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CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets

Saima Zameer, Mohd Akhtar, Divya Vohora
BACKGROUND: Currently, a large number of people throughout the world are affected by neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease which appear with a lapse in recall, attention and altered cognitive functions. Learning and memory, the fundamental indices defining cognitive functions, are the complex psychological processes governing acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of stored information. These processes are synchronized by the coordination of various parts of the brain including hippocampus, striatum and amygdala...
January 12, 2019: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Mirna Rossi Barbosa Medeiros, Ana Carolina de Mello Alves Rodrigues, Mariana Rocha Alves, Roberto Cesar Faria E Silva, Lais Francielle Francisca Felício, Lara S F Carneiro, Daniel Ferreira Fagundes, Sérgio Machado, Renato Sobral Monteiro
To investigate trends in the scientific evolution of the journal CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets in the neuroscience scope, we compared the contribution of publications between this journal and others from different geographical regions of the world. To track research output we conducted a bibliometric analysis of neuroscience research based on the SCimago Journal and Country Rank® from 2003 to 2017. Journal rankings were verified according to the following inclusion criteria: journals publishing the neuroscience scope and sub-areas; geographical location and journal trajectory...
December 27, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jana Hroudová, Zdeněk Fišar, Hana Hansíková, Lucie Kališová, Eva Kitzlerová, Martina Zvěřová, Alena Lambertová, Jiří Raboch
OBJECTIVES: The bipolar affective disorder (BAD) pathophysiology is multifactorial and has not been fully clarified. METHOD: We measured selected mitochondrial parameters in peripheral blood components. The analyses were performed for patients suffering from a manic episode during remission and were compared to those performed for healthy controls. BAD was clinically evaluated using well-established diagnostic scales and questionnaires. Mitochondrial respiration was examined in intact and permeabilized blood platelets using high-resolution respirometry...
December 24, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
David Calderón Guzmán, Norma Osnaya Brizuela, Maribel Ortíz Herrera, Hugo Juárez Olguín, Armando Valenzuela Peraza, Ernestina Hernández García, Francisca Trujillo Jiménez, Gerardo Barragán Mejí
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect on brain biomarkers after treatment with anticancer compounds - cytarabine (CT) and ferric carboxymaltose (FC) (Fe+3) in Wistar rats. The Wistar rats were treated as follows: group 1 (control), NaCl 0.9%; group 2, CT (25 mg/k), group 3, FC(Fe+3) (50 mg/k) and group 4, CT + FC(Fe+3). The animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained and used to measure lipoperoxidation (TBARS), H2O2, Na+, K+ ATPase, glutathione (GSH), serotonin metabolite (5-HIAA) and dopamine...
November 28, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Sunee Sirivichayakul, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Supaksorn Thika, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we reported that stable-phase schizophrenia is characterized by two interrelated symptom dimensions: PHEMN (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative symptoms); and DAPS (depressive, anxiety and physio-somatic symptoms) and that Major Neuro-Cognitive psychosis (MNP) is the full blown phenotype of schizophrenia (largely overlapping with deficit schizophrenia). Herein we examined the effects of immune activation in association with tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) patterning and memory disorders on PHEMN/DAPS dimensions and MNP...
November 18, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Smriti Gupta, Rajat Sandhir
Type 3 diabetes (T3D) is chronic brain insulin resistant state which has shared pathology with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Insulin signaling is a highly conserved pathway in the living systems that orchestrate cell growth, repair, maintenance, energy homeostasis and reproduction. Although insulin is primarily studied as a key molecule in diabetes mellitus, its role has recently been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Severe brain complications are observed in diabetic patients and metabolically compromised brain status is evident in AD patients...
November 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Fangfang Li, Haiping Zhao, Ziping Han, Rongliang Wang, Zhen Tao, Zhibin Fan, Sijia Zhang, Guangwen Li, Zhigang Chen, Yumin Luo
BACKGROUND: Xuesaitong mainly comprises Panax notoginseng saponins and has shown promise in an acute ischemic stroke model; however, its effect on long-term recovery following stroke, and the related mechanisms, are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term protective effects of xuesaitong against ischemic stroke and its effect on microglial polarization. Experimental cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 45 min, and C57BL/6 mice were immediately injected with xuesaitong or vehicle through the caudal vein at the onset of cerebral reperfusion consecutively for 14 days...
