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Insect Science

Shuo Yan, Yan-Jun Liu, Jia-Lin Zhu, Wei-Na Cui, Xin-Fang Zhang, Yu-Hui Yang, Xiao-Ming Liu, Qing-Wen Zhang, Xiao-Xia Liu
Circadian clock genes in peripheral tissues usually play an important role in regulating the circadian rhythms. Light is the most important environmental signal for synchronizing endogenous rhythms with the daily light-dark cycle, and compound eyes are known as the principal circadian photoreceptor for photic entrainment in most moths. However, there is little evidence for circadian timing in the compound eyes. In the current study, we isolated the timeless gene, designated Ha-tim (GenBank accession number: KM233162), from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera...
September 23, 2017: Insect Science
Norbert Kunert, Alida Mercado Cárdenas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Insect Science
Caroline Kaiser, Christina Lazaridou, Karl-Martin Vagn Jensen, Rodrigo Labouriau, Michael Kristensen
When investigating insecticide resistance of pest insects e.g. the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus, it is relevant to differentiate toxicological and molecular genetic data between male and female specimens. A molecular sex determination method would allow resistance testing to be run without prior sorting of the samples. A one-step quantitative RT-PCR method for quantification of the yolk protein vitellogenin expression in the pollen beetle was established. The expression level of vitellogenin, relative to tubulin was determined...
September 13, 2017: Insect Science
Bo Hu, Shu-Heng Zhang, Miao-Miao Ren, Xiang-Rui Tian, Qi Wei, David Kibe Mburu, Jian-Ya Su
Cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucosyltransferase as phase I and phase II metabolism enzymes respectively, play vital roles in the breakdown of endobiotics and xenobiotics. Insects can increase the expression of detoxification enzymes to cope with the stress from xenobiotics including insecticides. However, the molecular mechanisms for insecticide detoxification in Spodoptera exigua remain elusive, and the genes conferred insecticide metabolisms in this species are less reported. In this study, 68 P450 and 32 UGT genes were identified...
September 7, 2017: Insect Science
Jean-Christophe Simon, Arjen Biere, Akiko Sugio
Preface of the special issue on plant-insect-microbe interactions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 7, 2017: Insect Science
Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Parasitoids use odor cues from infested plants and herbivore hosts to locate their hosts. Specialist parasitoids of generalist herbivores are predicted to rely more on herbivore-derived cues than plant-derived cues. Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a relatively specialized larval endoparasitoid of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is a generalist herbivore on several crops including cotton and soybean. Using M. croceipes/H. virescens as a model system, we tested the following predictions about specialist parasitoids of generalist herbivores: (i) naïve parasitoids will show innate responses to herbivore-emitted kairomones, regardless of host plant identity, and (ii) herbivore-related experience will have a greater influence on intraspecific oviposition preference than plant-related experience...
September 6, 2017: Insect Science
Camilo Ayra-Pardo, Maria E Ochagavía, Ben Raymond, Asim Gulzar, Lianet Rodríguez-Cabrera, Claudia Rodríguez de la Noval, Ivis Morán Bertot, Ryohei Terauchi, Kentaro Yoshida, Hideo Matsumura, Pilar Téllez Rodríguez, Daily Hernández Hernández, Orlando Borrás-Hidalgo, Denis J Wright
Multi-toxin Bt-crops expressing insecticidal toxins with different modes of action e.g. Cry and Vip, are expected to improve resistance management in target pests. While Cry1A resistance has been relatively well characterized in some insect species, this is not the case for Vip3A, for which no mechanism of resistance has yet been identified. Here we applied HT-SuperSAGE to analyze the transcriptome of the gut tissue of tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (F.) laboratory-selected for Vip3Aa resistance. From a total of 1 324 252 sequence reads, 58951 26-bp tags were obtained representing 17 751 non-singleton unique transcripts (UniTags) from genetically similar Vip3Aa-resistant (Vip-Sel) and susceptible control (Vip-Unsel) strains...
