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Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468987/antithyroid-drugs-inactivate-tsh-binding-to-the-tsh-receptor-by-their-reducing-action
#1
Yukio Ochi, Takashi Hachiya, Yukiko Koyama, Nobutoshi Fukuhori, Noriyuki Ashida
The effect of antithyroid drugs(ATDs)[methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU)] and reducing agents (mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol and cysteine) on bovine (b) TSH binding to human (h) and porcine (p) TSH receptor (R) was examined. (1) ATDs was pre-incubated with hTSHR coated tube for 1- 4 h, washed free of ATDs, and then 125I-bTSH binding to hTSHR after 1 h incubation was examined. MMI (10-40 mM) decreased 125I-bTSH binding in a dose-dependent manner and binding decreased proportionally as pre-incubation time increased from 1 to 4 h...
February 19, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468986/increased-endothelial-dysfunction-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-klinefelter-syndrome
#2
Cem Haymana, Aydogan Aydogdu, Ibrahim Demirci, Mustafa Dinc, Orhan Demir, Deniz Torun, Fatih Yesildal, Coskun Meric, Yalcın Basaran, Alper Sonmez, Omer Azal
Patients with Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) have increased cardiometabolic risk however the pathogenesis is not clear. We investigated the presence of endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and inflammation in an unconfounded population of KS. A total of 32 patients with KS (mean age 21.59 ± 1.66 years) and 33 healthy control subjects (mean age: 22.15 ± 1.03 years) were enrolled. The demographic parameters, Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured...
February 19, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468985/the-role-of-neurohypophyseal-hormones-vasopressin-and-oxytocin-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#3
Michele Iovino, Tullio Messana, Giovanni De Pergola, Emanuela Iovino, Franca Dicuonzo, Edoardo Guastamacchia, Vito Angelo Giagulli, Vincenzo Triggiani
Although the neurohypophyseal hormones vasopressin and oxytocin are mostly known for their role respectively in antiduresis the former and in labour, lactation and maternal behavior the latter, both might exert widespread influences either on emotion and cognition in healthy subjects, showing some gender-related differences. They interact one each other facilitating shifts between positive socially- oriented and defensive states. In fact, vasopressin amplifies the reactivity to stressors showing also beneficial effects on attention, verbal learning as well as memory, whereas oxytocin reduces the amplitude of the stress response, improves emotion processing, and can play a negative effect on memory and verbal learning in healthy individuals...
February 19, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446750/copaiba-oil-decreases-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-but-not-colon-damage-in-rats-with-tnbs-induced-colitis
#4
Maiara Morseli Coelho Barbosa, Fernando Augusto Vicentini, Cristiane Vizioli Castro-Ghizoni, Osmar Alves Lameira, Anacharis Babeto Sa-Nakanishi, Livia Bracht, Rosane Marina Peralta, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Adelar Bracht, Jurandir Fernando Comar
BACKGROUND: TNBS-induced colitis is an experimental immunopathology in rats that shares many features with human inflammatory bowel diseases. Copaiba oleoresin is extracted from plants of the genus Copaifera and is shown to reduce inflammation. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the action of copaiba oil (C. reticulata Ducke) on inflammation and oxidative status in the distal colon of colitic rats. METHODS: Acute and subchronic colitis were induced in Wistar rats by an intracolonic enema with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)...
February 14, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437028/changes-in-the-peripheral-endocannabinoid-system-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-eating-disorders
#5
Anna Capasso, Walter Milano, Omar Cauli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorder (ED) is characterized by persistently and severely disturbed eating behaviours. They arise from a combination of long-standing behavioural, emotional, psychological, interpersonal, and social factors and result in insufficient nutrient ingestion and/or adsorption. The three main EDs are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We review the role of peripheral endocannabinoids in eating behaviour. DISCUSSION: The neuronal pathways involved in feeding behaviours are closely related to catecholaminergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic systems...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437027/benefits-of-olive-oil-phenolic-compounds-in-disease-prevention
#6
Olga Garcia-Martinez, Concepcion Ruiz, Alvaro Gutierrez-Ibanez, Rebeca Illescas-Montes, Lucia Melguizo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The preventive effects of olive oil against different diseases have been attributed to its high phenolic compound content. The objective of this study was to examine available scientific evidence on the beneficial effects against chronic diseases of olive oil phenolic compounds. METHOD: This article examines recently published data on olive oil phenolic compounds and their potential benefits in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and osteoporosis...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437022/lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-metabolic-syndrome-in-young-adults
#7
Svetlana Igorevna Kseneva, Zakhar Aleksandrovich Yurmazov, Maksim Sergeevich Timofeev, Elena Valentinovna Borodulina, Vladimir Vasilievich Udut
To assess interconnection between components of metabolic syndrome with lower urinary tract symptoms and level of androgens 30 young patients with metabolic syndrome were examined. The control group consisted of 32 apparently healthy individuals of comparable age. Revealed a high frequency of increasing the size and volume of the prostate gland, the number of points on the IPSS questionnaire, corresponding to the initial manifestation of hyperplastic prostate diseases on the background of insulin resistance and normal androgen levels raises questions about the search for new pathogenetic links of the metabolic syndrome with the processes of induction of prostate growth...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437021/homocysteine-levels-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-clinical-update
