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CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets

Mehmet Eray Alcigir, Halef Okan Dogan, Begum Yurdakok, Kubra Dogan, Sevil Vural, Fatma Meric Yilmaz, Atilla Isgoren
Aroclor 1254 is a widespread toxic compound of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), which can create significant nervous problems. No remedies have been found to date. The aim of this study was to reveal the damage that occurs in the central nervous system of rat pups exposed to Aroclor 1254 in the prenatal period, and to show the inhibiting effect of curcumin, which is a strong anti-oxidant and neuroprotective substance. The study established 3 groups of adult female and male Wistar albino rats. The rats were mated within these groups and the offspring rats were evaluated within the group given Aroclor 1254 only (n=10) and the group given both Aroclor 1254 and curcumin (n=10) and the control group (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Shinji Kakei, Takahiro Ishikawa, Jongho Lee, Takeru Honda, Donna S Hoffman
BACKGROUND: In order to optimize outcomes of novel therapies for cerebellar ataxias (CAs), it is desirable to start these therapies while declined functions are restorable: i.e. while the so-called cerebellar reserve remains. OBJECTIVE: In this mini-review, we tried to define and discuss the cerebellar reserve from physiological and morphological points of view. METHOD: The cerebellar neuron circuitry is designed to generate spatiotemporally organized outputs, regardless of the region...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Chye Soi Moi, Chia Kin Yen, Khuen Yen Ng, Koh Rhun Yian
Protein misfolding and aggregation have been considered the common pathological hallmarks for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). These abnormal proteins aggregation damage mitochondria and induce oxidative stress and resulting neuronal cell death. Prolong neuronal damage activates microglia and astrocytes, development of inflammation reaction and further promotes neurodegeneration. Thus, elimination of abnormal proteins aggregation without eliciting any adverse effects are the main treatment strategies...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Phaniendra Alugoju, Vkd Krishan Swamy, Latha Periyasamy
Aging is characterized by gradual accumulation of macromolecular damage leading to progressive loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases. Effective anti-aging strategies involving caloric restriction or antioxidant supplementation are receiving growing attention to attenuate macromolecular damage in age associated pathology. In the present study, we for the first time investigated the effect of quercetin, caloric restriction and combined treatment (caloric restriction with quercetin) on oxidative stress parameters, acetylcholinesterase and ATPases enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of aged male wistar rat brain...
March 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Oscar Arias-Carrion, Emmanuel Ortega-Robles, Benito de Celis-Alonso, Artur Palasz, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Miguel A Mendez-Rojas, Jose Salas-Pacheco, Elias Manjarrez
Adult neurogenesis, a specific form of brain plasticity in mammals occurring in the subventricular zone, is subject to complex regulations. Hypocretin/orexin neurons are implicated in the regulation of sleep and arousal states among other functions. Here, we found orexin afferent projections in the rat subventricular zone, which is a neurogenic region. We therefore studied in detail the origin of the orexinergic innervation to the subventricular zone in rats. Post-mortem retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence procedures indicate orexinergic projections toward the subventricular zone...
March 13, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Souravh Bais, Renu Kumari, Yash Prashar
BACKGROUND: sinapic acid (3, 5 di-methoxy 4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is a bioactive compound. Recent studies showed that it has a significant potential to attenuate various chemically induced Neurodegenerative toxicities. AIM: the present study investigates the potential of sinapic acid as neuromodulator and its effect on release of Monoamine Oxidase (MAO-A, MAO-B), TNF-α, Acetylcholine esterase Enzyme, in cognitive dysfunctions associated with experimental dementia...
March 9, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Dafin F Muresanu, Dana Slavoaca, Antox Alvarez, Volker Homberg, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Alla Guekht, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Livia Popa, Johannes Vester, Ioana Muresanu, Codruta Birle, Maria Balea
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia, with clinical features that depend on neural substrates affected by the vascular lesions. Like most neurological disorders, it involves alterations that range from the molecular level to neuronal networks. Such alterations begin as compensatory mechanisms that reshape every subsystem involved in the brain's homeostasis. Although there have been recent huge advances in understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction, a suitable therapeutic approach to vascular dementia remains elusive...
February 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
A R Neelakandan, G K Rajanikant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Yudan Zhu, Shuzhang Zhang, Yijun Feng, Qian Xiao, Jiwei Cheng, Jie Tao
The large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel, extensively distributed in the central nervous system (CNS), is considered as a vital player in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, with evidence implicating derangement of K+ as well as regulating action potential shape and duration. However, unlike other channels implicated in epilepsy whose function in neurons could clearly be labeled "excitatory" or "inhibitory", the unique physiological behavior of the BK channel allows it to both augment and decrease the excitability of neurons...
February 13, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ada A Sandoval-Carrillo, Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Carlos Salas-Martinez, Edna M Mendez-Hernandez, Antonio Sifuentes-Alvarez, Ana L Martínez-Martinez, Juan M Castillo-Orona, Jesus Hernandez-Tinoco, Elizabeth I Antuna-Salcido, Luis F Sanchez-Anguiano, Lilia M Velez Velez, Sergio M Salas-Pacheco, Francisco X Castellanos-Juarez, Osmel La Llave-Leon, Oscar Arias-Carrion, Jose M Salas-Pacheco
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are common during pregnancy. Actually, there is compelling evidence that the inflammatory response system is important in the pathophysiology of depression. Higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α in depressed subjects has been described. Because several polymorphisms in the TNF-α promoter region are known to affect its gene expression, the aim of this study was determine whether TNF-α -857C/T, -308G/A, and -238G/A polymorphisms confer susceptibility to depression during pregnancy in a Mexican mestizo population...
