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Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets

Maria Luisa Hernández Medel, Gabriela Gutierrez Reyes, Luz Marina Porras, Arturo Reding Bernal, Jesús Serrano Luna, Adolfo Perez Garcia, Jacqueline Cordova, Adalberto Parra, Srinivas Mummidi, David Kershenobich, Joselín Hernández
BACKGROUND: Natural killer cells (NKC) are a major component of innate immune response to HCV, mediating their effects through TRAIL and IFN-γ. However, their function is diminished in chronic HCV patients (HCVp). Prolactin is an immunomodulatory hormone capable of activating NKC. OBJECTIVE: To explore if hyperprolactinemia can activate NKC in HCVp. METHOD: We treated twelve chronic HCVp (confidence level =95%, power =80%) for 15 days with Levosulpiride plus Cimetidine to induce mild hyperprolactinemia...
December 6, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Adel A Hagag, Mohamed S El Frargy, Amal Ezzat Abd El-Latif
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a potentially devastating disorder associated with significant mortality and long-term morbidity. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to study the role of vitamin D as an adjuvant therapy for management of neonatal HIE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was carried out on 60 neonates with HIE grade II who were diagnosed according to modified Sarnat staging and were divided in to 2 groups: Group I: Included 30 neonates with Sarnat grade II HIE who received single daily oral dose of vitamin D3 (1000 IU) for 2 weeks in addition to daily subcutaneous (SC) human recombinant erythropoietin (2500 IU/kg) for 5 days and IM or IV magnesium sulphate 250 mg/kg within half an hour of birth, and subsequently 125 mg/kg at 24 and 48 hours of life...
December 4, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Vincenzo Mollace, Miriam Scicchitano, Sara Paone, Francesca Casale, Carla Calandruccio, Micaela Gliozzi, Vincenzo Musolino, Cristina Carresi, Jessica Maiuolo, Saverio Nucera, Antonella Riva, Pietro Allegrini, Massimo Ronchi, Giovanna Petrangolini, Ezio Bombardelli
OBJECTIVE: Hyperlipemia represents an independent risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis in patients undergoing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Moreover, the pharmacological treatment of dyslipemia in patients undergoing type 2 DM (e.g. by means of statins), is accompanied by relevant side effects and oral supplementation with natural antioxidants, such as Citrus polyphenols, has recently been suggested to improve cardioprotection in such patients. However, due to the poor gastrointestinal absorption of polyphenols, novel formulations have recently been developed for getting a better bioavailability of polyphenolic rich fractions of citrus species extract rich in polyphenols...
December 3, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Himadri Singh, Samuel Joshua Pragasam, Vijayalakshmi Venkatesan
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of medical conditions that synergistically increase the risk of heart diseases, and diabetes. The current treatment strategy for metabolic syndrome focuses on treating its individual components. A highly effective agent for metabolic syndrome has yet to be developed. To develop target for metabolic syndrome the mechanism encompassing different organs - nervous system, pancreas, skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue - needs to be understood...
November 30, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Jia-Wei Lin, Kun-Zhe Tsai, Kai-Wen Chen, Fang-Ying Su, Yi-Hwei Li, Yen-Po Lin, Chih-Lu Han, Felicia Lin, Yu-Kai Lin, Chung-Bao Hsieh, Gen-Min Lin
AIM: The study was conducted in order to examine the sex-specific association of serum uric acid (SUA) levels with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a Taiwanese military cohort. METHODS: We made a cross-sectional examination of the sex-specific relationship using 6728 men and 766 women, aged 18-50 years from a large military cohort in Taiwan. SUA levels within the reference range (<7.0 mg/dL for men and <5.7 mg/dL for women respectively) were divided into quartiles and SUA levels greater than the upper reference limits were defined as hyperuricemia...