#8
Milagros Fuentes-Albero, Omar Cauli
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a non-protein α-amino acid, which plays several important roles in human physiology and in the central nervous system. Although Hcy has several known biological properties in one-carbon metabolism, its overproduction might be harmful and could add to the pathophysiology associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review presents updated information about alterations in the concentration of this amino acid in biological fluids (blood and urine) in patients with ASD. In addition, we assessed its clinical significance by analyzing if there are any potential associations between abnormal Hcy levels and the severity ASD or any of its symptoms...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437020/anorexia-nervosa-and-comorbid-psychopathology
#9
Simonetta Marucci, Laura Dalla Ragione, Giulia De Iaco, Tania Mococci, Maria Vicini, Edoardo Guastamacchia, Vincenzo Triggiani
There is great interest, supported by clinical experience, in the relationship between Eating Disorders (EDs) and psychiatric symptoms and diseases. The psychopathology of EDs is also referred to many risk and protective factors, and there is some evidence in the literature, also about genetic and neurobiological factors involved. EDs are often associated with pre-morbid psychiatric disorders, personality disorders, substance abuse, mood and anxiety disorders. The great amount of scientific articles dealing with the relationship between EDs and psychopathology confirms the complexity of these problems and the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437026/vasopressin-in-heart-failure
#10
Michele Iovino, Massimo Iacoviello, Giovanni De Pergola, Brunella Licchelli, Emanuela Iovino, Edoardo Guastamacchia, Vito Angelo Giagulli, Vincenzo Triggiani
The nonapeptide hormone vasopressin (VP), synthesized by the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, exerts important effects on cardiovascular system via its receptors V1, V2 and V3. Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) present elevated plasma VP levels that induce vasoconstriction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and free water reabsorption that leads to edema and hyponatremia, markers of advanced CHF. Vaptans, antagonists of VP receptors, are able to increase urine output and plasma sodium levels without the increased risk of arrhythmic death induced by diuretics, even though, further studies are needed to establish a possible role of these drugs in the treatment of CHF...
February 11, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437025/association-between-vitamin-k-epoxide-reductase-vkorc1-1639g-a-polymorphism-and-osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-women
#11
Faruk Kutluturk, Ahmet Inanir, Aydın Rustemoglu, Suheyla Kaya, Ayse Kevser Demir, Gul Dursun, Serbulent Yigit
Introductıon: Osteoporosis is a common disease, and several factors contribute to its development. Recently, there has been increasing evidence that vitamin K (VK) plays a critical role in maintaining bone strength. Vitamin K serves as a co-factor for the γ-carboxylation of particular proteins to convert specific glutamic acid residues to γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues. This process involves two enzymes, γ-glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1). The number of studies investigating the effects of VKORC1 gene mutations on bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients is limited...
February 11, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437024/uric-acid-metabolic-syndrome-and-atherosclerosis-the-chicken-or-the-egg-which-comes-first
#12
Giovanni De Pergola, Francesca Cortese, Gaetano Termine, Giovanni Meliota, Michele Masiello, Anna Maria Cortese, Francesco Silvestris, Domenico Caccavo, Marco Matteo Ciccone
BACKGROUND: A great debate in literature exists nowadays on the role of uric acid as a marker of cardiovascular and metabolic organ damage or a risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. METHODS: to determine the relationship among serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, by mean of carotid intima media-thickness, in a cohort of 811 otherwise healthy overweight/obese subjects, without overt atherosclerosis not using any kind of drug...
February 11, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437023/serum-dhea-s-testosterone-and-cortisol-levels-in-female-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Suheyla Dogan Bulut, Serdar Bulut, Ayse G Gundogmus, Cigdem Aydemir
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown that sex hormones play a role in the development of schizophrenia and the severity of disease symptoms. However, study results have been inconsistent. This study compares the relationship between the severity of disease symptoms and levels of testosterone, and DHEA-S and cortisol in premenopausal female patients with schizophrenia and a matched group of healthy controls. METHODS: The study sample included 32 women who were diagnosed as having schizophrenia according to DSM-IV TR criteria, and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
February 11, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384068/thyroid-and-assisted-reproduction-technologies-a-brief-clinical-update-with-recommendations-for-practice
#14
Roberto Negro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infertility is a common disease that in about one third of cases has a female cause and often requires assisted reproduction technologies (ART) to conceive. Also thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), with or without hypothyroidism, is a common disease, particularly in females, and referral for endocrine consultation is not infrequent. DISCUSSION: In the last 15 years a remarkable amount of studies has been published that investigated the pathophysiology of women suffering from TAI, who undergo ART...
