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CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412922/abnormalities-in-kynurenine-pathway-metabolism-in-treatment-resistant-depression-and-suicidality-a-systematic-review
#1
Gianluca Serafini, Giulia Adavastro, Giovanna Canepa, Laura Capobianco, Claudia Conigliaro, Federica Pittaluga, Martino Belvederi Murri, Alessandro Valchera, Domenico De Berardis, Maurizio Pompili, Daniel Lindqvist, Lena Brundin, Mario Amore
Treatment resistant depression (TRD) and suicidal behavior are among the most important public health problems and are commonly associated with significant disability and psychosocial impairment. Although there have been recent advances in identifying neurobiological correlates of these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Although the recent advances concerning the neurobiological determinants underlying these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Compared to non-suicidal subjects, higher mean concentrations of inflammatory mediators have been found in both the periphery and brain of individuals at risk for suicide...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412921/synthetic-cannabinoids-psychopharmacology-clinical-aspects-and-psy-chotic-onset
#2
Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Duccio Papanti, Yasmine Elgharably, Mariya Prilutskaya, Ornella Corazza
Synthetic Cannabinoids (SC) are the widest and most diffused class of Novel Psychoactive Substances. SC are chemically heterogeneous and structurally dissimilar from delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, being full agonists of the endocannabinoid system receptors CB1 and CB2. Desired effects include euphoria, talkativeness, feelings of joy and laughter, relaxation. With respect to cannabis, SC intake may also be associated with quicker arise of the effects, shorter duration of action, and larger levels of hangover...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#3
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412919/neurological-disorders-in-medical-use-of-cannabis-an-update
#4
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici
Medical cannabis is increasingly used as a treatment or adjunct treatment with different levels of efficacy in several neurological disorders or related symptoms (such as multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, headache), as well as in other medical conditions (e.g. nausea and vomiting, glaucoma, appetite stimulation, cancer, inflammatory conditions, asthma). Nevertheless, a number of neurological adverse effects from use of medical cannabis on the short- and on the long- term have been reported, in addition to other adverse health events...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412918/neurological-aspects-of-medical-use-of-cannabidiol
#5
Carmen Mannucci, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activi-ties and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412917/is-there-a-teratogenicity-risk-associated-with-cannabis-and-synthetic-cannabimimetics-spice-intake
#6
Laura Orsolini, Duccio Papanti, John Corkery, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Cristina Cadoni, Gaetano Di Chiara, Fabrizio Schifano
BACKGROUND: Substance use, including cannabis, has been documented amongst women both in the pre-conception period and during pregnancy, particularly during the 1st trimester, which is clearly the most critical period in the organogenesis. The recent emergence on the drug market of synthetic cannabimimetics/SC ('spice') may represent a new challenge for clinicians. OBJECTIVE: A literature overview on the teratogenicity profile of both cannabis and synthetic cannabimimetics was here carried out...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412916/cannabis-epidemiological-neurobiological-and-psychopathological-issues-an-update
#7
Maria Antonietta De Luca, Gaetano Di Chiara, Cristina Cadoni, Daniele Lecca, Laura Orsolini, Duccio Papanti, John Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Cannabis is the illicit drug with both the largest current levels of consumption and the highest lifetime prevalence in the world. Across different countries, the prevalence of cannabis use varies according to the individual income, with the highest use reported in North America, Australia and Europe. Despite its 'soft drug' reputation, cannabis misuse may be associated with several acute and chronic adverse effects. The present article aims at reviewing several papers on epidemiological, neurobiological and psychopathological aspects of the use of cannabis...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403801/iga-igm-responses-to-gram-negative-bacteria-are-not-associated-with-perinatal-depression-but-with-physio-somatic-symptoms-and-activation-of-the-tryptophan-catabolite-pathway-at-the-end-of-term-and-postnatal-anxiety
#8
Roomruangwong Chutima, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, George Anderson, André F Carvalho, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
Evidence has implicated the translocation of commensal Gram-negative bacteria (Gram-B) due to leaky gut in the pathophysiology of depression and physio-somatic symptoms (e.g. fatigue, pain, irritable bowel syndrome, malaise, etc.). In addition, the leaky gut may contribute to immune-inflammatory activation and oxidative stress. This study investigated whether bacterial translocation is associated with perinatal depression and anxiety scores and with prenatal physio-somatic symptoms and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, including the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway...
