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Infectious Disorders Drug Targets

Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Rehab Badawi, Sally Elnawasany, Mohamed Yousef, Loai Mansour, Nehad Hawash, Reham Abdelkader Elkhouly, Shaimaa Soliman, Amal Selim, Abdelrahman Kobtan, Asem Elfert
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus infection is a major public health problem in Egypt with a risk for morbidity and mortality due to chronic liver disease complications. Worldwide, Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV infection with the overall prevalence about 14.7%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, safety, and tolerability of sofosbuvir (SOF) plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin (RBV) in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection...
September 12, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Mogahid M Elhassan
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by nocardiae are rare, but misguided to clinicians, especially if there is a delay in the diagnosis and/or low response to chemotherapy. The incidence of nocardiosis is increasing constantly worldwide, and the situation is getting worse if we consider immunocompromised individuals, such as HIV positive patients since they are at higher risk. Surgical amputation, although not common, but should be considered as a result in some cases that cause partial disability...
September 12, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Abbas Maleki, Sobhan Ghafourian, Setareh Soroush, Morovat Taherikalani
Nowadays, due to the biofilm formation among of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), acquisition of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes could be noted. These organisms resembling other staphylococcus have mecA gene which encoded methicillin resistance but the diversity of it among CoNS is higher than other species. Based on increasing of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus haemolyticus, analyzing of phenotypic and genotypic biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance and genes involved in this process, SCCmec and ACME typing were placed as aims of current study...
September 11, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Nahal Hadi, Zhaleh Mahmoodi, Amir Emami, Yalda Malekzadegan, Tahereh Valadbeygi
INTRODUCTION: Aeromonas spp. have recently emerged as opportunistic pathogens and only few studies are available regarding the isolation of these bacteria from burn wound infections. This study aimed at isolating Aeromonas as an infrequent cause of infection in this group of immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A total of 300 samples were collected from the wounds of burn patients hospitalized in Gotbodin Shirazi Burn Center in a year. The samples were cultured on Aeromonas specific media...
September 3, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Reza Khashei, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Mahtab Hadadi, Maysa Ghayem, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki
Cell phones have become one of the necessary means of life and they are commonly used almost everywhere by every population. Colonized microorganisms on cell phones can easily cross-transmitted. Given to widespread prevalence of nosocomial infections, this study aimed to determine the frequency of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance in cell phones of healthcare workers (HCWs) in a tertiary care hospital, Southwestern of Iran. In this cross-sectional study from April to June 2016, samples were collected from cell phones of 25 nurses and 75 medical students...
August 30, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Alessandro Sanduzzi, Angelo Canora, Patrizia Belfiore, Marialuisa Bocchino, Renato Liguori, Giorgio Liguori
BACKGROUND: Pneumonias are the most frequent infectious disease, characterized by a high prevalence especially among children and adults at risk. The socio-economic impact caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is evaluated in terms of morbidity, death rate and hospitalizations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the potential economic advantages by implementation of an active anti-pneumococcal 13-valent vaccine strategy in Campania region ( Southern Italy) in two different categories of subjects, children (aged 0-12), and adults (aged 50-79) at risk (hypertension, nephropathies, COPD and heart diseases) Methods...
August 20, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Salvatore G De-Simone, Andre L A Souza, Jorge L S Pina, Ivan N Junior, Maria C Lourenco, David W Provance-Jr
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has formed an urgent need for substitute drugs with new mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates that could address the meal of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Neisseria meningitidis represents a pathogen of great public health importance in both developed and developing countries and is intrinsically highly resistant to some AMPs, such as polymyxin B. In this work, a cationic 11-residue peptide named of poly-Leu (KLKLLLLLKLK) was synthesized and its antimeningococcal activity availed and compared with cecropin A and the poly-P (KLKPPPPPKLK) by flow cytometry, electron microscopy and measurement of the periplasmatic enzyme alkaline phosphatase activity...
August 16, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
J Abdi, Parvin Bahmaninejad
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fascioliasis in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats,which was done by a systematic review in Iran. METHODS: Fifty articles were extracted from sites, including Iranian papers such as Google scholar, Magiran, IranMedex, SID, and Pubmed. Out of these, 21 articles were selected for meta-analysis. Essential information for meta-analysis was extracted from papers and archived inExcel software,for calculating bystatistical tests...
August 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Saeed Shahmohammadi, Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Mojtaba Shahin, Iman Mir
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important causes of clinical infections that can be more destructive by its antibiotic resistant strains. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of mecA and coa genes in clinical isolates of S. aureus. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-three specimens suspected to S. aureus were taken from hospitals of Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Isolates were identified by standard microbiologic tests and confirmed by the molecular method...
August 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Deepti Chopra, Bharti Bhandari
Chronic hepatitis C remains a major public health concern with a prevalence of more than 1% worldwide. Of late, with the discovery of newer drugs, chronic HCV treatment has touched new dimensions. The treatment has progressed from Interferons to pegylated interferon (Peg IFN) based therapy, with or without ribavirin to treatment with orally active direct acting antivirals (DAA) with Peg IFN and ribavirin and eventually to various combinations of DAA, without IFN. Introduction of newer DAAs has transfigured the treatment of chronic HCV...
