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Insect Science

Miquel Barberà, Laura Escrivá, Jorge Mariano Collantes-Alegre, Giuseppe Meca, Ezio Rosato, David Martínez-Torres
Aphids display life cycles largely determined by the photoperiod. During the warm long-day seasons, most aphid species reproduce by viviparous parthenogenesis. The shortening of the photoperiod in autumn induces a switch to sexual reproduction. Males and sexual females mate to produce overwintering resistant eggs. In addition to this full life cycle (holocycle), there are anholocyclic lineages that do not respond to changes in photoperiod and reproduce continuously by parthenogenesis. The molecular or hormonal events that trigger the seasonal response (i...
November 13, 2018: Insect Science
Jing-Xiang Chen, Zi-Hao Lyu, Chun-Yan Wang, Jie Cheng, Tong Lin
Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes two glucose molecules to yield trehalose, plays a pivotal role in various physiological processes. In this study, we cloned the Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (HvTPS) and investigated its expression patterns in various tissues and developmental stages in Heortia vitessoides Moore (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). HvTPS was highly expressed in the fat body and after pupation or before molting. We knocked down TPS in H. vitessoides by RNA interference and found that 3...
November 6, 2018: Insect Science
Bahram Kheradmand, Julian Cassano, Selena Gray, James C Nieh
Animals use diverse sensory stimuli to navigate their environment and to recognize rewarding food sources. Honey bees use visual attributes of the targeted food source, such as its color, shape, size, direction and distance from the hive, and the landmarks around it to navigate during foraging. They transmit the location information of the food source to other bees if the food source is highly rewarding. To investigate the relative importance of these attributes, we trained bees to feeders in two different experiments...
November 2, 2018: Insect Science
Thomas Enriquez, David Ruel, Maryvonne Charrier, Hervé Colinet
Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest causing severe damages to a large panel of cultivated crops. To facilitate its biocontrol with strategies such as sterile or incompatible insect techniques, D. suzukii must be mass-produced and then stored and transported under low temperature. Prolonged cold exposure induces chill injuries that can be mitigated if the cold period is interrupted with short warming intervals, referred to as fluctuating thermal regimes (FTR). In this study, we tested how to optimally use FTR to extend the shelf life of D...
November 1, 2018: Insect Science
Mengjing Sun, Roeland E Voorrips, Ben Vosman
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is one of the most threatening pests in pepper cultivation and growers would benefit from resistant varieties. Previously, we identified two Capsicum accessions as susceptible and three as resistant to M. persicae using an aphid population originating from the Netherlands (NL). Later on we identified an aphid population originating from a different geographical region (Switserland, SW) that was virulent on all tested Capsicum accessions. The objective of the current work is to describe in detail different aspects of the interaction between two aphid populations and two selected Capsicum accessions [one that was susceptible (PB2013046) and one that was resistant (PB2013071) to population NL], including biochemical processes involved...
October 23, 2018: Insect Science
Jason F Lapointe, Connor D McCarthy, Gary B Dunphy, Craig A Mandato
Larval Galleria mellonella (L.) hemocytes form microaggregates in response to stimulation by Gram-positive bacteria. Hemocyte adhesion to foreign materials is mediated by the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway and the β-subunit of cholera toxin using a cAMP- independent mechanism. Cholera toxin-induced microaggregation was inhibited by the integrin inhibitory RGDS peptide, implying integrins may be part of the mechanism. Based on the types of mammalian integrin-antibody reactive proteins affecting hemocyte adhesion and bacterial-induced responses α5 , αv , β1 , and β3 subunits occurred on both granular cell and plasmatocyte hemocyte subtypes...
October 17, 2018: Insect Science
Yang Yang, Yao-Hui Wang, Xi-En Chen, Di Tian, Xia Xu, Kai Li, Yong-Ping Huang, Lin He
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is involved in insect melanin and catecholamine biosynthesis pathway. TH as an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to DOPA is the first step reaction in the pathway. Although TH has been proved to affect the pigmentation of epidermis and development in many insects, there is no report about physiological function of TH gene in Agrotis ipsilon. Here we cloned TH gene from A. ipsilon. Semi quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that AiTH was expressed at all development stages...
