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Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432814/do-males-choose-their-mates-in-the-lekking-moth-achroia-grisella-influence-of-female-body-mass-and-male-reproductive-status-on-male-mate-choice
#1
Marlène Goubault, Rebecca Burlaud
Lekking males aggregate to attract females and contribute solely to egg fertilization, without any further parental care. Evolutionary theory therefore predicts them to be non-choosy towards their mates, because any lost mating opportunities would outweigh the benefits associated with such preferences. Nevertheless, due to time costs, the production of energetically costly sexual displays, and potential sperm limitation, the mating effort of lekking males is often considerable. These factors, combined with the fact that many females of varying quality are likely to visit leks, could favor the evolution of male mate preferences...
April 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426155/insect-transmission-of-plant-viruses-multilayered-interactions-optimize-viral-propagation
#2
Beatriz Dáder, Christiane Then, Edwige Berthelot, Marie Ducousso, James C K Ng, Martin Drucker
By serving as vectors of transmission, insects play a key role in the infection cycle of many plant viruses. Viruses use sophisticated transmission strategies to overcome the spatial barrier separating plants and the impediment imposed by the plant cell wall. Interactions among insect vectors, viruses and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. Best-examined on the molecular scale are two basic transmission modes wherein virus-vector interactions have been well characterized...
April 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421675/proteomic-composition-of-the-acrostyle-novel-approaches-to-identify-cuticular-proteins-involved-in-virus-insect-interactions
#3
Craig Graham Webster, Mäelle Thillier, Elodie Pirolles, Bastien Cayrol, Stéphane Blanc, Marilyne Uzest
The acrostyle is a distinct anatomical region present on the cuticle at the inner face of the common food/salivary canal at the tip of aphid maxillary stylets. This conserved structure is of particular interest as it harbours the protein receptors of at least one plant virus, Cauliflower mosaic virus, and presumably has other roles in plant-insect interactions. Previously we reported immunolabeling of a highly conserved motif of cuticular proteins from the CPR family (named for the presence of a Rebers and Riddiford consensus) within the acrostyle...
April 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374542/to-eat-or-get-heat-behavioral-trade-offs-between-thermoregulation-and-feeding-in-gregarious-necrophagous-larvae
#4
Jana Podhorna, Cindy Aubernon, Marie Borkovcova, Julien Boulay, Valery Hedouin, Damien Charabidze
The thermoregulation behavior of Lucilia sericata larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a necrophagous species that feeds on vertebrate cadavers, was investigated. These larvae require high heat incomes to develop, and can elevate temperatures by forming large aggregates. We hypothesized that L. sericata larvae should continue to feed at temperatures up to 38°C, which can be reached inside larval masses. Thermal regulation behavior such as movement between a hot food spot and colder areas was also postulated. The hypotheses were tested by tracking for 1h the activity of single, starved third instar larvae in a Petri dish containing one food spot (FS) that was heated to a constant temperature of 25°C, 34°C or 38°C with an ambient temperature of 25°C...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374539/comparative-assessment-of-the-thermal-tolerance-of-spotted-stemborer-chilo-partellus-lepidoptera-crambidae-and-its-larval-parasitoid-cotesia-sesamiae-hymenoptera-braconidae
#5
Reyard Mutamiswa, Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa
Under stressful thermal environments, insects adjust their behaviour and physiology to maintain key life-history activities and improve survival. For interacting species, mutual or antagonistic, thermal stress may affect the partcipants in differing ways, which may then affect the outcome of the ecological relationship. In agroecosystems, this may be the fate of relationships between insect pests and their antagonistic parasitoids under acute and chronic thermal variability. Against this background, we investigated the thermal tolerance of different developmental stages of Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its larval parasitoid, Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using both dynamic and static protocols...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374534/root-symbionts-powerful-drivers-of-plant-above-and-belowground-indirect-defences
#6
REVIEW
Sergio Rasmann, Alison Bennett, Arjen Biere, Alison Karley, Emilio Guerrieri
Soil microbial mutualists of plants, including mycorrhizal fungi, non-mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, have been typically characterized for increasing nutrient acquisition and plant growth. More recently, soil microbes have also been shown to increase direct plant defence against above- and belowground herbivores. Plants, however, do not only rely on direct defences when attacked, but they can also recruit pest antagonists such as predators and parasitoids, both above and belowground, mainly via the release of volatile organic compounds (i...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374515/transfer-of-cry1ac-and-cry2a-proteins-from-genetically-engineered-bt-cotton-to-herbivores-and-predators
