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Insect Science

Yinhuan Ding, Daoyuan Yu, Weibo Guo, Jiannan Li, Feng Zhang
Highly diversified colourations among springtails (Collembola) have been widely used for species diagnosis, but their phylogenetic significance is poorly known. We addressed this issue in the largest Entomobryinae genus Entomobrya, which possesses variable colour patterns among species. The relationships within the genus and to other genera were also rarely studied. Based on material mainly from China, we have conducted a multilocus phylogeny and topology tests with likelihood and Bayesian algorithms, and accordingly demonstrated the non-monophyly of Chinese Entomobrya...
November 14, 2017: Insect Science
Feng Jiang, Qing Liu, Xiang Liu, Xian-Hui Wang, Le Kang
Epigenetic gene control is maintained by chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) genes, which act antagonistically via the interplay between PcG and TrxG regulation to generate silenced or permissive transcriptional states. In this study, we searched for PcG/TrxG genes in 180 arthropod genomes, covering all the sequenced arthropod genomes at the time of conducting this study, to perform a global investigation of PcG/TrxG genes in a phylogenetic frame. Results of ancestral state reconstruction analysis revealed that the ancestor of arthropod species has an almost complete repertoire of PcG/TrxG genes, and most of these genes were seldom lost above order level...
November 11, 2017: Insect Science
Ewa B Śliwińska, Rafał Martyka, Mirosław Martyka, Mariusz Cichoń, Piotr Tryjanowski
Interactions between ecological communities of herbivores and microbes are commonly mediated by a shared plant. A tripartite interaction between a pathogenic fungus-host plant-herbivorous insect is an example of such mutual influences. In such a system a fungal pathogen commonly has a negative influence on the morphology and biochemistry of the host plant, with consequences for insect herbivore performance. Here we studied whether the biotrophic fungus Podosphaera ferruginea, attacking the great burnet Sanguisorba officinalis, affects caterpillar performance of the endangered scarce large blue butterfly Phengaris teleius...
November 7, 2017: Insect Science
Xu-Jiang He, Wu-Jun Jiang, Mi Zhou, Andrew B Barron, Zhi-Jiang Zeng
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have haplodiploid sex determination: males develop from unfertilized eggs and females develop from fertilized ones. The differences in larval food also determine the development of females. Here we compared the total somatic gene expression profiles of 2-day and 4-day-old drone, queen and worker larvae by RNA-Seq. The results from a co-expression network analysis on all expressed genes showed that 2-day-old drone and worker larvae were closer in gene expression profiles than 2-day-old queen larvae...
November 6, 2017: Insect Science
Julio S Bernal, Amanda M Dávila-Flores, Raul F Medina, Yolanda H Chen, Kyle E Harrison, Kimberly A Berrier
Investigating how crop domestication and early farming mediated crop attributes, distributions, and interactions with antagonists may shed light on today's agricultural pest problems. Crop domestication generally involved artificial selection for traits desirable to early farmers, e.g., increased productivity or yield, and enhanced qualities, though invariably it altered the interactions between crops and insects, and expanded the geographical ranges of crops. Thus, some studies suggest that with crop domestication and spread, insect populations on wild crop ancestors gave rise to pestiferous insect populations on crops...
November 3, 2017: Insect Science
Karolina Pierzynowska, Marta Skowron Volponi, Grzegorz Węgrzyn
The Apollo butterfly, Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus), was common in Europe over 100 years ago, but currently it is considered as near threatened. Different conservation programs have promoted the persistence of this species, however, it is still endangered. An example of such programs was the action devoted to reestablish the Apollo butterfly population in Pieniny National Park (Poland) from only 20-30 individuals which had survived till the last decade of the 20th century. This reintroduction has been successful, however, unexpected developmental problems appeared...
