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Infectious Disorders Drug Targets

Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a deadly flavivirus that has spread from Africa to Asia and European countries. The virus is associated with other viruses in the same genus or family, transmitted by the same mosquito species with known history of fatality. A sudden increase in the rate of infection from ZIKV has made it a global health concern, which necessitates close symptom monitoring, enhancing treatment options, and vaccine production. This paper reviewed current reports on birth defects associated with ZIKV, mode of transmission, body fluids containing the virus, diagnosis , possible preventive measures or treatments, and vaccine development...
October 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Michelle Oyeka, Suresh Antony
Bacteremia is usually caused by gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus or β hemolytic streptococci. While there is a wealth of information that exits for these types of bacteremia, less is available to address bacteremia that is caused by less common bacteria such as Citrobacter. We report an unusual case of Citrobacter braakii bacteremia in a patient with multiple comorbidities that presented to the hospital with cellulitis and pleural effusion. Blood cultures grew Citrobacter braakii. Despite good response to antibiotic treatment, the patient's infection proved to be persistent and he succumbed to the cirrhosis of the liver and subsequent renal failure...
September 20, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari, Leila Azimi, Malihe Talebi, Fatemeh Fallah, Aslan Bijari, Elnaz Rastegar Lari
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa is being increasing worldwide. Various mechanisms create this cross resistance in this bacterium including, acquisition beta-lactamases and intrinsic mechanisms such as presence of multidrug efflux pumps. Generally, multidrug efflux pumps inhibitor is used as a phenotypic method for detection of active efflux pump systems. METHODS: In this study 100 P. aeruginosa were collected from burn patients. Cefepime and imipenem resistant strains were isolated by disc diffusion agar and MIC...
August 29, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Prabodh Chandere Sharma, Mona Piplani, Monika Mittal, Rakesh Pahwa
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are principal weapons against variety of bacterial infections and exert their antibacterial potential by interfering the activities of bacterial enzymes. As these agents are associated with some limitations, an important approach to overcome these major constraints is to prepare covalent derivatives, i.e. prodrugs. Prodrug design has been employed to improve the limitations of these drugs such as less aqueous solubility, poor absorption and distribution, toxicity, disagreeable taste, poor lipophilicity etc and for improving their pharmacological profile...
August 24, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Shagun Goel, Seema Mittal
BACKGROUND: Candida spp. remains the fungal species most commonly associated with biofilm formation. Increase in Candida infections in last decades has almost paralleled the increase and wide spread use of a broad range of medical implant devices mainly in population with impaired host defences. One of the most important characteristics of biofilms is their high level of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to know the prevalence of different Candida spp...
August 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Alaa Abouelfetouh
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for a large number of antibiotic resistant infections worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology and identifying the molecular characteristics of MRSA is elemental in designing infection control plans to minimize the risks associated with these infections. The prevalence of MRSA varies between the different geographic regions. In Egypt, such knowledge is sparse, with a limited number of isolated studies reporting the infection rate of MRSA in select parts of the country...
August 2, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Preeti Vyas, Divya Vohora
The inadequate benefits of the existing therapies and the new insights into the pathophysiology of inflammatory airway diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma have led to the breakthrough of newer targets and innovative compounds as the treatment alternatives. The enhanced interpretation of immune cell signalling and signal transduction pathways at the molecular level involved in this process allows the selection of new therapeutic targets and designing of new molecules to combat such multifactorial diseases...
July 25, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hanen Ghodhbane, Valentina Alessandria, Mejdi Snoussi, Chedly Abdelly, Jean Marc Sabatier, Luca Cocolin, Imed Regaya
A total of 94 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Tunisian artisanal (Ricotta cheese's whey) and industrial (bactofugate) milk waste, identified and then screened for their antimicrobial activity against some bacteria implicated on nosocomial infections. Bacterial genera and species identification was perfomed using molecular tools. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 7 strains of Gram-negative bacteria and 4 strains of Gram-positive bacteria as well as 6 yeasts. The Crude extract was found to have a narrow antimicrobial spectrum on Gram-positive bacteria mainly Listeria monocytogenes...
July 19, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hossein Yousofi Darani, Hajar Yazdani, Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Giardia lamblia is an intestinal flagellate parasite which spreads all over the world and is considered as a health problem in the most rural and low sanitation areas. Many diagnostic tests have been developed for the detection of Giardia parasite in stool samples but all of them have some disadvantages. In search for a simple, quick and accurate test, diagnosis of Giardia infection using dot blot method has been investigated in this work. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive study 30 stool samples which their infection with Giardia were confirmed by direct examination and formalin ether considered as case group...
