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CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933261/pharmacological-treatment-of-cognitive-symptoms-in-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Zihang Pan, Radu C Grovu, Danielle S Cha, Nicole E Carmona, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Margarita Shekotikhina, Carola Rong, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre
: Background: Cognitive dysfunction is a core transdiagnostic domain of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and is a principal determinant of functional recovery. However, it has been insufficiently targeted within the current therapeutic framework for MDD. OBJECTIVE: To highlight these unmet cognitive needs in MDD. METHODS: An article search was conducted using PubMed from inception to November 2016: Major Depressive Disorder (and/or variant) was cross-referenced with the following terms: antidepressants, augmentation, cognition, cognitive deficits, cognitive dysfunction, functional outcomes, mechanism of action, and treatment...
September 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933260/older-and-newer-strategies-for-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-agitation-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#2
Giovanni Amodeo, Andrea Fagiolini, Gabriele Sachs, Andreas Erfurth
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute agitation in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia is a multifaceted and dynamic task, which presents unique and complex challenges to healthcare providers. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain and describe which medications are best to use in agitated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Method: Selective review of current guidelines and of the literature pertaining to the treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Results: Pharmacologic treatment of agitation should be based on an assessment of the most likely cause of the agitation...
September 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799490/neurotransplantation-therapy-and-cerebellar-reserve
#3
Jan Cendelin, Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto
Neurotransplantation has been recently the focus of interest as a promising therapy to substitute lost cerebellar neurons and improve cerebellar ataxias. However, since cell differentiation and synaptic formation are required to obtain a functional circuitry, highly integrated reproduction of cerebellar anatomy is not a simple process. Rather than a genuine replacement, recent studies have shown that grafted cells rescue surviving cells from neurodegeneration by exerting trophic effects, supporting mitochondrial function, modulating neuroinflammation, stimulating endogenous regenerative processes, and facilitating cerebellar compensatory properties thanks to neural plasticity...
August 10, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782488/microrna-dysregulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Manish Putteeraj, Mohamad Fairuz Yahaya, Seong Lin Teoh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is arguably the largest healthcare issue of our time. AD is thought to be principally the result of an inter-play between the β-amyloid peptide and Tau, and it is driven by several genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent studies have shown that small non-protein-coding microRNA (miRNA) and the associated post-transcriptional gene regulation are important regulators of many neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. We reviewed recent studies identifying various miRNA dysregulated in AD...
August 7, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782487/natalizumab-changes-the-peripheral-profile-of-the-th17-panel-in-ms-patients-new-mechanisms-of-action
#5
Rodica Ioana Bălașa, Simu Mihaela, Septimiu Voidăzan, Laura Iulia Bărcuțean, Zoltan Bajko, Adina Huțanu, Iunius Simu, Smaranda Maier
INTRODUCTION: Natalizumab (NAT) is an effective treatment for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS),as it makes the blood-brain-barrier impenetrable bybinding to the α4integrin subunit. The objectives of our study were to find new peripheral mechanisms of action of NAT and new biomarkers of treatment response. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively assessed the serum levels of 15 cytokines from the Th17 Cytokine Panelusing Bio-plex Pro Human in a group of 29 RRMS patients treated with NAT and 29 healthy subjects(HS) at inclusion and after 8 months of NAT treatment...
August 7, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782486/nf-kb-as-a-mediator-of-brain-inflammation-in-ad
#6
Jin Tae Hong
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. It is characterized by beta-amyloid peptide fibrils which are extracellular deposition of a specific protein, and is accompanied by extensive neuroinflammation. Various studies show the presence of a number of inflammation markers in the AD brain: elevated inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and an accumulation of activated microglia in the damaged regions. NF-kB is a redox of transcriptional factors, and it is known to be located in the genes involved in amyloidogenesis and inflammation...