November 29, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Thea Magrone, Jirillo Emilio
Drugs of abuse affect both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral immune function. Besides involvement of dopamine and glutamate systems, chronic exposure to drugs of abuse alters immune homeostasis, promoting a pro-inflammatory status. At the same time, impaired peripheral immunity leads to an increased susceptibility to infections in drug abusers. Effects on CNS: There is evidence that certain drugs, such as opioids, activate microglial cells and astrocytes which, in turn, provoke central neuroinflammation...
November 28, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Mahsa Hatami, Mina Abdolahi, Neda Soveyd, Mahmoud Djalali, Mansoureh Togha, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammatory disease is a general term used to denote the progressive loss of neuronal function or structure. Many neuroinflammatory diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and multiple sclerosis (MS), occur due to neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation increases nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) levels, cyclooxygenase-2 enzymes and inducible nitric oxide synthase, resulting in the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
November 28, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Thea Magrone, Emilio Jirillo
Secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) are distributed in many districts of the body and, especially, lymph nodes, spleen and gut-associated lymphoid tissue are the main cellular sites. On the other hand, tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) are formed in response to inflammatory, infectious, autoimmune and neoplastic events. Developmental studies: In the present review, emphasis will be placed on the developmental differences of SLO and TLO between small intestine and colon and on the role played by various chemokines and cell receptors...
November 28, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Seyhan Dikci, Emrah Öztürk, Penpe Gül Fırat, Turgut Yılmaz, Mehmet Çağatay Taşkapan, Saim Yoloğlu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum vitamin D levels have an effect on pseudoexfolation (PEX) glaucoma/syndrome development and on the control of glaucoma in these cases. METHOD: A total of 31 cases with PEX glaucoma, 34 cases with the PEX syndrome and 43 control subjects of similar age and sex were included in the study. Vitamin D levels were compared between the groups and also between the cases where glaucoma surgery was performed or not. RESULTS: PEX glaucoma group consisted of 17 males and 14 females, PEX syndrome group of 27 males and 7 females, and the control group of 27 males and 16 females...
November 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Faaiz Ul Hassan, Muhammad Suhaib Qudus, Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Jawad Ahmed, Momin Khan, Khayam Ul Haq, Shahina Mumtaz, Muhammad Arshad, Sami Siraj
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogen associated with acute tissue damage in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa often bodes unpredictable and unfavourable clinical outcomes, owing to a variety of intrinsic and acquired molecular mechanisms. The study aimed to determine the frequency of ESBLs in Multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa from diabetic foot patients. METHOD: Present study's duration was one year and 100 patients with DFU were enrolled...
November 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Haroon Khan, Surrya Amin, Devesh Tewari, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Atanas G Atanasov
The α-glucosidase (EC, a calcium-containing intestinal enzyme which is positioned in the cells which cover the intestinal microvilli brush border. The carbohydrates require metabolism by α-glucosidase before being absorbed into the small intestine, and as a result this enzyme represents a significant drug target for the effective management of diabetes. There are few α-glucosidase inhibitors in the clinical practice that are challenged by several limitations. Thus, new effective and safe therapeutic agents in this class are required...
November 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Rajeev Kumar Singla, Ashok Kumar Dubey
Drugs with post-prandial action constitute one of the main course of treatments for diabetes. In the present investigation, we have explored the α-amylase inhibitory potential of ethanolic extract of Cocos nucifera endocarp. DNS based α-amylase assay indicated that IC50 value of extract lies in the range of 63-126 µg/ml and at higher doses, i.e. above 250 µg/ml, it is having better α-amylase inhibition than the standard drug, acarbose. Phytochemical screening indicated that ethanolic extract is rich in alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes, glycosides, carbohydrates, terpenoids, quinones and lactones...
November 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Umesh Panwar, Sanjeev Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Obesity is well known multifactorial disorder towards the public health concern in front of the world. Increasing rates of obesity has characterized with liver diseases, chronic diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and stroke, hearts improper function, reproductive and gastrointestinal, gallstones. An essential enzyme pancreatic lipase recognized for the digestion and absorption of lipids, can be a pleasing drug target towards the future development of anti-obesity therapeutics in cure of obesity disorders...
