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Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544438/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-evolution-of-cuticular-protein-genes-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae
#1
Bai-Qi Liu, Liang Qiao, Qi-Yi He, Yong Zhou, Shuang Ren, Bin Chen
Thirteen cuticular proteins (CPs) families have been recognized in arthropods. In this study, 250 Anopheles sinensis CP genes were identified and named based on genome and transcriptome sequences. They were classified into 10 families based on motifs and phylogenetic analyses. In 11 other insect species, 9 had CP numbers > 150 while Apis mellifera and Tribolium castaneum had CP numbers less than 52. The CPs of 8 species occupied > 1.4% of the total genomic gene number whereas in 3 species the CPs occupied < 1%...
May 24, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544806/can-soil-microbial-diversity-influence-plant-metabolites-and-life-history-traits-of-a-rhizophagous-insect-a-demonstration-in-oilseed-rape
#2
Tom Lachaise, Morgane Ourry, Lionel Lebreton, Anne-Yvonne Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Juliette Linglin, Chrystelle Paty, Valérie Chaminade, Nathalie Marnet, Julie Aubert, Denis Poinsot, Anne-Marie Cortesero, Christophe Mougel
Interactions between plants and phytophagous insects play an important part in shaping the biochemical composition of plants. Reciprocally plant metabolites can influence major life history traits in these insects and largely contribute to their fitness. Plant rhizospheric microorganisms are an important biotic factor modulating plant metabolites and adaptation to stress. While plant-insects or plant-microorganisms interactions and their consequences on the plant metabolite signature are well-documented, the impact of soil microbial communities on plant defenses against phytophagous insects remains poorly known...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544681/tenebrio-molitor-gram-negative-binding-protein-3-tmgnbp3-is-essential-for-inducing-downstream-antifungal-tenecin-1-gene-expression-against-infection-with-beauveria-bassiana-jef-007
#3
Yi-Ting Yang, Mi Rong Lee, Se Jin Lee, Sihyeon Kim, Yu-Shin Nai, Jae Su Kim
The Toll signaling pathway is responsible for defense against both Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Gram-negative binding protein 3 (GNBP3) has a strong affinity for the fungal cell wall component, β-1,3-glucan, which can activate the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade and induce the Toll signaling pathway. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an intracellular adaptor protein involved in the Toll signaling pathway. In this study, we monitored the response of 5 key genes (TmGNBP3, TmMyD88, and Tenecin 1, 2, and 3) in the Toll pathway of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor immune system against the fungus Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 using RT-PCR...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544122/pupal-emergence-pattern-in-cactophilic-drosophila-and-the-effect-of-host-plants
#4
Eduardo M Soto, Julián Padró, Pablo Milla Carmona, Diego T Tuero, Valeria P Carreira, Ignacio M Soto
Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species. The former breeds primarily on prickly pears (genus Opuntia) whereas the latter breeds on columnar cacti of the genera Cereus and Trichocereus, although with certain degree of niche overlapping. We examined the interspecific differences in diurnal temporal patterns of adult emergence from puparia and evaluated whether this behavior is affected by rearing in the different cactus hosts available in nature. We detected important host-dependent genetic variation for this trait differentially affecting the emergence schedule of these species...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503842/demographic-histories-of-three-predatory-lady-beetles-reveal-complex-patterns-of-diversity-and-population-size-change-in-the-united-states
#5
Arun Sethuraman, Fredric J Janzen, Michael A Rubio, Yumary Vasquez, John J Obrycki
Predatory lady beetles (Coccinellidae) contribute to biological control of agricultural pests, however, multiple species frequently compete for similar resources in the same environment. Numerous studies have examined ecological interactions among the native North American convergent lady beetle (Hippodamia convergens) and two introduced species, the seven spotted lady beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) and the Asian lady beetle (Harmonia axyridis), in agricultural fields and described multi-year population dynamics...
May 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498521/does-drought-stress-modify-the-effects-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-on-an-aboveground-chewing-herbivore
#6
Maite Fernández de Bobadilla, Julia Friman, Nurmi Pangesti, Marcel Dicke, Joop J A van Loon, Ana Pineda
Soil microbes have important effects on the interactions of plants with their environment, by promoting plant growth, inducing resistance to pests or by conferring tolerance to abiotic stress. However, their effects are variable and the factors responsible for this variation are mainly unknown. Our aim was to assess how drought stress modifies the effect of the non-pathogenic rhizobacterium Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r on plant growth and resistance against the generalist leaf-chewing caterpillar Mamestra brassicae...