April 7, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403800/elevated-c-reactive-protein-levels-in-women-with-bipolar-disorder-may-be-explained-by-a-history-of-childhood-trauma-especially-sexual-abuse-body-mass-index-and-age
#9
Juliana Brum Moraes, Michael Maes, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Thais Zagabria Ferrari, Marcela Keikko Spagolla Uehara, André F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether increased levels of high-sensitivity C- reactive protein (hs-CRP) observed in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs) could be influenced by a previous exposure to early life stress (ELS) independently from other explanatory or background variables, including age, body mass index (BMI), and the presence of co-occurring mental disorders. METHODS: In this case-control study we included 142 healthy controls and 92 bipolar I and II patients...
April 7, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393713/immune-system-modulators-with-antidepressant-effects-evidence-from-animal-models
#10
Helena M Abelaira, Amanda L Maciel, João Quevedo, Gislaine Réus
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, and currently, approximately 340 million people worldwide suffer from depression at some point in life. In view of the growing socio-economic and clinical impact, several studies have focused on the etiopathology of MDD, suggesting that not only the monoaminergic system but also other brain mechanisms may be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD. Recent studies have shown a link between inflammation and MDD and have also demonstrated that antidepressants and anti-inflammatory drugs can act to reduce inflammation, thereby improving depressive symptoms...
April 4, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393712/therapeutic-role-of-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2a-sv2a-in-modulating-epileptogenesis
#11
Yukihiro Ohno, Kentaro Tokudome
Dysfunction of synaptic neurotransmitter release is closely involved in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a membrane protein specifically expressed in synaptic vesicles and it modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release in the brain. Since 1) SV2A-knockout mice exhibit severe convulsive seizures, 2) SV2A expression in the brain is reportedly altered in various epileptic disorders both in animal models (e.g., kindling and genetic models) and humans (e...
April 4, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325153/ultra-micronized-palmitoylethanolamide-an-efficacious-adjuvant-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Stefania Brotini, Carlo Schievano, Leonello Guidi
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the subject of intense efforts to develop strategies that slow down or stop disease progression and disability. Substantial evidence points to a prominent role for neuroinflammation in the underlying dopaminergic cell death. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) is well-known for its ability to promote the resolution of neuroinflammation and exert neuroprotection. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of um-PEA as adjuvant therapy in patients with advanced PD...
March 21, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322171/dopaminergic-modulation-of-sleep-wake-states
#13
Andrea Herrera-Solís, Wendy Herrera-Morales, Luis Núñez-Jaramillo, Oscar Arias-Carrión
The role of dopamine in sleep-wake regulation is associated as a wakefulness-promoting agent. For the clinical treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness, drugs have been commonly used to increase dopamine release. However, sleep disorders or lack of sleep is related to several dopamine-related disorders. The effects of dopaminergic agents, nevertheless, are mediated by two families of dopamine receptors, D1 and D2-like receptors; the first family increases adenylyl cyclase activity and the second inhibits adenylyl cyclase...
March 20, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322170/utilizing-delta-opioid-receptors-and-peptides-for-cytoprotection-implications-in-stroke-and-other-neurological-disorders
#14
Marci G Crowley, M Grant Liska, Trenton Lippert, Sydney Coreya, Cesar V Borlongan
The opioid system has been elucidated as a potential target for therapy in a variety of neurological disorders including stroke. Delta opioid receptors have been revealed to pose an especially compelling biological function for new neuroprotective therapies. Two distinct therapeutic mechanisms have been characterized for delta opioid receptors s, namely, these receptors aid in maintaining ionic homeostasis and initiate endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Specific agonists of delta opioid receptors, such as (D-Ala2, D-Leu5) enkephalin (DADLE), have displayed the ability to promote neuronal survival and mitigate apoptotic pathways...
