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Journal of Physiological Anthropology

Shinsuke Nirengi, Naoki Sakane, Shiho Amagasa, Sawako Wakui, Toshiyuki Homma, Yuko Kurosawa, Takafumi Hamaoka
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is sympathetically activated and induces thermogenesis during cold exposure, thereby influencing energy expenditure and body fat levels. The very low frequency (VLF) components of pulse rate variability could be a form of thermogenic sympathetic nervous activity, but no clear relationship has yet been reported between VLF activity and BAT density. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between them. METHODS: We enrolled 20 adults in winter and 20 matched adults in summer...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yaping Wang, Zhen Zhao, Zhiyong Zhu, Pingying Li, Xiaolin Li, Xiaohong Xue, Jie Duo, Yingcai Ma
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute hypoxia at high altitude on the telomere length of the cells in the heart and lung tissues remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the change in telomere length of rat heart and lung tissue cells in response to acute exposure to severe hypoxia and its role in hypoxia-induced damage to heart and lung tissues. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats (6-week old) were randomized into control group (n = 10) and hypoxia group (n = 30)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Erin D Ozturk, Can Ozan Tan
BACKGROUND: The marked increase in the size of the brain, and consequently, in neural processing capability, throughout human evolution is the basis of the higher cognitive function in humans. However, greater neural, and thus information processing capability, comes at a significant metabolic cost; despite its relatively small size, the modern human brain consumes almost a quarter of the glucose and oxygen supply in the human body. Fortunately, several vascular mechanisms ensure sufficient delivery of glucose and oxygen to the active neural tissue (neurovascular coupling), prompt removal of neural metabolic by-products (cerebral vasoreactivity), and constant global blood supply despite daily variations in perfusion pressure (cerebral autoregulation)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Ai Yoto, Natsuki Fukui, Chisa Kaneda, Shoko Torita, Keiichi Goto, Fumio Nanjo, Hidehiko Yokogoshi
BACKGROUND: Growing attention has been paid to the effects of food flavor components on alleviating negative brain functions caused by stressful lifestyles. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effect of two kinds of black tea aromas on physical and psychological stress induced by the Uchida-Kraepelin test, based on salivary chromogranin-A (CgA) levels as a stress marker and subjective evaluations (Profile of Mood States). RESULTS: Compared with the water exposure control, inhaling black tea aroma (Darjeeling and Assam in this study) induced lower salivary CgA concentration levels after 30 min of mental stress load tasks...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Kenji Kunita, Katsuo Fujiwara, Naoe Kiyota, Chie Yaguchi, Takeo Kiyota
BACKGROUND: We investigated developmental changes in shortening of pro-saccade reaction time while maintaining neck flexion. METHODS: Subjects comprised 135 children (3-14 years) and 29 young adults (19-23 years). Children were divided into six groups in 2-year age strata. Pro-saccade reaction tasks for 30 s were performed in neck rest and flexion positions. Reaction times under each position were averaged in every 10-s period. RESULTS: Under neck rest position, reaction time in the 0-10 s period was significantly longer in the 3- to 4-year-old group than in the 5- to 6-year-old group and above...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Katsuo Fujiwara, Chie Yaguchi, Maki Maekawa, Naoe Kiyota
BACKGROUND: Relationships between the timings of attentional switching and postural preparation were investigated using a choice-reaction paradigm with transient floor translation (S2), with the direction indicated by a warning auditory signal (S1). METHODS: Thirteen healthy young adults participated in this study. S2 started 2 s after S1 onset while standing on the platform. The platform moved forward when S1 was a high tone, and backward when S1 was a low tone...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Chie Yaguchi, Katsuo Fujiwara, Naoe Kiyota
BACKGROUND: Activation timings of postural muscles of lower legs and prediction of postural disturbance were investigated in young and older adults during bilateral arm flexion in a self-timing task and an oddball task with different probabilities of target presentation. Arm flexion was started from a standing posture with hands suspended 10 cm below the horizontal level in front of the body, in which postural control focused on the ankles is important. METHODS: Fourteen young and 14 older adults raised the arms in response to the target sound signal...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Makoto Takahashi, Koichi Shinkoda
BACKGROUND: Muscle co-contraction is the simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles crossing a joint, and it increases with age. This study primarily aimed to clarify the difference in the effect of a light fingertip contact to stationary surface on postural sway and muscle co-contraction during single-leg standing (SLS) between young and elderly groups; the secondary aim was to reveal the quantitative difference in the muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint among the three different support structure conditions in the elderly group...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Takafumi Maeda
BACKGROUND: Various individual characteristics affect environmental adaptability of a human. The present study evaluates the relationship between physical fitness and peripheral vasoconstriction in a cold environment. METHODS: Seven healthy male students (aged 22.0 years) participated in this study. Cold exposure tests consisted of supine rest for 60 min at 28 °C followed by 90 min at 10 °C. Rectal and skin temperatures at seven sites, oxygen consumption, and the diameter of a finger vein were measured during the experiment...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Fuyuki Oyama, Keita Ishibashi, Koichi Iwanaga
BACKGROUND: Time perception associated with durations from 1 s to several minutes involves activity in the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC). It is unclear whether altering the activity of the rPPC affects an individual's timing performance. Here, we investigated the human timing performance under the application of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) that altered the neural activities of the rPPC. METHODS: We measured the participants' duration-discrimination threshold by administering a behavioral task during the tDCS application...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Muhammad Zaid, Fatima Ameer, Rimsha Munir, Rida Rashid, Nimrah Farooq, Shahida Hasnain, Nousheen Zaidi
After the publication of this work [1] an error was noticed in one of the formulas.
