Sawako Wakui, Toshiyuki Homma, Yuko Kurosawa, Takafumi Hamaoka
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is sympathetically activated and induces thermogenesis during cold exposure, thereby influencing energy expenditure and body fat levels. The very low frequency (VLF) components of pulse rate variability could be a form of thermogenic sympathetic nervous activity, but no clear relationship has yet been reported between VLF activity and BAT density. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between them. METHODS: We enrolled 20 adults in winter and 20 matched adults in summer...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yaping Wang, Zhen Zhao, Zhiyong Zhu, Pingying Li, Xiaolin Li, Xiaohong Xue, Jie Duo, Yingcai Ma
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute hypoxia at high altitude on the telomere length of the cells in the heart and lung tissues remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the change in telomere length of rat heart and lung tissue cells in response to acute exposure to severe hypoxia and its role in hypoxia-induced damage to heart and lung tissues. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats (6-week old) were randomized into control group (n = 10) and hypoxia group (n = 30)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
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