August 7, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782490/unmet-needs-in-schizophrenia
#7
Maurizio Pompili, Gloria Giordano, Mario Luciano, Dorian A. Lamis, Valeria Del Vecchio, Gianluca Serafini, Gaia Sampogna, Denise Erbuto, Peter Falkai, Andrea Fiorillo
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782489/neural-correlates-in-patients-with-major-affective-disorders-an-fmri-study
#8
Gianluca Serafini, Maurizio Pompili, Andrea Romano, Denise Erbuto, Dorian A. Lamis, Marta Moraschi, Camilla Rossi-Espagnet, Mario Amore, Paolo Girardi, Alessandro Bozzao
Brain areas of functional activation during emotional stimuli and their correlations with affective temperaments evaluated using Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A) and hopelessness levels assessed with Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) have been investigated. Brain activity in response to emotional stimuli was examined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (NMR BOLD) signal. Seventeen subjects (mean age ± SD = 57 ± 12), diagnosed with major affective disorders and eighteen healthy controls (HC) (mean age ± SD = 50±11) participated in this study...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758584/antidepressant-potential-of-peptides-new-insights-as-future-therapeutic
#9
Haroon Khan, Sumaira Khattak, Mohammad S Mubarak, Saud S Bawazeer, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Mohammad A Kamal
The clinical depression is an unsatisfactory mood disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. The disorder is associated with a phenomenal number of suicidal attempts each year and it has been estimated 10-20 million people around the world made in an attempt of suicide in some stage of the disease. Thus, medicinal intervention is ultimately required to avoid such type of extreme outcomes. There are numerous therapeutic antidepressant options in clinical practice, however, most of them face the challenge of efficacy, side effects and patient compliance...
July 31, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758581/implications-of-pegylation-of-carbon-nanotubes-for-central-nervous-system-bioavailability
#10
Gisele Eva Bruch, Marcos F Cordeiro, Livia S Gomides, Carolina Peixoto, Arthur P Cordeiro, Lidiane Dal Bosco, Adelina P Santos, Daniela M Barros
In this mini-review we have compiled the most recent and comparable information to shed a light on the action of PEGylation in the biodistribution of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) in the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is well known that due to the complexity of the CNS and the severity of the outcome of changes in this system, this is one of the areas where there are more investments in research to develop new technologies and approaches for more effective and less invasive treatments. The CNS is highly protected against toxic and invasive microorganisms thanks to the blood brain barrier (BBB), but this protection also prevents the passage of potentially beneficial molecules for the treatment of neurological disorders, Nanotechnology attempts to develop nanocompounds that are biocompatible and non-immunogenic, and that are able to cross the BBB in therapeutic amounts without causing damage and to diffuse through nerve tissue...
July 31, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758580/chromosomal-micro-aberration-in-a-saudi-family-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#11
Muhammad Imran Naseer, Adeel G Chaudhary, Sameera Sogaty, Mahmood Rasool, Sajjad Karim, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Fehmida Bibi, Peter Natesan Pushparaj, Hussein A Algahtani, Mohammad H Al-Qahtani
Epilepsy is genetically complex neurological disorder affecting millions of people of the world. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a most common epilepsy syndromes that starts in the teen age group commonly between ages 12 and 18, and lasts into adulthood. Out of 14 people with epilepsy one suffer with JME. Myoclonic seizures and muscle twitching or uncontrolled jerking are the most common type of seizure in the people suffering with JME. To observe the novel CNVs involved in JME we investigated a Saudi family with nine siblings with one male and one female affected members...
July 31, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758583/new-trends-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#12
Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
July 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758582/potential-novel-treatments-for-bipolar-depression-ketamine-fatty-acids-anti-inflammatory-agents-and-probiotics
#13
G H Vázquez, S Camino, L Tondo, Ross J Baldessarini
BACKGROUND: Treatments for depression in bipolar disorder (BD) are far less well developed than for unipolar major depressive disorder. Several innovative and experimental approaches have been emerging recently, including use of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine and other antagonists of central NMDA glutamate receptors, as well as unsaturated fatty acids, anti-inflammatory agents, and possibly probiotic methods. METHODS: We reviewed relevant reports from the past decade...