September 5, 2017: Insect Science
Xiao-Li Ma, Wei-Yi He, Ping Wang, Min-Sheng You
Six new cell lines were established from embryonic tissues of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The cell lines showed differential characteristics, including growth in attachment or in suspension, susceptibility to a baculovirus infection and expression of genes involved in the glucosinolate detoxication pathway in P. xylostella larvae. Five of the cells lines grew attached to the culture flask and one cell line grew unattached as a suspension cell line. The cell lines had population doubling times ranging from 18 to 23 h...
August 31, 2017: Insect Science
Jaka Razinger, Metka Žerjav, Meta Zemljič-Urbančič, Špela Modic, Matthias Lutz, Hans-Josef Schroers, Jürg Grunder, Simon Fellous, Gregor Urek
Cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.) control represents a major challenge in brassica production, therefore different management strategies for its control were tested in conventionally managed open field cauliflower production. Strategies included treatments with low risk methods such as nitrogen lime, the insecticide spinosad and the Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040 based biopesticide Naturalis. Their effects were compared with treatments based on non-formulated fungal species Metarhizium brunneum, B. bassiana, Clonostachys solani, Trichoderma atroviride, T...
August 30, 2017: Insect Science
Piotr Trębicki, Beatriz Dáder, Simone Vassiliadis, Alberto Fereres
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is the main anthropogenic gas which has drastically increased since the industrial revolution, and current concentrations are projected to double by the end of this century. As a consequence, elevated CO2 is expected to alter the earths' climate, increase global temperatures and change weather patterns. This is likely to have both direct and indirect impacts on plants, insect pests, plant pathogens and their distribution, and is therefore problematic for the security of future food production...
August 26, 2017: Insect Science
Aidan A G Hall, Scott N Johnson, James M Cook, Markus Riegler
Insect herbivore outbreaks frequently occur and this may be due to factors that restrict top-down control by parasitoids, for example, host-parasitoid asynchrony, hyperparasitisation, resource limitation and climate. Few studies have examined host-parasitoid density relationships during an insect herbivore outbreak in a natural ecosystem with diverse parasitoids. We studied parasitisation patterns of Cardiaspina psyllids during an outbreak in a Eucalyptus woodland. First, we established the trophic roles of the parasitoids through a species-specific multiplex PCR approach on mummies from which parasitoids emerged...
August 26, 2017: Insect Science
Alexis L Beaurepaire, James D Ellis, Klemens J Krieger, Robin F A Moritz
The genetic diversity of Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) is limited outside its natural range due to population bottlenecks and its propensity to inbreed. In light of the arms race between V. destructor and its honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) host, any mechanism enhancing population admixture of the mite may be favored. One way that admixture can occur is when two genetically dissimilar mites co-invade a brood cell, with the progeny of the foundresses admixing. We determined the relatedness of 393 pairs of V...
August 22, 2017: Insect Science
Jürgen Heinze, Sabine Frohschammer, Abel Bernadou
Most disturbed habitats in the tropics and subtropics harbor numerous species of invasive ants, and occasionally the same species has been introduced repeatedly from multiple geographical sources. We examined how experimental crossbreeding between sexuals from different populations affects the fitness of queens of the tramp ant Cardiocondyla itsukii, which is widely distributed in Asia and the Pacific Islands. Eggs laid by queens that mated with nestmate males had a higher hatching rate than eggs laid by queens mated to males from neighboring (Hawaii x Kauai) or distant introduced populations (Hawaii / Kauai x Okinawa)...
August 18, 2017: Insect Science
Jens Schirmel, Rebekka Gerlach, Constanze Buhk
Semi-natural grasslands provide habitats for various species and are important for biodiversity conservation. The understanding of the diverse responses of species and traits to different grassland management methods is therefore urgently needed. We disentangled the role of grassland management (fertilization and irrigation), vegetation structure (biomass, sward height) and plant quality (protein and fiber content) for Orthoptera communities in lowland hay meadows in Germany. We found vegetation structure to be the most important environmental category in explaining community structure of Orthoptera (species richness, total individuals, functional diversity and species composition)...