#7
Michael Meissle, Jörg Romeis
With the cultivation of Bt cotton, the produced insecticidal Cry proteins are ingested by herbivores and potentially transferred along the food chain to natural enemies, such as predators. In laboratory experiments with Bollgard II cotton, concentrations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab were measured in Lepidoptera larvae (Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis virescens), plant bugs (Euschistus heros), aphids (Aphis gossypii), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), thrips (Thrips tabaci, Frankliniella occidentalis), and spider mites (Tetranychus urticae)...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374493/expression-of-juvenile-hormone-acid-o-methyltransferase-and-juvenile-hormone-synthesis-in-blattella-germanica
#8
Claudia V Dominguez, Jose L Maestro
Juvenile hormone (JH), a sesquiterpenoid synthetized by the insect corpora allata (CA), plays critical roles in metamorphosis and reproduction. Penultimate or last step of JH synthesis is catalyzed by juvenile hormone acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT). Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of the JHAMT orthologue in the cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (BgJHAMT). BgJHAMT is mainly expressed in CA, with only expression traces in ovary. Three different isoforms, differing in the 3'-UTR sequence, were identified...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371395/the-evolutionary-development-of-plant-feeding-insects-and-their-nutritional-endosymbionts
#9
REVIEW
Isabel H Skidmore, Allison K Hansen
Herbivorous insects have evolved diverse mechanisms enabling them to feed on plants with suboptimal nutrient availability. Low nutrient availability negatively impacts insect herbivore development and fitness. To overcome this obstacle numerous insect lineages have evolved intimate associations with nutritional endosymbionts. This is especially true for insects that specialize on nitrogen-poor substrates, as these insects are highly dependent on intracellular symbionts to provide nitrogen lacking in their insect host's diet...
March 29, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371321/brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-was-concentrated-at-the-rear-of-the-typhoon-soudelor-in-eastern-china-in-august-2015
#10
Jian Ma, Ye-Chen Wang, Yan-Yue Hu, Ming-Hong Lu, Gui-Jun Wan, Fa-Jun Chen, Wan-Cai Liu, Bao-Ping Zhai, Gao Hu
Sometimes, extreme weather is vital for the population survival of migratory insects by causing sudden population collapse or outbreak. Several studies have shown that rice planthopper migration was significantly influenced by typhoons in eastern Asia. Most typhoons occur in the summer, especially in August. In August, brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) migrates northward or southward depending on wind direction, and thus typhoons can potentially influence its migration process and population distribution...
March 28, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333401/a-slow-growth-high-mortality-meta-analysis-for-insects-a-comment-on-chen-chen
#11
LETTER
Shannon M Murphy, Mayra C Vidal, Claudia J Hallagan, Elizabeth E Barnes, E Dale Broder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328087/endophytic-fungi-alter-sucking-bug-responses-to-cotton-reproductive-structures
#12
Gregory A Sword, Ashley Tessnow, Maria Julissa Ek-Ramos
All plants including cotton host a wide range of microorganisms as endophytes. There is a growing appreciation of the prevalence, ecological significance and management potential of facultative fungal endophytes in protecting plants from pests, pathogens and environmental stressors. Hemipteran sucking bugs have emerged as major pests across the US cotton belt, reducing yields directly by feeding on developing reproductive structures and indirectly by vectoring plant pathogens. We used no-choice and simultaneous choice assays to examine the host selection behavior of western tarnished plant bugs (Lygus hesperus) and southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula) in response to developing flower buds and fruits from cotton plants colonized by one of two candidate beneficial fungal endophytes, Phialemonium inflatum or Beauveria bassiana...
March 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323391/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-changes-of-the-drosophila-suzukii-microbiota-in-the-newly-colonised-regions
#13
Isabel Martinez-Sañudo, Mauro Simonato, Andrea Squartini, Nicola Mori, Laura Marri, Luca Mazzon
The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a highly polyphagous pest of a wide variety of wild or cultivated berry and stone fruit. Originating from Southeast Asia, it has recently invaded a wide range of regions in Europe and North-America. It is well known that insect microbiotas may significantly influence several aspects of the host biology and play an important role in invasive species introduction into new areas. However, in spite of the great economic importance of D...
