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Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333401/a-slow-growth-high-mortality-meta-analysis-for-insects-a-comment-on-chen-chen
#1
LETTER
Shannon M Murphy, Mayra C Vidal, Claudia J Hallagan, Elizabeth E Barnes, E Dale Broder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328087/endophytic-fungi-alter-sucking-bug-responses-to-cotton-reproductive-structures
#2
Gregory A Sword, Ashley Tessnow, Maria Julissa Ek-Ramos
All plants including cotton host a wide range of microorganisms as endophytes. There is a growing appreciation of the prevalence, ecological significance and management potential of facultative fungal endophytes in protecting plants from pests, pathogens and environmental stressors. Hemipteran sucking bugs have emerged as major pests across the US cotton belt, reducing yields directly by feeding on developing reproductive structures and indirectly by vectoring plant pathogens. We used no-choice and simultaneous choice assays to examine the host selection behavior of western tarnished plant bugs (Lygus hesperus) and southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula) in response to developing flower buds and fruits from cotton plants colonized by one of two candidate beneficial fungal endophytes, Phialemonium inflatum or Beauveria bassiana...
March 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323391/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-changes-of-the-drosophila-suzukii-microbiota-in-the-newly-colonised-regions
#3
Isabel Martinez-Sañudo, Mauro Simonato, Andrea Squartini, Nicola Mori, Laura Marri, Luca Mazzon
The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a highly polyphagous pest of a wide variety of wild or cultivated berry and stone fruit. Originating from Southeast Asia, it has recently invaded a wide range of regions in Europe and North-America. It is well known that insect microbiotas may significantly influence several aspects of the host biology and play an important role in invasive species introduction into new areas. However, in spite of the great economic importance of D...
March 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322022/the-effect-of-landscape-complexity-and-microclimate-on-the-thermal-tolerance-of-a-pest-insect
#4
Lucy Alford, Kévin Tougeron, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Françoise Burel, Joan van Baaren
Landscape changes are known to exacerbate the impacts of climate change. As such, understanding the combined effect of climate and landscape on agro-ecosystems is vital if we are to maintain the function of agro-ecosystems. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of agricultural landscape complexity on the microclimate and thermal tolerance of an aphid pest to better understand how landscape and climate may interact to affect the thermal tolerance of pest species within the context of global climate change...
March 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316131/evaluation-of-potential-rna-interference-target-genes-to-control-cotton-mealybug-phenacoccus-solenopsis-hemiptera-pseudococcuidae
#5
Arif M Khan, Muhammad Ashfaq, Azhar A Khan, Muhammad T Naseem, Shahid Mansoor
RNA interference (RNAi) of vital insect genes is a potential tool for targeted pest control. However, selection of the right target genes is a challenge because the RNAi efficacy is known to vary among insect species. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, is a phloem-feeding economically important crop pest. We evaluated the RNAi of two vital genes, Bursicon (PsBur) and V-ATPase (PsV-ATPase) as potential targets in P. solenopsis for its control. PCR fragments of PsBur and PsV-ATPase were amplified using cDNA synthesized from the total RNA...
March 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296161/passive-vectoring-of-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana-among-the-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella-larvae-by-the-ectoparasitoid-habrobracon-hebetor-females
#6
Vadim Yu Kryukov, Natalia A Kryukova, Maksim V Tyurin, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Viktor V Glupov
Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296131/the-reproductive-strategy-and-the-vibrational-duet-of-the-leafhopper-empoasca-vitis-g%C3%A3-the
#7
Rachele Nieri, Valerio Mazzoni
The recent description of a new vibrational mating disruption method to control the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball opened questions about its possible application to other leafhopper pests. Since the prerequisite for the method's successful application is a deep knowledge of the species mating behavior and the exact role of associated signals, we conducted behavioral assays on the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Göthe, a pest of grapevine and other crops in Europe and Asia. Laser vibrometer recordings of single and paired individuals (male and female) during a 24-hour period enabled us to detect and describe two male and one female signal...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294575/variation-in-adult-stress-resistance-does-not-explain-vulnerability-to-climate-change-in-copper-butterflies
#8
Michael Klockmann, Leonard Wallmeyer, Klaus Fischer
Ongoing climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. However, although many species clearly suffer from ongoing climate change, others benefit from it e.g., by showing range expansions. However, which specific features determine a species' vulnerability to climate change? Phenotypic plasticity, which has been described as the first line of defence against environmental change, may be of utmost importance here. Against this background, we here compare plasticity in stress tolerance in three Copper butterfly species, which differ arguably in their vulnerability to climate change...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248003/delayed-sexual-maturity-in-males-of-vespa-velutina
#9
Juliette Poidatz, Christophe Bressac, Olivier Bonnard, Denis Thiéry
Vespa velutina var nigrithorax (lepelletier, 1835) is an invasive predator of bees accidentally introduced in France in 2004, and it is having a serious impact on apiculture and ecosystems. Studying the reproduction of an invasive species is key to assess its population dynamic. This study explores the sexual maturation of V. velutina males and the evolution of their fertility. The main studied parameters were physiologic (spermiogenesis, spermatogenesis) and anatomic (testes size and structure, head width)...