November 22, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Soomin Lee, Yuria Uchiyama, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
BACKGROUND: The simultaneous exposure to blue and green light was reported to result in less melatonin suppression than monochromatic exposure to blue or green light. Here, we conducted an experiment using extremely short blue- and green-pulsed light to examine their visual and nonvisual effects on visual evoked potentials (VEPs), pupillary constriction, electroretinograms (ERGs), and subjective evaluations. METHODS: Twelve adult male subjects were exposed to three light conditions: blue-pulsed light (2...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Makoto Takahashi, Koichi Shinkoda
After the publication of this work [1] an error was noticed in Table 3. In the column 'Elderly', in the last row it states 98 ± 11.87** however the correct value should be: 34.98 ± 11.87**. The original article has been corrected.
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Soomin Lee, Naoko Muto, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
BACKGROUND: In the human retina, the contribution of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to the regulation of the pupillary response remains poorly understood. The objective of the current study was to determine the response dynamics of the pupillary light reflex to short, successive pulses of light. In order to better assess the roles of ipRGCs and cones, we used pulses of blue and green light. METHODS: Each participant was exposed to 1-ms blue (466 nm) and/or green (527 nm) light pulses simultaneously or separately, with inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 0, 250, 500, 750, or 1000 ms...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yuko Kochiya, Akari Hirabayashi, Yuhei Ichimaru
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the dynamic nature of nocturnal heart rate variability, RR intervals recorded with a wearable heart rate sensor were analyzed using the Least Square Cosine Spectrum Method. METHODS: Six 1-year-old infants participated in the study. A wearable heart rate sensor was placed on their chest to measure RR intervals and 3-axis acceleration. Heartbeat time series were analyzed for every 30 s using the Least Square Cosine Spectrum Method, and an original parameter to quantify the regularity of respiratory-related heart rate rhythm was extracted and referred to as "RA (RA-COSPEC: Respiratory Area obtained by COSPEC)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Masakazu Okada, Shingo Kitamura, Yoshitaka Iwadare, Hisateru Tachimori, Yuichi Kamei, Shigekazu Higuchi, Kazuo Mishima
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of sleep questionnaires with few items and confirmed reliability and validity that can be used for the early detection of sleep problems in children. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire with few items and assess its reliability and validity in both children at high risk of sleep disorders and a community population. METHODS: Data for analysis were derived from two populations targeted by the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ): 178 children attending elementary school and 432 children who visited a pediatric psychiatric hospital (aged 6-12 years)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Taishi Furushima, Motohiko Miyachi, Motoyuki Iemitsu, Haruka Murakami, Hiroshi Kawano, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Kiyoshi Sanada
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop and cross-validate prediction equations for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and to examine the relationship between sarcopenia defined by the prediction equations and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or osteoporosis in Japanese men and women. METHODS: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, who were randomly allocated to the following two groups: the development group (D group; 257 men, 913 women) and the cross-validation group (V group; 119 men, 112 women)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Joo-Young Lee, Joonhee Park, Siyeon Kim
BACKGROUND: We have been studying the thermoregulatory responses of Korean breath-hold women divers, called haenyeo, in terms of aging and cold adaptation. During the 1960s to the 1980s, haenyeos received attention from environmental physiologists due to their unique ability to endure cold water while wearing only a thin cotton bathing suit. However, their overall cold-adaptive traits have disappeared since they began to wear wetsuits and research has waned since the 1980s. For social and economic reasons, the number of haenyeos rapidly decreased to 4005 in 2015 from 14,143 in 1970 and the average age of haenyeos is about 75 years old at present...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Makoto Takahashi, Koichi Shinkoda
BACKGROUND: Agonist and antagonist muscle co-contractions during motor tasks are greater in the elderly than in young adults. During normal walking, muscle co-contraction increases with gait speed in young adults, but not in elderly adults. However, no study has compared the effects of speed on muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint during dynamic postural control in young and elderly adults. We compared muscle co-contractions of the ankle joint between young and elderly subjects during a functional stability boundary test at different speeds...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Kenta Takeda, Hiroki Mani, Naoya Hasegawa, Yuki Sato, Shintaro Tanaka, Hiroshi Maejima, Tadayoshi Asaka
BACKGROUND: The benefit of visual feedback of the center of pressure (COP) on quiet standing is still debatable. This study aimed to investigate the adaptation effects of visual feedback training using both the COP and center of gravity (COG) during quiet standing. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy young adults were divided into three groups randomly (COP + COG, COP, and control groups). A force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the COP in the anteroposterior (COPAP) and mediolateral (COPML) directions...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
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