May 12, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497885/larval-interference-competition-between-the-native-neotropical-mosquito-limatus-durhamii-and-the-invasive-aedes-aegypti-improves-the-fitness-of-both-species
#7
Stanislas Talaga, Alain Dejean, Clémence Mouza, Yves Dumont, Céline Leroy
Interspecific competition with native species during biological invasions can sometimes limit alien expansion. We aimed to determine the potential ecological effects of Limatus durhamii Theobald 1901, a native Neotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species, on the invasive species Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) that breeds in the same artificial water containers. Development time and adult dry mass were measured in three rearing conditions: control (a single larva), intraspecific competition (two conspecific larvae), and interspecific competition (two heterospecific larvae)...
May 12, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497882/identification-of-the-2-tridecanone-cis-acting-element-in-the-promoter-of-cytochrome-p450-cyp6b7-in-helicoverpa-armigera
#8
Li Xu, Dong-Zhi Li, Yuan-Yuan Luo, Jian-Ying Qin, Li-Hong Qiu
The expression level of cytochrome P450 genes in insects can be induced by plant allelochemicals, which is important for insects to adapt to host plants. Cytochrome P450 CYP6B7 has been reported to be involved in pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera, and its transcription level was induced by some inducers. Currently, the regulatory mechanism of the induced expression of CYP6B7 remains unknown, although it is very important for understanding the detoxification mechanism to allelochemicals in host plants...
May 12, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493539/the-influence-of-bacteria-on-multi-trophic-interactions-among-plants-psyllids-and-pathogen
#9
REVIEW
Cecilia Tamborindeguy, Ordom Brian Huot, Freddy Ibanez, Julien Levy
The recent emergence of several plant diseases caused by psyllid-borne bacterial pathogens worldwide (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) has created renewed interest on the interaction between psyllids and bacteria. In spite of these efforts to understand psyllid association with bacteria, many aspects of their interactions remain poorly understood. As more organisms are studied, subtleties on the molecular interactions as well as on the effects of the bacteria on the psyllid host are being uncovered. Additionally, psyllid-borne bacterial phytopathogens can also affect the host plant, which in turn can impact psyllid physiology and behavior...
May 11, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485823/effects-of-aphidius-gifuensis-on-the-feeding-behavior-and-potato-virus-y-transmission-ability-of-myzus-persicae
#10
Ying-Qin He, Yong-Qiang Zhang, Juan-Ni Chen, Wen-Long Chen, Xian-Yi Zeng, Hai-Tao Chen, Wei Ding
The stylet penetration behavior of aphids when feeding on plants is associated with virus acquisition and inoculation. Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) is a primary endoparasitoid of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) which is the most efficient vector of plant viruses. Information about the effects of parasitoid on aphid and virus transmission can provide an essential foundation for designing effective biological control strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of A. gifuensis on the feeding behavior and Potato virus Y (PVY) transmission ability of M...
May 9, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475289/trichoderma-harzianum-enhances-tomato-indirect-defense-against-aphids
#11
Mariangela Coppola, Pasquale Cascone, Maria Luisa Chiusano, Chiara Colantuono, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Pennacchio, Rosa Rao, Sheridan Lois Woo, Emilio Guerrieri, Maria Cristina Digilio
Many fungal root symbionts of the genus Trichoderma are well-known for their beneficial effects on agronomic performance and protection against plant pathogens; moreover, they may enhance protection from insect pests, by triggering plant resistance mechanisms. Defense barriers against insects are induced by the activation of metabolic pathways involved in the production of defense-related plant compounds, either directly active against herbivore insects, or exerting an indirect effect, by increasing the attraction of herbivore natural enemies...
May 5, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459131/identification-of-snps-involved-in-regulating-a-novel-alternative-transcript-of-p450-cyp6er1-in-the-brown-planthopper
#12
Zhikun Liang, Rui Pang, Yi Dong, Zhongxiang Sun, Yan Ling, Wenqing Zhang
Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic resistance is one of the major mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance. Although the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 plays a vital role in insecticide metabolism, the molecular basis for the transcriptional regulation of cytochrome P450 remains largely unknown. The P450 gene CYP6ER1, has been reported to confer imidacloprid resistance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we identified a novel alternative transcript of CYP6ER1 (transcript A2) that had different expression patterns between resistant and susceptible population, and was more stable after insecticide induction...
April 29, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459128/functional-characterization-of-a-niemann-pick-type-c2-protein-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator
#13
Yao Zheng, Shan-Ning Wang, Yong Peng, Zi-Yun Lu, Shuang Shan, Ye-Qing Yang, Rui-Jun Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) is a type of small soluble protein involved in lipid metabolism and triglyceride accumulation in vertebrates and arthropods. Recent studies have determined that NPC2 also participates in chemical communication of arthropods. In this work, two novel NPC2 proteins (MmedNPC2a and MmedNPC2b) in Microplitis mediator were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that MmedNPC2a was expressed more higher in the antennae than in other tissues of adult wasps compared with MmedNPC2b...
