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Insect Science

Wei Zhu, Qian Meng, Huan Zhang, Meng-Long Wang, Xuan Li, Hong-Tuo Wang, Gui-Ling Zhou, Lin Miao, Qi-Lian Qin, Ji-Hong Zhang
Ghost moths inhabiting the alpine meadows of the Tibetan Plateau are cold-adapted stenothermal organisms that are susceptible to heat (dead within 7 days of 27 °C exposure). Exploring the metabolic basis of their heat susceptibility would extend our understanding of the thermal biology of alpine dwelling invertebrates. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was combined with physiological and transcriptional approaches to determine the metabolic mechanisms of heat susceptibility in Thitarodes xiaojinensis larvae...
May 23, 2018: Insect Science
Jia Meng, Jiaxin Lei, Andrew Davitt, Jocelyn R Holt, Jian Huang, Roger Gold, Edward L Vargo, Aaron M Tarone, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
The tawny crazy ant (Nylanderia fulva) is a new invasive pest in the United States. At present, its management mainly relies on the use of synthetic insecticides, which are generally ineffective at producing lasting control of the pest, necessitating alternative environmentally friendly measures. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of gene silencing to control this ant species. Six housekeeping genes encoding actin (NfActin), coatomer subunit β (NfCOPβ), arginine kinase (NfArgK), and V-type proton ATPase subunits A (NfvATPaseA), B (NfvATPaseB) and E (NfvATPaseE) were cloned...
May 22, 2018: Insect Science
Aida Ayoubi, Ali Asghar Talebi, Yaghoub Fathipour, Mohammad Mehrabadi
Bacterial endosymbionts play important roles in ecological traits of aphids. In this study, we characterize the bacterial endosymbionts of A. gossypii collected in Karaj, Iran and their role in the performance of the aphid. Our results indicated that beside Buchnera aphidicola, A. gossypii, also harbors both Hamiltonella defensa and Arsenophonus sp. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results revealed that the populations of the endosymbionts increased throughout nymphal development up to adult emergence; thereafter, populations of Buchnera and Arsenophonus were diminished while the density of H...
May 11, 2018: Insect Science
Conrado Augusto Rosi-Denadai, Priscila Cássia Souza Araújo, Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos, Lirio Cosme, Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes
Over 50 genera of bees release pollen from flower anthers using thoracic vibrations, a phenomenon known as buzz-pollination. The efficiency of this process is directly affected by the mechanical properties of the buzzes, namely the duration, amplitude and frequency. Nonetheless, although the effects of the former two properties are well described, the role of buzz frequency on pollen release remains unclear. Furthermore, nearly all of the existing studies describing vibrational properties of natural buzz-pollination are limited to bumblebees (Bombus) and carpenter bees (Xylocopa) constraining our current understanding of this behavior and its evolution...
May 8, 2018: Insect Science
Mariah Kemmerer, Bryony Bonning
The Junonia coenia densovirus rapidly traverses the gut epithelium of the host lepidopteran without replicating in the gut cells. The ability of this virus to transcytose across the gut epithelium is of interest for the potential use of virus structural proteins as delivery vehicles for insecticidal peptides that act within the insect hemocoel, rather than in the gut. In this study, we used fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda to examine the binding of the virus to brush border membrane vesicle proteins by two-dimensional ligand blot analysis...
April 27, 2018: Insect Science
Sha Chen, Shi-Wo Deng, Chungkun Shih, Wei-Wei Zhang, Peng Zhang, Dong Ren, Yi-Ning Zhu, Tai-Ping Gao
Many extant insects have developed pad structure, euplantulae or arolia on their tarsi to increase friction or enhance adhesion for better mobility. Many polyneopteran insects with euplantulae, e.g., Grylloblattodea, Mantophasmatodea and Orthoptera, have been described from the Mesozoic. However, the origin and evolution of stick insect's euplantulae are poorly understood due to rare fossil records. Here, we report the earliest fossil records of Timematodea hitherto, Tumefactipes prolongates gen. et sp. nov...
