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CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets

Speranta Avram, Mernea Maria, Eyup Bagci, Lucian Hritcu, Livia-Cristina Borcan, Dan Mihailescu
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy is based on several natural and synthetic compounds that act as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) ligands that have limited efficiency in relieving AD symptoms. Recent studies show that inhibitors isolated from Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata are promising for AD therapy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify novel and more potent phytopharmaceutical compounds for AD treatment by taking into account the compounds from Mentha spicata L...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Tianming Zhan, Yi Chen, Xunning Hong, Zhenyu Lu, Yunjie Chen
In this paper, we propose an automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) and pathological knowledge. The proposed method is targeted against gliomas (both low and high grade) obtained in multi-sequence magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Firstly, a novel deep architecture is proposed to combine the multi-sequences intensities feature extraction with classification to get the classification probabilities of each voxel. Then, graph cut based optimization is executed on the classification probabilities to strengthen the spatial relationships of voxels...
January 12, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Yang Sun, Tuo Yang, Rehana K Leak, Jun-He Chen, Feng Zhang
Central nervous system diseases are major health issues and are often associated with disability or death. Most central nervous system disorders are characterized by high levels of oxidative stress. Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor (Nrf2) is known for its ability to regulate the expression of a series of enzymes with antioxidative, prosurvival, and detoxification effects. Under basal conditions, Nrf2 forms a complex with Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1, leading to Nrf2 inactivation via ubiquitination and degradation...
January 2, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Melinda Paizs, Roland Patai, Jozsef Engelhardt, Zoya Katarova, Izabella Obal, Laszlo Siklos
BACKGROUND: Motoneurons with naturally elevated calcium binding protein content, such as parvalbumin, are more resistant against injury. Furthermore, increase of intracellular calcium, which plays a pivotal role in injury of neurons, could be moderated by elevating their calcium binding proteins. OBJECTIVE: To test whether by elevating parvalbumin content of motoneurons, activation of neighboring microglial cells, a robust component of the inflammatory reaction after injury, could be influenced...
December 23, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Carlos Campos, Nuno Bf Rocha, Antonio E Nardi, Eduardo Lattari, Sergio Machado
Cognitive impairment is a major manifestation of schizophrenia and a crucial treatment target as these deficits are closely related to patients' functional outcomes. Cognitive remediation is the gold-standard practice to address cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. There is clear evidence stating that cognitive remediation improves cognitive function and promotes structural neuroplastic changes in patients with schizophrenia, with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression emerging as a potential biomarker for its efficacy...
December 23, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Renping Yu, Liang Xiao, Zhihui Wei
Brain lesions, especially White Matter Lesions (WMLs) that mostly found on magnetic resonance images of elderly people, are not only associated with normal aging, but also with various geriatric disorders including cardiovascular diseases, vascular disease, psychiatric disorders and dementia. Quantitative analysis of WMLs in large clinical trials is crucial in scientific investigations of such neurological diseases as well as in studying aging processes. Exploiting the different appearances of WMLs in multiple modalities, we propose a novel coarse classification to region-scalable refining method to segment WMLs in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences without user intervention...
December 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ting Chen, Ming Yang, Bin Liu, Yu-Ting Liu, Hui-Xin Zhang, Chuan-Chuan Liu, Yue Zhu, Zhi-Chun Huang, Ti-Fei Yuan
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is normally linked to cognitive and functional dysfunctions. In this study, we explored the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the default mode network (DMN) to show the mechanism of neurophysiology in patients with OSAHS. Resting-state structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data were obtained from sixteen male moderate-to- severe patients with untreated OSAHS and 15 male matched healthy control subjects. The rsFC in the DMN was analyzed between OSAHS and healthy controls by the CONN software...
December 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ahmed Elmaraezy, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Soha Saad, Moutaz Eltoomy, Osama Mahmoud, Hossam Mahmoud Hassan, Ahmed Aboelmakarem, Ahmed Aboel Fotoh, Farah Althaher, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama
INTRODUCTION: There is an unmet need to develop better treatments for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Desmoteplase is a vampire bat saliva-derived analogue of human tissue plasminogen activator. It has higher fibrin selectivity and a longer half-life, compared to alteplase. We performed this meta-analysis to synthesize evidence from published RCTs about the safety and efficacy of desmoteplase in AIS. METHODS: A computer literature search for (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Scopus, Web of science, and clinicaltrials...
December 13, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Tereza Cikánková, Ekaterina Sigitova, Martina Zvěřová, Zdeněk Fišar, Jiří Raboch, Jana Hroudová
Exact pathophysiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder have not been sufficiently clarified. We review the evidence of mitochondrial dysfunctions on the relation between both disease and pharmacotherapy. Mitochondria provide most of the energy production in cells; they are involved in decreased antioxidant defenses, increased lipid peroxidation, as well as abnormal calcium metabolism and take part in intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. There is increasing evidence that impaired functions of mitochondria are associated with mood disorders, a hypothesis of mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed in bipolar disorder pathogenesis...
December 13, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Nazrul Islam, Muzaffar Abbas, Shafiqur Rahman
Neuropathic pain is a chronic neurological disorder affecting millions of people around the world. The currently available pharmacologic agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain have limited efficacy and are associated with dose related unwanted adverse effects. Due to the limited access of drug molecules across blood-brain barrier, a small percentage of drug that is administered systematically, reaches the central nervous system in active form. These therapeutic agents also require daily treatment regimen that is inconvenient and potentially impact patient compliance...