October 17, 2018: Insect Science
Tong Liu, Wen-Qiang Yang, Yu-Gu Xie, Pei-Wen Liu, Li-Hua Xie, Feng Lin, Chen-Ying Li, Jin-Bao Gu, Kun Wu, Gui-Yun Yan, Xiao-Guang Chen
Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, also known as the Asian tiger mosquito, is a mosquito that originated in Asia. In recent years, it has become increasingly rampant throughout the world. This mosquito can transmit several arboviruses, including dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses, and is considered a public health threat. Despite the urgent need of genome-engineering to analyse specific gene functions, progress in genetical manipulation of Ae. albopictus has been slow due a lack of efficient methods and genetic markers...
October 11, 2018: Insect Science
Abongile Mbande, Michelle Tedder, Frank Chidawanyika
Diet quality influences organismal fitness within and across generations. For herbivorous insects, the transgenerational effects of diet remain relatively underexplored. Using a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial experiment, we evaluated how N enrichment in parental diets of Neolema abbreviata (Larcordaire) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. (Commelinaceae), may influence life-history and performance of F1 and F2 offspring under reciprocal experiments. We found limited transgenerational effects of foliar nitrogen variability among life-history traits in both larvae and adults...
October 9, 2018: Insect Science
Zdeňka Svobodová, Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Lukáš Spitzer, František Sehnal
Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) seem to be suitable bioindicators of the environmental impacts of novel agrotechnologies, including deployment of the genetically engineered (GE) crops. In this paper we describe our effort to employ carabids in the environmental risk assessment (ERA). GE maize MON88017, its near-isogenic hybrid non-treated or treated with the soil insecticide chlorpyrifos, and two reference hybrids were used to compare three different ways how to utilize carabids in ERA. The analysis of abundance of all captured carabids or of the most abundant carabid species did not disclose any differences between the treatments...
September 27, 2018: Insect Science
Shi-Wei Liu, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla Elzaki, Christian Staehelin, Zhi-Hui Ma, Zhong Qin, Rui-Long Wang
Herbicides and insecticides are widely used in modern agriculture. It has been reported in various studies that application of insecticides can increase tolerance of herbivorous insects to insecticides. However, limited information exists on susceptibility to insecticides when insects are exposed to herbicides. This study was conducted to investigate the potential impact of the herbicides trifluralin and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid sodium salt (MCPA-Na) on the susceptibility of the nocturnal moth Spodoptera litura to the insecticides λ-cyhalothrin, phoxim and bifenthrin...
September 21, 2018: Insect Science
Sujata Singh, Archana Singh, Sumit Kumar, Pooja Mittal, Indrakant K Singh
Plant-derived protease inhibitors (PI) are a promising tool for crop improvement and insect pest management. Although agronomist made significant efforts in utilizing PIs for managing insect pests, the potentials of PIs are still obscured. Insect ability to compensate nutrient starvation induced by dietary PI feeding using different strategies, i.e., overexpression of PI-sensitive protease, expression of PI-insensitive proteases, degradation of PI, has made this innumerable collection of PIs worthless. A practical challenge for agronomist is to identify potent PI candidates, to limit insect compensatory responses and to elucidate insect compensatory and resistance mechanisms activated upon herbivory...
September 19, 2018: Insect Science
Yuki Mitaka, Eisuke Tasaki, Tomonari Nozaki, Taro Fuchikawa, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Eusocial insects display a caste system in which different castes are morphologically and physiologically specialised for different tasks. Recent studies have revealed that epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation and histone modification, mediate caste determination and differentiation, longevity, and polyethism in eusocial insects. Although there has been a growing interest in the relationship between epigenetic mechanisms and phenotypic plasticity in termites, there is little information about differential expression levels among castes and expression sites for these genes in termites...