March 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247982/cytotoxicity-and-binding-profiles-of-activated-cry1ac-and-cry2ab-to-three-insect-cell-lines
#10
Jizhen Wei, Gemei Liang, Kongming Wu, Shaohua Gu, Yuyuan Guo, Xinzhi Ni, Xianchun Li
While Cry1Ac has been known to bind with larval midgut proteins cadherin, APN (amino peptidase N), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and ABCC2 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2), little is known about the receptors of Cry2Ab. To provide a clue to the receptors of Cry2Ab, we tested the baseline cytotoxicity of activated Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against the midgut and fat body cell lines of Helicoverpa zea and the ovary cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda (SF9). As expected, the descending order of cytotoxicity of Cry1Ac against the three cell lines in terms of LC50 was midgut (31...
March 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247978/crystal-structure-of-acetylcholinesterase-catalytic-subunits-of-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-gambiae
#11
LETTER
Qian Han, Dawn M Wong, Howard Robinson, Haizhen Ding, Polo C H Lam, Maxim M Totrov, Paul R Carlier, Jianyong Li
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in the central nervous system (Toutant, 1989). Inhibition of the enzyme in insects could lead to the death of insects rapidly; thus AChE has been a molecular target for developing insecticides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247970/comparative-analysis-of-the-monochamus-alternatus-immune-system
#12
Jiao Zhou, Li-Lin Zhao, Hai-Ying Yu, Wei Zhang, Faheem Ahmad, Song-Nian Hu, Zhen Zou, Jiang-Hua Sun
The pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, is regarded as a notorious forest pest in Asia, vectoring an invasive pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is known to cause pine wilt disease. However, little sequence information is available for this vector beetle. This hampered the research on its immune system. Based on transcriptome of M. alternatus, we have identified and characterized 194 immunity-related genes in M. alternatus, and compared them with homologues molecules from other species known to exhibit immune responses against invading microbes...
March 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229542/condition-dependence-and-sexual-ornamentation-effects-of-immune-challenges-on-a-highly-sexually-dimorphic-grasshopper
#13
J Pablo Valverde, Hendrik Eggert, Joachim Kurtz, Holger Schielzeth
Sexual ornaments contribute substantially to phenotypic diversity and it is particularly relevant to understand their evolution. Ornaments can assume the function of signals-of-quality that the choosy sex uses to evaluate potential mating partners. Often there are no obvious direct benefits and investment into mate choice is primarily rewarded by beneficial alleles that are inherited to the offspring. Inter-sexual communication via sexual ornaments requires honesty of the sexual signal, yet the question of what maintains honesty remains only partially solved...
February 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225201/edible-insects-in-china-utilization-and-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Ying Feng, Xiao-Ming Chen, Min Zhao, Zhao He, Long Sun, Cheng-Ye Wang, Wei-Feng Ding
The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than two thousand years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last twenty years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species, and some medicinal insects...
February 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217963/divergent-methylation-pattern-in-adult-stage-between-two-forms-of-tetranychus-urticae-koch-acari-tetranychidae
#15
Si-Xia Yang, Chao Guo, Xiu-Ting Zhao, Jing-Tao Sun, Xiao-Yue Hong
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch has two forms: green form and red form. Understanding the molecular basis of how these two forms established without divergent genetic background is an intriguing area. As a well-known epigenetic process, DNA methylation has particularly important roles in gene regulation and developmental variation across diverse organisms that not alter genetic background. Here, to investigate whether DNA methylation could be associated with different phenotypic consequences in T...