March 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322022/the-effect-of-landscape-complexity-and-microclimate-on-the-thermal-tolerance-of-a-pest-insect
#14
Lucy Alford, Kévin Tougeron, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Françoise Burel, Joan van Baaren
Landscape changes are known to exacerbate the impacts of climate change. As such, understanding the combined effect of climate and landscape on agro-ecosystems is vital if we are to maintain the function of agro-ecosystems. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of agricultural landscape complexity on the microclimate and thermal tolerance of an aphid pest to better understand how landscape and climate may interact to affect the thermal tolerance of pest species within the context of global climate change...
March 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316131/evaluation-of-potential-rna-interference-target-genes-to-control-cotton-mealybug-phenacoccus-solenopsis-hemiptera-pseudococcuidae
#15
Arif M Khan, Muhammad Ashfaq, Azhar A Khan, Muhammad T Naseem, Shahid Mansoor
RNA interference (RNAi) of vital insect genes is a potential tool for targeted pest control. However, selection of the right target genes is a challenge because the RNAi efficacy is known to vary among insect species. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, is a phloem-feeding economically important crop pest. We evaluated the RNAi of two vital genes, Bursicon (PsBur) and V-ATPase (PsV-ATPase) as potential targets in P. solenopsis for its control. PCR fragments of PsBur and PsV-ATPase were amplified using cDNA synthesized from the total RNA...
March 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296161/passive-vectoring-of-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana-among-the-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella-larvae-by-the-ectoparasitoid-habrobracon-hebetor-females
#16
Vadim Yu Kryukov, Natalia A Kryukova, Maksim V Tyurin, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Viktor V Glupov
Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296131/the-reproductive-strategy-and-the-vibrational-duet-of-the-leafhopper-empoasca-vitis-g%C3%A3-the
#17
Rachele Nieri, Valerio Mazzoni
The recent description of a new vibrational mating disruption method to control the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball opened questions about its possible application to other leafhopper pests. Since the prerequisite for the method's successful application is a deep knowledge of the species mating behavior and the exact role of associated signals, we conducted behavioral assays on the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Göthe, a pest of grapevine and other crops in Europe and Asia. Laser vibrometer recordings of single and paired individuals (male and female) during a 24-hour period enabled us to detect and describe two male and one female signal...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294575/variation-in-adult-stress-resistance-does-not-explain-vulnerability-to-climate-change-in-copper-butterflies
#18
Michael Klockmann, Leonard Wallmeyer, Klaus Fischer
Ongoing climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. However, although many species clearly suffer from ongoing climate change, others benefit from it e.g., by showing range expansions. However, which specific features determine a species' vulnerability to climate change? Phenotypic plasticity, which has been described as the first line of defence against environmental change, may be of utmost importance here. Against this background, we here compare plasticity in stress tolerance in three Copper butterfly species, which differ arguably in their vulnerability to climate change...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248003/delayed-sexual-maturity-in-males-of-vespa-velutina
#19
Juliette Poidatz, Christophe Bressac, Olivier Bonnard, Denis Thiéry
Vespa velutina var nigrithorax (lepelletier, 1835) is an invasive predator of bees accidentally introduced in France in 2004, and it is having a serious impact on apiculture and ecosystems. Studying the reproduction of an invasive species is key to assess its population dynamic. This study explores the sexual maturation of V. velutina males and the evolution of their fertility. The main studied parameters were physiologic (spermiogenesis, spermatogenesis) and anatomic (testes size and structure, head width)...
March 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247982/cytotoxicity-and-binding-profiles-of-activated-cry1ac-and-cry2ab-to-three-insect-cell-lines
#20
Jizhen Wei, Gemei Liang, Kongming Wu, Shaohua Gu, Yuyuan Guo, Xinzhi Ni, Xianchun Li
While Cry1Ac has been known to bind with larval midgut proteins cadherin, APN (amino peptidase N), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and ABCC2 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2), little is known about the receptors of Cry2Ab. To provide a clue to the receptors of Cry2Ab, we tested the baseline cytotoxicity of activated Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against the midgut and fat body cell lines of Helicoverpa zea and the ovary cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda (SF9). As expected, the descending order of cytotoxicity of Cry1Ac against the three cell lines in terms of LC50 was midgut (31...
March 1, 2017: Insect Science
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