April 27, 2018: Insect Science
Angélica Albuquerque Tomilhero Frias, Freddy Ibanez, Azucena Mendoza, William Mario de Carvalho Nunes, Cecilia Tamborindeguy
'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) are phloem-restricted and unculturable gram-negative bacteria. Presently five haplotypes have been identified worldwide; but only haplotypes A and B are associated with the vector Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc.) in the Americas. Previous studies showed that Lso-infection reduces B. cockerelli reproductive output and that Lso haplotype B is more pathogenic than Lso haplotype A. To understand the interaction of Lso haplotype B and B. cockerelli, the fitness of Lso-free and Lso B-infected insects, and the expression of vitellogenin (BcVg1-like), a gene involved directly in the insect reproduction were analyzed...
April 20, 2018: Insect Science
Jin Ge, Jia-Ning Wei, Ding-Jie Zhang, Chun Hu, De-Zhi Zheng, Le Kang
The pea leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis) is a notorious pest of vegetables and ornamental plants worldwide. Despite a large number of studies on its biology and ecology, the courtship behavior and sexual communication of this species remain unclear. Here, we studied the vibrational communication in the sexual interaction of the pea leafminer. On host plant leaves, females and males behaviorally displayed the bobbing-quivering alternation, which finally led to copulation. Moreover, records of laser vibrometry revealed three-signal duets underlying the behavioral alternation...
April 20, 2018: Insect Science
Elisabeth Reim, Danny Eichhorn, Jan D Roy, Philip O M Steinhoff, Klaus Fischer
Anthropogenic global change, including agricultural intensification and climate change, poses a substantial challenge to many herbivores due to a reduced availability of feeding resources. The concomitant food stress is expected to detrimentally affect performance, amongst others in dispersal-related traits. Thus, while dispersal is of utmost importance to escape from deteriorating habitat conditions, such conditions may negatively feedback on the ability to do so. Therefore, we here investigate the impact of larval and adult food stress on traits related to dispersal ability, including morphology, physiology, flight performance, and exploratory behavior, in a butterfly...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
Pablo Servigne, Jérôme Orivel, Frédéric Azémar, James Carpenter, Alain Dejean, Bruno Corbara
Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
Xing-Bao Feng, Zi-Wen Zheng, Xian Zhang, Jun Gu, Qi-Li Feng, Li-Hua Huang
Silkworm mutants are valuable resources for both transgenic breeding and gene discovery. PiggyBac-based random insertional mutagenesis has been widely used in gene functional studies. In order to discover genes involved in silk synthesis, a piggyBac-based random insertional library was constructed using Bombyx mori, and the mutants with abnormal cocoon were particularly screened. By this mean, a "thin cocoon" mutant was identified. This mutant revealed thinner cocoon shell and shorter posterior silk gland (PSG) comparing with the wild type...
April 12, 2018: Insect Science
Jesus Davila-Barboza, O Karina Villanueva-Segura, Beatriz Lopez-Monroy, Gustavo Ponce-Garcia, Cristina Bobadilla-Utrera, Mayela Montes-Rincon, Zinnia J Molina-Garza, Juan I Arredondo-Jimenez, Iram P Rodriguez-Sanchez, Pablo C Manrique-Saide, Adriana E Flores
Although having five different ways of transmission the vector-borne is the principal way of transmission of Chagas disease, which involves insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Nineteen of the 31 species that occur in Mexico are associated with humans, and all are capable of transmitting the disease. Pyrethroids are the insecticides recommended for the control of these vectors in Mexico. We determined the susceptibility to the pyrethroids deltamethrin and permethrin of peridomestic populations of Triatoma mazzottii Usinger and two populations of Triatoma longipennis Usinger in comparison with a reference strain for each species...
April 2, 2018: Insect Science
Sasiprapa Krongdang, Jay D Evans, Yanping Chen, Wannapha Mookhploy, Panuwan Chantawannakul
American foulbrood (AFB) disease is caused by Paenibacillus larvae. Currently, this pathogen is widespread in the European honey bee; Apis mellifera. However, little is known about infectivity and pathogenicity of P. larvae in the Asiatic cavity-nesting honey bees, Apis cerana. Moreover, comparative knowledge of P. larvae infectivity and pathogenicity between both honey bee species is scarce. In this study, we examined susceptibility, larval mortality, survival rate and expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including defensin, apidaecin, abaecin and hymenoptaecin in A...
