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Infectious Disorders Drug Targets

Benjamin D Kuiper, Bradley J Keusch, Joshua Holcomb, Kendall M Muzzarelli, Franck Amblard, Peng Liu, Shaoman Zhou, Iulia A Kovari, Zhe Yang, Raymond F Schinazi, Ladislau C Kovari
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus proteases, which are responsible for cleavage of the viral polyprotein, have become an attractive drug target to treat norovirus infections. Genogroup II (GII) noroviruses are responsible for a majority of outbreaks; however, limited data exist regarding GII norovirus proteases. METHOD: The Minerva virus protease (MVpro), a genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) norovirus protease was expressed in E...
May 20, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Saba Fakhrieh Asl, Mehrnaz Pourvahedi, Ali Mojtahedi, Mohammad Shenagari
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which has a serious effect on the up to half of the world's population and has been related to different gastric diseases. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency of babA, cagE and cagA genotypes among H. pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsies of endoscopic patients in the north of Iran. METHODS: The present study was performed on 90 strains of H. pylori isolated from patients with gastric diseases (Gastric ulcer (GU), Duodenal ulcer (DU), Gastritis (G), Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) and Gastric adenocarcinoma (GC))...
May 14, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Z Shahamir Tabatabaei, S Dehshahri, M M Taghi, F Esfandiari, F S Sadjjadi, M Ebrahimipour, S M Sadjjadi
Surgery is the treatment of choice for treatment of human cystic echinococcosis/ hydatidosis which is one of the most important parasitic zoonoses worldwide. Due to the risk of cyst rupture during surgery a protoscolicidal agent is usually injected into the cyst before surgery to prevent secondary cyst formation in case of cyst rupture. Due to the side effects of chemical protoscolicidals agents attempts has been focused on herbal medicine.In this regard, Allium sativum has already been used; however, the protoscolicidal effect of Allium hirtifolium from Allium family has not been investigated, so far...
May 9, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Jahangir Abdi, Soghra Viesy, Zahra Rezaei
Intestinal parasitic infections are the one of the most common health problems in developing countries. A number of patients die annually due to complications caused by these parasites.Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate and type of parasitic infections, determine the factors affecting them in Ilam city and also provide strategies to prevent them. In this descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in one of the Ilam labs in 2016, 417 stool specimens were randomly collected. All specimens were examined using direct and ethanol formaldehyde...
May 8, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Mohammad Reza Abdolsalehi, Keyghobad Ghadiri, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial infections; however, there is limited information in Iran regarding nosocomial outbreaks due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing K pneumoniae strains, particularly using molecular methods. The present study focused on the molecular mechanism of ESBL resistance and genetic relatedness in K. pneumoniae isolates causing nosocomial infections in an Iranian referral hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was evaluated the antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of K...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Behnam Farhoudi, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Mostafa Hosseini, Fatemeh Golsoorat Pahlaviani, Mona Mohammadi Firouzeh, Mohammad Shahbazi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis [TB] is one of the most contagious infection diseases among prisoners. TB Screening plays an important role in prevention among prisoners and their visitors, also better caring of the patients. Active case findings is one of screening methods that is relatively an easy one to find TB suspected prisoners. METHODS: This study was conducted among male prisoners in Great Prison of Tehran to screen and diagnose TB patients from October 2013 to May 2014...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Abdul Aziz A Bin Dukhyil
BACKGROUND: 1.2-2.0 million cases of leishmaniasis occur annually throughout the world. The available drugs like Amphotericin B, antimonials and miltefosine are unable to fulfill the need due less effectiveness, high toxicity, resistance, high cost and complex route of administration. Leishmania survives inside the macrophages through different evasion mechanisms; one of that is activation of its trypanothione reductase enzyme which neutralizes the reactive oxygen species generated inside the macrophages to kill the parasites...