January 30, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384067/interplay-of-gut-microbiota-probiotics-in-obesity-a-review
#15
Ramesh Pothuraju, Raj Kumar Sharma
Excess caloric intake and less energy expenditure (eg. physical inactivity) are associated with acquired metabolic disorders due to sedentary life style. Pharmacological treatments are less effective in preventing obesity. Type of diet influence the gut microbiome alteration and it is interrelated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Modified gut microbiota by the harmful bacterial components (eg: lipopolysaccharides) is linked with the metabolic endotoxemia (low-grade inflammation) which results in damage to the gut barrier function...
January 30, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384066/imbalance-between-adipokines-and-cytokines-can-promote-obesity-related-disorders
#16
Maraisa Borges, Eduardo Franca, Mahmi Fujimori, Silvia Silva, Patricia Marchi, Alessandra Deluque, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-Franca, Luiz Abreu
The adipose tissue has been recognized as an important endocrine organ, which is metabolically active and expresses and secretes various inflammatory cytokines. Inflammation is involved in obesity-related complications. As such, the present study investigated the correlation between biochemical parameters, serum proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines in individuals with obesity. Based on body mass index (BMI), 30 subjects were divided into 3 groups: eutrophic (GC, n = 10), overweight (GOW, n = 10) and obese (GOB, n = 10)...
January 30, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384065/igf-1r-inhibitor-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-with-suppressed-hmgn1-tlr4-pathway
#17
Yu Jiali, Da Jingjing, Dong Rong, Sun Yi, Nie Yingjie, Yu Fuxun, Zuo Lima, Zha Yan
contribution of high mobility group nucleosome-binding protein 1 (HMGN1)/ Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway in diabetic nephropathy (DN). And as an intervention of the potential mechanism above, the insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor was examined for its therapeutic effect in the diabetic mice. METHOD: Male C57BL/6J mice were administered streptozotocin(STZ) to induce diabetes and thus divided into 5 groups: the untreated group (DN group), the benazepril-treated group (BEN-DN group), the insulin-treated group (INS-DN group) and the IGF-1R inhibitor-treated group (IGF-DN group)...
January 30, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376496/shift-from-levothyroxine-tablets-to-liquid-formulation-at-breakfast-improves-quality-of-life-of-hypothyroid-patients
#18
Rinaldo Guglielmi, Franco Grimaldi, Roberto Negro, Andrea Frasoldati, Irene Misischi, Filomena Graziano, Claudia Cipri, Edoardo Guastamacchia, Vincenzo Triggiani, Enrico Papini
BACKGROUND: Until recently, treatment of hypothyroidism has been accomplished using monotherapy of synthetic L-thyroxine (L-T4) sodium tablets that should be taken 30-60 minutes before breakfast. Nowadays, a liquid preparation of levothyroxine is available and can effectively replace tablets without the need of waiting before having breakfast. Evidence of Quality of life (QoL) improvement when shifting from the former to the latter preparation, however, are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in QoL of hypothyroid patients dissatisfied of their therapy with L-T4 sodium tablets who were switched from tablets taken 30-60 minutes before breakfast to liquid L-T4 at breakfast...
January 25, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359679/emerging-metabolomics-biomarkers-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-targeting-the-master-metabolic-disrupters-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
Maxwell Omabe, Sunday Elom, Kenneth Nwobini Omabe
Metabolomics is a powerful exploratory tool for discovering new diagnostic molecules or biomarkers due to its ability to highlight several interactions between different biochemical molecules and pathways in composition in health and disease thereby advancing our understanding, to provide evidence based diagnosis and treatment of such a complex disease including polycystic ovarian syndrome. Here we have highlighted the metabolic reactions and the perturbation of some metabolic pathways present in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome and normal subjects that can allow a better understanding of the disorder and in developing a new generation diagnostic and treatment algorithm...
January 22, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256360/roles-of-glutamate-and-glutamine-transport-in-ammonia-neurotoxicity-state-of-the-art-and-question-marks
#20
Katarzyna Dabrowska, Katarzyna Skowronska, Mariusz Popek, Marta Obara-Michlewska, Jan Albrecht, Magdalena Zielinska
BACKGROUND: Excessive accumulation of ammonia in the brain is a causative factor of an array of neurological manifestations of hyperammonemic encephalopathies ("hyperammonemias", HA) among which hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major epidemiologic and therapeutic challenge. While ammonia neurotoxicity is symptomatically and mechanistically very complex, there is a consensus with regard to the leading role in its pathogenesis of: i) astrocytes being the primary cellular target of ammonia toxicity; ii) alterations of glutamate (Glu)-dependent neurotransmission (over-excitation followed by inhibition of glutamatergic tone) being the cornerstone of its neurophysiological manifestations; and iii) brain edema, an often lethal consequence of astrocytic swelling, being among other factors caused by the retention of glutamine (Gln) in these cells...
December 19, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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