Read by QxMD icon Read

Insect Science

Barbara Manachini, Giuseppe Bazan, Rosario Schicchi
The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed...
March 14, 2018: Insect Science
Marlène Chirault, Christophe Bressac, Marlène Goubault, Charlotte Lécureuil
Insect reproduction is influenced by various external factors including temperature, a well studied constraint. We investigated to what extent different levels of sperm limitation of males exposed to different heat-stresses (34°C and 36°C) affect females' offspring production and sex allocation in Nasonia vitripennis. In this haplodiploid parasitoid wasp attacking different species of pest flies, we investigated the effect of the quantity of sperm females received and stored in their spermatheca on their sperm use decisions, hence sex allocation, over successive ovipositions...
March 9, 2018: Insect Science
Martin Luquet, Maurice Hullé, Jean-Christophe Simon, Nicolas Parisey, Christelle Buchard, Bruno Jaloux
Insect populations are prone to respond to global changes through shifts in phenology, distribution and abundance. However, global changes cover several factors such as climate and land use, the relative importance of these being largely unknown. Here, we aim at disentangling the effects of climate, land use and geographical drivers on aphid abundance and phenology in France, at a regional scale and over the last 40 years. We used aerial data obtained from suction traps between 1978 and 2015 on five aphid species varying in their degree of specialization to legumes, along with climate, legume crop area and geographical data...
March 7, 2018: Insect Science
Wicher Vos, Jan Komdeur, Martijn Hammers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Insect Science
Ayad Masry, John P Cunningham, Anthony R Clarke
Associative learning is well documented in Hymenopteran parasitoids, where it is thought to be an adaptive mechanism for increasing successful host location in complex environments. Based on this learning capacity, it has been suggested that providing pre-release training to parasitoids reared for inundative release may lead to a subsequent increase in their efficacy as biological control agents. Using the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha krausii we tested this hypothesis in a series of associative learning experiments which involved the parasitoid, two host fruits (tomatoes and nectarine), and one host fly (Bactrocera tryoni)...
March 5, 2018: Insect Science
Philippe Louâpre, Cécile Le Lann, Thierry Hance
Insect parasitoids developing inside hosts face a true challenge: hosts are scattered in the field and their localization and selection require the use of complex and sometime confusing information. It was assumed for a long time that small-brained organisms like parasitoids have evolved simple and efficient behavioral mechanisms, leading them to be adapted to a given ecological situation, e.g. the spatial distribution of hosts in the habitat. However, hosts are not static and their distribution may also vary through generations and within the life of parasitoid individuals...
February 28, 2018: Insect Science
Xue Dong Chen, Torrence A Gill, Chi D Nguyen, Nabil Killiny, Kirsten S Pelz-Stelinski, Lukasz L Stelinski
The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is known to exhibit abdominal color polymorphisms. In the current study, susceptibility to four insecticides was compared among orange/yellow, blue/green and gray/brown color morphs of field collected D. citri. The LD50 values and 95% fiducial limits were quantified for each insecticide and color morph combination and ranged between 0.32 ng/μL (0.18-0.56) and 6.16 ng/μL (3.30-12.50). Second, we measured the detoxification enzyme activity levels of orange/yellow, blue/green and gray/brown color morphs for cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, and general esterase...
February 27, 2018: Insect Science
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Roberto Crnjar
On the island of Sardinia the lepidopteran Papilio hospiton uses Ferula communis as exclusive host-plant. However, on the small island of Tavolara, adult females lay eggs on Seseli tortuosum, a plant confined to the island. When raised in captivity on Seseli only few larvae grew beyond the first-second instar. Host specificity of lepidopterans is determined by female oviposition preferences, but also by larval food acceptance, and adult and larval taste sensitivity may be related to host selection in both cases...
February 27, 2018: Insect Science
Xiao-Ting Wang, Yu-Juan Zhang, Liang Qiao, Bin Chen
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) exist in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and are the most popular genetic markers, but the SSRs of mosquito genomes are still not well understood. In this study, we identified and analyzed the SSRs in 23 mosquito species using Drosophila melanogaster as reference at the whole-genome level. The results show that SSR numbers (33 076-560 175/genome) and genome sizes (574.57-1342.21 Mb) are significantly positively correlated (R2 = 0.8992, P < 0.01), but the correlation in individual species varies in these mosquito species...
February 27, 2018: Insect Science
Paolo Solari, Giorgia Sollai, Carla Masala, Riccardo Maccioni, Roberto Crnjar, Anna Liscia
A morpho-functional investigation of the different neuronal subpopulations projecting through each of the nerves IV to VI emerging bilaterally from the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) was correlated with the octopaminergic activity in the ganglion that controls the ovipositor movements associated with calling behavior in the female gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. Tetramethylrodamine-dextran backfills from nerve stumps resulted in a relatively low number of TAG projections, ranging from 12-13 for nerve pair IV, 12-14 for nerve pair V and 8-9 for nerve pair VI...
February 23, 2018: Insect Science
Ana E Gutiérrez-Cabrera, Wesley F Zandberg, Edgar Zenteno, Mario H Rodríguez, Bertha Espinoza, Carl Lowenberger
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, interacts with molecules in the midgut of its insect vector to multiply and reach the infective stage. Many studies suggest that the parasite binds to midgut-specific glycans. We identified several glycoproteins expressed in the intestine and perimicrovillar membrane (PMM) of Triatoma (Meccus) pallidipennis under different feeding conditions. In order to assess changes in protein-linked glycans, we performed lectin and immunoblot analyses on glycoprotein extracts from these intestinal tissues using well-characterized lectins, and an antibody, which collectively recognize a wide range of different glycans epitopes...