May 2, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Seema Mittal, Pallavi Sayal
INTRODUCTION-Antibiotics have revolutionized medicine in many respects and countless lives have been saved, their discovery was a turning point in human history. Regrettably, the use of these wonder drugs has been accompanied by the rapid appearance of resistant strains. AIMS &OBJECTIVES-This study was carried out to with the aim to determine the rates of high-level and low-level mupirocin resistance in MRSA, to study the antimicrobial resistance pattern of mupirocin-resistant MRSA and mupirocin-sensitive MRSA...
April 30, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Leila Sadeghi, Mahin Lolaie, Reza Adl Tabatabai, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Leila Taj, Niloofar Eghbal Ahmadi, Negin Abedinzadeh, Farzaneh Vakili, Ghazaleh Ahmadi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Determination of drug resistant mutations has a crucial role in the management of HIV-1 infected patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate drug resistance profile of RT and PR gene, and find the correlation between drug resistance mutation and ART regimen to intensify physicians ' options for the most effective therapy and help to establish health related policies at the national level in Iran. METHOD: HIV-1 RNA of 34 samples was extracted from plasma and RT Nested- PCR was performed and the final products were sequenced...
April 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hossein Ali Rahdar, Hossein Kazemian, Lida Bimanand, Shahram Shahraki Zahedani, Seifu Gizaw Feyisa, Elahe Taki, Seyed Asghar Havaei, Morteza Karami-Zarandi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is commonly known as nosocomial infection agent but rarely previously healthy peoples infected by P. aeruginosa. Here we report community acquired pneumonia in a 27 years old athleteman. 15 published P. aeruginosa CAP case reports are reviewed.1 53.3% of patients was female and 46.67% was male. The mean age was 44 years old (SD: ±13.54). In 8 report it is mentioned that the patient was smoker. Fatality rate was 46.6% and death rate was not significantly different between selected antibiotic regimen, sex and smoking in patient's outcome...
April 10, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Eleonora Margherita Chisari, Borzi Antonio Maria, Luca Salvatore, Chisari Giuseppe, Chisari Clara Grazia
INTRODUCTION: Skin lesions represent lesions that result in loss of tissues and their joints and often this cutaneous process is a primary or secondary consequence of structural changes in the same skin surface. Typo 2 diabetic subjects developing chronic skin lesions in the lower limbs in the western world are steadily increasing. We conducted a study on the etiologic incidence of chronic skin lesions in type II diabetic subjects in the lower limbs compared to subjects with chronic skin lesions (controls)...
April 10, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Arifuzzaman Khan, Fahim Ashher, Fahmida Khanam, Marufur Rahman, Momen Khan, Shyamal Kumar Paul, Akram Hossain
Widal agglutination test is arguably the most widely used laboratory investigation for diagnosis of Typhoid, especially in developing countries where blood culture is often inaccessible. However, the interpretation of the test still remains a controversial topic particularly in the context of endemic regions such as Bangladesh, as agglutination test is often found positive in varied and higher titrations among a large percentage of healthy population. Paired Widal tests are often not feasible, hence single unpaired test has to be used for screening and diagnosis...
April 5, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Samane Bourbour, Maryam Beheshti, Hossein Kazemian, Abbas Bahador
: RNA interference is a strong mechanism of gene silencing which underlies many fields of eukaryotic biology (1). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs and a gene regulation expression system showing a tissue-specific expression pattern, and inhibits protein synthesis (2). For the first time, miRNA has been seen in Caenorhabditis elegans (3). They play an important role in signaling pathways of various diseases especially periodontal disease and cancers (4). One of the most important diseases in association with gingival infectious is periodontal diseases, which if untreated leads to tooth loss, hence in present paper focus on the effects of MicroRNAs and their targets in disease which was mentioned above...
April 5, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
RavI Kumar Gutti, Priyanka Bansal, Priyanka Dahate, Sanjeev Raghuwanshi, Kovuru Narasaiah, Usha Gutti, Nagendra Sastry Yarla
Hematopoiesis is the process which generates all the mature blood cells from the rare pool of hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs). HSC divide by asymmetric division which provide it two distinct features of self-renewal and multi-potent differentiation capacity. Hematopoiesis is a steady state process in which mature blood cells are produced at the same rate at which they are lost, establishing a homeostasis. HSCs are regulated through their environmental niche, cytokine signalling, and the orchestrated activities of various transcription factors...
