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Infectious Disorders Drug Targets

Yassar Alamri, Aaron Keene, Alan Pithie
Neisseria are usually harmless inhabitants of otherwise asymptomatic persons' upper respiratory mucosal surfaces. It is, therefore, expected that a disturbance in the physiology leads to non-gonococcal, non-meningococcal Neisseria becoming pathogenic. We report the case of a diabetic man who initially presented with non-specific symptoms and was later found to have cystitis caused by N. oralis. We also review the pertinent literature and discuss available evidence on pathophysiological mechanisms of infection with such commensal bacteria...
November 23, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Samileh Noorbakhsh, Mohammad Reza Shokrollahi, Farideh Ebrahimi Taj, Vida Zarabi, Azardokht Tabatabaei
BACKGROUND: arthritis could be caused by different etiologies ranging from rheumatologic diseases to infectious conditions. Therefore, early diagnosis of etiology and treatment is important. The purpose of this study was to determine the the M.pneumonia in synovial fluid of children with arthritis by 2 methods (serology and qualitative PCR). Methods & materials: this trial was carried out as a cross sectional study in pediatric and orthopedic ward of Rasoul-e Akram hospital in Tehran, Iran...
November 21, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Mogahid Elhassan, Hassan A Hemeg, Miskelyemen A Elmekki, Khalid A Turkistani, Ahmed A Abdul-Aziz
BACKGROUND: The pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to first line drugs and multidrug resistance in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, a seasonally overcrowded are during Hajj and Omrah, is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate anti-TB drug resistance and its distribution among new cases in Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. METHODS: Study subjects included 622 patients with first time confirmed TB referred to the central tuberculosis laboratory in Al-Madinah between January 2012 and December 2014...
November 15, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Suresh Jude Antony, Leigh G Cooper
Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) result in significant morbidity, mortality and cost to patients and the health system. Traditional treatment involves a two-staged revision and occasionally a single staged revision along with intravenous antibiotics (IV) and or oral antibiotics for several weeks to months. The use of a single staged revision along with an antibiotic which has a prolonged half life and is bactericidal would be ideal. We present 2 patients who were treated successfully with a single stage revision/antibiotic spacer and a new novel long acting lipoglycopeptide called oritavancin...
November 8, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Suresh Jude Antony
Use of intra-articular antibiotics for the treatment of arthroplasty infections has gained some interest over the last few years. This method has several advantages including: lack of systemic toxicity, ease of administration, and potentially better cure rates. The treatment of fungal infections in prosthetic joint arthroplasties is problematic with high failure and recurrence rates. We present 2 patients with Candida parasilosis and Candida albicans infections within the arthroplasty that were successfully treated with a single stage revision/spacer placement in conjunction with the use of intra-articular amphotericin B...
October 26, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Kriti Mohan
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of death and illness in children worldwide. Most cases of neonatal malaria are misdiagnosed because of the lack of specific symptoms and a general lack of awareness. Nothing much is known in literature about the haematological changes during malaria infection and outcome of disease in neonates. Neonatal malaria is an underdiagnosed entity. So this hospital based observational study aims to assess diagnostic features of neonatal malaria. METHODS: From August 2004 to August 2013, information of all slide positive for malaria cases aged 0 to 28 days admitted to our pediatric hospital was collected and analysed...
October 20, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a deadly flavivirus that has spread from Africa to Asia and European countries. The virus is associated with other viruses in the same genus or family, transmitted by the same mosquito species with known history of fatality. A sudden increase in the rate of infection from ZIKV has made it a global health concern, which necessitates close symptom monitoring, enhancing treatment options, and vaccine production. This paper reviewed current reports on birth defects associated with ZIKV, mode of transmission, body fluids containing the virus, diagnosis , possible preventive measures or treatments, and vaccine development...
October 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Michelle Oyeka, Suresh Antony
Bacteremia is usually caused by gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus or β hemolytic streptococci. While there is a wealth of information that exits for these types of bacteremia, less is available to address bacteremia that is caused by less common bacteria such as Citrobacter. We report an unusual case of Citrobacter braakii bacteremia in a patient with multiple comorbidities that presented to the hospital with cellulitis and pleural effusion. Blood cultures grew Citrobacter braakii. Despite good response to antibiotic treatment, the patient's infection proved to be persistent and he succumbed to the cirrhosis of the liver and subsequent renal failure...
September 20, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari, Leila Azimi, Malihe Talebi, Fatemeh Fallah, Aslan Bijari, Elnaz Rastegar Lari
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa is being increasing worldwide. Various mechanisms create this cross resistance in this bacterium including, acquisition beta-lactamases and intrinsic mechanisms such as presence of multidrug efflux pumps. Generally, multidrug efflux pumps inhibitor is used as a phenotypic method for detection of active efflux pump systems. METHODS: In this study 100 P. aeruginosa were collected from burn patients. Cefepime and imipenem resistant strains were isolated by disc diffusion agar and MIC...
