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CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928951/analysis-of-adverse-events-related-to-720-cases-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#1
Suqing Qu, Weipeng Liu, Hui Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Yinxiang Yang, Fang Liu, Kan Du, Sheng He, Zuo Luan
: The aim of this study is to explore the safety issue from 720 cases of neural progenitor cell transplantation through a retrospective analysis of adverse events based on clinic manifestations and examinations. Results showed that 166/720 cases had postoperative crying and irritability, 69/720 vomiting and 84/720 fever. None of them had CNS infection, but 4 cases presented intracranial hemorrhage. One month after cell therapy, 568/720 cases received EEG test, which showed improvement in 153 patients, abnormal changes in 74 and no changes in 341 cases; two patients developed new-onset convulsions and 3 recurrent convulsions;6 cases had intracranial hemorrhage , but no other CNS sequelae left from the primary diseases...
December 7, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890009/a-feature-free-30-disease-pathological-brain-detection-system-by-linear-regression-classifier
#2
Yi Chen, Ying Shao, Jie Yan, Ti-Fei Yuan, Yanwen Qu, Elizabeth Lee, Shuihua Wang
To develop a pathological brain detection (PBD) system, this work offered a 30-disease dataset and proposed a feature-free method. Our method directly applied linear regression classifier to brain magnetic resonance images. The task is to detect pathological brain from healthy brains. Our PBD system achieved a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 58.50%, a precision of 95.47%, and an accuracy of 95.74%. This proposed method is effective in detecting pathological brains.
November 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890008/functional-connectivity-analysis-of-brain-default-mode-networks-using-hamiltonian-path
#3
Zhuqing Jiao, Kai Ma, Huan Wang, Ling Zou, Jianbo Xiang
The aim of this study is to introduce Hamiltonian path to analyze functional connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs). Firstly, the brain DMNs in resting state are constructed with the employment of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data. Then, the Dijkstra algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path length of the node which represents each brain region, and the Hamiltonian path of the default network is solved through the improved adaptive ant colony algorithm. Finally, complex network analysis methods are introduced to discuss the node and network properties of brain functional connectivity in both normal subjects and stroke patients...
November 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875954/how-immune-inflammatory-processes-link-cns-and-psychiatric-disorders-classification-and-treatment-implications
#4
George Anderson, Michael Maes
In this article the emerging biological overlaps of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed. Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress, couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites, with consequences for serotonin availability, including as a precursor for the melatonergic pathways. Subsequent alterations in the regulation of local melatonin synthesis are likely to have direct impacts on the reactivity of immune cells, both centrally and systemically...
November 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834130/alzheimer-s-disease-detection-by-pseudo-zernike-moment-and-linear-regression-classification
#5
Shuihua Wang, Sidan Du, Yin Zhang, Preetha Phillips, Lenan Wu, Xian-Qing Chen, Yudong Zhang
This study presents an improved method based on "Gorji et al. Neuroscience. 2015" by introducing a relatively new classifier-linear regression classification (LRC). Our method selects one axial slice from 3D brain image, and employed pseudo Zernike moment (PZM) with maximum order of 15 to extract 256 features from each image. Finally LRC was harnessed as the classifier. The proposed "PZM + LRC" obtains an accuracy of 97.51%, a sensitivity of 96.71%, and a specificity of 97.73%. Our method performs better than Gorji's approach and five other state-of-the-art approaches...
November 11, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834129/detection-of-dendritic-spines-using-wavelet-packet-entropy-and-fuzzy-support-vector-machine
#6
Shuihua Wang, Yang Li, Ying Shao, Carlo Cattani, Sidan Du
The morphology of dendritic spines is highly correlated with the neuron function. Therefore, it is of positive influence for the research of the dendritic spines. However, it is tired to manual labeling the spine types for statics analysis. In this work, we proposed an approach based on the combination of wavelet contour analysis for the backbone detection, wavelet packet entropy, and fuzzy support vector machine for the spine classification. The experiments show that this approach is promising. The average detection accuracy of "MushRoom" achieves 97...
November 11, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823572/securinine-derivatives-as-potential-anti-amyloid-therapeutic-approach
#7
Margarita E Neganova, Sergei G Klochkov, Ludmila N Petrova, Elena Shevtsova, Svetlana V Afanasieva, Ekaterina S Chudinova, Vladimir P Fisenko, Sergei O Bachurin, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Oxidative stress and amyloid deposition are tightly interconnected pathological features of Alzheimer disease. In this respect, both amyloid production and aggregation may be stimulated by oxidative stress and also the increase of pathogenic β-amyloid and its aggregated form lead to oxidative stress progression. Therefore, the search for potential drugs with both antioxidant and anti-aggregation properties are of great interest. In this study, we described the stereospecific synthesis of alkaloid securinine aminoderivatives, and showed that the newly synthesized compounds possess antioxidant and metal-chelating properties...