April 29, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432814/do-males-choose-their-mates-in-the-lekking-moth-achroia-grisella-influence-of-female-body-mass-and-male-reproductive-status-on-male-mate-choice
#14
Marlène Goubault, Rebecca Burlaud
Lekking males aggregate to attract females and contribute solely to egg fertilization, without any further parental care. Evolutionary theory therefore predicts them to be non-choosy towards their mates, because any lost mating opportunities would outweigh the benefits associated with such preferences. Nevertheless, due to time costs, the production of energetically costly sexual displays, and potential sperm limitation, the mating effort of lekking males is often considerable. These factors, combined with the fact that many females of varying quality are likely to visit leks, could favor the evolution of male mate preferences...
April 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426155/insect-transmission-of-plant-viruses-multilayered-interactions-optimize-viral-propagation
#15
Beatriz Dáder, Christiane Then, Edwige Berthelot, Marie Ducousso, James C K Ng, Martin Drucker
By serving as vectors of transmission, insects play a key role in the infection cycle of many plant viruses. Viruses use sophisticated transmission strategies to overcome the spatial barrier separating plants and the impediment imposed by the plant cell wall. Interactions among insect vectors, viruses and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. Best-examined on the molecular scale are two basic transmission modes wherein virus-vector interactions have been well characterized...
April 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421675/proteomic-composition-of-the-acrostyle-novel-approaches-to-identify-cuticular-proteins-involved-in-virus-insect-interactions
#16
Craig Graham Webster, Mäelle Thillier, Elodie Pirolles, Bastien Cayrol, Stéphane Blanc, Marilyne Uzest
The acrostyle is a distinct anatomical region present on the cuticle at the inner face of the common food/salivary canal at the tip of aphid maxillary stylets. This conserved structure is of particular interest as it harbours the protein receptors of at least one plant virus, Cauliflower mosaic virus, and presumably has other roles in plant-insect interactions. Previously we reported immunolabeling of a highly conserved motif of cuticular proteins from the CPR family (named for the presence of a Rebers and Riddiford consensus) within the acrostyle...
April 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374542/to-eat-or-get-heat-behavioral-trade-offs-between-thermoregulation-and-feeding-in-gregarious-necrophagous-larvae
#17
Jana Podhorna, Cindy Aubernon, Marie Borkovcova, Julien Boulay, Valery Hedouin, Damien Charabidze
The thermoregulation behavior of Lucilia sericata larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a necrophagous species that feeds on vertebrate cadavers, was investigated. These larvae require high heat incomes to develop, and can elevate temperatures by forming large aggregates. We hypothesized that L. sericata larvae should continue to feed at temperatures up to 38°C, which can be reached inside larval masses. Thermal regulation behavior such as movement between a hot food spot and colder areas was also postulated. The hypotheses were tested by tracking for 1h the activity of single, starved third instar larvae in a Petri dish containing one food spot (FS) that was heated to a constant temperature of 25°C, 34°C or 38°C with an ambient temperature of 25°C...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374539/comparative-assessment-of-the-thermal-tolerance-of-spotted-stemborer-chilo-partellus-lepidoptera-crambidae-and-its-larval-parasitoid-cotesia-sesamiae-hymenoptera-braconidae
#18
Reyard Mutamiswa, Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa
Under stressful thermal environments, insects adjust their behaviour and physiology to maintain key life-history activities and improve survival. For interacting species, mutual or antagonistic, thermal stress may affect the partcipants in differing ways, which may then affect the outcome of the ecological relationship. In agroecosystems, this may be the fate of relationships between insect pests and their antagonistic parasitoids under acute and chronic thermal variability. Against this background, we investigated the thermal tolerance of different developmental stages of Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its larval parasitoid, Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using both dynamic and static protocols...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374534/root-symbionts-powerful-drivers-of-plant-above-and-belowground-indirect-defences
#19
REVIEW
Sergio Rasmann, Alison Bennett, Arjen Biere, Alison Karley, Emilio Guerrieri
Soil microbial mutualists of plants, including mycorrhizal fungi, non-mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, have been typically characterized for increasing nutrient acquisition and plant growth. More recently, soil microbes have also been shown to increase direct plant defence against above- and belowground herbivores. Plants, however, do not only rely on direct defences when attacked, but they can also recruit pest antagonists such as predators and parasitoids, both above and belowground, mainly via the release of volatile organic compounds (i...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374515/transfer-of-cry1ac-and-cry2a-proteins-from-genetically-engineered-bt-cotton-to-herbivores-and-predators
#20
Michael Meissle, Jörg Romeis
With the cultivation of Bt cotton, the produced insecticidal Cry proteins are ingested by herbivores and potentially transferred along the food chain to natural enemies, such as predators. In laboratory experiments with Bollgard II cotton, concentrations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab were measured in Lepidoptera larvae (Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis virescens), plant bugs (Euschistus heros), aphids (Aphis gossypii), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), thrips (Thrips tabaci, Frankliniella occidentalis), and spider mites (Tetranychus urticae)...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
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