November 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Tahereh Sadeghian-Rizi, Mahdi Behdani, Hossein Khanahmad, Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi
Chemokines and their receptors play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, infectious diseases, and also in cancer metastasis via attraction of the pathogenic immune cells into the inflammation sites. Inflammatory chemokine CXCL10 as a T helper (Th)1-chemokine directs chemotaxis of many cell subsets especially Th1 into the central nevous system (CNS) via its receptor CXCR3 and it has been put forward as a potential therapeutic target in treatment of multiple sclerosis...
November 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Fatma Tuğçe Gürağaç Dereli, Mert Ilhan, Esra Küpeli Akkol
Depression, a risk factor for several serious diseases, is a highly prevalent and life-threatening psychiatric disorder. It can affect the individual's position in life and reduce the living standards. The research on the use of medicinal plants in treating this disease has increased enormously because of the possible low rehabilitation rate and side effects of available synthetic drugs, such as sexual dysfunction, nausea, fatigue, insomnia, hypersomnia, and weight gain. Therefore, this review aimed to draw attention to the antidepressant effects of culinary herbs and traditional medicinal plants and their active components, thereby promoting their use in the development of more potent antidepressants with improved side effect profile...
November 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Daniela V Bavaresco, Tamy Colonetti, Antônio Jose Grande, Francesc Colom, Samira S Valvassori, João Quevedo, Maria Inês da Rosa
BACKGROUND: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by mood disturbances. The pathophysiology of BD is still poorly precise. In the last years, the study involving the role of inflammation in BD. OBJECTIVE: Performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluated the potential effect of the cyclo-oxygenases (Cox)-2 inhibitor Celecoxib adjunct treatment in BD, through of randomized controlled trials (RCT). METHOD: A search of the electronic databases was proceeded, on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Biomed Central, Web of Science, IBECS, LILACS, PsycINFO, Congress Abstracts, and Grey literature (Google Scholar and the British Library) for studies published from January 1990 to February 2018...
November 5, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Andressa Leticia Miri, Andressa Panegalli Hosni, Jossinelma Camargo Gomes, Rubiana Mara Mainardes, Najeh Maissar Khalil, Rossana Gabriela Del Jesus Vásquez Marcano, Mário César da Silva Pereira, Ivo Ilvan Kerppers
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive and incapacitating decay of cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and behavioral manifestations. L-tryptophan is the precursor amino acid of serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter responsible for mood balance and the sense of well-being and can be administered in the form of nanoparticles. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the effectiveness of L-tryptophan nanoparticles and L-tryptophan on behavioral physiological alterations resulting from AD in animal models...
November 4, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Antonio Ibarra, Erika Mendieta-Arbesú, Paola Suarez-Meade, Elisa García-Vences, Susana Martiñón, Roxana Rodriguez-Barrera, Joel Lomelí, Adrian Flores-Romero, Raúl Silva-García, Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano, Cesar V Borlongan, Tamara D Frydman
BACKROUND- Chronic spinal cord (SC) injury is a hostile phase for regeneration known as a period of low activity with a progressive decline in neurological function. Several strategies have been investigated in this regard with no satisfactory results. OBJECTIVE- In this proof-of-concept study, we combine scar removal plus implantation of fibrin glue impregnated with mesenchymal stem cells, and immunization with neural derived peptides was included as well. METHOD- We performed three experiments, in which Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a complete SC transection and, sixty days after the injury, the animals were randomly allocated into two groups for therapeutic intervention (TI): control and combination treatment (Comb-Tx)...
November 4, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jian-Kai Yang, Hong-Jiang Liu, Yuanyu Wang, Chen Li, Ji-Peng Yang, Liang Yang, Xue-Jiao Qi, Yin-Long Zhao, Xue-Fang Shi, Jing-Chen Li, Guo-Zhu Sun, Bao-Hua Jiao
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Exosomes communicate inter-cellularly and miRNAs play critical roles in this scenario. MiR-214-5p was implicated in multiple tumors with diverse functions uncovered. However, whether miR-214-5p is mechanistically involved in glioblastoma, especially via exosomal pathway, is still elusive. Here we sought to comprehensively address the critical role of exosomal miR-214-5p in glioblastoma (GBM) microenvironment. METHODS: The relative expression of miR-214-5p was determined by real-time PCR...