April 5, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Romana Klasinc, Armin Rieger, Elisabeth Presterl, Thomas Wrba, Magda Diab-Elschahawi
OBJECTIVES: There is limited published data concerning recent epidemiology of urinary tract infections (UTI) in HIV-patients, thus we analysed independent risk factors for UTI in HIV positive individuals and antimicrobial resistance rates of E. coli to antimicrobial agents commonly used in UTI. To determine the prevalence of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) in HIV-patients we performed a retrospective case-control study. METHODS: We included 313 HIV-patients, 101 with UTI and 212 age and gender matched controls, attending the HIV outpatient clinic at the Vienna University hospital (VUH) over a period from January 2011 to September 2016...
April 5, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Yadira Lobaina, Yasser Perera
BACKGROUND: B23/nucleophosmin (B23/NPM1) is an abundant multifunctional protein mainly located in the nucleolus but constantly shuttling between the nucleus and cytosol. As a consequence of its constitutive expression, intracellular dynamics and binding capacities, B23/NPM1 interacts with multiple cellular factors in different cellular compartments, but also with viral proteins from both DNA and RNA viruses. B23/NPM1 influences overall viral replication of viruses like HIV, HBV, HCV, HDV and HPV by playing functional roles in different stages of viral replication including nuclear import, viral genome transcription and assembly, as well as final particle formation...
March 27, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Babak Pourakbari, Korosh Yousefi, Shima Mahmoudi, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Setareh Mamishi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains as a vital threat to global health and its diagnosis is still complicated. Since there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), its diagnosis routinely relies on measurement of host immune responses to M. tuberculosis antigens using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and Interferon-Ƴ release assays (IGRAs). The aim of this study was to evaluate LTBI among hospitalized children and their patents/guardians as general populations in Children Medical Center, an Iranian referral hospital...
February 28, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Marzyeh Nili, Katayoun Tayeri, Mohamad Gholami, Samaneh Moallemi, Farzaneh Sabahi, Saber Kalhori, Kazem Baesi, Mehrdad Hasibi
BACKGROUND: The rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Iran has increased dramatically in the past few years. HIV-1 genome sequences are pivotal for large-scale studies of inter- and intra-host evolution. To understand the molecular difference between reference HIV-1 isolate and two HIV-1 infected patients in Iran, we conducted this study to analyze some genome segments of Iranian HIV-1 isolates. METHODS: Two HIV-1-infected individuals who were under antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for 8 years with stable clinical status were enrolled...
February 21, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Abdollah Rafiei, Esmat Panabad, Molouk Beiromvand
INTRODUCTION: Cystic echinococcosis is a neglected zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, which occurs mainly in pastoral regions. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, is the main agent of human infection. Although Iran is an endemic area for CE in the Middle East, lack of data regarding the disease among rural inhabitants of Khuzestan province in recent years, persuaded us to perform the current study. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 using simple random sampling method in 15 villages of Shushtar county, southwestern Iran...
February 13, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Luciana Dias Ghiraldi-Lopes, Paula Aline Zanetti Campanerut-Sa, Geisa Paulino Caprini Evaristo, Jean Eduardo Meneguello, Adriana Fiorini, Vanessa Pietrowski Baldin, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Vera Lucia Dias Siqueira, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
BACKGROUND: In recent years, very few effective drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) have emerged which motivates the research with drugs already used in the treatment of tuberculosis. EMB is a bacteriostatic drug that affects cell wall integrity, but the effects of this drug on bacilli are not fully exploited. OBJECTIVE: Based on the need to better investigate the complex mechanism of action of EMB, our study presented the proteome profile of M. tb after different times of EMB exposure, aiming to comprehend the dynamics of bacilli response to its effects...
January 24, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
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