March 26, 2018: Insect Science
Jennifer Goff, Catherine Yerke, Nusha Keyghobadi, Stephen F Matter
Dispersal is a central aspect of the ecology, evolution, and conservation of species. Predicting how species will respond to changing environmental conditions requires understanding factors that produce variation in dispersal. We explore one source of variation, differences between sexes within a spatial population network. Here, we compare the dispersal patterns of male and female Parnassius smintheus among 18 subpopulations over eight years using the Virtual Migration Model. Estimated dispersal parameters differed between males and females, particularly with respect to movement through meadow and forest matrix habitat...
March 24, 2018: Insect Science
Paweł Adamski, Adam M Ćmiel, Anna Lipińska
This paper discusses the influence of phenology-related intra-seasonal asynchrony on metapopulation dynamics and stability. As the part played by intra-seasonal asynchrony is as yet unclear and poorly described, greater account of it should be taken in both metapopulation research and conservation practice. The subpopulations of the Parnassius mnemosyne metapopulation studied here are strongly isolated because of the phenological shift between them, despite the relatively small physical distances between them...
March 23, 2018: Insect Science
You Li, Yong-Ying Ruan, Edward L Stanley, James Skelton, Jiri Hulcr
Insects that depend on microbial mutualists evolved a variety of organs to transport the microsymbionts while dispersing. The ontogeny and variability of such organs is rarely studied, and the microsymbiont's effects on the animal tissue development remain unknown in most cases. Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae or Platypodinae) and their mutualistic fungi are an ideal system to study the animal-fungus interactions. While the inter-specific diversity of their fungus transport organ-mycangia-is well-known, their developmental plasticity has been poorly described...
March 23, 2018: Insect Science
Salvatore Arpaia, Ferdinando Baldacchino, Sara Bosi, Giovanni Burgio, Simona Errico, Rosaria Alessandra Magarelli, Antonio Masetti, Salvatore Santorsola
Environmental impacts of genetically modified crops are mandatorily assessed during their pre-market phase. One of the areas of concern is the possible impact on non-target organisms. Crops expressing Cry toxins might affect Lepidoptera larvae living outside cultivated fields, through pollen deposition on wild plants which constitute their food source. While pollen toxicity varies among different events, possible exposure of non-target species depends on the agro-environmental conditions. This study was conducted in two protected areas in Italy, characterized by different climatic conditions, where many Lepidoptera species thrive in proximity to maize cultivations...
March 23, 2018: Insect Science
Barbara Manachini, Giuseppe Bazan, Rosario Schicchi
The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed...
March 14, 2018: Insect Science
Marlène Chirault, Christophe Bressac, Marlène Goubault, Charlotte Lécureuil
Insect reproduction is influenced by various external factors including temperature, a well-studied constraint. We investigated to what extent different levels of sperm limitation of males exposed to different heat stresses (34 and 36 °C) affect females' offspring production and sex allocation in Nasonia vitripennis. In this haplodiploid parasitoid wasp attacking different species of pest flies, we investigated the effect of the quantity of sperm females received and stored in their spermatheca on their sperm use decisions, hence sex allocation, over successive ovipositions...
March 9, 2018: Insect Science
Martin Luquet, Maurice Hullé, Jean-Christophe Simon, Nicolas Parisey, Christelle Buchard, Bruno Jaloux
Insect populations are prone to respond to global changes through shifts in phenology, distribution and abundance. However, global changes cover several factors such as climate and land use, the relative importance of these being largely unknown. Here, we aim at disentangling the effects of climate, land use and geographical drivers on aphid abundance and phenology in France, at a regional scale and over the last 40 years. We used aerial data obtained from suction traps between 1978 and 2015 on five aphid species varying in their degree of specialization to legumes, along with climate, legume crop area and geographical data...
March 7, 2018: Insect Science
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