July 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748752/toward-a-personalized-medicine-in-wake-up-stroke
#14
Burak Yulug, Lütfü Hanoglu, Ertugrul Kilic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745241/the-role-of-innate-immune-system-receptors-in-epilepsy-research
#15
Oscar Arias-Carrion
Epilepsy is one of the most complex neurological disorders whose study requires a broad knowledge of neurology and neuroscience. It comprises a diverse group of neurological disorders that share the central feature of spontaneous recurrent seizures, and are often accompanied by cognitive deficits and mood disorder. This condition is one of the most common neurological disorders. Until recently, alterations of neuronal activities had been the focus of epilepsy research. This neurocentric emphasis did not address issues that arise in more complex models of epileptogenesis...
July 25, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745240/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-a-friend-a-foe-or-a-bystander-in-the-neurodegenerative-cascade-and-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Gurdeep Marwarha, Othman Ghribi
Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that was discovered nearly three decades ago. Since its discovery, this protein complex has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, insulin resistance, synaptic plasticity and memory as well as pathological conditions including cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review literature is focused on the potential role NF-κB may play in the etipathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease...
July 25, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745242/leber-s-heriditary-optic-neuropathy-the-shift-from-an-opthalmologic-disease-to-a-multi-systemic-paradigm
#17
Jasna Jancic, Stevan Stojanovic, Amalija Stojanovic, Ana Marija Milanovic, Blazo Nikolic, Nikola Ivancevic, Janko Samardzic
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is an inherited form of optic neuropathy, genetically and based on mitochondrial insufficiency causing bilateral loss of central vision mostly at a young age. Despite being one of the most common mitochondrial diseases, the explanation for its pathophysiological background and effective clinical solutions remain elusive. Widening the scope in the search for pathological findings beyond the optic system has yielded several non-ophthalmologic findings, which might imply that Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is in fact a multi-systemic disease...
July 24, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714393/interrelationships-between-gut-microbiota-and-host-paradigms-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-future-prospects
#18
Javier Caballero-Villarraso, Alberto Galvan, Begoña M Escribano, Isaac Túnez
Advances in the knowledge of the microbiota and concepts related to it have triggered a wake-up call in biomedicine. The development in various scientific areas has enabled a better and broader approach to everything concerning the set of families of microorganisms that coexist with an individual and are able to function as one more organ in its body. Among the aforementioned scientific areas, those worth mentioning are the advances/progress in biotechnological resources and, in particular, molecular biology and related areas...
July 14, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714392/natural-steroids-and-androgen-antagonists-used-as-neuroprotectives-in-common-neurological-disorders
#19
David Calderon Guzman, Hugo Juarez Olguin, Ernestina Hernandez Garcia, Monica Punzo Soto, Mayra Santillan Garcia, Gerardo Barragan Mejia
Multiple classes of natural products, such as antiandrogens or steroids have been used as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory treatments in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to review current knowledge on these substances and their possible relationship with free radicals as an alternative therapy and prevention of common neurological disorders. An exhaustive review of the neurochemical mechanisms of these substances in the central nervous system of humans and animal models has yet to be undertaken in the literature, particularly regarding their importance and increasing use...
July 14, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641510/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-brain-therapeutic-potential-in-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#20
Khaled Salman Radad, Rudolf Moldzio, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Barbara Kranner, Christopher Krewenka, Wolf-Dieter Rausch
Generation of nascent functional neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain has recently become largely accepted by the neuroscience community. In adult mammals including humans, the process of neurogenesis has been well documented in two brain regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Some evidence has indicated neurogenesis in other regions of the adult mammalian brain such as the neocortex, cerebellum, striatum, amygdala and hypothalamus...
June 22, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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