February 7, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Junsheng Yang, Xueni Yan
Increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a hallmark of common neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). ROS can oxidize macromolecules including DNA, lipids and proteins and cause oxidative damage to the cell. Emerging evidence indicate that potassium channels in the central nervous system (CNS) are no exceptions to these oxidative modifications. In this mini-review, we summarized recent reports on the oxidation of potassium channels in the CNS and the consequently resulted changes in cell functions and viability, with focus on its implications in neurodegenerative diseases...
February 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Xinghua Feng, Zhuangzhuang Zhao, Qian Li, Zhiyong Tan
The lysosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle widely found in every eukaryotic cell. It has been deemed as the stomach of the cells. Recent studies revealed that it also functions as an intracellular calcium store and is a platform for nutrient-dependent signal transduction. Similar with the plasma membrane, the lysosome membrane is furnished with various proteins, including pumps, ion channels and transporters. So far, two types of lysosomal potassium channels have been identified: large-conductance and Ca2+-activated potassium channel (BK) and TMEM175...
February 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Feng Gao, Linjie Xu, Yuan Zhao, Xinghuai Sun, Zhongfeng Wang
Müller cell is the major type glial cell in the vertebrate retina. Müller cells express various types of K+ channels, such as inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channels, big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels, delayed rectifier K+ channels (KDR), and transient A-type K+ channels. These K+ channels play important roles in maintaining physiological functions of Müller cells. Under some retinal pathological conditions, the changed expression and functions of K+ channels may contribute to retinal pathogenesis...
February 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Fahim Ahmad, Amna Siddiqui, Mohammad A Kamal, Sayed S Sohrab
The association between Zika virus infection and neurological disorder has raised urgent global alarm. The ongoing epidemic has triggered quick responses in the scientific community. The first case of Zika virus was reported in 2015 from Brazil and now has spread over 30 countries. Nearly four hundred cases of travel-associated Zika virus infection have also been reported in the United States. Zika virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito belongs to the genus Aedes that are widely distributed throughout the world including the Southern United States...
February 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Mohammad Usman Mirza, Nazia Ikram, Nauman Mazhar, Kanzal Iman, Mehwish Riaz, Mohammad A Kamal
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a hot research topic currently across the world, characterized by the formation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has gained much importance since the discovery of the involvement of peripheral anionic site (PAS) as an allosteric regulator of AChE. Progression of this neurodegenerative disorder causes a deficit in the cholinergic activity that leads towards cognitive decline. Therapeutic interventions in AD are largely focused upon AChE inhibitors designed essentially to prevent the loss of cholinergic function...
January 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Edgar Rangel-Lopez, Yesennia Sanchez-Perez, Ernesto Soto-Reyes, Claudia Maria Garcia-Cuellar, Bernardo Cacho-Diaz, Abel Santamaria
Malignant gliomas constitute more than 49% of all central nervous system (CNS) tumors and exhibit very poor prognosis. Two main events involved with the progression of gliomas are the deregulation of genes by genetic events and cellular damage elicited by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In gliomas, epigenetic abnormalities implicated in the deregulation of DNA methylation, nucleosome rearrangement, and acetylation of histones have been depicted. The overproduction of ROS has been implicated in the promotion of these modifications...
January 10, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Peter Marien, Kim van Dun, Frank Van Overwalle
During the past 3 decades numerous neurophysiological, neuroimaging, experimental and clinical studies have evidenced a crucial role for the cerebellum in cognitive, affective and behavioral functions. As a result of the acknowledged modulatory role of the cerebellum upon remote structures such as the cerebral cortex, cerebellar injury may give rise to a constellation of behavioral, affective and cognitive symptoms (Schmahmann's Syndrome). In sharp contrast to the wide range of therapeutical interventions to treat cognitive and affective disorders following cerebral cortical lesions and despite the consequences of Schmahmann's syndrome upon daily life activities, the literature is surprisingly only scantly documented with studies investigating the impact of cognitive therapies on cerebellar induced cognitive and affective disorders...
January 10, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Lupe Carolina Espinoza, Marisol Vacacela, Beatriz Clares, Maria Luisa Garcia, Maria Jose Fabrega, Ana Cristina Calpena
BACKGROUND: Donepezil (DPZ) is widely prescribed as a specific and reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: Considering the therapeutic potential of DPZ and the advantages offered by the intranasal route as an alternative for drug administration, the aim of this study was the development and characterization of a DPZ microemulsion (ME) for nose-to-brain delivery. METHOD: The ME was developed by construction of pseudoternary phase diagrams and characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy...
January 4, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Marios Hadjivassiliou
The identification of an increasing number of immune mediated ataxias suggests that the cerebellum is often a target organ for autoimmune insults. The diagnosis of immune mediated ataxias remains challenging as there is significant clinical overlap between immune mediated and other forms of ataxia. Furthermore the classification of immune mediated ataxias requires further clarification particularly for those ataxias where no specific antigenic trigger and associated antibodies have been identified. Recognition of immune mediated ataxias remains imperative as therapeutic interventions can often be effective, although given the relative rarity of this entity, large-scale treatment trials may not be feasible...
December 20, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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