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Infectious Disorders Drug Targets

Lima Asgharpour Sarouey, Khadijeh Khanaliha, Fatemeh Tabatabaie, Parvaneh Rahimi-Moghaddam, Samaneh Khorrami
As an important global disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis is associated with complications such as secondary infections and atrophic scars. The first line treatment with antimonials is expensive and has serious side effects including development of drug resistance. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cinnarizine on standard strains of Leishmania major because of paucity of information on this subject. In this experimental study, four concentrations of the drug (5, 10, 15 and 20 µg/ml) were added to Leishmania major cultures at 24, 48 and 72 hours intervals...
November 12, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hassan Valadbeigi, Elham Esmaeeli, Sobhan Ghafourian, Abbas Maleki, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard
The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence virulence genes profile in UPEC isolates in Ilam. For this purpose, a total of 8o UPEC isolates for patients with UTIs were collected during 6 months period. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) was used for detection of the papEF, fimH, iucD, hlyA, fyuA, and ompT genes. The prevalence of genes the fimH, papEF, iucD, fyuA, hlyA, hlyA and ompT were 87.5, 47.5, 60, 67.5, 27.5, 47.5 and 71.2, respectively. Among all of isolates, 27 gene profiles were obtained...
November 12, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Suresh Antony, R N Leigh Cooper
Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae is a rare pathogen but has been reported in the literature in immunosuppressed and rarely immunocompetent patients. Most disease states have been reported in animals and reptiles. Human exposure has resulted in a range of complications from skin and soft tissue infections to bacteremia and periprosthetic joint infections. Predisposing factors such as age, comorbidities, and use of Mexican folk healing practices increase the risk of developing an infection. S. arizonae has been associated with gastrointestinal infections in several parts of the country and on rare occasions have been isolated from skin and soft tissues, prosthetic joints, and empyema...
November 4, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Eric A Mensah, Bismark Sarfo, Evelyn Y Bonney, Prince K Parbie, Augustine Ocloo
BACKGROUND: Side effects and toxicity have posed a threat to the positive contribution of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Symptoms of mitochondrial toxicity including myopathy, pancreatitis, hyperlipidaemia and lactic acidosis are found among HIV-infected patients on ART. To date, there is not a reliable biomarker for monitoring ART-related mitochondrial toxicity. Plasma level of Cytochrome c (Cyt-c) has been proposed as a potential biomarker for ART-related toxicity due to its strong association with apoptosis...
November 2, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
P May, H Smithers-Sheedy, M Muhit, R Cumming, C Jones, R Booy, N Badawi, G Khandaker
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, with an estimated 17 million cases worldwide. There is limited data concerning the general health of this population and the immunisation status of children with CP is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the immunisation status of children with CP in rural Bangladesh and determine the predictors of non-immunisation. METHODS: This study is part of the Bangladesh CP Register (BCPR) study; a population based CP register commenced in January 2015 in the Shahjadpur sub-district of Bangladesh...
October 23, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Vishal Sharma, Harjeet Singh, Harshal S Mandavdhare
Abdominal tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose due to low sensitivity of microbiological tests and the low histological yield. Satisfactory response to therapy has long been used a criteria for the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. However, the appropriate definitions of response to therapy in abdominal tuberculosis have remained unclear. Recent evidence suggests that mucosal healing of ulcers at end of therapy or at two months (early mucosal response) is a helpful criteria of response to therapy. This also helps in exclusion of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and alternative diagnosis like Crohn's disease...
October 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Esmaeil Mehraeen, Reza Safdari, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Niloofar Mohammadzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Appropriate mobile-based self-management strategies can be as new approaches to decelerate the HIV infection progression and improve quality of life. This study aims at (i) identifying in the literature mobile-based self-management strategies for HIV care and (ii) prioritizing those from the point of view of infectious diseases specialists. This study provides some clues to design useful mobile-based self-management tools for HIV patients, from the point of view of practitioners...
October 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Priya Datta, Menal Gupta, Mani Bhushan Kumar, Varsha Gupta, Jagdish Chander
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia complex is widespread in the environment and has been recognized as a cause of opportunistic pulmonary infections, particularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The natural ecology of the bacteria as part of plant growth-promoting rhizosphere provides stark contrast to its infectious potential. Its preponderance as a nosocomial pathogen may be due to its ability to survive in antiseptic solutions, contaminate equipments, and intrinsic antimicrobial resistance...
October 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Pooja Patel, Chinmayi Joshi, Vijay Kothari
BACKGROUND: A polyherbal formulation (Herboheal) traditionally indicated for wound-care was investigated for its anti-virulence potential against the notorious pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating anti-virulence potential of Herboheal formulation against S. aureus in vitro as well as in vivo, followed by studying its effect on target bacterium's gene expression at the whole transcriptome level. METHOD: In vitro efficacy of the test formulation was evaluated using broth dilution assay, whereas in vivo efficacy was assayed employing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the model host...
October 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Yasmin Sultana, Sabina Karim, Gouri Rani Banik, Harunor Rashid, Rogan Lee
The burden of parasitic infections among children with disability in resource poor settings has not been summarised through a focused review. Here, we have summarised the key studies reporting the burden of parasitic infections among children without and with disability. In most instances, among children without disability giardia or soil-transmitted helminths dominate the epidemiology, while among disabled individuals enteric protozoa are the predominant parasites to be reported in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries...