February 15, 2018: Insect Science
Marcelo H S Paiva, Rosângela M R Barbosa, Suzane A Santos, Norma M Silva, Marcia B Paula, Constância F J Ayres, Walter S Leal
Culex mosquitoes are primarily found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide where they play a crucial role as main vectors of filarial worms and arboviruses. In Recife, a northeast city in Brazil, high densities of Culex quinquefasciatus are often found in association with human populated areas. In marked contrast to another part of the city, field tests conducted in the neighborhood of Sítio dos Pintos showed that trapping of mosquitoes in skatole-baited ovitraps did not differ significantly from captures in control (water) traps...
February 14, 2018: Insect Science
Yang Zeng, Yu-Ting Yang, Qing-Jun Wu, Shao-Li Wang, Wen Xie, You-Jun Zhang
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of insects are thought to play roles in olfactory recognition affecting host choice, copulation, reproduction, and other behaviors. Previous descriptions of OBPs and CSPs in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci often provided no or incomplete genetic information. In this study, we present a genome-wide and transcriptome-wide investigation of the OBPs and CSPs in B. tabaci MEAM1 (Middle East-Asia Minor1 species). Eight OBP and 19 CSP genes were identified that covered all previous sequences...
February 14, 2018: Insect Science
Kylee Grenis, Shannon M Murphy
Light pollution is a global disturbance with resounding impacts on a wide variety of organisms, but our understanding of these impacts is restricted to relatively few higher vertebrate species. We tested the direct effects of light pollution on herbivore performance as well as indirect effects mediated by host plant quality. We found that artificial light from streetlights alters plant toughness. Additionally, we found evidence of both direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect, which indicates that streetlights can have cascading impacts on multiple trophic levels...
February 9, 2018: Insect Science
Jian-Hua Zhang, Na Yu, Xi-Xia Xu, Ze-Wen Liu
The endosymbionts play vital roles in growth, development and reproduction in insects. Yeast-like endosymbionts (YLSs) have been well studied in Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens), but little is known about the tissue-specific bacterial microbiomes, especially on the microbial intersection among internal tissues. Here, the correlation of microbial composition, structure, dispersal ability and functional profiling were illuminated in two tissues, the fat body and ovary in N. lugens. A total of 11 phyla and 105 genera were captured from all samples; Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most predominant and accounted for more than 99% in all samples...
February 9, 2018: Insect Science
Paola A Caicedo, Idalba Mildred Serrato, Shuzhen Sim, George Dimopoulos, Heather Coatsworth, Carl Lowenberger, Clara B Ocampo
Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, the principal global vector of dengue viruses, has differences in its' susceptibility to dengue virus infection. We compared the global expression of genes in the midguts of Colombian Ae. aegypti dengue-susceptible (Cali-S) and dengue-refractory (Cali-MIB) field derived strains after ingesting either a sugarmeal, a bloodmeal, or a bloodmeal containing dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). Microarray-based transcriptome analysis among treatments indicated a total of 4725 transcripts with differential expression between the two strains...
February 1, 2018: Insect Science
Masashi Tanaka, Takaaki Daimon
Parthenogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction that plays an important role in the evolution of sex, sociality, and reproduction strategies in insects. Some species of cockroach exhibit thelytoky, a type of parthenogenesis in which female offspring are produced without fertilization. However, the cytological and genetic mechanisms of parthenogenesis in cockroaches are not well understood. Here we provide the first molecular genetic evidence that cockroaches can reproduce through automixis. Using the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, we performed microsatellite analysis to investigate the genetic relationship between parthenogenetically produced nymphs and the parent virgin females, and found that all parthenogenetic offspring were homozygous for autosomal microsatellite markers, whereas the female parents were heterozygous...
February 1, 2018: Insect Science
Zhuo Li, Li-Kun Li, Bin Liu, Long Wang, Megha N Parajulee, Fa-Jun Chen
The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impacts on both target and non-target pests. In this study, we examined the potential effects of intra-specific seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice (Bt) and its parental non-transgenic line (Nt) [100% Bt rice (Bt100 ), 5% Nt+95% Bt (Nt05 Bt95 ), 10% Nt+90% Bt (Nt10 Bt90 ), 20% Nt+80% Bt (Nt20 Bt80 ), 40% Nt+60% Bt (Nt40 Bt60 ), and 100% Nt rice (Nt100 )] on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China...
January 24, 2018: Insect Science
Ming-Hui Jin, Yu-Tao Xiao, Ying Cheng, Jie Hu, Chao-Bin Xue, Kong-Ming Wu
Helicoverpa armigera, cotton bollworm, is one of the most disastrous pests worldwide, threatening various food and economic crops. Functional genomic tools may provide efficient approaches for its management. The CRISPR/Cas9 system, dependent on a single guide RNA (sgRNA), has been used to induce indels for targeted mutagenesis in cotton bollworm. However, genomic deletions may be more desirable to disrupt the function of noncoding genes or regulatory sequences. By injecting two sgRNAs with Cas9 protein targeting different exons, we obtained predictable genomic deletions of several hundred bases...
January 23, 2018: Insect Science
Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"