February 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217884/male-age-and-strain-affect-ejaculate-quality-in-the-mexican-fruit-fly
#16
Mariana Herrera-Cruz, Solana Abraham, Nicolas Nuñez-Beverido, Norma Flores-Estévez, Martha Reyes-Hernández, Mayvi Alvarado, Diana Pérez-Staples
Aging in all organisms is inevitable. Male age can have profound effects on mating success and female reproduction, yet relatively little is known on the effects of male age on different components of the ejaculate. Furthermore, in mass-reared insects used for the Sterile Insect Technique, there are often behavioral differences between mass-reared and wild males, while differences in the ejaculate have been less studied. The ejaculate in insects is composed mainly of sperm and accessory gland proteins. Here, we studied how male age and strain affected (i) protein quantity of testes and accessory glands, (ii) the biological activity of accessory gland products injected into females, (iii) sperm viability and (iv) sperm quantity stored by females in wild and mass-reared Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)...
February 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213963/ultrastructure-of-compatible-and-incompatible-interactions-in-phloem-sieve-elements-during-the-stylet-penetration-by-cotton-aphids-in-melon
#17
Elisa Garzo, Mercedes Fernández-Pascual, Cesar Morcillo, Alberto Fereres, M Luisa Gómez-Guillamón, W Fred Tjallingii
Resistance of the melon line TGR-1551 to the aphid Aphis gossypii is based on preventing aphids from ingesting phloem sap. In electrical penetration graphs (EPGs), this resistance has been characterized with A. gossypii showing unusually long phloem salivation periods (waveform E1) mostly followed by pathway activities (waveform C) or if followed by phloem ingestion (waveform E2), ingestion was not sustained for more than 10 minutes. Stylectomy with aphids on susceptible and resistant plants was performed during EPG recording while the stylet tips were phloem inserted...
February 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213920/potato-aphid-macrosiphum-euphorbiae-performance-is-determined-by-aphid-genotype-and-not-mycorrhizal-fungi-or-water-availability
#18
Alison Jane Karley, Matthew Emslie-Smith, Alison Elizabeth Bennett
Intra- and inter-specific variation in plant and insect traits can alter the strength and direction of insect-plant interactions, with outcomes modified by soil biotic and abiotic conditions. We used the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) feeding on cultivated S. tuberosum and wild S. berthaulti to study the impact of water availability and plant mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on aphid performance and susceptibility to a parasitoid wasp (Aphidius ervi Haliday). Plants were grown under glass with live or sterile AM fungal spores and supplied with sufficient or reduced water supply...
February 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111905/identification-and-comparison-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-the-silk-gland-between-the-domestic-and-wild-silkworms
#19
Qiu-Zhong Zhou, Shou-Min Fang, Qiang Zhang, Quan-You Yu, Ze Zhang
Under long-term artificial selection, the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) has increased its silk yield tremendously in comparison with its wild progenitor, Bombyx mandarina. However, the molecular mechanism of silk yield increase is still unknown. Comparative analysis of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may provide some insights into understanding this phenotypic variation. In this study, using the RNA-seq data of silk gland in the domestic and wild silkworms, we identified 600 lncRNAs in the silk gland of silkworm...
January 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106957/the-influence-of-habitat-heterogeneity-and-latitude-on-gamma-diversity-of-the-nearctic-simuliidae-a-ubiquitous-group-of-stream-dwelling-insects
#20
John W McCreadie, Rachel H Williams, Sam Stutsman, Debra S Finn, Peter H Adler
Among the most prominent, large-scale patterns of species richness are the increases in richness with decreasing latitude and with increasing habitat heterogeneity. Using the stream-dwelling larval and pupal stages of North American black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), we address three broad questions about species richness: (i) Does a significant latitude-richness relationship exist? (ii) How does habitat heterogeneity influence gamma diversity? (iii) What is the sign (positive or negative) of the latitude-richness and the heterogeneity-richness relationships? We found no evidence that habitat heterogeneity influences gamma diversity...
January 20, 2017: Insect Science
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