March 20, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294051/further-evaluation-of-mechanisms-associated-with-the-antidepressant-like-signature-of-scopolamine-in-mice
#15
Anna E Martin, Douglas A Schober, Alexander Nikolayev, Vladimir V Tolstikov, Wesley H Anderson, Richard E Higgs, Ming-Shang Kuo, Anastasia Laksmanan, John T Catlow, Xia Li, Christian C Felder, Jeffrey M Witkin
Conventional antidepressants lack efficacy for many patients (treatment-resistant depression or TRD) and generally take weeks to produce full therapeutic response in others. Emerging data has identified certain drugs such as ketamine as rapidly-acting antidepressants for major depressive disorder and TRD. Scopolamine, a drug used to treat motion sickness and nausea, has also been demonstrated to function as a rapidly-acting antidepressant. The mechanisms associated with efficacy in TRD patients and rapid onset of action have been suggested to involve a-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling...
March 9, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260511/clinically-relevant-drug-interactions-with-anti-alzheimer-s-drugs
#16
Filippo Caraci, Janet Sultana, Filippo Drago, Edoardo Spina
The aging world population had led to an increase in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The drugs used to slow down the onset of AD, galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine and memantine, are generally well-tolerated. However, drug interactions between these drugs and other drugs are an important aspect of patient safety that should be borne in mind, particularly given the high burden of polypharmacy in the elderly. The aim of this review is to provide an updated review of clinically significant drug-drug interactions concerning drugs approved for AD...
March 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240190/demonstration-of-biological-and-immunological-equivalence-of-a-generic-glatiramer-acetate
#17
Josephine D D Alessandro, Kevin Garofalo, Ganlin Zhao, Christopher Honan, Jay Duffner, Ishan Capila, Ian Fier, Ganesh Kaundinya, Daniel Kantor, Tanmoy Ganguly
In April 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first generic glatiramer acetate, Glatopa® (M356), as fully substitutable for Copaxone® 20 mg/mL for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). This approval was accomplished through an Abbreviated New Drug Application that demonstrated equivalence to Copaxone. In vitro and in vivo experiments from multiple redundant orthogonal assays within four biological processes (aggregate biology, antigen-presenting cell biology, T-cell biology, and B-cell biology) modulated by glatiramer acetate in MS established the biological and immunological equivalence of Glatopa and Copaxone and are described...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240189/suicide-prevention-in-schizophrenia-do-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-lais-have-a-role
#18
Maurizio Pompili, Laura Orsolini, Dorian A Lamis, David R Goldsmith, Adele Nardella, Giulia Falcone, Valentina Corigliano, Mario Luciano, Andrea Fiorillo
Suicide risk is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia. Death by suicide has been reported in approximately 5% of schizophrenia patients although such figure appears an underestimation of the problem. A number of risk factors are routinely reported as associated with suicide risk among these patients, some of which are modifiable by targeted therapeutic strategies. Clozapine is the only compound that gathered evidence as an effective treatment for reducing suicide risk in schizophrenia. Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics (LAIs) have a range of advantages in terms of efficacy, safety and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia, and one area of interest is whether LAI-treatment may decrease suicidality by indirectly acting on a range of risk factors for suicide specific to schizophrenia patients...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240188/parkinson-s-disease-is-accompanied-by-intertwined-alterations-in-iron-metabolism-and-activated-immune-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-pathways
#19
Michael Maes, Carine Coneglian De Farias, Kamila Landucci Bonifácio, Andressa Keiko Matsumoto, Chiara Cristina Bortolasci, André de Souza Nogueira, Francis Fregonesi Brinholi, Helena Kaminami Morimoto, Lucio Baena de Melo, Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's diasease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a complex interplay between peripheral and central inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways in relation to iron metabolism in peripheral blood of PD patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We recruited 56 healthy individuals and 56 PD patients in stages 1-3 of Hoehn and Yahr Scale...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240187/the-endocannabinoid-system-modulating-levels-of-consciousness-emotions-and-likely-dream-contents
#20
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, José Carlos Pastrana-Trejo, Mireille Salas-Crisóstomo, Miriel de-la-Cruz
Cannabinoids are derivatives that are either compounds occurring naturally in the plant, Cannabis sativa or synthetic analogs of these molecules. The first and most widely investigated of the cannabinoids is ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), which is the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis and undergoes significant binding to cannabinoid receptors. These cannabinoid receptors are seven-transmembrane receptors that received their name from the fact that they respond to cannabinoid compounds, including Δ9-THC...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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