August 17, 2017: Insect Science
Michelina Pusceddu, Giannella Piluzza, Panagiotis Theodorou, Franco Buffa, Luca Ruiu, Simonetta Bullitta, Ignazio Floris, Alberto Satta
Social insects have evolved colony behavioral, physiological and organizational adaptations (social immunity) to reduce the risks of parasitization and/or disease transmission. The collection of resin from various plants and its use in the hive as propolis, is a clear example of behavioral defense. For Apis mellifera, an increased propolis content in the hive may correspond to variations in the microbial load of the colony and to a down-regulation of an individual bee's immune response. However, many aspects of such antimicrobial mechanism still need to be clarified...
August 10, 2017: Insect Science
Angela M Mech, Sherilyn J Harper, Nathan P Havill, Carol D von Dohlen, Gaelen R Burke
Bacterial endosymbionts of sap-sucking insects provide their host with a number of beneficial qualities, including the supply of nutrition, defense against parasitoids, and protection from heat stress. Damage to these bacterial associates can therefore have a negative impact on the fitness of their insect host. We evaluated observational and experimental factors regarding the non-native hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) to help understand the roles of its three recently identified symbionts, including under heat stress conditions...
August 9, 2017: Insect Science
Zachary Y Huang, Guowu Bian, Zhiyong Xi, Xianbing Xie
The Varroa mite, (Varroa destructor), is the worst threat to honey bee health worldwide. To explore the possibility of using RNAi to control this pest, we determined the effects of knocking down various genes on Varroa mite survival and reproduction. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of six candidate genes (Da, Pros26S, RpL8, RpL11, RpP0 and RpS13) were synthesized and each injected into Varroa mites, then mite survival and reproduction were assessed. Injection of dsRNA for Da (Daughterless) and Pros26S (Proteasome 26S subunit ATPase) caused a significant reduction in mite survival, with 3...
July 27, 2017: Insect Science
Ming Jiang, Shu-Min Lü, Zi-Yi Qi, Ya-Lin Zhang
Cantharidin (CTD), a terpenoid defensive toxin mainly produced by blister beetles, is widely known by its toxicity to both cancer cells and pests. However, little information is known about its biosynthesis in blister beetles. In this study, we firstly determined the CTD content in various tissues of adult blister beetles on different days after mating, and then detected the temporal and spatial expression patterns of genes related to CTD biosynthesis in Epicauta chinensis. Results revealed that the accessory gland is the source of the highest CTD production...
July 26, 2017: Insect Science
Mei-Fang Wen, Hsin Chi, Ying-Xiao Lian, Yu-Hao Zheng, Qing-Hai Fan, Min-Sheng You
Subterranean predatory mites are important biological control agents of pests in soil. In order to understand the population characteristics of two predatory mites, Macrocheles glaber Müller and Stratiolaelaps scimitus Womersley, we studied their development, survival and fecundity data under laboratory conditions using Coboldia fuscipes Meigen as food source and analyzed with the age-stage, two-sex life table. Macrocheles glaber had a significantly shorter developmental time, oviposition period, longevity and lower fecundity than those of S...
July 24, 2017: Insect Science
Qing-Min Meng, Conrad C Labandeira, Qiao-Ling Ding, Dong Ren
A distinctive pattern of oviposition lesions occurs on a ginkgoalean seed, Yimaia capituliformis, which likely was inflicted by a kalligrammatid lacewing with a long, sword-like, plant piercing ovipositor. This newly recorded oviposition type, DT272, occurs in the 165 million-year-old Jiulongshan Formation, of Middle Jurassic age, in Northeastern China. DT272 consists from three to seven, approximately equally spaced lesions with surrounding callus tissue whose fabricator targeted fleshy outer and inner tissues of a ginkgophyte fruit...
July 24, 2017: Insect Science
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