November 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823571/caffeine-the-forgotten-potential-for-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Ahmed Negida, Mohamed Elfil, Attia Attia, Eslam Farahat, Mohamed Gabr, Ahmed Essam, Hussein Ahmed, Doaa Attia
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic fibers in the basal ganglia and presence of Lewy bodies. The literature suggests that caffeine play multiple roles in PD. Epidemiological studies showed that caffeine intake was associated with less risk of developing PD, especially in genetically susceptible patients. On the level of Lewy bodies' formation, caffeine binds to α-synuclein protein inducing conformational changes and preventing their aggregation...
November 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823570/neurotrophin-receptor-signaling-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-huntington-s-disease
#9
Danielle A Simmons, Frank M Longo, Stephen M Massa
Effective non-genetic disease modifying treatments for Huntington's disease (HD) will necessarily target multiple diverse neurodegenerative processes triggered by mutant huntingtin. Neurotrophin receptors are well-positioned for this task as they regulate signaling pathways that largely overlap with signaling networks contributing to HD-related synaptic dysfunction, glial activation, excitotoxicity, and other degenerative processes. This review will discuss the contributions of disrupted neurotrophin receptor-related signaling to primary HD neuropathologies, and prospects for harnessing this signaling to develop therapeutics to counteract HD degenerative mechanisms...
November 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823574/meta-analysis-of-creatine-for-neuroprotection-against-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Attia Attia, Hussien Ahmed, Mohamed Gadelkarim, Mahmoud Morsi, Kamal Awad, Mohamed Elnenny, Esraa Ghanem, Shaimaa El-Jafaary, Ahmed Negida
Background Creatine is an antioxidant agent that showed neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Creatine was selected by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke as a possible disease modifying agent for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, many clinical trials evaluated the efficacy of creatine for patients with PD. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize evidence from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the efficacy of Creatine for patients with PD...
November 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823573/the-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-pathway-in-epilepsy-a-possible-role-for-the-immunomodulator-drug-fingolimod-in-epilepsy-treatment
#11
Antonio Leo, Rita Citraro, Rosario Marra, Ernesto Palma, Eugenio Donato Di Paola, Andrew Constanti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Emilio Russo
It is currently known that erythrocytes are the major source of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in the body. S1P acts both extracellularly as a cellular mediator and intracellularly as an important second messenger molecule. Its effects are mediated by interaction with five specific types of G protein-coupled S1P receptor. Fingolimod, is a recognized modulator of S1P receptors, and is the first orally active disease-modifying therapy that has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging data suggest that fingolimod may be effective in multiple sclerosis MS by preventing blood-brain barrier disruption and brain atrophy...
November 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804858/heat-shock-proteins-old-and-novel-roles-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Sandra Amor, Marianna Bugiani, Johannes M van Noort
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are families of molecular chaperones that play important homeostatic functions in the central nervous system (CNS) by preventing protein misfolding, promoting degradation of improperly folded proteins, and protecting against apoptosis and inflammatory damage especially during hyperthermia, hypoxia, or oxidative stress. Under stress conditions, HSPs are upregulated to protect cells from damage that accumulates during ageing as well as pathological conditions. An important, yet frequently overlooked function of some HSPs is their ability to function as extracellular messengers (also termed chaperokines) that modulate immune responses within the CNS...
October 31, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784224/detection-of-unilateral-hearing-loss-by-stationary-wavelet-entropy
#13
Yudong Zhang, Deepak Ranjan Nayak, Ming Yang, Ying Shao, Bin Liu, Shuihua Wang
(Aim) Sensorineural hearing loss is correlated to massive neurological or psychiatric disease. (Materials) T1-weighted volumetric images were acquired from fourteen subjects with right-sided hearing loss (RHL), fifteen subjects with left-sided hearing loss (LHL), and 20 healthy controls (HC). (Method) We treat this a three-class classification problem: HC, LHL, and RHL. Stationary wavelet entropy was employed to extract global features from magnetic resonance images of each subject. Those stationary wavelet entropy features are used as input to a single-hidden layer feedforward neural-network classifier...
October 26, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781949/current-and-future-perspectives-on-the-major-depressive-disorder-focus-on-the-new-multimodal-antidepressant-vortioxetine
#14
Laura Orsolini, Carmine Tomasetti, Alessandro Valchera, Felice Iasevoli, Elisabetta Filomena Buonaguro, Michele Fornaro, Annastasia L C Fiengo, Giovanni Martinotti, Federica Vellante, Ilaria Matarazzo, Roberta Vecchiotti, Giampaolo Perna, Marco Di Nicola, Alessandro Carano, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Domenico De Berardis
BACKGROUND: Vortioxetine (VRX) is a multimodal antidepressant that acts as serotonin (5¬HT) transporter inhibitor as well as 5¬HT3A and 5¬HT7 receptors antagonist, 5¬HT1A and 5¬HT1B receptors partial agonist. It was recently approved in the US and the EU for the treatment of adult patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). OBJECTIVE: The present article aims at systematically reviewing findings of the published and unpublished research on the pharmacological properties, efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral VRX in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD)...