November 2, 2017: Insect Science
Marco Ferrante, Gábor L Lövei, Serena Magagnoli, Lenka Minarcikova, Elena Larisa Tomescu, Giovanni Burgio, Ludovit Cagan, Mihael Cristin Ichim
Humankind draws important benefits from large-scale ecological processes, termed ecosystem services yet the status of several of them is declining. Reliable monitoring methods are essential for tracking the status of ecosystem services. Predation is the mainstay of natural pest control, a key ecosystem service. We used green plasticine caterpillars to monitor predation pressure, and to obtain baseline data on predator activity in transgenic Bt vs. non-Bt maize fields in Old and New World countries. Predation pressure was measured at ground and canopy levels using an identical, small-plot experimental design in four European countries (Denmark, Slovakia, Romania, Italy) and Argentina...
November 1, 2017: Insect Science
Valeria Mereghetti, Bessem Chouaia, Lidia Limonta, Daria Patrizia Locatelli, Matteo Montagna
Diversity and composition of lepidopteran microbiotas are poorly investigated, especially across the different developmental stages. To improve this knowledge, we characterize the microbiota among different developmental stages of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, which is considered one of the major pest of commodities worldwide. Using culture-independent approach based on Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing we characterized the microbiota of four developmental stages: eggs, first and last instar larvae and adult...
November 1, 2017: Insect Science
Zhi-Lang Li, Sha Tian, Huan Yang, Xia Zhou, Shu-Ping Xu, Zi-Yu Zhang, Jing Gong, Yong Hou, Qing-You Xia
The insect cuticle plays important roles in numerous physiological functions to protect the body from invasion of pathogens, physical injury, and dehydration. In this report, we conducted a comprehensive genome-wide search for genes encoding proteins with peritrophin A-type (ChtBD2) chitin-binding domain (CBD) in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. One of these genes, which encodes the cuticle protein BmCBP1, was additionally cloned, and its expression and location during the process of development and molting in B...
October 31, 2017: Insect Science
Thomas Boivin, Violette Doublet, Jean-Noël Candau
Plant-insect interactions are key model systems to assess how some species affect the distribution, the abundance, and the evolution of others. Tree reproductive structures represent a critical resource for many insect species, which can be likely drivers of demography, spatial distribution, and trait diversification of plants. In this review, we present the ecological implications of pre-dispersal herbivory on tree reproductive structures by insects (PIHR) in forest ecosystems. Both insect's and tree's perspectives are addressed with an emphasis on how spatio-temporal variation and unpredictability in seed availability can shape such particular plant-animal interactions...
October 30, 2017: Insect Science
Bao-Juan Zeng, Yuan Lv, Li-Li Zhang, Li-Hua Huang, Qi-Li Feng
Juvenile hormone (JH) is one of key insect hormones that regulate metamorphosis. Juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) is an enzyme involved in JH metabolism and catalyzes JH diol to form a polar end product, JH diol phosphate that has no JH activity. In this study, a JHDK cDNA was cloned from Spodoptera litura and the structure and expression of the gene was characterized. The cDNA was 714 base pairs in length and encoded a protein of 183 amino acids with a molecular mass of 21 kDa and a pI of 4.55. Based on the structure three putative calcium binding motifs and GTP-binding motifs were predicted in the protein...
October 28, 2017: Insect Science
Muhammad Afzal Javed, Cathy Coutu, David A Theilmann, Martin A Erlandson, Dwayne D Hegedus
The insect midgut epithelium is composed of columnar, goblet and regenerative cells. Columnar epithelial cells are the most abundant and have membrane protrusions that form the brush border membrane (BBM) on their apical side. These increase surface area available for the transport of nutrients, but also provide opportunities for interaction with xenobiotics such as pathogens, toxins and host plant allelochemicals. Recent improvements in proteomic and bioinformatics tools provided an opportunity to determine the proteome of the T...
October 24, 2017: Insect Science
Govinda Shrestha, Gadi V P Reddy
The wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, is a serious pest of wheat worldwide. In North America, management of S. mosellana in spring wheat relies on the timely application of pesticides, based on midge adults levels caught in pheromone traps or seen via field scouting during wheat heading. In this context, biopesticides can be an effective alternative to pesticides for controlling S. mosellana within an integrated pest management program. A field study using insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana GHA, nematode Steinernema feltiae with Barricade polymer gel 1 %, pyrethrin, combined formulations of B...
