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Insect Science

Kai-Li Zhang, Qing-Song Liu, Hou-Xiang Kang, Xiao-Mei Liu, Xiu-Ping Chen, Yu-Fa Peng, Yun-He Li
In agro-ecosystems, plants are important mediators of interactions between their associated herbivorous insects and microbes, and any change in plants induced by one species may lead to cascading effects on interactions with other species. Often, such effects are regulated by phytohormones such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Here, we investigated the tripartite interactions among rice plants, three insect herbivores (Chilo suppressalis, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, or Nilaparvata lugens), and the causal agent of rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae...
July 12, 2018: Insect Science
Ye Yu, Xiao-Jing Liu, Xiao Ma, Zhong-Jie Zhang, Tai-Chu Wang, Fan Sun, Cheng-Xiang Hou, Mu-Wang Li
The silkworm Bombyx mori is an important lepidopteran model insect in which many kinds of natural mutants have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms of most of these mutants remain to be explored. Here we report the identification of a gene Bm-app is responsible for the silkworm minute wing (mw) mutation which exhibits highly small wings during pupal and adult stages. Comparing with the wild type silkworm, relative mRNA expression of Bm-app is significantly decreased in the u11 mutant strain which shows mw phenotype...
June 26, 2018: Insect Science
Lang You, Hong-Lun Bi, Yao-Hui Wang, Xiao-Wei Li, Xi-En Chen, Zhi-Qian Li
Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is one of the most destructive agricultural pests in Asia. Traditional pest-management methods include sex pheromone capture, transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis toxin, and pesticides. Although these strategies control pest populations effectively, they also causes negative side effects, including dramatically increased pesticide resistance, severe pollution, and hazard for human health. Recently developed genome editing tools provide new prospect for pest management and have been used in several species successfully...
June 25, 2018: Insect Science
Hong-Yu Yan, Hong-Gang Guo, Yu-Cheng Sun, Feng Ge
Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can alter plant secondary metabolites, which play important roles in the interactions among plants, herbivorous insects and natural enemies. Few studies, however, have examined the cascading effects of host plant secondary metabolites on tri-trophic interactions under elevated CO2 (eCO2 ). In this study, we determined the effects of eCO2 on the growth and foliar phenolics of Medicago truncatula and the cascading effects on two colour genotypes of Acyrthosiphon pisum (pink vs...
June 25, 2018: Insect Science
Kang Li, Qiang-Qiang Jia, Sheng Li
Since it was first postulated by Wigglesworth in 1934, juvenile hormone (JH) is considered a status-quo hormone in insects because it prevents metamorphosis that is initiated by the molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E). During the last decade, significant advances have been made regarding JH signaling. First, the bHLH-PAS transcription factor Met/Gce was identified as the JH intracellular receptor. In the presence of JH, with the assistance of Hsp83, and through physical association with a bHLH-PAS transcriptional co-activator, Met/Gce enters the nucleus and binds to E-box-like motifs in promoter regions of JH primary-response genes for inducing gene expression...
June 11, 2018: Insect Science
San-Yuan Ma, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Wei Lu, Xiao-Gang Wang, Le Sun, Kai Yu, Qing-You Xia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Insect Science
Matt N Krosch, Francesca Strutt, Mark J Blacket, Jana Batovska, Melissa Starkie, Anthony R Clarke, Stephen L Cameron, Mark K Schutze
Accurate species-level identifications underpin many aspects of basic and applied biology; however, identifications can be hampered by a lack of discriminating morphological characters, taxonomic expertise or time. Molecular approaches, such as DNA 'barcoding' of the cytochrome c oxidase (COI) gene, are argued to overcome these issues. However, nuclear encoding of mitochondrial genes (numts) and poor amplification success of suboptimally preserved specimens can lead to erroneous identifications. One insect group for which these molecular and morphological problems are significant are the dacine fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini)...
