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Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683098/untargeted-metabolomics-in-the-discovery-of-novel-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
Vi T Dang, Aric Huang, Geoff H Werstuck
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Four out of five CVD deaths are due to myocardial infarction or stroke. Despite many initiatives that have been established for CVD prevention and risk management, and new therapies to treat existing CVD, patients continue to die from cardiac events. Clearly, we need to identify new therapeutic targets and strategies. Early diagnosis of CVDs and identification of patients at high risk of developing adverse events would allow for timely intervention that prevents serious consequences or death...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669507/buxus-sempervirens-l-improves-lipid-profile-in-diabetic-rats
#2
Mohammed Ajebli, Mohamed Eddouks
Buxus sempervirens L. is used in Morocco as a plant with some medicinal properties including treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of the aqueous extract of Buxus sempervirens L. (Boxwood) leaves on the blood lipid parameters including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
April 18, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669506/mutations-and-common-polymorphisms-in-adamts13-and-vwf-genes-responsible-for-increasing-risk-of-thrombosis
#3
Habib Haybar, Elahe Khodadi, Maria Kavianpour, Najmaldin Saki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: ADAMTS13 (A Disintegrin-like and Metalloproteases with Thrombospondin type-1 repeats, member-13) plays an important role in vascular hemostasis by cleaving the von Willebrand Factor (vWF). ADAMTS13 and vWF are involved in the development of ischemic heart disease. In this review paper, we examine the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations in the vWF and ADAMTS13 genes and their contribution to the development of thrombosis. METHODS: Relevant English-language literature were searched and retrieved from PubMed search engine (2001-2017)...
April 18, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669505/aberrant-dna-methylation-of-socs1-gene-is-not-associated-with-resistance-to-imatinib-mesylate-among-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients
#4
Marjanu Hikmah Elias, Husin Azlan, Abdul Aziz Baba, Ravindran Ankathil
BACKGROUND: In exploring the cause of Imatinib mesylate (IM) resistance among chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients who do not harbouring BCR-ABL dependent mechanism, BCR-ABL independent pathways are the most possible pathways that should be explored. In BCR-ABL independent pathway, SOCS1 plays an important role as it helps to regulate optimal JAK/STAT activity. OBJECTIVE: To identify the association of SOCS1 gene hypermethylation in mediating IM Resistance. METHOD: The SOCS1 promoter methylation level of 92 BCR-ABL non mutated IM resistant CML patients, 83 IM good response CML patients and 5 normal samples from healthy individuals were measured using Methylation Specific- High Resolution Melt (MS-HRM) analysis...
April 18, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623860/adenosine-and-adenosine-5-triphosphate-catabolism-in-systemic-blood-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-doxorubicin-cardiotoxicity-in-an-experimental-rat-model-in-vivo
#5
Pollen K Yeung, Chad Purcell, Fatemeh Akhoundi, Remigus U Agu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that metabolism of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in systemic blood is a potential surrogate biomarker for cardiovascular toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute effect of high dose of doxorubicin (DOX) on adenosine and ATP catabolism in systemic blood in vivo. METHOD: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were each given either 10 mg/kg of DOX (n = 8) or normal saline (1 mL/kg, n = 11) twice daily for 4 doses by subcutaneous (sc) injection...
April 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618313/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-the-impact-on-development-and-progression-of-heart-failure
#6
Vasilios Papademetriou, Eleni Geladari
BACKGROUND: Available hypoglycemic-agents enable physicians to achieve consistent glycemic-control, but effects on cardiovascular-outcomes have been marginal or questionable. SGLT-2 inhibitors emerged as a novel antidiabetic-drug class with remarkable cardiovascular benefits, and significant improvement in the prevention and progression of HF. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to critically review the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on HF-outcomes and the potential underlying mechanisms...
