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CBE Life Sciences Education

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645893/introductory-biology-students-use-of-enhanced-answer-keys-and-reflection-questions-to-engage-in-metacognition-and-enhance-understanding
#1
Jaime L Sabel, Joseph T Dauer, Cory T Forbes
Providing feedback to students as they learn to integrate individual concepts into complex systems is an important way to help them to develop robust understanding, but it is challenging in large, undergraduate classes for instructors to provide feedback that is frequent and directed enough to help individual students. Various scaffolds can be used to help students engage in self-regulated learning and generate internal feedback to improve their learning. This study examined the use of enhanced answer keys with added reflection questions and instruction as scaffolds for engaging undergraduate students in self-regulated learning within an introductory biology course...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572182/checking-equity-why-differential-item-functioning-analysis-should-be-a-routine-part-of-developing-conceptual-assessments
#2
Patrícia Martinková, Adéla Drabinová, Yuan-Ling Liaw, Elizabeth A Sanders, Jenny L McFarland, Rebecca M Price
We provide a tutorial on differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, an analytic method useful for identifying potentially biased items in assessments. After explaining a number of methodological approaches, we test for gender bias in two scenarios that demonstrate why DIF analysis is crucial for developing assessments, particularly because simply comparing two groups' total scores can lead to incorrect conclusions about test fairness. First, a significant difference between groups on total scores can exist even when items are not biased, as we illustrate with data collected during the validation of the Homeostasis Concept Inventory...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572181/how-do-you-like-your-science-wet-or-dry-how-two-lab-experiences-influence-student-understanding-of-science-concepts-and-perceptions-of-authentic-scientific-practice
#3
Maureen Munn, Randy Knuth, Katie Van Horne, Andrew W Shouse, Sheldon Levias
This study examines how two kinds of authentic research experiences related to smoking behavior-genotyping human DNA (wet lab) and using a database to test hypotheses about factors that affect smoking behavior (dry lab)-influence students' perceptions and understanding of scientific research and related science concepts. The study used pre and post surveys and a focus group protocol to compare students who conducted the research experiences in one of two sequences: genotyping before database and database before genotyping...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572180/university-students-conceptual-knowledge-of-randomness-and-probability-in-the-contexts-of-evolution-and-mathematics
#4
Daniela Fiedler, Steffen Tröbst, Ute Harms
Students of all ages face severe conceptual difficulties regarding key aspects of evolution-the central, unifying, and overarching theme in biology. Aspects strongly related to abstract "threshold" concepts like randomness and probability appear to pose particular difficulties. A further problem is the lack of an appropriate instrument for assessing students' conceptual knowledge of randomness and probability in the context of evolution. To address this problem, we have developed two instruments, Randomness and Probability Test in the Context of Evolution (RaProEvo) and Randomness and Probability Test in the Context of Mathematics (RaProMath), that include both multiple-choice and free-response items...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572179/examining-summer-laboratory-research-apprenticeships-for-high-school-students-as-a-factor-in-entry-to-md-phd-programs-at-matriculation
#5
Robert H Tai, Xiaoqing Kong, Claire E Mitchell, Katherine P Dabney, Daniel M Read, Donna B Jeffe, Dorothy A Andriole, Heather D Wathington
Do summer laboratory research apprenticeships during high school have an impact on entry into MD/PhD programs? Apart from the nearly decade-long span of time between high school and matriculation into an MD/PhD program, young people have many life-shaping experiences that presumably impact their education and career trajectories. This quantitative study (n = 236,432) examines the connection between early laboratory research apprenticeship experiences at the high school level and matriculation into one of the more rigorous educational programs for scientific research training...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572178/evaluating-psychosocial-mechanisms-underlying-stem-persistence-in-undergraduates-evidence-of-impact-from-a-six-day-pre-college-engagement-stem-academy-program
#6
Danielle Findley-Van Nostrand, Richard S Pollenz
The persistence of undergraduate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national issue based on STEM workforce projections. We implemented a weeklong pre-college engagement STEM Academy (SA) program aimed at addressing several areas related to STEM retention. We validated an instrument that was developed based on existing, validated measures and examined several psychosocial constructs related to STEM (science identity, self-efficacy, sense of belonging to the university and to STEM, career expectancies, and intention to leave STEM majors) before and after the program...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572177/development-and-validation-of-the-homeostasis-concept-inventory
#7
Jenny L McFarland, Rebecca M Price, Mary Pat Wenderoth, Patrícia Martinková, William Cliff, Joel Michael, Harold Modell, Ann Wright