August 29, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Prabodh Chandere Sharma, Mona Piplani, Monika Mittal, Rakesh Pahwa
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are principal weapons against variety of bacterial infections and exert their antibacterial potential by interfering the activities of bacterial enzymes. As these agents are associated with some limitations, an important approach to overcome these major constraints is to prepare covalent derivatives, i.e. prodrugs. Prodrug design has been employed to improve the limitations of these drugs such as less aqueous solubility, poor absorption and distribution, toxicity, disagreeable taste, poor lipophilicity etc and for improving their pharmacological profile...
August 24, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Shagun Goel, Seema Mittal
BACKGROUND: Candida spp. remains the fungal species most commonly associated with biofilm formation. Increase in Candida infections in last decades has almost paralleled the increase and wide spread use of a broad range of medical implant devices mainly in population with impaired host defences. One of the most important characteristics of biofilms is their high level of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to know the prevalence of different Candida spp...
August 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Alaa Abouelfetouh
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for a large number of antibiotic resistant infections worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology and identifying the molecular characteristics of MRSA is elemental in designing infection control plans to minimize the risks associated with these infections. The prevalence of MRSA varies between the different geographic regions. In Egypt, such knowledge is sparse, with a limited number of isolated studies reporting the infection rate of MRSA in select parts of the country...
August 2, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Preeti Vyas, Divya Vohora
The inadequate benefits of the existing therapies and the new insights into the pathophysiology of inflammatory airway diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma have led to the breakthrough of newer targets and innovative compounds as the treatment alternatives. The enhanced interpretation of immune cell signalling and signal transduction pathways at the molecular level involved in this process allows the selection of new therapeutic targets and designing of new molecules to combat such multifactorial diseases...
July 25, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hanen Ghodhbane, Valentina Alessandria, Mejdi Snoussi, Chedly Abdelly, Jean Marc Sabatier, Luca Cocolin, Imed Regaya
A total of 94 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Tunisian artisanal (Ricotta cheese's whey) and industrial (bactofugate) milk waste, identified and then screened for their antimicrobial activity against some bacteria implicated on nosocomial infections. Bacterial genera and species identification was perfomed using molecular tools. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 7 strains of Gram-negative bacteria and 4 strains of Gram-positive bacteria as well as 6 yeasts. The Crude extract was found to have a narrow antimicrobial spectrum on Gram-positive bacteria mainly Listeria monocytogenes...
July 19, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hossein Yousofi Darani, Hajar Yazdani, Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Giardia lamblia is an intestinal flagellate parasite which spreads all over the world and is considered as a health problem in the most rural and low sanitation areas. Many diagnostic tests have been developed for the detection of Giardia parasite in stool samples but all of them have some disadvantages. In search for a simple, quick and accurate test, diagnosis of Giardia infection using dot blot method has been investigated in this work. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive study 30 stool samples which their infection with Giardia were confirmed by direct examination and formalin ether considered as case group...
July 14, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Suresh Antony
Use of intra-articular antibiotics has been used by some centers although not widely accepted by most orthopedic centers (1-4) In a study published by our group in June 2015 in patients who were treated with single stage exchange arthroplasty with intra-articular antibiotics, we noted that the majority of the patients treated with this modality did well. However, there was a subset of the patients that failed therapy as well. We decided to look at this group of patients and see if we could make constructive recommendations that would help clinicians select the right patients for this procedure so as to improve clinical outcomes...
July 13, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Mohamed Teleb, Enrique Soto-Ruiz, Delfina C Domínguez, Suresh Antony
Multi drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Extended-Spectrum-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae are becoming an increasing difficult clinical problem. Immediate resistance to some of the new antimicrobials such as ceftolozane/tazobactam is unusual and is due to a variety of mechanisms such as hy-per-production of inactivating enzymes and gene mutation. In addition, previous antimicrobial administration is a well-recognized risk factor to develop resistance. We present a patient with a liver abscess where the organism was resistant to ceftolozane/tazobactam resulting in a poor clinical outcome...
July 13, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Rimi Chakrabarti, Swati Patankar
Lead compounds that target tubulin are being developed as agents against the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. It is important to define the binding sites of these molecules on the tubulin dimer: Taxol, Vinca domains or novel binding pockets; however, extraction of native parasite tubulin is difficult. A simple growth assay, using a combination of two anti-microtubule drugs that have overlapping binding sites, shows antagonistic interactions between the drugs. In contrast, drugs that do not bind to overlapping sites show no interactions or synergism in this combination assay...
July 11, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Behnam Farhoudi
Little is known about adherence to antiretroviral therapy and Tuberculosis treatment and barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence faced by prisoners. We conducted a study to evaluate adherence to ART, latent TB infection treatment, and TB treatment via Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) among HIV positive patients in the Great Tehran Prison in 2014. The mean of adherence to the treatments were 93.3%, 92.7% and 93.3% of patients, respectively. Also, we evaluated the barriers through focus group discussion with 22 HIV positive patients in the prison...
June 16, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
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