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CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets

Zhangjing Yang, Piaopiao Feng, Tian Wen, Minghua Wan, Xunning Hong
Differentiation of glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and lymphomas using multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important task that is valuable for treatment planning. However, this task is a challenge because GBMs and lymphomas may have a similar appearance in MRI images. This similarity may lead to misclassification and could affect the treatment results. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method based on multi-sequence MRI to differentiate these two types of brain tumors. Our method consists of three steps: 1) the key slice is selected from 3D MRIs and region of interests (ROIs) are drawn around the tumor region; 2) different features are extracted based on prior clinical knowledge and validated using a t-test; and 3) features that are helpful for classification are used to build an original feature vector and a support vector machine is applied to perform classification...
October 18, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Mariola Herbet, Aleksandra Szopa, Sylwia Wośko, Anna Serefko, Magdalena Izdebska, Monika Gawrońska-Grzywacz, Iwona Piątkowska-Chmiel, Martyna Janas, Renata Gieroba, Agnieszka Korga, Ewa Poleszak, Jarosław Dudka
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are associated with oxidative stress. Therefore, it is interesting if antidepressants can affect redox equilibrium and signaling. The first step of our study was to determine the influence of the adenosine system on the antidepressant-like activity of non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor complex - dizocilpine (MK-801). To this aim, two behavioral tests commonly used to assess the antidepressant capability of drugs - the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), were performed...
October 10, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Zsófia Majláth, Izabella Obál, László Vécsei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with prominent motor and non-motor symptoms. Psychosis develops in over 40% of PD patients and it is one of the most distressing symptoms for patients and caregivers alike. Until recently, atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine were used to treat psychotic symptoms, but treatment was associated with substantial concerns for side-effects of clozapine and unfounded efficacy for quetiapine. Extensive research has shown that the antipsychotic effect of these drugs could be attributed to serotonin 2a receptor (5 HT2a) triggered mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Habiba Aurang Zeb, Ishaq Nasib Khan, Iqbal Munir, Wafaa Saadeldin Ramadan, Mian Afaq Ahmad, Deema Hussein, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Saleh Al Karim
Injuries to the spinal cord often have devastating physiological impacts due to the organ's vital role in neuro-impulse communications between muscles and the brain. Spinal Cord Injuries (SCIs) have recently been estimated to affect up to 80,000 individuals per year worldwide, with most occurring following a traumatic event. Unfortunately, effective treatments standardised globally for patients with SCIs have not yet been established. For many years, inadequate understanding of the complexities of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and Neurogenesis has limited progression towards effective cures...
October 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Sayeed Ahmad, Salman Akhtar, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Syed Mohd Danish Rizvi, Mohammad A Kamal, M Kalim A Khan, Mohd Haris Siddiqui
AD is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population. Βeta- amyloid cascade formation along with several cytoskeleton abnormalities succeeding to the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated tau protein in neurons leads to the elicitation of several neurotoxic incidents. As an outcome of these phenomena, steady growth of dementia in aged population is becoming ubiquitous in both developed and developing countries. Thus, the key aspiration is to endow with stable daily life functionality to the person suffering from dementia and to cut down or slower the symptoms of disease leading to disruptive behavior...
October 3, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Sabrina Castellano, Andrea Ventimiglia, Salvatore Salomone, Andrea J Ventimiglia, Simona De Vivo, Maria Salvina Signorelli, Elisa Bellelli, Mario Santagati, Rita Anna Cantarella, Enrica Fazio, Eugenio Aguglia, Filippo Drago, Santo Di Nuovo, Filippo Caraci
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive disorder (MDD) is often accompanied by cognitive deficits, involving attention, learning, memory and executive functioning. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) show efficacy on affective symptoms, but it is unclear whether or not they improve cognitive symptoms. METHODS: We carried out a 12 week-prospective observational study in two cohorts of recurrent moderate-severe partial responder MDD patients, to test the hypothesis that SSRIs and/or SNRIs may affect cognitive symptoms and assess whether or not such an effect was correlated to their effect on affective symptoms...
October 3, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Sibhghatulla Shaikh, Syed Mohd Danish Rizvi, Tabinda Suhail, Shazi Shakil, Adel M Abuzenadah, Rukhsar Anis, Deeba Naaz, Mohd Haneef, Adnan Ahmad, Latafat Choudhary
An increasing number of research evidences indicate linkage between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD); the two most common diseases of aging. In addition, T2DM and AD also share some common pathophysiological features. Therefore, dual therapy that targets both the diseases can be regarded as a beneficial approach. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and beta-secretase (BACE) have been considered as potential therapeutic targets for AD. Accordingly, the piece of work presented here describes the binding of anti-diabetic drugs (Jardiance, Suiny and Nesina) with AChE and BACE so as to further investigate connecting bridges concerning the treatment of these two diseases...
October 3, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Nagat Mohammed, Maria Ceprián, Laura Jimenez, M Ruth Pazos, Jose Martínez-Orgado
BACKGROUND: A relevant therapeutic time window (TTW) is an important criterion for considering the clinical relevance of a substance preventing newborn hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. OBJECTIVE: to test the TTW of the neuroprotective effects of cannabidol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid in a model of newborn HI brain damage. METHOD: 9-10 day-old C57BL6 mice underwent a HI insult (10% oxygen for 90 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation)...
