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Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636268/high-throughput-sequencing-reveals-drosophila-suzukii-responses-to-insecticides
#1
Ruchir Mishra, Joanna C Chiu, Gang Hua, Nilesh R Tawari, Michael J Adang, Ashfaq A Sial
Global climate change and acquired resistance to insecticides are threats to world food security. Drosophila suzukii, a devastating invasive pest in many parts of the world, causes substantial economic losses to fruit production industries, forcing farmers to apply broad-spectrum insecticides frequently. This could lead to the development of insecticide resistance. We determined the Lethal Concentration50 (median lethal concentration) values of zeta-cypermethrin, spinosad, and malathion insecticides against D...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636152/dynamics-and-origin-of-cytokinins-involved-in-plant-manipulation-by-a-leaf-mining-insect
#2
Hui Zhang, Antoine Guiguet, Géraldine Dubreuil, Anna Kisiala, Peter Andreas, R J Neil Emery, Elisabeth Huguet, Mélanie Body, David Giron
Several herbivorous insects and plant-associated microorganisms control the phytohormonal balance, thus enabling them to successfully exploit the plant by inhibiting plant defences and withdrawing plant resources for their own benefit. The leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella modifies the cytokinin (CK) profile of mined leaf-tissues, and the insect symbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is involved in the plant manipulation to the benefit of the insect host. To gain a deeper understanding into the possible origin and dynamics of CKs, we conducted an extensive characterization of CKs in larvae and in infected apple leaves...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636085/herbivore-performance-and-plant-defense-after-sequential-attacks-by-inducing-and-suppressing-herbivores
#3
Elisa Faria de Oliveira, Angelo Pallini, Arne Janssen
It is well known that herbivore-induced plant defence alter host plant quality and can affect the behavior and performance of later arriving herbivores. Effects of sequential attacks by herbivores that either suppress or induce plant defenses are less well studied. We sequentially infested leaves of tomato plants with a strain of the phytophagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae that induces plant defenses and the closely related Tetranychus evansi, which suppresses plant defenses. Plant quality was quantified through oviposition of both spider mite species and by measuring proteinase inhibitor activity using plant material that had been sequentially attacked by both herbivore species...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631879/context-dependent-effects-of-cold-stress-on-behavioral-physiological-and-life-history-traits-of-the-red-flour-beetle
#4
Inon Scharf, Keren-Or Wertheimer, Joy Lim Xin, Tomer Gilad, Inna Goldenberg, Aziz Subach
Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events vs. a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch...
June 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621508/avoidance-of-parasitized-host-by-female-wasps-of-aphidius-gifuensis-hymenoptera-braconidae-the-role-of-natal-rearing-effects-and-host-availability
#5
Ming-Zhen Pan, Tong-Xian Liu, Christian Nansen
Natal rearing experience of animals may affect their behaviors, such as, habitat selection and oviposition decision. As part of the overall fitness of insect parasitoids, successful host discrimination (distinguishing parasitized hosts from unparasitized hosts) is of paramount importance. In this study we examined whether and how parasitoids' natal rearing experience would affect their host discrimination ability according to host availability. We established separate colonies of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead by continually reared on two hosts, Sitobion avenae F...
June 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620988/when-do-predatory-mites-phytoseiidae-attack-understanding-their-diel-and-seasonal-predation-patterns
#6
Consuelo Pérez-Sayas, Ernestina Aguilar-Fenollosa, Mónica A Hurtado, Josep A Jaques, Tatiana Pina
Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are considered one of the most important groups of natural enemies used in biological control. The behavioral patterns of arthropods can differ greatly daily and seasonally; however, there is a lack of literature related to Phytoseiidae diel and seasonal predation patterns. The predatory activity of three phytoseiid species (two Tetranychidae-specialists, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, and one omnivore, Euseius stipulatus) that occur naturally in Spanish citrus orchards was observed under laboratory conditions in winter and summer...