October 25, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781952/a-novel-mutation-of-the-notch3-gene-in-a-chinese-pedigree-with-cadasil
#15
Xiaoxia Hou, Yudong Zhang, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) results from NOTCH3 gene mutations, which lead to the degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The clinical presentation of CADASIL patients is dependent on the impact of other vascular risk factors and the type of NOTCH3 mutation present. METHODS: Here, we report a rare pathogenic mutation on exon 14 of the NOTCH3 gene in a Chinese family affected by CADASIL with phenotypic peculiarities...
October 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781951/stationary-wavelet-transform-and-adaboost-with-svm-based-pathological-brain-detection-in-mri-scanning
#16
Deepak Ranjan Nayak, Ratnakar Dash, Banshidhar Majhi
This paper presents an automatic classification system for segregating pathological brain from normal brains in magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The proposed system employs contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization scheme to enhance the diseased region in brain MR images. Two-dimensional stationary wavelet transform is harnessed to extract features from the preprocessed images. The feature vector is constructed using the energy and entropy values, computed from the level-2 SWT coefficients. Then, the relevant and uncorrelated features are selected using symmetric uncertainty ranking filter...
October 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781950/the-differential-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-using-convex-combination-of-infinite-kernels
#17
Yeliz Karaca, Yudong Zhang, Carlo Cattani
Our purpose is to develop a clinical decision support system to classify the patients' diagnostics based on features gathered from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We studied 120 patients and 19 healthy individuals (not afflicted with MS) have been studied for this study. Healthy individuals in the control group do not have any complaint or drug use history. For the kernel trick, efficient performance in non-linear classification, the Convex Combination of Infinite Kernels model was developed to measure the health status of patients based on features gathered from MRI and EDSS...
October 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774876/a-pathological-brain-detection-system-based-on-extreme-learning-machine-optimized-by-bat-algorithm
#18
Siyuan Lu, Xin Qiu, Jianpin Shi, Na Li, Zhi-Hai Lu, Peng Chen, Meng-Meng Yang, Fang-Yuan Liu, Wen-Juan Jia, Yudong Zhang
(Aim) It is beneficial to classify brain images as healthy or pathological automatically, because 3D brain images can generate so much information that it is time consuming and tedious for manual analysis. Among various 3D brain imaging techniques, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most suitable for brain, and it is now widely applied in hospitals, because it is helpful in the four ways of diagnosis, prognosis, pre-surgical, and postsurgical procedures. Although there are automatic detection methods, they suffer from low accuracy...
October 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758687/differentiation-of-glioblastoma-and-lymphoma-using-feature-extraction-and-support-vector-machine
#19
Zhangjing Yang, Piaopiao Feng, Tian Wen, Minghua Wan, Xunning Hong
Differentiation of glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and lymphomas using multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important task that is valuable for treatment planning. However, this task is a challenge because GBMs and lymphomas may have a similar appearance in MRI images. This similarity may lead to misclassification and could affect the treatment results. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method based on multi-sequence MRI to differentiate these two types of brain tumors. Our method consists of three steps: 1) the key slice is selected from 3D MRIs and region of interests (ROIs) are drawn around the tumor region; 2) different features are extracted based on prior clinical knowledge and validated using a t-test; and 3) features that are helpful for classification are used to build an original feature vector and a support vector machine is applied to perform classification...
October 18, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748185/the-positive-synergism-of-cpt-and-mk-801-in-behavioral-tests-and-in-reduction-of-environmental-stress-and-redox-signaling-changes-in-mice-cerebral-cortex
#20
Mariola Herbet, Aleksandra Szopa, Sylwia Wośko, Anna Serefko, Magdalena Izdebska, Monika Gawrońska-Grzywacz, Iwona Piątkowska-Chmiel, Martyna Janas, Renata Gieroba, Agnieszka Korga, Ewa Poleszak, Jarosław Dudka
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are associated with oxidative stress. Therefore, it is interesting if antidepressants can affect redox equilibrium and signaling. The first step of our study was to determine the influence of the adenosine system on the antidepressant-like activity of non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor complex - dizocilpine (MK-801). To this aim, two behavioral tests commonly used to assess the antidepressant capability of drugs - the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), were performed...
October 10, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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