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Journal of Physiological Anthropology

Theresa E Gildner, Tara J Cepon-Robins, Melissa A Liebert, Samuel S Urlacher, Felicia C Madimenos, J Josh Snodgrass, Lawrence S Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection peaks during childhood and varies by sex. The impact of market integration (MI) (increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy) on these infection patterns, however, is unclear. In this study, STH infection is examined by sex and age among indigenous Shuar inhabiting two regions of Amazonian Ecuador: (1) the modestly market-integrated Upano Valley (UV) and (2) the more traditional Cross-Cutucú (CC) region. METHODS: Kato-Katz fecal smears were examined for parasite presence and infection intensity...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Xinxin Liu, Kazuma Ishimatsu, Midori Sotoyama, Kazuyuki Iwakiri
BACKGROUND: Positive emotion is considered as an important factor related to health-relevant biological processes, including cardiovascular responses. To explore the possibility of using positive emotion as a tool to manage cardiovascular response of white-collar workers, we examined the influence on cardiovascular response of positive emotion inducement before a mental work. METHOD: Seventeen healthy males participated and performed a 10-min, PC-based Stroop color word task as their mental work...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Mie Izumi, Emiko Manabe, Sayo Uematsu, Ayako Watanabe, Toshio Moritani
BACKGROUND: Many women become obese during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Weight gain and obesity in the general population are often attributed to abnormalities of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. The aim of this study was to clarify change in ANS activity, body weight, percentage fat mass (%FM), and body mass index (BMI) and the factors regulating the return to the pre-pregnancy weight in the first year postpartum. METHODS: This study was conducted from 2012 to 2016 at the University Hospital of the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine and a nearby obstetrics and gynecology clinic in Japan...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yasuyo Abe, Takayuki Nishimura, Kazuhiko Arima, Mitsuo Kanagae, Satoshi Mizukami, Yoshihito Tomita, Takuhiro Okabe, Hisashi Goto, Itsuko Horiguchi, Kiyoshi Aoyagi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the association of walking difficulty with bone mass or bone turnover among community-dwelling Japanese people aged 40 years and older. METHODS: We studied 1097 community-dwelling Japanese people aged 40 years and older (379 men and 718 women) who were invited to participate in periodic health examinations in 2006-2009. Walking difficulty was defined as having difficulty walking 100 m on a level surface (self-administered questionnaire)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Emi Yuda, Hiroki Ogasawara, Yutaka Yoshida, Junichiro Hayano
BACKGROUND: In the contemporary life environments, our body is increasingly exposed to various sources of colored light, which may affect our physiological functions as non-image-forming effects. We examined the impacts of colored lights on the autonomic functions by the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: A lighting device consisting of four organic light-emitting diode (OLED) modules (55 × 55 mm(2)) with adjustable red-green-blue color was secured 24 cm above the eyes of subject lying supine in a light-shielded laboratory...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Keiichi Moromizato, Ryosuke Kimura, Hitoshi Fukase, Kyoko Yamaguchi, Hajime Ishida
BACKGROUND: Understanding the whole-body patterns of joint flexibility and their related biological and physical factors contributes not only to clinical assessments but also to the fields of human factors and ergonomics. In this study, ranges of motion (ROMs) at limb and trunk joints of young adults were analysed to understand covariation patterns of different joint motions and to identify factors associated with the variation in ROM. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy volunteers (42 males and 36 females) living on Okinawa Island, Japan, were recruited...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Adina E Draghici, J Andrew Taylor
Cardiovascular variabilities were recognized over 250 years ago, but only in the past 20 years has their apparent utility come to be appreciated. Technological advancement has allowed precise measurement and quantification of short-term cardiovascular fluctuations; however, our understanding of the integrated mechanisms which underlie these oscillations is inadequate for their widespread application. Both autonomic branches, the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system, are key determinants of the magnitude of these spontaneous cardiovascular fluctuations...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Takafumi Katsumura, Yukiko Fukuyo, Shoji Kawamura, Hiroki Oota
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock is set up around a 24-h period in humans who are awake in the daytime and sleep in the nighttime, accompanied with physiological and metabolic rhythms. Most haplorhine primates, including humans, are diurnal, while most "primitive" strepsirrhine primates are nocturnal, suggesting primates have evolved from nocturnal to diurnal habits. The mechanisms of physiological changes causing the habits and of genetic changes causing the physiological changes are, however, unknown...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
V Daneault, M Dumont, É Massé, G Vandewalle, J Carrier
Notwithstanding its effects on the classical visual system allowing image formation, light acts upon several non-image-forming (NIF) functions including body temperature, hormonal secretions, sleep-wake cycle, alertness, and cognitive performance. Studies have shown that NIF functions are maximally sensitive to blue wavelengths (460-480 nm), in comparison to longer light wavelengths. Higher blue light sensitivity has been reported for melatonin suppression, pupillary constriction, vigilance, and performance improvement but also for modulation of cognitive brain functions...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Soomin Lee, Shougo Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Koh Mizuno, Akiko Matsumoto, Tatsuya Aiba, Takashi Abe, Hiroshi Ohshima, Masaya Takahashi, Yuichi Inoue
BACKGROUND: Flight controllers of the International Space Station (ISS) are engaged in shift work to provide 24-h coverage to support ISS systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) among Japanese ISS flight controllers. METHODS: A questionnaire study was conducted using the Standard Shiftwork Index to evaluate sleep-related problems and possible associated variables. Among 52 respondents out of 73 flight controllers, 30 subjects were identified as night shift workers who worked 3 or more night shifts per month...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Norio Hotta, Kaoru Yamamoto, Hisayoshi Ogata, Patrick Maher, Naoya Okumura, Koji Ishida
