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Infectious Disorders Drug Targets

Engy A Wahsh, Amal K Hussein, Ahmed A Gomaa, Mohamed A Baraka, Mohie Al-Deen Abead
Background Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a major cause for developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A new era in HCV treatment is ongoing using direct acting antiviral activity (DAA). The first approved DAA drug was Sofosbuvir which has a high tolerability and preferable pharmacokinetic profile. Another recently developed drug is Daclatasvir a first-in-class HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor. Both drugs are administered orally once daily and have potent antiviral activity with wide genotypic coverage...
July 16, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Marzieh Rezaei, Mohammad Rabbani-Khorasgani, Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, Rahman Emamzadeh, Hamid Abtahi
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella bacteria that cause disease in animals and humans. Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases transmitted animals -to-human through direct contact with infected animals and also consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. Due to wide incidence of brucellosis in Iran and economical costs in industry animal husbandry, Vaccination is best way to prevent of this disease. All of available commercial vaccines against brucellosis are derived from live attenuated strains of Brucella...
July 9, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Azar Balouti Dehkordi, Behnam Sanei, Morteza Yousefi, Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi, Farhang Safarnezhad, Rasool Jafari, Hossein Yousofi Darani
Human hydatid cyst or cystic echinococcosis is a life-threatening zoonotic disease that occurs in most countries worldwide and is recognized as a major public health problem. Following, ingestion of Echinococcus granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts which is the larval stage of the worm are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human. The usual treatment for hydatid cyst is open surgery. One of the problems, following surgery is the recurrence. In the last decades albendazole has been used for the treatment of hydatid cyst...
June 29, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hourieh Alkadi
Free radicals are generated in our body by several systems. A balance among free radicals and antioxidants is an important matter for appropriate physiological function. If free radicals become greater than the ability of the body to control them, a case known as oxidative stress appears, as a result of that, a number of human diseases spread in the body. Antioxidants can contribute in facing this oxidative stress. The present review provides a brief overview on free radicals, oxidative stress, some natural antioxidants and the relationship between them...
June 28, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Binbin Hong, Yumei Wen, Tianlei Ying
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global health problem. As "cure" for chronic hepatitis B is of current priority, hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) has been utilized for several decades to provide post-exposure prophylaxis. In recent years, a number of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting HBV have been developed and demonstrated with high affinity, specificity, and neutralizing potency. OBJECTIVE: HBV neutralizing antibodies may play potentially significant role in the search for an HBV cure...
June 28, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Suresh Antony
In the United States, tick-borne illnesses account for a significant number of patients that have been seen and treated by health care facilities. This in turn, has resulted in a significant morbidity and mortality and economic costs to the country. The distribution of these illnesses is geographically variable and is related to the climate as well. Many of these illnesses can be diagnosed and treated successfully, if recognized and started on appropriate antimicrobial therapy early in the disease process. Patient with illnesses such as Lyme disease, Wet Nile illness can result in chronic debilitating diseases if not recognized early and treated...
June 26, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Reza Mohebi, Khadijeh Esmaili, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Iraj Pakzad, Sobhan Ghafourian
Because of unknown situation of antibiotic resistance pattern in main hospital in Ilam, Iran, in an attempt we aimed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogenic bacteria obtained from referred patients to Imam Khomaini Hospital, Ilam, Iran. For this reason, 114 bacteria were collected during 9 month period and evaluated for their antibiotic resistance pattern. Our results demonstrated that E. coli as the dominant responsible for urinary tract infection. Our results demonstrated that 61.4 % (n = 70) of isolates were positive for E...
June 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Harleen Kaur, Vishakha Grover, Ranjan Malhotra, Mili Gupta
BACKGROUND: Successful management of periodontitis requires treatment strategy that integrates therapies addressing both pathogen and host aspects of disease etiology. To evaluate sub gingivally applied curcumin gel in treatment of chronic periodontitis based on clinical and biochemical parameters. METHODS & MATERIAL: A randomized, double blind, parallel-group trial was carried out on 30 patients suffering from chronic generalized periodontitis with probing pocket depth≥5mm on at least 4 sites who were then randomly allocated to two groups...
May 31, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Nivea Pereira de Sa, Ana Paula Possa, Pilar Perez, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira Ferreira, Nayara Cristina Fonseca, Cleudiomar Inacio Lino, Lana Barreto Cruz, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Beatriz Martins Borelli, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Susana Johann
Background The increasing incidence of invasive forms of candidiasis and resistance to antifungal therapy leads us to seek new and more effective antifungal compounds. Objectives Investigate the antifungal activity and toxicity as well as to evaluate the potential targets of 2-cyclohexylidenhydrazo-4-phenyl-thiazole (CPT) in Candida albicans. Methods The antifungal activity of CPT against the survival of C. albicans was investigated in Caenorhabditis elegans. Additionally, we determined the effect of CPT on the inhibition of C...
May 30, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Fatemeh Farshadpour, Sakineh Taherkhani, Reza Taherkhani
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality. Nevertheless, in some geographical locations, especially Egypt, despite having high frequency of HEV seropositivity, HEV infection follows an asymptomatic or mild course during pregnancy. These anomalous observations have distracted attention from the importance of HEV infection in pregnant women. While tragic cases of HEV-infected pregnant women cannot be neglected any longer. These circumstances create a strong demand for the increasing awareness of HEV infection through training programs, appropriate management of HEV infection among pregnant women, routine screening of pregnant women for timely diagnosis of HEV infection, proper treatment of HEV-infected patients, optimal preventive measures, and development of a prophylactic vaccine against HEV infection...