June 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618194/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-alpine-butterflies-boloria-pales-and-boloria-napaea-differences-in-movement-and-foraging-behaviour-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#7
Stefan Ehl, Katharina Hostert, Jana Korsch, Patrick Gros, Thomas Schmitt
Sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in Lepidoptera. It is reflected in differences in life history, behaviour and morphology. Analyses of differences in behaviour are mostly difficult and time-consuming, especially in high mountain ecosystems. To enhance our knowledge on sexual dimorphisms of alpine butterflies, we performed a mark-release-recapture study on two species common in the Alps: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea. We analysed movement and foraging behaviour to investigate differences between sexes...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618174/intraspecific-maternal-competition-induces-summer-diapause-in-insect-parasitoids
#8
Kevin Tougeron, George Hraoui, Cécile Le Lann, Joan van Baaren, Jacques Brodeur
Organisms often live in unpredictable environments and have to adopt life history strategies that optimize their fitness under these conditions. According to bet-hedging theory, individuals can reduce variation in fitness outcomes by investing in different strategies at the same time. For arthropods, facultative summer diapause enables survival during dry and hot periods of the year, and can be triggered by a decrease in resource abundance. However, the effect of resource depletion on diapause induction has never been disentangled from the effect of the perception of the presence of competitors...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608995/differences-in-egg-hatching-time-between-cyclical-and-obligate-parthenogenetic-lineages-of-aphids
#9
Charles-Antoine Dedryver, Joël Bonhomme, Jean-François Le Gallic, Jean-Christophe Simon
Many aphid species exhibit a variation in reproductive mode which is influenced by winter climate regimes, with cyclical parthenogenetic (CP) lines dominating in cold winter areas (because they produce cold-resistant eggs) and obligate parthenogenetic (OP) ones in mild winter regions (because of their parthenogenetic overwintering). Genetic studies on several aphid species have shown that the OP trait can be transmitted during sexual events involving the two types of lines. This genetic system could be considered as a local safeguarding mechanism for OP alleles in case severe frost would have killed all parthenogenetically overwintering individuals...
June 13, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605128/tiny-insects-against-the-weather-flight-and-foraging-patterns-of-frankliniella-schultzei-thripidae-not-altered-by-onset-of-rainfall
#10
Lachlan C Jones, Brodie J Foster, Michelle A Rafter, Gimme H Walter
To survive in nature, organisms may need to take direct action to mitigate specific dangers from their environmental surroundings. Tiny flying insects are thought to be at particular risk from rainfall that would be of negligible concern to larger animals. The study species Frankliniella schultzei is a thrips that inhabits flowers and feeds mostly on petal tissue and pollen. While found to respond in the laboratory to decreases in atmospheric pressure associated with cyclonic conditions (rather than merely heavy rainfall), their responses to conditions preceding rainfall have not been tested in the field...
June 12, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594105/effects-of-cucumber-mosaic-virus-infected-chilli-plants-on-non-vector-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae
#11
Khalid A Saad, Mohamad Roff M N, Rebecca H Hallett, Idris A B
Plant virus infections are known to alter host plant attractiveness and suitability for insect herbivores. This study was conducted to determine how Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected chilli plants affect the fitness and settling preferences of non-vector whitefly, Bemisia tabaci adults under dual-choice conditions with volatile organic compounds analyzed using solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that the presence of CMV in chilli plants substantially affects the settling preferences of the B...
June 8, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590080/an-assessment-of-interspecific-competition-between-two-introduced-parasitoids-of-diaphorina-citri-hemiptera-liviidae-on-caged-citrus-plants
#12
Meghan A Vankosky, Mark S Hoddle
Two parasitoids attacking nymphs of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are being released in California, USA in a classical biological control program. To evaluate the effect of multiple parasitoid species on D. citri mortality, we conducted mesocosm experiments under controlled conditions using a complete block design with six treatments (D...
June 7, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586142/experimental-hybridization-and-reproductive-isolation-between-two-sympatric-species-of-tephritid-fruit-flies-in-the-anastrepha-fraterculus-species-group
#13
Juan Rull, Eduardo Tadeo, Rodrigo Lasa, Christian L Rodríguez, Alma Altuzar-Molina, Martín Aluja
Among tephritid fruit flies, hybridzation has been found to produce local adaptation and speciation, and in the case of pest species, induce behavioral and ecological alterations that can adversely impact efficient pest management. The fraterculus species group within Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a rapidly radiating aggregate, which includes cryptic species complexes, numerous sister species, and several pest species. Molecular studies have highlighted the possibility of introgression between A. fraterculus and A...
June 6, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569426/structure-and-expression-of-sulfatase-and-sulfatase-modifying-factor-genes-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#14
Xiao-Li Ma, Wei-Yi He, Wei Chen, Xue-Jiao Xu, Wei-Ping Qi, Ming-Min Zou, Yan-Chun You, Simon W Baxter, Ping Wang, Min-Sheng You
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), uses sulfatases (SULF) to counteract the glucosinolate-myrosinase defensive system that cruciferous plants have evolved to deter insect feeding. Sulfatase activity is regulated by post-translational modification of a cysteine residue by sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). We identified 12 SULF genes (PxylSulfs) and two SUMF1 genes (PxylSumf1s) in the P. xylostella genome. Phylogenetic analysis of SULFs and SUMFs from P. xylostella, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliconius melpomene, Danaus plexippus, Drosophila melanogaster, Tetranychus urticae and Homo sapiens showed that the SULFs were clustered into five groups, and the SUMFs could be divided into two groups...