June 6, 2018: Insect Science
Dong Jia, Xiao-Fang Yuan, Yan-Hong Liu, Chao-Qian Xu, Yuan-Xin Wang, Ling-Ling Gao, Rui-Yan Ma
Agasicles hygrophila has been introduced worldwide as a control agent for the invasive weed Alternanthera philoxeroides. However, global warming has potential impact on its controlling efficacy. The aim of this research was to explore the primary factors responsible for the greatly reduced A. hygrophila population in hot summers. To imitate the temperature conditions in summers, different developmental stages of A. hygrophila were treated with high temperatures from 32.5°C to 45°C for one to five hours. Based on the survival rate, the heat tolerance of each developmental stage was ranked from lowest to highest as follows: egg, first, second, third instar larva, adult and pupa...
May 30, 2018: Insect Science
Hsuan-Chieh Peng, Gregory P Walker
Feeding behavior and plant response to feeding were studied for the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover) on susceptible and resistant melons (cv. Iroquois and TGR-1551, respectively). Average phloem phase bout duration on TGR-1551 was <7% of the duration on Iroquois. Sixty-seven percent of aphids on TGR-1551 never produced a phloem phase that attained ingestion (EPG waveform E2) in contrast to only 7% of aphids on Iroquois. Average bout duration of waveform E2 (scored as zero if phloem phase did not attain E2) on TGR-1551 was <3% of the duration on Iroquois...
May 30, 2018: Insect Science
San-Yuan Ma, Guy Smagghe, Qing-You Xia
In recent years, research in life sciences has remarkably revolutionized owing to the establishment, development, and application of genome editing technologies. Genome editing has not only accelerated fundamental researches but also shown promising applications in agricultural breeding and therapy. In particular, the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology has become an indispensable tool in molecular biology owing to its high efficacy and simplicity. Genome editing tools have also been established in silkworm (Bombyx mori), a model organism of Lepidoptera insects, with high economic importance...
May 29, 2018: Insect Science
Xia Xu, Hong-Lun Bi, Zhong-Jie Zhang, Yang Yang, Kai Li, Yong-Ping Huang, Yong Zhang, Lin He
As a core member of Hippo signaling pathway, Hpo plays a critical role in regulating growth and development. Previous studies reported that loss of function of Hpo results in increased proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and induction of tissue overgrowth in Drosophila. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to study Hpo gene (BmHpo) function in the lepidopteran insect B. mori, known commonly as the silkworm. Sequence analysis of BmHpo revealed an array of deletions in mutants. We found that BmHpo knockout resulted in defects in body size regulation, in developmental defects and pigment accumulation, and early death...
May 29, 2018: Insect Science
Qian Du, Liang Wen, Si-Chun Zheng, Hong-Lun Bi, Yong-Ping Huang, Qi-Li Feng, Lin Liu
Fusion of the testis occurs in most Lepidoptera insects, including Spodoptera litura, an important polyphagous pest. Testicular fusion in S. litura is advantageous for male reproduction, and the molecular mechanism of fusion remains unknown. Doublesex influences the formation of genitalia, the behavior of courtship, and sexually dimorphic traits in fruit flies and silkworm, and is essential for sexual differentiation. However, its purpose in the testis of Spodoptera litura remains unknown. The Doublesex gene of S...
May 29, 2018: Insect Science
Daniel J Leybourne, Jorunn I B Bos, Tracy A Valentine, Alison J Karley
Bacterial endosymbionts have enabled aphids to adapt to a range of stressors, but their effects in many aphid species remain to be established. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus), is an important pest of cereals worldwide and has been reported to form symbiotic associations with Serratia symbiotica and Sitobion miscanthi L-type Symbiont endobacteria, although the resulting aphid phenotype has not been described. This study presents the first report of R. padi infection with the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa...