November 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Paria Pashazadeh, Abdoljalal Marjani, Jahanbakhash Asadi, Masoud Khoshnia
BACKGROUND: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes thiopurine drugs, such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, and azathioprine. There is a correlation between thiopurine drug metabolism, response, and toxicity and genetic polymorphism of TPMT. The aim of this study is to assess TPMT genetic polymorphisms activity and metabolic products of AZA in patients with IBD. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 50 IBD unrelated patients from a private laboratory...
November 19, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Abd Elkhalek Hamed, Nadia Elwan, Mervat Naguib, Reda Elwakil, Gamal Esmat, Mohamed El Kassas, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Shorouk Moussa
BACKGROUND: There is strong association between liver diseases and diabetes (DM) which is higher than expected by a correlation between two very common diseases. Liver diseases may occur as a result of diabetes, and the reverse is true as well. AIM: To review the etiology of this association between liver diseases and diabetes and how to diagnose it. METHODS: Studies that identified this association between liver diseases and diabetes and how to diagnose it were reviewed...
November 15, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
M Eddouks, F Khallouki, R W Owen, M Hebi, R Burcelin
AIMS: Arganimide A (4,4-dihydroxy-3,3-imino-di-benzoic acid) is a compound belonging to a family of aminophenolics found in fruit of Argania spinosa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the glucose and lipid lowering activity of Arganimide A (ARG A). METHODS: The effect of a single dose and daily oral administration of Arganimide A (ARG A) on blood glucose levels and plasma lipid profile was tested in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight...
November 13, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Agata Calvario, Caterina Foti, Maria Scarasciulli, Paolo Romita, Eva Eliassen, Andrea Marzullo, Anna Maria Colacicco, Giuseppe Miragliotta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) is a small vessel vasculitis that can be limited to the skin but may also affect other organs. Often, its cause is unknown. LCV has previously been reported to occur with the reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). Here, we report a second instance of HHV-6 reactivation in a 43-year-old woman with idiopathic cutaneous LCV. CASE DESCRIPTION: In this case, the patient was immunocompetent, and testing revealed that she had inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 variant A (iciHHV6-A) with a parallel skin infection of HHV-6B...
November 6, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Luigi Vimercati, Luigi De Maria, Francesca Mansi, Antonio Caputi, Giovanni Maria Ferri, Vito Luisi, Piero Lovreglio, Enza Sabrina Silvana Cannone, Pietro Lorusso, Maria Franca Gatti, Chiara Rosaria Stella Massagli, Vincenzo Triggiani
BACKGROUND: Thyroid diseases occur more frequently in people exposed to ionising radiation, but the relationship between occupational exposure to ionising radiation and thyroid pathologies still remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of thyroid diseases in healthcare workers exposed to low-level ionising radiation compared with a control group working at the University Hospital of Bari, Southern Italy, and living in the same geographical area, characterised by mild iodine deficiency...
November 2, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Neelam Kaushal, Divya Vohora, Rajinder K Jalali, Sujeet Jha
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a common bone disorder that increases susceptibility to fragility bone fractures. The clinical and public health repercussions of osteoporosis are huge due to the morbidity, mortality, and cost of medical care linked with fragility fractures. Clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk factors can help to identify candidates at an early stage that will benefit from medical intervention and potentially lowering the morbidity and mortality seen with fractures and complications...
November 2, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Julia Rodríguez-Castelán, Dafne Zepeda-Pérez, Maribel Méndez-Tepepa, Marlenne Castillo-Romano, Marlen Espíndola-Lozano, Arely Anaya-Hernández, Pere Berbel, Estela Cuevas-Romero
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been related to a low-weight births, abortions and prematurity, which have been associated with changes in the content of glycogen and vascularization of the placenta. Since hypothyroidism can also cause dyslipidemia, it may also affect the lipid content in the uterus influenced in the development of fetuses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of hypothyroidism in the lipid levels in the serum and uterus during pregnancy and their possible association with the size of fetuses...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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