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Insect Science

Shi-Wei Liu, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla Elzaki, Christian Staehelin, Zhi-Hui Ma, Zhong Qin, Rui-Long Wang
Herbicides and insecticides are widely used in modern agriculture. It has been reported in various studies that application of insecticides can increase tolerance of herbivorous insects to insecticides. However, limited information exists on susceptibility to insecticides when insects are exposed to herbicides. This study was conducted to investigate the potential impact of the herbicides trifluralin and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid sodium salt (MCPA-Na) on the susceptibility of the nocturnal moth Spodoptera litura to the insecticides λ-cyhalothrin, phoxim and bifenthrin...
September 21, 2018: Insect Science
Sujata Singh, Archana Singh, Sumit Kumar, Pooja Mittal, Indrakant K Singh
Plant-derived protease inhibitors (PI) are a promising tool for crop improvement and insect pest management. Although agronomist made significant efforts in utilizing PIs for managing insect pests, the potentials of PIs are still obscured. Insect ability to compensate nutrient starvation induced by dietary PI feeding using different strategies, i.e., overexpression of PI-sensitive protease, expression of PI-insensitive proteases, degradation of PI, has made this innumerable collection of PIs worthless. A practical challenge for agronomist is to identify potent PI candidates, to limit insect compensatory responses and to elucidate insect compensatory and resistance mechanisms activated upon herbivory...
September 19, 2018: Insect Science
Yuki Mitaka, Eisuke Tasaki, Tomonari Nozaki, Taro Fuchikawa, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Eusocial insects display a caste system in which different castes are morphologically and physiologically specialised for different tasks. Recent studies have revealed that epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation and histone modification, mediate caste determination and differentiation, longevity, and polyethism in eusocial insects. Although there has been a growing interest in the relationship between epigenetic mechanisms and phenotypic plasticity in termites, there is little information about differential expression levels among castes and expression sites for these genes in termites...
September 10, 2018: Insect Science
Outi Ala-Honkola, Hannele Kauranen, Venera Tyukmaeva, Fabian A Boetzl, Anneli Hoikkala, Thomas Schmitt
Environmental cues, mainly photoperiod and temperature, are known to control female adult reproductive diapause in several insect species. Diapause enhances female survival during adverse conditions and postpones progeny production to the favorable season. Male diapause (a reversible inability to inseminate receptive females) has been studied much less than female diapause. However, if the males maximized their chances to fertilize females while minimizing their energy expenditure, they would be expected to be in diapause at the same time as females...
September 3, 2018: Insect Science
Wei-Ning Cheng, Xue-Jiao Li, Jia-Jia Zhao, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
Juvenile hormone (JH), a growth regulator, inhibits ecdysteroid-induced metamorphosis and controls insect development and diapause. Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) are two proteins involved in JH action. To gain some insight into their function in development of Sitodiplosis mosellana, an insect pest undergoing obligatory larval diapause at the mature 3rd instar stage, we cloned full-length cDNAs of Met and Kr-h1 from this species. SmMet encoded a putative protein, which contained three domains typical of the bHLH-PAS family and eight conserved amino acid residues important for JH binding...
August 28, 2018: Insect Science
Meng-Yao Wang, Xin-Yang Liu, Li Shi, Jia-Lu Liu, Guang-Mao Shen, Ping Zhang, Wen-Cai Lu, Lin He
UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) distributed within living organisms widely and shared roles in biotransformation of various lipophilic endo- and xenobiotics with activated UDP sugars. In this study, it was found that the activity of UGTs in abamectin-resistant (AbR) strain was significantly higher (2.35-fold) than that in susceptible strain (SS) of Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Further analysis showed that 5-Nitrouracil, the inhibitor of UGTs, could enhance the lethal effect of abamectin on mites. From the previous microarray results, we found an UDP-glycosyltransferase gene (UGT201D3) overexpressed in AbR strain...