We present the Homeostasis Concept Inventory (HCI), a 20-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses how well undergraduates understand this critical physiological concept. We used an iterative process to develop a set of questions based on elements in the Homeostasis Concept Framework. This process involved faculty experts and undergraduate students from associate's colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, regional and research-intensive universities, and professional schools. Statistical results provided strong evidence for the validity and reliability of the HCI...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550078/race-and-gender-differences-in-undergraduate-research-mentoring-structures-and-research-outcomes
#8
Melissa L Aikens, Melissa M Robertson, Sona Sadselia, Keiana Watkins, Mara Evans, Christopher R Runyon, Lillian T Eby, Erin L Dolan
Participating in undergraduate research with mentorship from faculty may be particularly important for ensuring the persistence of women and minority students in science. Yet many life science undergraduates at research universities are mentored by graduate or postdoctoral researchers (i.e., postgraduates). We surveyed a national sample of undergraduate life science researchers about the mentoring structure of their research experiences and the outcomes they realized from participating in research. We observed two common mentoring structures: an open triad with undergraduate-postgraduate and postgraduate-faculty ties but no undergraduate-faculty tie, and a closed triad with ties among all three members...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550077/reintroducing-the-current-insights-feature
#9
Julia Gouvea, Sarah L Eddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495937/an-analysis-of-the-perceptions-and-resources-of-large-university-classes
#10
Ceilidh Barlow Cash, Jessa Letargo, Steffen P Graether, Shoshanah R Jacobs
Large class learning is a reality that is not exclusive to the first-year experience at midsized, comprehensive universities; upper-year courses have similarly high enrollment, with many class sizes greater than 200 students. Research into the efficacy and deficiencies of large undergraduate classes has been ongoing for more than 100 years, with most research associating large classes with weak student engagement, decreased depth of learning, and ineffective interactions. This study used a multidimensional research approach to survey student and instructor perceptions of large biology classes and to characterize the courses offered by a department according to resources and course structure using a categorical principal components analysis...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495936/aspect-a-survey-to-assess-student-perspective-of-engagement-in-an-active-learning-classroom
#11
Benjamin L Wiggins, Sarah L Eddy, Leah Wener-Fligner, Karen Freisem, Daniel Z Grunspan, Elli J Theobald, Jerry Timbrook, Alison J Crowe
The primary measure used to determine relative effectiveness of in-class activities has been student performance on pre/posttests. However, in today's active-learning classrooms, learning is a social activity, requiring students to interact and learn from their peers. To develop effective active-learning exercises that engage students, it is important to gain a more holistic view of the student experience in an active-learning classroom. We have taken a mixed-methods approach to iteratively develop and validate a 16-item survey to measure multiple facets of the student experience during active-learning exercises...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495935/metacognition-in-upper-division-biology-students-awareness-does-not-always-lead-to-control
#12
Kathryn Morris Dye, Julie Dangremond Stanton
Students with awareness and control of their own thinking can learn more and perform better than students who are not metacognitive. Metacognitive regulation is how you control your thinking in order to learn. It includes the skill of evaluation, which is the ability to appraise your approaches to learning and then modify future plans based on those appraisals. We asked when, why, and how upper-division biology students evaluated their approaches to learning. We used self-evaluation assignments to identify students with potentially high metacognition and conducted semistructured interviews to collect rich qualitative data from them...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495934/how-should-i-study-for-the-exam-self-regulated-learning-strategies-and-achievement-in-introductory-biology
#13
Amanda J Sebesta, Elena Bray Speth
In college introductory science courses, students are challenged with mastering large amounts of disciplinary content while developing as autonomous and effective learners. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the process of setting learning goals, monitoring progress toward them, and applying appropriate study strategies. SRL characterizes successful, "expert" learners, and develops with time and practice. In a large, undergraduate introductory biology course, we investigated: 1) what SRL strategies students reported using the most when studying for exams, 2) which strategies were associated with higher achievement and with grade improvement on exams, and 3) what study approaches students proposed to use for future exams...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495933/curriculum-alignment-with-vision-and-change-improves-student-scientific-literacy
#14
Anna Jo Auerbach, Elisabeth E Schussler
The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education final report challenged institutions to reform their biology courses to focus on process skills and student active learning, among other recommendations. A large southeastern university implemented curricular changes to its majors' introductory biology sequence in alignment with these recommendations. Discussion sections focused on developing student process skills were added to both lectures and a lab, and one semester of lab was removed. This curriculum was implemented using active-learning techniques paired with student collaboration...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495932/effectiveness-and-adoption-of-a-drawing-to-learn-study-tool-for-recall-and-problem-solving-minute-sketches-with-folded-lists