June 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556457/the-new-insight-into-foregut-functions-of-xenobiotic-detoxification-in-the-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#15
Jian-Hua Zhang, Song Zhang, Yuan-Xue Yang, Yi-Xi Zhang, Ze-Wen Liu
The physiological functions of insect foregut, especially in xenobiotic detoxification, are scarcely reported because of the unimportance in appearance and insufficient molecular information. The cockroach Periplaneta americana, an entomological model organism, provides perfect material to study physiological functions of foregut tissue due to its architectural feature. Through Illumina sequencing of foregut tissue from P. americana individuals (control) or insects treated with cycloxaprid, as novel neonicotinoid insecticide, 54 193 166 clean reads were obtained and further assembled into 53 853 unigenes with an average length of 366 bp...
May 26, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548451/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana-rab5-the-first-exopterygotan-low-molecular-weight-ovarian-gtpase-during-oogenesis
#16
Mohamed Elmogy, Amr A Mohamed, Muhammad Tufail, Tomohide Uno, Makio Takeda
The small Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane vesicle trafficking. Ovaries of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (Blattodea: Blattidae) have small molecular weight GTP/ATP-binding proteins during early and late vitellogenic periods of oogenesis. However, the identification and characterization of the detected proteins have not been yet reported. Herein, we cloned a cDNA encoding Rab5 from the American cockroach, P. americana, ovaries (PamRab5). It comprises 796 bp, encoding a protein of 213 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 23...
May 26, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544438/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-evolution-of-cuticular-protein-genes-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae
#17
Bai-Qi Liu, Liang Qiao, Qi-Yi He, Yong Zhou, Shuang Ren, Bin Chen
Thirteen cuticular proteins (CPs) families have been recognized in arthropods. In this study, 250 Anopheles sinensis CP genes were identified and named based on genome and transcriptome sequences. They were classified into 10 families based on motifs and phylogenetic analyses. In 11 other insect species, 9 had CP numbers > 150 while Apis mellifera and Tribolium castaneum had CP numbers less than 52. The CPs of 8 species occupied > 1.4% of the total genomic gene number whereas in 3 species the CPs occupied < 1%...
May 24, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544806/can-soil-microbial-diversity-influence-plant-metabolites-and-life-history-traits-of-a-rhizophagous-insect-a-demonstration-in-oilseed-rape
#18
Tom Lachaise, Morgane Ourry, Lionel Lebreton, Anne-Yvonne Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Juliette Linglin, Chrystelle Paty, Valérie Chaminade, Nathalie Marnet, Julie Aubert, Denis Poinsot, Anne-Marie Cortesero, Christophe Mougel
Interactions between plants and phytophagous insects play an important part in shaping the biochemical composition of plants. Reciprocally plant metabolites can influence major life history traits in these insects and largely contribute to their fitness. Plant rhizospheric microorganisms are an important biotic factor modulating plant metabolites and adaptation to stress. While plant-insects or plant-microorganisms interactions and their consequences on the plant metabolite signature are well-documented, the impact of soil microbial communities on plant defenses against phytophagous insects remains poorly known...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544681/tenebrio-molitor-gram-negative-binding-protein-3-tmgnbp3-is-essential-for-inducing-downstream-antifungal-tenecin-1-gene-expression-against-infection-with-beauveria-bassiana-jef-007
#19
Yi-Ting Yang, Mi Rong Lee, Se Jin Lee, Sihyeon Kim, Yu-Shin Nai, Jae Su Kim
The Toll signaling pathway is responsible for defense against both Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Gram-negative binding protein 3 (GNBP3) has a strong affinity for the fungal cell wall component, β-1,3-glucan, which can activate the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade and induce the Toll signaling pathway. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an intracellular adaptor protein involved in the Toll signaling pathway. In this study, we monitored the response of 5 key genes (TmGNBP3, TmMyD88, and Tenecin 1, 2, and 3) in the Toll pathway of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor immune system against the fungus Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 using RT-PCR...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544122/pupal-emergence-pattern-in-cactophilic-drosophila-and-the-effect-of-host-plants
#20
Eduardo M Soto, Julián Padró, Pablo Milla Carmona, Diego T Tuero, Valeria P Carreira, Ignacio M Soto
Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species. The former breeds primarily on prickly pears (genus Opuntia) whereas the latter breeds on columnar cacti of the genera Cereus and Trichocereus, although with certain degree of niche overlapping. We examined the interspecific differences in diurnal temporal patterns of adult emergence from puparia and evaluated whether this behavior is affected by rearing in the different cactus hosts available in nature. We detected important host-dependent genetic variation for this trait differentially affecting the emergence schedule of these species...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
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