April 4, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577868/regulation-of-smooth-muscle-myosin-light-chain-phosphatase-by-multi-site-phosphorylation-of-the-myosin-targeting-subunit-mypt1
#7
Michael P Walsh, Justin A MacDonald
Smooth muscle contraction is triggered primarily by activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase leading to phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains of myosin II. Numerous contractile stimuli also induce inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase thereby prolonging the contractile response. The phosphatase is a trimeric enzyme containing a catalytic subunit, a regulatory, myosin-binding subunit (MYPT1) and a third subunit of uncertain function. MYPT1 is phosphorylated at multiple sites by several kinases, which regulate phosphatase activity, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization...
March 26, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577867/platelet-activation-polymorphisms-in-ischemia
#8
Habib Haybar, Elahe Khodadi, Kazem Zibara, Najmaldin Saki
Ischemia is a multifactorial disorder in which several genetic and environmental factors are involved. Platelets are the major causative agents of this disease because their elevated activity and aggregation would increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, as well as ischemia. A number of polymorphisms in platelet receptors can increase the risk of ischemia and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been detected in platelets. In addition, polymorphisms in other genes have been shown to cause platelet adhesion and aggregation that plays a role in ischemia...
March 26, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512473/cholesterol-homeostasis-and-liver-x-receptor-lxr-in-atherosclerosis
#9
Shuyuan Guo, Luxiao Li, Huiyong Yin
Cholesterol is an important lipid for maintaining cellular membrane fluidity and generation of various hormones and bile acids. Thus it is critical to maintain cholesterol homeostasis including absorption, trafficking, biosynthesis, and efflux; dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis may lead to human disorders such as atherosclerosis. As a cholesterol sensor, nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) is an important factor regulating cholesterol homeostasis. Extensive research has been carried out to examine the roles of LXR in atherosclerosis...
March 1, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512472/a-rare-case-of-tricuspid-valve-endocarditis-caused-by-enterococcus-gallinarum-in-a-patient-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection
#10
Angelos Tsipis, Nikolaos Skandalakis, Nikolaos Kanakakis, Nektarios Pilatis, Evdokia Petropoulou
Infective endocarditis due to Enterococus Gallinarum is a rare clinical condition. We present a case of an 85 years old male with history of valvular disease and permanent pace maker with past medical history of repetitive urinary tract infections in the previous months, who presented to the emergency department with fever, urinary disturbances, general malaise and positive blood cultures for Enterococcus Gallinarum. Echocardiography was a useful diagnostic method in the present case, showing the vegetation on the tricuspid valve...
March 1, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485012/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-potential-cardiovascular-and-mortality-benefits
#11
Lovic Dragan, Manolis Kallistratos, Constantinos Tsioufis, Charalampos Grassos, Dragan Djordjevic, Ivan Tasic, Athanasios Manolis, Andreas Pittaras
BACKGROUND: The impact of overt diabetes and poor glycemic control on the risk of cardiovascular disease is well established. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, several studies demonstrated a significant increase in coronary artery disease related death and cardiovacular events associated with HbA1c levels of greater than 7 % compared with lower levels. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a novel class of anti-diabetic drugs that lower blood glucose levels through the suppression of renal glucose reabsorption thereby promoting renal glucose excretion...
February 26, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473527/glucose-lowering-activity-of-anvillea-radiata-coss-durieu-in-diabetic-rats
#12
Mohamed Eddouks, Morad Hebi
INTRODUCTION: Anvillea radiata Coss. &Durieu (Asteraceae) is an endemic plant from North Africa (Morocco and Algeria).This plant has many traditional uses including treatment of obesity and diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: the study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of Anvillea radiata (A. radiata) leaves on both normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for fifteen days. In addition, a preliminary pytochemical screening for various components was realized...
February 22, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437019/what-genetic-tell-us-about-cardiovascular-disease-in-diabetic-patients
#13
Habib Haybar, Mohammad Taha Jalali, Zeinab Deris Zayeri
BACKGROUNDS: Long term of diabetes cause other disease development such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: Genetic can help us to predict cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. Method and search strategy: we searched pubmed and googlescholar by the terms: Cardiovascular disease; Diabetes ; Polymorphism; Genetic from 2000 to 2017 then we included the relevant studies in our study. DISCUSSION: Essential role of inheritance in multifactorial disease is obviously clear, however, varies by disease and by other factors such as age of disease onset and subtype of disease...