August 23, 2018: Insect Science
Vit Molva, Marie Bostlova, Marta Nesvorna, Jan Hubert
The interaction of house dust mites (HDM) and microorganisms is the key factor in the survival of these mites in human-made environments. Spent growth medium (SPGM) provides the rest of the diet, along with dead mite bodies and microorganisms. SPGM represents a source of microorganisms for the recolonization of mite food and the mite digestive tract. An experiment was performed to observe how adding SPGM to the HDM diet affects HDM population growth, the microbiome composition and the microbial respiration in microcosms...
August 13, 2018: Insect Science
Yao-Hui Wang, Xi-En Chen, Yang Yang, Jun Xu, Gang-Qi Fang, Chang-Ying Niu, Yong-Ping Huang, Shuai Zhan
Sex determination has been studied in the model lepidopteran species Bombyx mori, but it remains poorly understood in lepidopteran pests. In the present study, we identified and characterized the Masculinizer (Masc) gene in a Noctuidae pest species, Agrotis ipsilon. Sequence analysis revealed that AiMasc encodes a protein of 658 amino acids that has two CCCH-type zinc finger domains and two conserved cysteine residues (Cys-277 and Cys-280). We assessed the masculinizing activity of AiMasc in BmN cells and found that AiMasc induced expression of the male-specific doublesex isoform...
August 8, 2018: Insect Science
Xiao-Gang Wang, San-Yuan Ma, Jia-Song Chang, Run Shi, Ruo-Lin Wang, Ping Zhao, Qing-You Xia
The recently developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based techniques have made it possible to reprogram target gene expression without cloning cDNA or disturbing genomic sequence in mammalian cells and several multicellular organisms. We previously showed that CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) could induce target mutations, deletions, inversions, and duplications both in singly and multiplex in silkworm, Bombyx mori. However, it remains unknown whether the CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) system can be used in B...
August 7, 2018: Insect Science
Ling Jia, San-Yuan Ma, Tong Zhang, Wei-Qing Xing, Yue Liu, Yu-Feng Li, Xiao-Xu Chen, Qing-You Xia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Insect Science
Yonathan Uriel, Regine Gries, Lorna Tu, Cassandra Carroll, Huimin Zhai, Margo Moore, Gerhard Gries
We tested the recent hypothesis that the "fly factor" phenomenon (food currently or previously fed on by flies attracts more flies than the same type of food kept inaccessible to flies) is mediated by bacterial symbionts deposited with feces or regurgitated by feeding flies. We allowed laboratory-reared black blow flies, Phormia regina (Meigen), to feed and defecate on bacterial Luria-Bertani medium solidified with agar, and isolated seven morphologically distinct bacterial colonies. We identified these using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
July 26, 2018: Insect Science
Elisa Garzo, Eric Rizzo, Alberto Fereres, S Karen Gomez
This study sheds light on a poorly understood area in insect-plant-microbe interactions, focusing on aphid probing and feeding behavior on plants with varying levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus root colonization. It investigates a commonly occurring interaction of three species: pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, barrel medic Medicago truncatula, and the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, examining whether aphid-feeding behavior changes when insects feed on plants at different levels of AM fungus colonization (42% and 84% root length colonized)...
July 24, 2018: Insect Science
Kai-Li Zhang, Qing-Song Liu, Hou-Xiang Kang, Xiao-Mei Liu, Xiu-Ping Chen, Yu-Fa Peng, Yun-He Li
In agro-ecosystems, plants are important mediators of interactions between their associated herbivorous insects and microbes, and any change in plants induced by one species may lead to cascading effects on interactions with other species. Often, such effects are regulated by phytohormones such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Here, we investigated the tripartite interactions among rice plants, three insect herbivores (Chilo suppressalis, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis or Nilaparvata lugens), and the causal agent of rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae...