October 24, 2017: Insect Science
Jing-Jing Xu, Ying-Chao Zhang, Jian-Qi Wu, Wei-Hong Wang, Yue Li, Gui-Jun Wan, Fa-Jun Chen, Gregory A Sword, Wei-Dong Pan
The mechanisms of magnetoreception have been proposed as the magnetite-based, the chemical radical-pair & biocompass model, in which magnetite particles, the cryptochrome (Cry) or iron-sulfur cluster assembly 1 (IscA1) may be involved. However, little is known about the association among the molecules. Here we investigated the molecular characterization and the mRNA expression of IscA1 in different developmental stages, tissues and magnetic fields in the migratory insect of brown planthoppers (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens...
October 23, 2017: Insect Science
Xiao-Tong Dong, Hui Liao, Guan-Heng Zhu, Sajjad Ali Khuhro, Zhan-Feng Ye, Qi Yan, Shuang-Lin Dong
Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to bind and transport sex pheromones onto the olfactory receptors on dendrite membrane of olfactory neurons, and thus play a vital role in sex pheromone perception. However, the function of PBPs has rarely been demonstrated in vivo. In this study, two PBPs (PBP1 and PBP3) of Chilo suppressalis, one of the most notorious pyralid pests, were in vivo functionally characterized using insects with PBP gene knocked out by CRISPR/Cas9 system. Firstly, through direct injection of PBP-sgRNA/Cas9 mRNA into new eggs, high rate of target-gene editing (checked with polled eggs) was induced at 24 h after injection, 21...
October 23, 2017: Insect Science
Xin-Zhi Ni, Ted E Cottrell, G David Buntin, Xian-Chun Li, Wei Wang, Hong Zhuang
The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the Southeastern U. S. The BSB population dynamics was monitored for 17 weeks from tasseling to pre-harvest of corn plants (i.e., late May to mid-September) using pheromone traps in three corn fields from 2005 to 2009. The trap data showed two peaks in early June and mid-August, respectively. The relationship between trap catch and pre-growing season weather data was examined using correlation and stepwise multiple factor regression analyses...
October 13, 2017: Insect Science
Jia Xie, Xing-Xing Hu, Meng-Fan Zhai, Xiao-Juan Yu, Xiao-Wen Song, Shan-Shan Gao, Wei Wu, Bin Li
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are diverse and mainly function as molecular chaperones to protect organisms and cells from various stresses. In this study, hsp18.3, one Tribolium castaneum species-specific shsp, has been identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) illustrated that Tchsp18.3 is expressed in all developmental stages, and is highly expressed at early pupal and late adult stages. While, it highly expressed in ovary and fat body at adult period. Moreover, it was up-regulated 4532 ± 396-fold in response to enhanced heat stress but not to cold stress, meanwhile the lifespan of adults in ds-Tchsp18...
October 5, 2017: Insect Science
Wei Peng, Wei-Wei Zheng, Kaleem Tariq, Shu-Ning Yu, Hong-Yu Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various biological processes during insect development; however, their role in larval-pupal development in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) remains unknown. In current study, we address the biological function of a conserved miRNA, Bdo-Let-7 in the regulation of BdE75 gene, which belongs to ecdysone signaling pathway and participates in the larval-pupal development in B. dorsalis. Using dual luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells we show that Bdo-Let-7 miRNA interacts with the 3' UTR of BdE75 gene and suppresses its expression...
September 25, 2017: Insect Science
Shuo Yan, Yan-Jun Liu, Jia-Lin Zhu, Wei-Na Cui, Xin-Fang Zhang, Yu-Hui Yang, Xiao-Ming Liu, Qing-Wen Zhang, Xiao-Xia Liu
Circadian clock genes in peripheral tissues usually play an important role in regulating the circadian rhythms. Light is the most important environmental signal for synchronizing endogenous rhythms with the daily light-dark cycle, and compound eyes are known as the principal circadian photoreceptor for photic entrainment in most moths. However, there is little evidence for circadian timing in the compound eyes. In the current study, we isolated the timeless gene, designated Ha-tim (GenBank accession number: KM233162), from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera...
September 23, 2017: Insect Science
Norbert Kunert, Alida Mercado Cárdenas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Insect Science
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