February 11, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437018/immunomodulatory-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-thymoquinone
#14
Hanieh Shaterzadeh-Yazdi, Mohammad-Foad Noorbakhsh, Farzad Hayati, Saeed Samarghandian, Tahereh Farkhondeh
The immunomodulatory properties of Nigella sativa seed, as a basis of its clinical applications by many cultures have been reviewed. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the major bioactive component of the volatile oil of N. sativa seeds. The present investigations provide a comprehensive review of the ability of TQ to modulate inflammation and immune-related disorders in the various important disease states. This finding showed that TQ has the anti-inflammatory properties that prevents the biosynthesis of important mediators in inflammatory processes and asthma such as 5-LO, COX, PGD2 and LTs...
February 11, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412125/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-heart-disease-the-role-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2
#15
M L Fulmer, Douglas P Thewke
Decades of research has provided evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease. This versatile system, consisting of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and metabolic enzymes has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. CB2 has gained much interest for its beneficial immunomodulatory role that can be obtained without eliciting psychotropic effects through CB1. Recent studies have shed light on a protective role of CB2 in cardiovascular disease, an ailment which currently takes more lives each year in Western countries than any other disease or injury...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412124/sodium-glucoser-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-glucose-lowering-against-other-hypoglycemic-agents
#16
Konstantinos Avranas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Georgios Lales, Alexandos Manafis, Anastasia Skalkou, Lars Kihm
BACKGROUND: The treatment of diabetes remains over the decades challenging, even after the introduction of numerous novel drugs of different classes. Most patients with type 2 diabetes necessitate the combination of multiple agents and eventually use of insulin. The newest, and possibly with the most pleiotropic actions after metformin are the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i). This class has a unique mechanism inhibiting the glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the kidney...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412123/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-the-pleiotropic-mechanisms-of-actions
#17
Panteleimon Pantelidis, Andreas Kalliakmanis, Christos Mitas, Michail Sideris, Charalampos Grassos, Andreas Pittaras, Athanasios Manolis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs. So far, there are three agents approved for use in Europe and in the USA, two in Japan and another four agents under testing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the mechanism of action and the favorable and adverse effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors. METHOD: A thorough review of literature indexed in PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases was conducted...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412122/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-nephroprotective-impact-on-diabetic-kidney-disease
#18
Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Nikiforos Stavropoulos, Sofia Bouloukou, Georgios Kerpiniotis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Constantinos Tsioufis, Michael Doumas
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a crucial microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus that is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of hypoglycemic drugs that positively affect several risk factors of cardiorenal damage. OBJECTIVES: To review and critically discuss available data on the association of SGLT-2 inhibitors treatment with kidney function, progress of diabetic kidney disease, and renal related outcomes, as well to unveil potential mechanisms of action that mediate such effects...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412121/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-impact-on-body-weight-and-blood-pressure-compared-with-other-antidiabetic-drugs
#19
Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Nikiforos Stavropoulos, Dimitrios Patoulias, Konstantinos Petidis, Charalampos Grassos, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Constantinos Tsioufis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporters 2 inhibitors have emerged as a novel antidiabetic class of drugs offering significant ameliorating effects on a variety of cardiovascular risk factors, secondary to their mechanism of action, including blood pressure and body weight. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to discuss available data on the impact of SGLT-2 inhibitors on blood pressure and body weight compared with other available antidiabetic drugs and to present potential mechanisms mediating these effects...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412120/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-and-the-risk-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-practice
#20
Dimitrios Patoulias, Alexandros Manafis, Christos Mitas, Konstantinos Avranas, Georgios Lales, Ioanna Zografou, Christos Sambanis, Asterios Karagiannis
BACKGROUND: SGLT-2 inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs, recently approved for the treatment of patients with T2DM. Their cardioprotective and renoprotective action, along with their beneficial effects on metabolic parameters, make them an attractive therapeutic option. Since 2015, when the US FDA issued warning regarding the increased risk of euDKA in the setting of SGLT-2 inhibitors administration, a vivid discussion upon the direct connection between this novel class and the major metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus is still ongoing...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
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