November 4, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Benito de Celis-Alonso, Silvia S Hidalgo-Tobon, Eduardo Barragán-Pérez, Eduardo Castro-Sierra, Pilar Dies-Suarez, Julio Garcia, Eduardo Moreno Barbosa, Oscar Arias-Carrión
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a complex multi-dimensional combination of behaviors, which include ineffective impulse control, premature decision-making and inability to delay gratification. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to explore how food odor perception and its emotional value, is affected in impulsive children. METHODS: Here we compared two cohorts of impulsive and control children, with ages between 10 and 16 years. Both groups underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, in which food-related odor-cues were presented to all of them...
November 4, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jia Zhao, Mengxia Zhu, Mukesh Kumar, Fung Yin Ngo, Yinghui Li, Lixing Lao, Jianhui Rong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) affect an increasing number of the elderly population worldwide. The existing treatments mainly improve the core symptoms of AD and PD in a temporary manner and cause alarming side effects. Naturally occurring flavonoids are well-documented for neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects against various neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, we analyzed the pharmacokinetics of eight potent natural products flavonoids for the druggability and discussed the neuroprotective and neurorestorative potential and the underlying mechanisms...
November 4, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
María Jesús Ramírez-Expósito, José Manuel Martínez-Martos
BACKGROUND: It has been described that doxazosin, an antihypertensive drug, also promotes glioblastoma cells death by inhibiting cell proliferation, arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. Doxazosin has also demonstrated several modulator effects on renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-regulating aminopeptidase activities, which are highly involved in tumor growth in experimental glioma. Therefore, it remains to elucidate if the anti-tumoral effects of doxazosin could be also mediated by the proteolytic regulatory components of the RAS...
October 29, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Shuzhang Zhang, Yudan Zhu, Zhiping Zhang, Jie Tao, Yonghua Ji
The voltage-gated sodium channel, which consist of one α subunit forming the central pore and two auxiliary β subunits are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells, especially neurons. Genetic alterations in VGSCs genes, including β subunits, are always considered to be associated with epileptogenesis as well as seizures. This review aims to summarize the correlation between VGSC mutations and epilepsy. Understanding on the pathophysiological and pharmacological properties of VGSC gene defects, not only contribute to the study the disease mechanism and genetic modifiers, but also provide the theoretical basis for the precision and individualized medicine for epilepsy...
October 26, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Yian Huang, Yan Wang, Renjie Yan, Sheng Wang, Nan Liu, Ben Chen, Jia Chen, Li Liu
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), particularly the Chinese herbal medicines, are valuable sources of medicines and have been used for centuries. The term "TCMs" both represents to the single drug agent like Salvia miltiorrhiza, Ligusticum chuanxiong and Angelica sinensis, and those herbal formulas like Jingshu Keli, Wenxin Keli and Danzhen powder. In recent years, the researches of TCMs developed rapidly to understand the scientific basis of these herbs. In this review, we collect the studies of TCM and their containing bioactive compounds, and attempt to provide an overview for their regulatory effects on different ion channels including Ca2+, K+, Na+, Cl- channels and TRP, P2X receptors...
October 26, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Fengjin Hao, Yueqin Feng, Yifu Guan
OBJECTIVE: Botulinum toxin has many applications in the treatment of central diseases, as biological macromolecules, it is difficult to pass through the blood-brain barrier which greatly limits their application. In this paper, we verified whether the botulinum toxin heavy chain HCS has a specific neural guidance function. METHODS: We have constructed a fusion protein with botulinum toxin heavy chain and a membrane penetrating peptide TAT (TAT-EGFP-HCS). Recombinant plasmid of botulinum toxin light chain (LC) and TAT also were constructed...
October 11, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Sorabh Sharma, Rajeev Taliyan, K C Sarathlal
Imbalance in histone acetylation levels and consequently the dysfunction in transcription are associated with a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Histone proteins acetylation and deacetylation is carried out by two opposite acting enzymes, histone acetyl-transferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. In-vitro and in-vivo animal models of neurodegenerative diseases and post mortem brains of patients have been reported overexpressed level of HDACs. In recent past numerous studies have indicated that HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) might be a promising class of therapeutic agents for treating these devastating diseases...
October 4, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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