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CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets

Tahereh Sadeghian-Rizi, Hossein Khanahmad, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system with still unknown etiology. Infiltration, accumulation and activation of autoreactive T cells, macrophages and other inflammatory immune cells in the CNS are the crucial steps in MS neuropathogenesis and development. Chemokines and their receptors play the main role in attraction of the pathogenic cells into the CNS in MS. Specific chemokines and chemokine receptors are up-regulated in the actively demyelinating lesions and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients...
July 12, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Liyan Li, Wei Ma
Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is one of the main effective components of Panax notoginseng. Primary cortical neurons were harvested from neonatal rats and cultured to analyze the role of NGR1 in neuronal growth and the effects of NGR1 on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Following treatment with NGR1, immunocytochemistry was used to detect expression of Tuj1 and MAP2, and RT-qPCR was used to measure mRNA levels of key factors in the Wnt signaling pathway. Results showed that NGR1 promotes growth of cultured neurons and significantly up-regulates mRNA levels of β-catenin, Dishevelled, and Frizzled...
July 10, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Xiaoyan Zhang, Bohui Shu, Dongdong Zhang, Lina Huang, Qizhi Fu, Ganqin Du
Background Aphasia is a common complication after stroke , and traditional speech and language therapy (SLT) have a limited effect on post-stroke aphasia. An increasing number of controlled clinical trials on the efficacy of drugs in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia. However, there have been very few systematic reviews on the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological treatments in people with aphasia after stroke. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological interventions for post- stroke aphasia...
July 6, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian
Autism is a developmental disorder that manifests itself in early childhood. Autism is characterized by inability to acquire social skills, repetitive behaviors and failure of speech and nonverbal communication development. Recent studies have shown that genetic mutations occur in majority of individuals with autism. These mutations cause a variety of disorders that ultimately lead to brain disorders. It is noteworthy that all mutation do not follow the same pattern. They encompass various kinds of mutations...
July 6, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Chen Wei, Wusong Tong, Yijun Guo, Bin He, Lei Chen, Wenjin Yang, Chenxing Wu, Dabin Ren, Ping Zheng, Jiugeng Feng
Background Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of pituitary adenomas, unfortunately it would raise the risk of ischemia stroke, with neuroinflammation being a major pathological process. Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system and have been reported playing important roles in ischemia stroke. Objective Here we studied how γ-radiation would introduce astrocytes into a detrimental state for neuroinflammation and provide new theory evidence and target for the clinical management of inflammation-related neural damage after radiation-induced ischemia stroke...
July 6, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Heidi Ormstad, Vesna Bryn, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Ola Skjeldal, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: The evidence base supports that multifactorial and complex immune interactions play a role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but contradictory findings are also reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this selective review was to identify trends in the research literature on this topic, focusing on immunology and other aberrations with respect to the different ASD subtypes. METHODS: This selective review is based on original and review articles written in English and identified in literature searches of PubMed...
July 6, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Feng-Yu Piao, Xia Huang, Tie Chen, Rong-Bi Han
A series of novel 3-Substituted-1,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-2H-benzo [b] azepine-2-one Derivatives (4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 5a-j, 8a-e) were synthesized from 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-1-naphthalenone. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MASS spectra and elemental analysis. Their anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by the maximal electroshock (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scPTZ) test, and their neurotoxicity was evaluated by the rotarod neurotoxicity test. Compound 4 showed the maximum anticonvulsant activity against the maximal electroshock test (ED50=26...
July 3, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Amir Ghanbari, Kazem Zibara, Sepideh Salari, Majid Ghareghani, Parastou Rad, Wael Mohamed, Elham Ebadi, Mohamad Malekzadeh, Hamdallah Delaviz
The adolescent brain has a higher vulnerability to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity, compared to adult's brain. Most studies have investigated the effect of ethanol consumption on the body, however, methanol consumption, which peaked in the last years, is still poorly explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of methanol neurotoxicity on memory function and pathological outcomes in the hippocampus of adolescent rats and examined the efficacy of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) therapy. Methanol induced neurotoxic rats showed a significant decrease in the latency period, in comparison to controls, which was significantly improved in LED treated rats at 7, 14 and 28 days, indicating recovery of memory function...
July 2, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
R Balasa, B Ciurba, S Voidezan, I Simu, A Hutanu, S Andone, A Romaniuc, A Motataianu, S Maier
BACKGROUND: In the lymphocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in multiple sclerosis (MS), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the degradation of the basal membrane. Natalizumab (NAT), a monoclonal antibody, binds to the alpha-4 (α4) integrin leading to BBB impermeability. Approximately 30% of NAT-treated patients show clinical or MRI signs of BBB disruption. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether NAT significantly influences the MMPs serum levels and to what extent these could be used as biomarkers in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients...
July 2, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Michael Maes
AIM: To delineate the associations between executive impairments and changes in tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) patterning, negative symptoms and deficit schizophrenia. METHODS: We recruited 80 schizophrenic patients and 40 healthy controls and assessed 10 key cognitive tests using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
July 2, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Saeed Samarghndian, Tahereh Farkhondeh
Medicinal plant has attracted great attention in the recent years and is increasingly applied instead of the chemical drugs. Several documents showed that herbal medicine traditionally and clinically applied in the cure and prevention of several diseases. In the recent years, different medicinal plants and their main components have been chosen in neurological therapy. The less toxic effects, availability, and lower price of medicinal plants versus synthetic substances make them as excellent and simple selection in the treatment of nervous diseases...