September 10, 2018: Insect Science
Outi Ala-Honkola, Hannele Kauranen, Venera Tyukmaeva, Fabian A Boetzl, Anneli Hoikkala, Thomas Schmitt
Environmental cues, mainly photoperiod and temperature, are known to control female adult reproductive diapause in several insect species. Diapause enhances female survival during adverse conditions and postpones progeny production to the favorable season. Male diapause (a reversible inability to inseminate receptive females) has been studied much less than female diapause. However, if the males maximized their chances to fertilize females while minimizing their energy expenditure, they would be expected to be in diapause at the same time as females...
September 3, 2018: Insect Science
Wei-Ning Cheng, Xue-Jiao Li, Jia-Jia Zhao, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
Juvenile hormone (JH), a growth regulator, inhibits ecdysteroid-induced metamorphosis and controls insect development and diapause. Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) are two proteins involved in JH action. To gain some insight into their function in development of Sitodiplosis mosellana, an insect pest undergoing obligatory larval diapause at the mature 3rd instar stage, we cloned full-length complementary DNAs of Met and Kr-h1 from this species. SmMet encoded a putative protein, which contained three domains typical of the bHLH-PAS family and eight conserved amino acid residues important for JH binding...
August 28, 2018: Insect Science
Meng-Yao Wang, Xin-Yang Liu, Li Shi, Jia-Lu Liu, Guang-Mao Shen, Ping Zhang, Wen-Cai Lu, Lin He
Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are widely distributed within living organisms and share roles in biotransformation of various lipophilic endo- and xenobiotics with activated UDP sugars. In this study, it was found that the activity of UGTs in abamectin-resistant (AbR) strain was significantly higher (2.35-fold) than that in susceptible strain (SS) of Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Further analysis showed that 5-nitrouracil, the inhibitor of UGTs, could enhance the lethal effect of abamectin on mites...
August 23, 2018: Insect Science
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Roberto Crnjar
On the island of Sardinia the lepidopteran Papilio hospiton uses Ferula communis as exclusive host plant. However, on the small island of Tavolara, adult females lay eggs on Seseli tortuosum, a plant confined to the island. When raised in captivity on Seseli only few larvae grew beyond the first-second instar. Host specificity of lepidopterans is determined by female oviposition preferences, but also by larval food acceptance, and adult and larval taste sensitivity may be related to host selection in both cases...
October 2018: Insect Science
Paolo Solari, Giorgia Sollai, Carla Masala, Riccardo Maccioni, Roberto Crnjar, Anna Liscia
A morphofunctional investigation of the different neuronal subpopulations projecting through each of the nerves IV-VI emerging bilaterally from the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) was correlated with the octopaminergic activity in the ganglion that controls the ovipositor movements associated with calling behavior in the female gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. Tetramethylrodamine-dextran backfills from nerve stumps resulted in a relatively low number of TAG projections, ranging from 12 to 13 for nerve pair IV, 12 to 14 for nerve pair V, and 8 to 9 for nerve pair VI...
October 2018: Insect Science
Mohamed Elmogy, Amr A Mohamed, Muhammad Tufail, Tomohide Uno, Makio Takeda
The small Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane vesicle trafficking. Ovaries of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (Blattodea: Blattidae) have small molecular weight GTP/ATP-binding proteins during early and late vitellogenic periods of oogenesis. However, the identification and characterization of the detected proteins have not been yet reported. Herein, we cloned a cDNA encoding Rab5 from the American cockroach, P. americana, ovaries (PamRab5). It comprises 796 bp, encoding a protein of 213 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 23...
October 2018: Insect Science
Bai-Qi Liu, Liang Qiao, Qi-Yi He, Yong Zhou, Shuang Ren, Bin Chen
Thirteen cuticular protein (CP) families have been recognized in arthropods. In this study, 250 Anopheles sinensis CP genes were identified and named based on genome and transcriptome sequences. They were classified into 10 families based on motifs and phylogenetic analyses. In 11 other insect species, nine had CP numbers > 150 while Apis mellifera and Tribolium castaneum had CP numbers less than 52. The CPs of eight species occupied > 1.4% of the total genomic gene number, whereas in three species the CPs occupied < 1%...
October 2018: Insect Science
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