December 12, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Suqing Qu, Weipeng Liu, Hui Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Yinxiang Yang, Fang Liu, Kan Du, Sheng He, Zuo Luan
: The aim of this study is to explore the safety issue from 720 cases of neural progenitor cell transplantation through a retrospective analysis of adverse events based on clinic manifestations and examinations. Results showed that 166/720 cases had postoperative crying and irritability, 69/720 vomiting and 84/720 fever. None of them had CNS infection, but 4 cases presented intracranial hemorrhage. One month after cell therapy, 568/720 cases received EEG test, which showed improvement in 153 patients, abnormal changes in 74 and no changes in 341 cases; two patients developed new-onset convulsions and 3 recurrent convulsions;6 cases had intracranial hemorrhage , but no other CNS sequelae left from the primary diseases...
December 7, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Claudio Liguori, Enrica Olivola, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Rocco Cerroni, Salvatore Galati, Valentina Saviozzi, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Alessandro Stefani
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's Disease (AD) biomarkers have been extensively studied in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Although reduced CSF beta-amyloid1-42 (Aβ42) levels have been associated with cognitive decline in PD, the alteration of CSF tau proteins remains controversial. In addition, the impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been previously demonstrated along the PD progression. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess CSF AD biomarkers and BBB integrity in a natural cohort of cognitive intact PD patients compared to matched controls...
December 5, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Yi Chen, Ying Shao, Jie Yan, Ti-Fei Yuan, Yanwen Qu, Elizabeth Lee, Shuihua Wang
To develop a pathological brain detection (PBD) system, this work offered a 30-disease dataset and proposed a feature-free method. Our method directly applied linear regression classifier to brain magnetic resonance images. The task is to detect pathological brain from healthy brains. Our PBD system achieved a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 58.50%, a precision of 95.47%, and an accuracy of 95.74%. This proposed method is effective in detecting pathological brains.
November 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Zhuqing Jiao, Kai Ma, Huan Wang, Ling Zou, Jianbo Xiang
The aim of this study is to introduce Hamiltonian path to analyze functional connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs). Firstly, the brain DMNs in resting state are constructed with the employment of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data. Then, the Dijkstra algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path length of the node which represents each brain region, and the Hamiltonian path of the default network is solved through the improved adaptive ant colony algorithm. Finally, complex network analysis methods are introduced to discuss the node and network properties of brain functional connectivity in both normal subjects and stroke patients...
November 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
George Anderson, Michael Maes
In this article the emerging biological overlaps of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed. Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress, couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites, with consequences for serotonin availability, including as a precursor for the melatonergic pathways. Subsequent alterations in the regulation of local melatonin synthesis are likely to have direct impacts on the reactivity of immune cells, both centrally and systemically...
November 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Shuihua Wang, Sidan Du, Yin Zhang, Preetha Phillips, Lenan Wu, Xian-Qing Chen, Yudong Zhang
This study presents an improved method based on "Gorji et al. Neuroscience. 2015" by introducing a relatively new classifier-linear regression classification (LRC). Our method selects one axial slice from 3D brain image, and employed pseudo Zernike moment (PZM) with maximum order of 15 to extract 256 features from each image. Finally LRC was harnessed as the classifier. The proposed "PZM + LRC" obtains an accuracy of 97.51%, a sensitivity of 96.71%, and a specificity of 97.73%. Our method performs better than Gorji's approach and five other state-of-the-art approaches...
November 11, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Shuihua Wang, Yang Li, Ying Shao, Carlo Cattani, Sidan Du
The morphology of dendritic spines is highly correlated with the neuron function. Therefore, it is of positive influence for the research of the dendritic spines. However, it is tired to manual labeling the spine types for statics analysis. In this work, we proposed an approach based on the combination of wavelet contour analysis for the backbone detection, wavelet packet entropy, and fuzzy support vector machine for the spine classification. The experiments show that this approach is promising. The average detection accuracy of "MushRoom" achieves 97...
November 11, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Margarita E Neganova, Sergei G Klochkov, Ludmila N Petrova, Elena Shevtsova, Svetlana V Afanasieva, Ekaterina S Chudinova, Vladimir P Fisenko, Sergei O Bachurin, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Oxidative stress and amyloid deposition are tightly interconnected pathological features of Alzheimer disease. In this respect, both amyloid production and aggregation may be stimulated by oxidative stress and also the increase of pathogenic β-amyloid and its aggregated form lead to oxidative stress progression. Therefore, the search for potential drugs with both antioxidant and anti-aggregation properties are of great interest. In this study, we described the stereospecific synthesis of alkaloid securinine aminoderivatives, and showed that the newly synthesized compounds possess antioxidant and metal-chelating properties...
November 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ahmed Negida, Mohamed Elfil, Attia Attia, Eslam Farahat, Mohamed Gabr, Ahmed Essam, Hussein Ahmed, Doaa Attia
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic fibers in the basal ganglia and presence of Lewy bodies. The literature suggests that caffeine play multiple roles in PD. Epidemiological studies showed that caffeine intake was associated with less risk of developing PD, especially in genetically susceptible patients. On the level of Lewy bodies' formation, caffeine binds to α-synuclein protein inducing conformational changes and preventing their aggregation...
November 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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