July 12, 2018: Insect Science
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Roberto Crnjar
On the island of Sardinia the lepidopteran Papilio hospiton uses Ferula communis as exclusive host plant. However, on the small island of Tavolara, adult females lay eggs on Seseli tortuosum, a plant confined to the island. When raised in captivity on Seseli only few larvae grew beyond the first-second instar. Host specificity of lepidopterans is determined by female oviposition preferences, but also by larval food acceptance, and adult and larval taste sensitivity may be related to host selection in both cases...
October 2018: Insect Science
Paolo Solari, Giorgia Sollai, Carla Masala, Riccardo Maccioni, Roberto Crnjar, Anna Liscia
A morphofunctional investigation of the different neuronal subpopulations projecting through each of the nerves IV-VI emerging bilaterally from the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) was correlated with the octopaminergic activity in the ganglion that controls the ovipositor movements associated with calling behavior in the female gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. Tetramethylrodamine-dextran backfills from nerve stumps resulted in a relatively low number of TAG projections, ranging from 12 to 13 for nerve pair IV, 12 to 14 for nerve pair V, and 8 to 9 for nerve pair VI...
October 2018: Insect Science
Mohamed Elmogy, Amr A Mohamed, Muhammad Tufail, Tomohide Uno, Makio Takeda
The small Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane vesicle trafficking. Ovaries of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (Blattodea: Blattidae) have small molecular weight GTP/ATP-binding proteins during early and late vitellogenic periods of oogenesis. However, the identification and characterization of the detected proteins have not been yet reported. Herein, we cloned a cDNA encoding Rab5 from the American cockroach, P. americana, ovaries (PamRab5). It comprises 796 bp, encoding a protein of 213 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 23...
October 2018: Insect Science
Zhi-Kun Liang, Rui Pang, Yi Dong, Zhong-Xiang Sun, Yan Ling, Wen-Qing Zhang
Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic resistance is one of the major mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance. Although the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 plays a vital role in insecticide metabolism, the molecular basis for the transcriptional regulation of cytochrome P450 remains largely unknown. The P450 gene CYP6ER1, has been reported to confer imidacloprid resistance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we identified a novel alternative transcript of CYP6ER1 (transcript A2) that had different expression patterns between resistant and susceptible populations, and was more stable after insecticide induction...
October 2018: Insect Science
Marlène Goubault, Rebecca Burlaud
Lekking males aggregate to attract females and contribute solely to egg fertilization, without any further parental care. Evolutionary theory therefore predicts them to be nonchoosy toward their mates, because any lost mating opportunities would outweigh the benefits associated with such preferences. Nevertheless, due to time costs, the production of energetically costly sexual displays, and potential sperm limitation, the mating effort of lekking males is often considerable. These factors, combined with the fact that many females of varying quality are likely to visit leks, could favor the evolution of male mate preferences...
October 2018: Insect Science
Jana Podhorna, Cindy Aubernon, Marie Borkovcova, Julien Boulay, Valery Hedouin, Damien Charabidze
The thermoregulation behavior of Lucilia sericata larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a necrophagous species that feeds on vertebrate cadavers, was investigated. These larvae require high heat incomes to develop, and can elevate temperatures by forming large aggregates. We hypothesized that L. sericata larvae should continue to feed at temperatures up to 38 °C, which can be reached inside larval masses. Thermal regulation behavior such as movement between a hot food spot and colder areas was also postulated. The hypotheses were tested by tracking for 1 h the activity of single, starved third instar larvae in a Petri dish containing 1 food spot (FS) that was heated to a constant temperature of 25 °C, 34 °C or 38 °C with an ambient temperature of 25 °C...
October 2018: Insect Science
Reyard Mutamiswa, Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa
Under stressful thermal environments, insects adjust their behavior and physiology to maintain key life-history activities and improve survival. For interacting species, mutual or antagonistic, thermal stress may affect the participants in differing ways, which may then affect the outcome of the ecological relationship. In agroecosystems, this may be the fate of relationships between insect pests and their antagonistic parasitoids under acute and chronic thermal variability. Against this background, we investigated the thermal tolerance of different developmental stages of Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its larval parasitoid, Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using both dynamic and static protocols...
October 2018: Insect Science
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