July 14, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Suresh Antony
Use of intra-articular antibiotics has been used by some centers although not widely accepted by most orthopedic centers (1-4) In a study published by our group in June 2015 in patients who were treated with single stage exchange arthroplasty with intra-articular antibiotics, we noted that the majority of the patients treated with this modality did well. However, there was a subset of the patients that failed therapy as well. We decided to look at this group of patients and see if we could make constructive recommendations that would help clinicians select the right patients for this procedure so as to improve clinical outcomes...
July 13, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Mohamed Teleb, Enrique Soto-Ruiz, Delfina C Domínguez, Suresh Antony
Multi drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Extended-Spectrum-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae are becoming an increasing difficult clinical problem. Immediate resistance to some of the new antimicrobials such as ceftolozane/tazobactam is unusual and is due to a variety of mechanisms such as hy-per-production of inactivating enzymes and gene mutation. In addition, previous antimicrobial administration is a well-recognized risk factor to develop resistance. We present a patient with a liver abscess where the organism was resistant to ceftolozane/tazobactam resulting in a poor clinical outcome...
July 13, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Rimi Chakrabarti, Swati Patankar
Lead compounds that target tubulin are being developed as agents against the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. It is important to define the binding sites of these molecules on the tubulin dimer: Taxol, Vinca domains or novel binding pockets; however, extraction of native parasite tubulin is difficult. A simple growth assay, using a combination of two anti-microtubule drugs that have overlapping binding sites, shows antagonistic interactions between the drugs. In contrast, drugs that do not bind to overlapping sites show no interactions or synergism in this combination assay...
July 11, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Behnam Farhoudi
Little is known about adherence to antiretroviral therapy and Tuberculosis treatment and barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence faced by prisoners. We conducted a study to evaluate adherence to ART, latent TB infection treatment, and TB treatment via Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) among HIV positive patients in the Great Tehran Prison in 2014. The mean of adherence to the treatments were 93.3%, 92.7% and 93.3% of patients, respectively. Also, we evaluated the barriers through focus group discussion with 22 HIV positive patients in the prison...
June 16, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Seema Mittal, Meenal Gupta, Madhu Sharma, Uma Chaudhary
Urinary tract infections are one of the leading cause of morbidity in admitted patients. Most commonly caused by Escherichia coli, but there are some variants which are commonly reported in urinary tract infection. This study was about to speciate such isolate like E.fergusonnii and find out its antibiogram.
January 15, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Sanath Kumar, Guixin He, Prathusha Kakarla, Ugina Shrestha, K C Ranjana, Indrika Ranaweera, T Mark Willmon, Sharla R Barr, Alberto J Hernandez, Manuel F Varela
Causative agents of infectious disease that are multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens represent a serious public health concern due to the increasingly difficult nature of achieving efficacious clinical treatments. Of the various acquired and intrinsic antimicrobial agent resistance determinants, integral-membrane multidrug efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily constitute a major mechanism of bacterial resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) encompasses thousands of known related secondary active and passive solute transporters, including multidrug efflux pumps, from bacteria to humans...
January 7, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Jean-Marc Sabatier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Arnish Chakraborty, S N Balaji, Amogh A Sahasrabuddhe, Vishal Trivedi
Malaria is a parasitic disease, widespread along the tropical regions of the world. The disease has killed 4, 38,000 individuals in the year 2015 (WHO). The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has evolved resistance to front-line antimalarials over the decade, necessitating the identification of new drug targets. Protein kinases are excellent drug targets since they participate in critical cell-signaling cascades. We have identified a putative RIO-like protein kinase, PFD0975w, from the Plasmodium kinome...
2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Oluwatobi Ohiole Ozoya, Lubomir Sokol, Samir Dalia
BACKGROUND: Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is a common gamma herpes virus with a high prevalence in adults worldwide. Infection is mostly latent in affected individuals. EBV has been linked mostly with lymphoid malignancies but its association with epithelial and other non-lymphoid malignancies has also been described. METHODS: Using MEDLINE, the terms "Epstein Barr Virus AND Malignancy"; "EBV mechanisms"; EBV treatment AND outcomes"; and "EBV prevention" were combined to find articles pertinent to this review...
2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Suresh Antony, Yvette Farran
Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) in orthopedic related devices (ORD) are major issues following replacement of joints. It results in serious morbidity and mortality and is expensive to treat and manage. The pathogenesis of these infections is related to the presence of biofilm on the metallic and plastic surfaces of the devices. This biofilm results in poor penetration of antibiotics resulting in persistence and difficulty in eradication of the infection despite appropriate antibiotics. This paper summarizes the present data of biofilm as it relates to PJI/ORD...
2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
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