October 21, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Muhammad Faraz Anwar, Ramsha Khalid, Alina Hasanain, Sadaf Naeem, Shamshad Zarina, Syed Hani Abidi, Syed Ali
BACKGROUND: In the current study, we have used an integrated in silico approach that combines chemoinformatics and molecular docking to screen and test potential therapeutic compounds against viruses in a computer-simulated environment. Fluoroquinolones have been shown to inhibit HCV replication by targeting the helicase activity of HCV NS3. Based on this observation, we hypothesized that natural analogs of fluoroquinolones will have similar or superior inhibitory potential, while having potentially fewer adverse effects...
October 19, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Masoud Behzadifar, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Meysam Behzadifar, Wesam Kooti, Ignazio Vecchio, Giulia Malaguarnera, Mariano Martini, Farnaz Kheirandish
BACKGROUND: Fascioliasis, an infectious disorder with a serious public health burden, is caused by two liver flukes belonging to the genus Fasciola. Iran is among the endemic areas for this disease. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Iran. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science (WoS), and Google Scholar, as well as Iranian databases including Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran and Irandoc from January 2000 to June 2016...
October 17, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Bismark Sarfo, Zelalem Haile, Selase Deletsu, Eric Akpanja Mensah, Evelyn Yayra Bonney
Background Tumor necrosis factor and its receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) have been implicated in many infectious diseases. Identification of the key receptor (sTNFR1 or sTNFR2) which drives the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection is crucial in developing adjunctive therapy for HIV. Objective This study determined the expression levels of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 in antiretroviral therapy (ART) - experienced and naïve HIV patients. Method: A total of 40 HIV patients comprising 30 with ART and 10 without ART were enrolled from the Pantang Hospital located in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana for data and blood collection...
October 16, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Mehrian Payam, Doroudinia Abtin, Moghadaseh Shams, Alizadeh Niloufar
Background Intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (ITLN) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients may have various etiologies and prognoses. Etiologies of ITLN can be distinguished based on the distribution of enlarged lymph nodes. Sometimes tuberculosis (TB) is the first sign of underlying HIV infection. Objectives We sought to determine ITLN distribution and associated pulmonary findings in TB/HIV co-infection using computed tomography (CT) scan. Methods In this retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study, chest CT scans of 52 patients with TB/HIV co-infection were assessed for enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes (>10 mm in short axis diameter), lymphadenopathy (LAP) distribution, calcification, conglomeration, presence of hypodense center and associated pulmonary abnormalities...
October 16, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Taher El-Demerdash, Mohamed Yousef, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Amal Helmy, Abdelrahman Kobtan, Asem A Elfert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis viruses are not transmitted via gastrointestinal endoscopy except if there are any mistakes in sterilization and disinfection of the endoscope that disrupt the infection control measures. So we aimed to measure the risk of transmitting HCV by GI endoscopy at department of Tropical Medicine and infectious Diseases, in a major University hospital in Egypt. METHODOLOGY: Our study was conducted on four hundred patients with exclusion of those with HCV, HBV, and/or HIV positive antibodies...
October 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hemchandra Keshav Chaudhari, Akshta R Pahelkar
PA-824 analogues have been proposed on a promising approach for treating MDR/XDR tuberculosis. In order to understand the structural requirement of reported extended side chain analogues were studied to get insight into their structural requirements responsible for high affinity as a ligand-based pharmacophore, 3D-QSAR model have been developed. A structurally diverse set of 84 molecules was divided into 17 molecules of test set and rest of the 67 molecules of training set. The pharmacophore hypothesis yielded a statistically significant 3D-QSAR model, with a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0...
October 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Katijah Khoza-Shangase
South Africa is considered the epicenter of HIV/AIDS with a high rate of TB infection as well. Links have been established between treatments of these conditions to ototoxicity. However, no standardized and systematic ototoxicity monitoring exists within the clinical sites where these conditions are treated; with very minimal and adhoc involvement of audiologists as part of the treatment team. With 3.4 million HIV-infected South Africans being reported to have been on antiretroviral drugs by the end of March 2016; with universal coverage being the target, it is important that ototoxicity monitoring becomes part of the treatment plan...
October 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Bashir Mohammadpour, Samaneh Rouhi, Masoud Moradi, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Ebrahim Saniyi, Sairan Zandi, Himen Salimizand
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes major public health concerns, especially in hospitalized patients due to acquisition of resistant genes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the published data on the prevalence and dispersion of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) genes in A. baumannii in different provinces of Iran and provide an overall prevalence rate using meta-analysis. All available national and international databanks from 2011 to 2017 were searched to find published studies...
October 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Azizollah Yousefi, Shahryar Eslami, Samileh Noorbakhsh, Morteza Haghighi, Leila TaheriNia, Fahimeh Ehsanipour
BACKGROUND: High resistance to common antibiotics has become a huge global dilemma in eradicating Helicobacter Pylori infection in both children and adults. The great concern is about the resistance to different classes of antibiotics especially Clarithromycin because of its widespread use. The present survey aimed to assess the resistance rate to Clarithromycin in Helicobacter Pylori isolated in patients aged less than 15 years as compared to patients older than 15 years of age. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, total 72 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms requiring diagnostic endoscopy referred to Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital in Tehran during one year (August 2015 to August 2016)...
October 12, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Tanniru Sireesha, Syed Asha, Jojula Malathi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) among Diabetic Mellitus (DM) population is more expected to fail treatment of TB due to smear negative TB. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare and evaluate different methods to study the frequency of TB infections among DM patients. METHOD: Sputum and urine samples were collected from 500 newly identified diabetic patients from different diabetic clinics of Warangal districts. Smear microscopy, Culture and Line Probe Assay by Polymerase Chain Reaction (LPA PCR) for identification of tuberculosis...
October 11, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
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