September 27, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Hari S Sharma, Stephen D Skaper, Aruna Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Burak Yulug, Lütfü Hanoglu, Feysel Yalcın Yamaner, Ertugrul Kilic, Wolf Rüdiger Schabitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Cornelia M Wilson, Gohar Mushtaq, Mohammad A Kamal, Faraj Terro
Endoproteolysis is a normal post-translational process in the eukaryotic cell that plays played a role early on in protein evolution allowing protein catabolism and the generation of amino acids. Endoproteolytic cleavage regulates many crucial cellular processes including the activity of many proteins, their protein-protein interactions and the amplification of cell signals. Not surprisingly, disruption or alternation of endoproteolytic cleavage may be the root cause of many human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and prion diseases...
September 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Geoffrey Burnstock
The roles of purinergic signalling in diseases of the central nervous system and the potential use of purinergic compounds for their treatment are attracting increasing attention. In this review, the focus is on the findings reported in recent papers and reviews to update knowledge in this field.
September 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jose V Lafuente, G Bermudez, L Camargo-Arce, S Bulnes
Cerebral syndromes related to high altitude exposure are becoming more frequent as the number of trips to high altitudes has increased in the last decade. The commonest symptom is headache, followed by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), which can be fatal. The pathophysiology of these syndromes is not fully comprehended. The classical "tight-fit hypothesis" defends the fact that there are some anatomical variations that would obstruct the sinovenous outflow and worsen the vasogenic edema and intracranial hypertension reactive to hypoxia...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Eugene A Kiyatkin, Hari Sharma
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally believed that structural brain damage induced by METH results from oxidative stress, in this work we present data suggesting robust disruption of blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB and BSCB) during acute METH intoxication in rats. We demonstrate the relationships between METH-induced brain hyperthermia and widespread but structure-specific barrier leakage, acute glial activation, changes in brain water and ionic homeostasis, and structural damage of different types of cells in the brain and spinal cord...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Marcella Reale, Chiara D Angelo, Erica Costantini, Ada Maria Tata, Francesca Regen, Julian Hellmann-Regen
Exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in everyday life is increasing and it is a matter of great debate whether exposure to ELF-EMF can be harmful to human health. The neuropathology and symptoms of neurodegenerative disease depends on factors involving other than genetic predispositions, such as environmental exposure to disease-related risk factors. Research focusing on a possible contribution of ELF-EMF to cell injury and to the development of neurodegenerative disorders is characterized by conflicting data from epidemiological and animal studies...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Kah Keng Wong, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Siew Hua Gan
Neurological manifestations or disorders associated with central nervous system (CNS) are one of the most common as well as important clinical characteristics of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Although in the last updated (2006) classification criteria of APS its neurological manifestations encompassed only transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke, diverse 'non-criteria' neurological disorders or manifestations (headache, migraine, bipolar disorder, transverse myelitis, dementia, chorea, epileptic seizures, multiple sclerosis, psychosis, cognitive impairment, Tourette's syndrome, parkinsonism, dystonia, transient global amnesia, obsessive compulsive disorder and leukoencephalopathy) have been observed in APS patients...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Weihong Pan, Abba J Kastin
Here we summarize three aspects of our understanding of the interactions of cytokines and neurotrophic peptides/proteins with the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB): (a) pharmacokinetic analysis that has been reported for native cytokines and neurotrophic peptides/proteins; (b) landmark work on conjugated proteins to enhance their delivery across the normal BBB; and (c) regulatory changes under pathophysiological conditions in rodents, particularly after spinal cord injury (SCI). First, though the BBB restricts the permeation of large proteins, some cytokines and neurotrophic peptides/proteins in the periphery can reach the central nervous system (CNS) by specific transport systems...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Abba J Kastin, Weihong Pan
Pertinent to pandemic obesity, the discovery of endogenous peptides that affect the ingestion of food has led to the question of how these ingestive peptides exert their actions in the brain. Whereas peripheral sources provide a ready reserve, the availability of ingestive peptides to their central nervous system targets can be regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Some of the peptides/polypeptides are transported by saturable mechanisms from blood to brain. Examples include leptin, insulin, mahogany, and pancreatic polypeptide...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Hayate Javed, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Shreesh Ojha
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating and progressive movement disorder characterized by symptoms of muscles rigidity, tremor, postural instability and slow physical movements. Biochemically, PD is characterized by lack of dopamine production and its action due to loss of dopaminergic neurons and neuropathologically by the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies, which mainly consist of presynaptic neuronal protein, α-synuclein (α-syn). It is believed that alteration in α-syn homeostasis leads to increased accumulation and aggregation of α-syn in Lewy body...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Aiyatullah Shah, Nawab John Dar, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan, Muzamil Ahmad
Neurodegeneration is progressive loss of functional and structural integrity of the central nervous system. Neurodegenerative disorders are yet without any reliable therapy because the neurons of the central nervous system have limited ability to regenerate. Current therapeutic approaches rely mainly on abrogation of symptoms and leave the dying neurons to their fate. Protective and/or rescuing treatments need to be explored fully to suppress neuronal death that will automatically alleviate the symptoms. Adequate precedent exists in literature regarding the neuroprotective activity of endophytes...
September 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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