July 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ajeet Singh, Abshar Hasan, Sakshi Tiwari, Lalit M Pandey
Over the last two decades, Alzheimer disease (AD) associated research has accomplished an overwhelming momentum, as it is one of the major current healthcare issues in the developed world. AD is characterized by the presence of Aβ mediated extracellular amyloid fibrils and tau-mediated intracellular neurofibrillar tangles and reports highlight their subsequent effects on neuronal synaptic activity, antioxidant response and recently explored mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, recent reports have demonstrated the mitochondrial dysfunction and associated physiological as well as cellular alterations triggered by fibrillar structures inside the brain tissue...
June 27, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Nidhi Khatri, Manisha Thankur, Vikas Pareek, Sandeep Kumar, Sunil Sharma, Ashok Kumar Datusalia
Traumatic Brain Injury, representing mild, moderate and severe effects of physical impact on the brain is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Traumatic injury causes sequential, primary and secondary injuries of brain where primary injury is due to the first physical impact, the blow or jolt to the brain compartment. Secondary injury follows primary injury temporally, involving the biochemical, cellular, and physiological responses like blood brain barrier disruption, inflammation, excitotoxicity, necrosis, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress...
June 27, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
You Zhou, Yonghua Ji
Action potential is a form of electric signaling responsibly for conducting neural firing in organisms. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are key molecules dedicating to the initiation and propagation of action potentials, playing an indispensable role in processing excitable activity. The foundational sensory of human covering vision, auditory, olfactory, taste and tactile perceive the outer world rely on normal physiological function of VGSCs, which play as a root dancing in music of life. The aberrant genetics and endogenous regulation of VGSCs in most cases give rise to related clinical symptom such as hyperpselaphesia, parosphresia, and so on...
June 26, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Barbara Lasut, Artur Palasz, Lukasz Filipczyk, Oscar Arias-Carrion, Ewa Rojczyk, Mariia Savchyna, Katarzyna Bogus, John J Worthington, Marek Krzystanek, Ryszard Wiaderkiewicz
Continuously active neurogenic regions in the adult brain are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Neurogenesis is modulated by many factors such as growth factors, neurotransmitters and hormones. Neuropsychiatric drugs, especially antidepressants, mood stabilizers and antipsychotics may also affect the origin of neuronal cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic olanzapine treatment on adult rat neurogenesis at the level of the SVZ...
June 26, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Kristoffer Sahlholm, Marta Valle-Leon, Jaume Taura, Victor Fernandez-Duenas, Francisco Ciruela
BACKGROUND: Pridopidine, a compound in clinical trials for Huntington's disease treatment, was originally synthesized as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) ligand, but later found to possess higher affinity for the sigma-1 receptor (S1R). However, the putative contributions of D2R and S1R to the behavioral profile of acutely administered pridopidine have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to compare the effects of acute pridopidine on wild-type vs...
June 26, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
M D Pandareesh, Hemanth Kumar Kandikattu, Sakina Razack, Amruta Narayanappa, Ramesh Choudhari, Ajit Vikram, Prakash Doddapattar
A steep rise in the incidences of neurodegenerative disorders could be the combined effect of several non-genetic factors such as increased life expectancy, environmental pollutants, lifestyle, and dietary habits, as the population-level genetic change would require multiple generations. Emerging evidence demonstrates that chronic over-nutrition induces brain metabolic stress and neuroinflammation, and both are individually known to promote neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD)...
June 24, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Mina Abdolahi, Payam Sarraf, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Mahsa Hatami, Neda Soveyd, Abbas Tafakhori, Mohsen Sedighiyan, Mona Djalali, Arash Jafarieh, Yousef Masoudian, Mahmoud Djalali
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a disabling neuroinflammatory condition characterized by increasing the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a proinflammatory cytokine and C-reactive protein (CRP) which considered as a vascular inflammatory mediator, disrupting the integrity of blood-brain barrier and contributing to neurogenic inflammation, and disease progression. Curcumin and ω-3 fatty acids can exert neuroprotective effects through modulation of IL-6 gene expression and CRP levels. The aim of present study is the evaluation of combined effects of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin supplementation on IL-6 gene expression and serum level and hs-CRP levels in migraine patients...
June 24, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Yun Shi, Yong Wang, Huafeng Wei
Dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist, is primarily known as the only clinically acceptable and effective treatment for malignant hyperthermia (MH). Inhibition of ryanodine receptor (RyR) by dantrolene decrease the abnormal calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) or endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where RyR is located on. Recently, emerging researchs on dissociated cells, brains slices, live animal models and patients demonstrate that altered RyR expression and function can also play a vital role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
June 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Syeda Mehpara Farhat, Touqeer Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al) causes neurodegeneration and its toxic effects on cholinergic system in the brain is well documented. However, it is unknown whether and how Al changes oscillation patterns, driven by the cholinergic system, in the hippocampus. OBJECTIVE: We studied acute effects of Al on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)-mediated modulation of persistent gamma oscillations in the hippocampus. METHOD: The field potential recording was done in CA3 area of acute hippocampal slices...
June 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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