#15
Paul D Heideman, K Adryan Flores, Lu M Sevier, Kelsey E Trouton
Drawing by learners can be an effective way to develop memory and generate visual models for higher-order skills in biology, but students are often reluctant to adopt drawing as a study method. We designed a nonclassroom intervention that instructed introductory biology college students in a drawing method, minute sketches in folded lists (MSFL), and allowed them to self-assess their recall and problem solving, first in a simple recall task involving non-European alphabets and later using unfamiliar biology content...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450449/a-call-to-develop-course-based-undergraduate-research-experiences-cures-for-nonmajors-courses
#16
Cissy J Ballen, Jessamina E Blum, Sara Brownell, Sadie Hebert, James Hewlett, Joanna R Klein, Erik A McDonald, Denise L Monti, Stephen C Nold, Krista E Slemmons, Paula A G Soneral, Sehoya Cotner
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) for non-science majors (nonmajors) are potentially distinct from CUREs for developing scientists in their goals, learning objectives, and assessment strategies. While national calls to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education have led to an increase in research revealing the positive effects of CUREs for science majors, less work has specifically examined whether nonmajors are impacted in the same way. To address this gap in our understanding, a working group focused on nonmajors CUREs was convened to discuss the following questions: 1) What are our laboratory-learning goals for nonmajors? 2) What are our research priorities to determine best practices for nonmajors CUREs? 3) How can we collaborate to define and disseminate best practices for nonmajors in CUREs? We defined three broad student outcomes of prime importance to the nonmajors CURE: improvement of scientific literacy skills, proscience attitudes, and evidence-based decision making...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450448/broadening-participation-in-biology-education-research-engaging-community-college-students-and-faculty
#17
Jeffrey N Schinske, Virginia L Balke, M Gita Bangera, Kevin M Bonney, Sara E Brownell, Robert S Carter, Douglas Curran-Everett, Erin L Dolan, Samantha L Elliott, Linnea Fletcher, Beatriz Gonzalez, Joseph J Gorga, James A Hewlett, Stacey L Kiser, Jenny L McFarland, Anjali Misra, Apryl Nenortas, Smith M Ngeve, Pamela A Pape-Lindstrom, Shannon B Seidel, Matthew C Tuthill, Yue Yin, Lisa A Corwin
Nearly half of all undergraduates are enrolled at community colleges (CCs), including the majority of U.S. students who represent groups underserved in the sciences. Yet only a small minority of studies published in discipline-based education research journals address CC biology students, faculty, courses, or authors. This marked underrepresentation of CC biology education research (BER) limits the availability of evidence that could be used to increase CC student success in biology programs. To address this issue, a diverse group of stakeholders convened at the Building Capacity for Biology Education Research at Community Colleges meeting to discuss how to increase the prevalence of CC BER and foster participation of CC faculty as BER collaborators and authors...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450447/fair-play-a-study-of-scientific-workforce-trainers-experience-playing-an-educational-video-game-about-racial-bias
#18
Anna Kaatz, Molly Carnes, Belinda Gutierrez, Julia Savoy, Clem Samuel, Amarette Filut, Christine Maidl Pribbenow
Explicit racial bias has decreased in the United States, but racial stereotypes still exist and conspire in multiple ways to perpetuate the underparticipation of Blacks in science careers. Capitalizing on the potential effectiveness of role-playing video games to promote the type of active learning required to increase awareness of and reduce subtle racial bias, we developed the video game Fair Play, in which players take on the role of Jamal, a Black male graduate student in science, who experiences discrimination in his PhD program...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450446/how-question-types-reveal-student-thinking-an-experimental-comparison-of-multiple-true-false-and-free-response-formats
#19
Joanna K Hubbard, Macy A Potts, Brian A Couch
Assessments represent an important component of undergraduate courses because they affect how students interact with course content and gauge student achievement of course objectives. To make decisions on assessment design, instructors must understand the affordances and limitations of available question formats. Here, we use a crossover experimental design to identify differences in how multiple-true-false (MTF) and free-response (FR) exam questions reveal student thinking regarding specific conceptions. We report that correct response rates correlate across the two formats but that a higher percentage of students provide correct responses for MTF questions...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450445/the-case-for-biocalculus-design-retention-and-student-performance
#20
Carrie Diaz Eaton, Hannah Callender Highlander
Calculus is one of the primary avenues for initial quantitative training of students in all science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, but life science students have been found to underperform in the traditional calculus setting. As a result, and because of perceived lack of its contribution to the understanding of biology, calculus is being actively cut from biology program requirements at many institutions. Here, we present an alternative: a model for learning mathematics that sees the partner disciplines as crucial to student success...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
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