May 29, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Kate Cristina Blanco, Amanda C Zangirolami, Natalia M Inada, Vanderlei S Bagnato
Hospital infections is a public health problem that can occur with the use of catheters and endotracheal tubes (ETT). Pathogenic microorganisms may adhere to surfaces of these materials forming biofilm. Microbial biofilms presents an extracellular polymer matrix that promotes resistance of microorganisms to factors such as pH, temperature and drugs. The ETT is used to assist a patient with compromised breathing function. ETT biofilm may cause ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is associated with a 21-fold increase in risk for mechanical ventilation...
May 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Benjamin D Kuiper, Bradley J Keusch, Joshua Holcomb, Kendall M Muzzarelli, Franck Amblard, Peng Liu, Shaoman Zhou, Iulia A Kovari, Zhe Yang, Raymond F Schinazi, Ladislau C Kovari
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus proteases, which are responsible for cleavage of the viral polyprotein, have become an attractive drug target to treat norovirus infections. Genogroup II (GII) noroviruses are responsible for a majority of outbreaks; however, limited data exist regarding GII norovirus proteases. METHOD: The Minerva virus protease (MVpro), a genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) norovirus protease was expressed in E...
May 20, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Saba Fakhrieh Asl, Mehrnaz Pourvahedi, Ali Mojtahedi, Mohammad Shenagari
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which has a serious effect on the up to half of the world's population and has been related to different gastric diseases. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency of babA, cagE and cagA genotypes among H. pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsies of endoscopic patients in the north of Iran. METHODS: The present study was performed on 90 strains of H. pylori isolated from patients with gastric diseases (Gastric ulcer (GU), Duodenal ulcer (DU), Gastritis (G), Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) and Gastric adenocarcinoma (GC))...
May 14, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Z Shahamir Tabatabaei, S Dehshahri, M M Taghi, F Esfandiari, F S Sadjjadi, M Ebrahimipour, S M Sadjjadi
Surgery is the treatment of choice for treatment of human cystic echinococcosis/ hydatidosis which is one of the most important parasitic zoonoses worldwide. Due to the risk of cyst rupture during surgery a protoscolicidal agent is usually injected into the cyst before surgery to prevent secondary cyst formation in case of cyst rupture. Due to the side effects of chemical protoscolicidals agents attempts has been focused on herbal medicine.In this regard, Allium sativum has already been used; however, the protoscolicidal effect of Allium hirtifolium from Allium family has not been investigated, so far...
May 9, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Jahangir Abdi, Soghra Viesy, Zahra Rezaei
Intestinal parasitic infections are the one of the most common health problems in developing countries. A number of patients die annually due to complications caused by these parasites.Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate and type of parasitic infections, determine the factors affecting them in Ilam city and also provide strategies to prevent them. In this descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in one of the Ilam labs in 2016, 417 stool specimens were randomly collected. All specimens were examined using direct and ethanol formaldehyde...
May 8, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Mohammad Reza Abdolsalehi, Keyghobad Ghadiri, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial infections; however, there is limited information in Iran regarding nosocomial outbreaks due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing K pneumoniae strains, particularly using molecular methods. The present study focused on the molecular mechanism of ESBL resistance and genetic relatedness in K. pneumoniae isolates causing nosocomial infections in an Iranian referral hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was evaluated the antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of K...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Behnam Farhoudi, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Mostafa Hosseini, Fatemeh Golsoorat Pahlaviani, Mona Mohammadi Firouzeh, Mohammad Shahbazi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis [TB] is one of the most contagious infection diseases among prisoners. TB Screening plays an important role in prevention among prisoners and their visitors, also better caring of the patients. Active case findings is one of screening methods that is relatively an easy one to find TB suspected prisoners. METHODS: This study was conducted among male prisoners in Great Prison of Tehran to screen and diagnose TB patients from October 2013 to May 2014...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Abdul Aziz A Bin Dukhyil
BACKGROUND: 1.2-2.0 million cases of leishmaniasis occur annually throughout the world. The available drugs like Amphotericin B, antimonials and miltefosine are unable to fulfill the need due less effectiveness, high toxicity, resistance, high cost and complex route of administration. Leishmania survives inside the macrophages through different evasion mechanisms; one of that is activation of its trypanothione reductase enzyme which neutralizes the reactive oxygen species generated inside the macrophages to kill the parasites...
May 2, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Seema Mittal, Pallavi Sayal, Priyanka Yadav, Ashok Kumar, Manisha Rajian
INTRODUCTION-Antibiotics have revolutionized medicine in many respects and countless lives have been saved, their discovery was a turning point in human history. Regrettably, the use of these wonder drugs has been accompanied by the rapid appearance of resistant strains. AIMS &OBJECTIVES-This study was carried out to with the aim to determine the rates of high-level and low-level mupirocin resistance in MRSA, to study the antimicrobial resistance pattern of mupirocin-resistant MRSA and mupirocin-sensitive MRSA...
April 30, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Leila Sadeghi, Mahin Lolaie, Reza Adl Tabatabai, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Leila Taj, Niloofar Eghbal Ahmadi, Negin Abedinzadeh, Farzaneh Vakili, Ghazaleh Ahmadi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Determination of drug resistant mutations has a crucial role in the management of HIV-1 infected patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate drug resistance profile of RT and PR gene, and find the correlation between drug resistance mutation and ART regimen to intensify physicians ' options for the most effective therapy and help to establish health related policies at the national level in Iran. METHOD: HIV-1 RNA of 34 samples was extracted from plasma and RT Nested- PCR was performed and the final products were sequenced...
April 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
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