Previous research has shown an exaggeration in exercise hyperpnea 2 days after eccentric exercise (ECC). Enhancement in central command has been suggested as one candidate to account for this effect given that ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction increases relative exercise intensity, thus resulting in reinforcement of effort sense. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to elucidate whether the degree of alteration in effort sense caused by ECC affects exercise hyperpnea. Ten subjects performed 20-s single-arm extension-flexion exercises with weight strapped to the wrist, and ventilatory response was measured before (Pre) and 2 days after ECC (D2)...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Nahid Tahan, Khosro Khademi-Kalantari, Mohammad Ali Mohseni-Bandpei, Saeed Mikaili, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Shapour Jaberzadeh
BACKGROUND: Real-time ultrasound imaging is a valid method in the field of rehabilitation. The ultrasound imaging allows direct visualization for real-time study of the muscles as they contract over the time. Measuring of the size of each abdominal muscle in relation to the others provides useful information about the differences in structure, as well as data on trunk muscle activation patterns. The purpose of this study was to assess the size and symmetry of the abdominal muscles at rest in healthy adults and to provide a reference range of absolute abdominal muscle size in a relatively large population...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Dahee Jung, Dami Kim, Joonhee Park, Joo Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Insensible body mass loss (IBL) from the human body continuously occurs, which is an important component in body heat exchange. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of IBL to anthropometric characteristics and self-identified thermal tolerance. METHODS: A total of 289 healthy young Korean males were chosen and sorted into the following three groups: heat tolerable only (HTO, N = 79), cold tolerable only (CTO, N = 104), neither heat nor cold tolerable (NHC, N = 106)...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Vitalii Lytnev, Katsuo Fujiwara, Naoe Kiyota, Mariko Irei, Hiroshi Toyama, Chie Yaguchi
BACKGROUND: Adaptation changes in postural muscle activity and anticipatory attention were investigated with the ankle joint fixed to change postural control strategies during transient floor translation. METHODS: For 15 healthy young adults, 40 transient floor translations (S2) in the anterior direction were applied 2 s after an auditory warning signal (S1), under conditions with or without fixation of the ankle. Activity of the frontal postural muscles (tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF), rectus abdominis) and contingent negative variation (CNV, brain potential) were analyzed for 20 trials each of the early and latter halves under each fixation condition...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Mathias Adamsson, Thorbjörn Laike, Takeshi Morita
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations in physiology and behavior have frequently been reported. Light is the major zeitgeber for synchronizing internal circadian rhythms with the external solar day. Non-image forming effects of light radiation, for example, phase resetting of the circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and acute alerting effects, depend on several characteristics of the light exposure including intensity, timing and duration, spectral composition and previous light exposure, or light history...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Emily Deans
A revolution in the understanding of the pathophysiology of mental illness combined with new knowledge about host/microbiome interactions and psychoneuroimmunology has opened an entirely new field of study, the "psychobiotics". The modern microbiome is quite changed compared to our ancestral one due to diet, antibiotic exposure, and other environmental factors, and these differences may well impact our brain health. The sheer complexity and scope of how diet, probiotics, prebiotics, and intertwined environmental variables could influence mental health are profound obstacles to an organized and useful study of the microbiome and psychiatric disease...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Naoko Yanagawa, Teruichi Shimomitsu, Masashi Kawanishi, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Hiroaki Kanehisa
AIM: Sit-to-stand (STS) test is extensively used to assess the functionality of the lower body in elderly people. This study aimed to examine how the score of STS can be associated with that of maximal walking (MW) tests through a cross-sectional as well as longitudinal analysis for non-disabled older women. METHOD: Times taken for a 10-time-repeated STS (STS time) and 5-m MW (MW time) were determined before (pre) and after (post) a 3-month body mass-based exercise program in 154 non-disabled women aged 60 to 79 years...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Akira Saito, Ryoichi Ema, Takayuki Inami, Sumiaki Maeo, Shun Otsuka, Mitsuru Higuchi, Shigenobu Shibata, Yasuo Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Although the sit-to-stand (STS) test score has been shown to relate to the strength and size of the quadriceps femoris (QF) for elderly population, it is unknown whether this relationship is influenced by a posture (i.e., the trunk being allowed to stoop or not) during the STS test. The present study investigated the relationship between STS test score and QF anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) in the middle-aged and elderly population with regard to the difference in the posture during STS test, and aimed to develop an accurate predicting equation of the QF ACSA from the STS test score...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Mi-Sook Park, Bae Hwan Lee, Jin-Hun Sohn
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the neural circuitry underlying anger processing among alcoholics. The purpose of this study was to examine the altered brain activity of alcoholic individuals during transient anger emotion. METHODS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 18 male patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence in an inpatient alcohol treatment facility and 16 social drinkers with similar demographics were scanned during the viewing of anger-provoking film clips...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
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