August 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Da-Yong Lu, Hong-Ying Wu, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ting-Ren Lu, Bin Xu, Jian-Ding
The constant Ebola epidemic outbreaks in Africa arisen waves of panic worldwide. There is a high mortality rate (30-70%) among Ebola infected people in virus-stricken areas. Despite these horrors, the medical capabilities against this deadly viral disease were provided by limited therapeutic agents/options. As a result, several patented agents, biotherapies or prophylactic/therapeutic vaccines need to be reviving into the global markets-including patents of small molecular chemicals, short sequences or oligomers of DNA/RNA, linkages of chemicals with bio-molecules, herbal medicine and so on...
August 13, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Ritika Rana, Ruchika Sharma, Anoop Kumar
Today's, microbial infections, resistance to approved drugs, the emergence of new infectious diseases and lack of vaccines, create a huge threat to human health. Thus, there is an urgent need to create novel antimicrobial agents, but the high cost and prolonged timeline of novel drug discovery and development is major barrier to make new drugs. Therefore, there is a need for specific cost effective approaches in order to identify new drugs for the treatment of various microbial infections. Drug repurposition is an alternative technique to find existing clinically approved drugs for other indications...
August 6, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Sahar Shokouhi, Jahangir Abdi
The most common parasites responsible for fascioliasis are F. hepatica and F. Gigantica. The fascioliasis is important in terms of health and economic. The west of the Iran is one of the major poles of animal husbandry and the prevalence of fascioliasis is high. The aim of current study is to determine Fasciola spp. in the west of Iran. In the present study, 45 samples were collected from slaughterhouses in the three provinces in the west of Iran including Ilam, Lorestan and Kermanshah. The flukes were detected using morphological methods...
August 6, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Adel A Hagag, Walid A El Shehaby, Aml I El-Abasy, Maaly M Mabrouk
BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer constituting about one third of pediatric malignancies. Doxorubicin is a well- established chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of childhood ALL, but its efficacy is often limited by its related cardiotoxicity. Cardioprotection against doxorubicin- induced cardiotoxicity can be of great value, especially for children. Silymarin (SM), an extract from the Silybum marianum (milk thistle) plant, has potent antioxidant properties that can be helpful in preventing cardiotoxicity...
August 3, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Ehsan Najafi, Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad, Fereshteh Majlesi, Azar Hadadi, Seyedemasoumeh Banihashemian, Masood Najafi, Banafsheh Moradmand Badie, Saeed Kalantari, Katayoun Tayeri, Payam Mohammadinejad, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi
BACKGROUND: The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has resulted in the emergence of some metabolic complications including hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus among HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus and their associated risk factors in HIV positive patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV positive patients who visited Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran (2004-2013)...
July 23, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Tewogbade Adeoye Adedeji, Simeon Adelani Adebisi, Nife Olamide Adedeji, Sikiru Abayomi Biliaminu, Timothy Olusegun Olanrewaju
BACKGROUND: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has been implicated in renal dysfunction with hypophosphataemia. OBJECTIVE: we prospectively evaluated renal phosphate excretion during HAART use. METHOD: Newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals were treated with Tenofovir/Emtricitabine/Efavirenz (TDF/FTC/EFV), n=33; Zidovudine/Lamivudine /Nevirapine (ZDV/3TC/NVP), n=53; and Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (ZDV/3TC/EFV), n=16...
July 19, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Engy A Wahsh, Amal K Hussein, Ahmed A Gomaa, Mohamed A Baraka, Mohie Al-Deen Abead
Background Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a major cause for developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A new era in HCV treatment is ongoing using direct acting antiviral activity (DAA). The first approved DAA drug was Sofosbuvir which has a high tolerability and preferable pharmacokinetic profile. Another recently developed drug is Daclatasvir a first-in-class HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor. Both drugs are administered orally once daily and have potent antiviral activity with wide genotypic coverage...
July 16, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Marzieh Rezaei, Mohammad Rabbani-Khorasgani, Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, Rahman Emamzadeh, Hamid Abtahi
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella bacteria that cause disease in animals and humans. Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases transmitted animals -to-human through direct contact with infected animals and also consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. Due to wide incidence of brucellosis in Iran and economical costs in industry animal husbandry, Vaccination is best way to prevent of this disease. All of available commercial vaccines against brucellosis are derived from live attenuated strains of Brucella...
July 9, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Azar Balouti Dehkordi, Behnam Sanei, Morteza Yousefi, Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi, Farhang Safarnezhad, Rasool Jafari, Hossein Yousofi Darani
Human hydatid cyst or cystic echinococcosis is a life-threatening zoonotic disease that occurs in most countries worldwide and is recognized as a major public health problem. Following, ingestion of Echinococcus granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts which is the larval stage of the worm are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human. The usual treatment for hydatid cyst is open surgery. One of the problems, following surgery is the recurrence. In the last decades albendazole has been used for the treatment of hydatid cyst...
June 29, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hourieh Alkadi
Free radicals are generated in our body by several systems. A balance among free radicals and antioxidants is an important matter for appropriate physiological function. If free radicals become greater than the ability of the body to control them, a case known as oxidative stress appears, as a result of that, a number of human diseases spread in the body. Antioxidants can contribute in facing this oxidative stress. The present review provides a brief overview on free radicals, oxidative stress, some natural antioxidants and the relationship between them...
June 28, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
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