May 24, 2018: Insect Science
Wei Zhu, Qian Meng, Huan Zhang, Meng-Long Wang, Xuan Li, Hong-Tuo Wang, Gui-Ling Zhou, Lin Miao, Qi-Lian Qin, Ji-Hong Zhang
Ghost moths inhabiting the alpine meadows of the Tibetan Plateau are cold-adapted stenothermal organisms that are susceptible to heat (dead within 7 days of 27 °C exposure). Exploring the metabolic basis of their heat susceptibility would extend our understanding of the thermal biology of alpine dwelling invertebrates. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was combined with physiological and transcriptional approaches to determine the metabolic mechanisms of heat susceptibility in Thitarodes xiaojinensis larvae...
May 23, 2018: Insect Science
Jia Meng, Jiaxin Lei, Andrew Davitt, Jocelyn R Holt, Jian Huang, Roger Gold, Edward L Vargo, Aaron M Tarone, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
The tawny crazy ant (Nylanderia fulva) is a new invasive pest in the United States. At present, its management mainly relies on the use of synthetic insecticides, which are generally ineffective at producing lasting control of the pest, necessitating alternative environmentally friendly measures. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of gene silencing to control this ant species. Six housekeeping genes encoding actin (NfActin), coatomer subunit β (NfCOPβ), arginine kinase (NfArgK), and V-type proton ATPase subunits A (NfvATPaseA), B (NfvATPaseB) and E (NfvATPaseE) were cloned...
May 22, 2018: Insect Science
Aida Ayoubi, Ali Asghar Talebi, Yaghoub Fathipour, Mohammad Mehrabadi
Bacterial endosymbionts play important roles in ecological traits of aphids. In this study, we characterize the bacterial endosymbionts of A. gossypii collected in Karaj, Iran and their role in the performance of the aphid. Our results indicated that beside Buchnera aphidicola, A. gossypii, also harbors both Hamiltonella defensa and Arsenophonus sp. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results revealed that the populations of the endosymbionts increased throughout nymphal development up to adult emergence; thereafter, populations of Buchnera and Arsenophonus were diminished while the density of H...
May 11, 2018: Insect Science
Conrado Augusto Rosi-Denadai, Priscila Cássia Souza Araújo, Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos, Lirio Cosme, Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes
Over 50 genera of bees release pollen from flower anthers using thoracic vibrations, a phenomenon known as buzz-pollination. The efficiency of this process is directly affected by the mechanical properties of the buzzes, namely the duration, amplitude, and frequency. Nonetheless, although the effects of the former two properties are well described, the role of buzz frequency on pollen release remains unclear. Furthermore, nearly all of the existing studies describing vibrational properties of natural buzz-pollination are limited to bumblebees (Bombus) and carpenter bees (Xylocopa) constraining our current understanding of this behavior and its evolution...
May 8, 2018: Insect Science
Mariah Kemmerer, Bryony C Bonning
The Junonia coenia densovirus rapidly traverses the gut epithelium of the host lepidopteran without replicating in the gut cells. The ability of this virus to transcytose across the gut epithelium is of interest for the potential use of virus structural proteins as delivery vehicles for insecticidal peptides that act within the insect hemocoel, rather than in the gut. In this study, we used fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda to examine the binding of the virus to brush border membrane vesicle proteins by two-dimensional ligand blot analysis...
April 27, 2018: Insect Science
Sha Chen, Shi-Wo Deng, Chungkun Shih, Wei-Wei Zhang, Peng Zhang, Dong Ren, Yi-Ning Zhu, Tai-Ping Gao
Many extant insects have developed pad structures, euplantulae or arolia on their tarsi to increase friction or enhance adhesion for better mobility. Many polyneopteran insects with euplantulae, for example, Grylloblattodea, Mantophasmatodea and Orthoptera, have been described from the Mesozoic. However, the origin and evolution of stick insects' euplantulae are poorly understood due to rare fossil records. Here, we report the earliest fossil records of Timematodea hitherto, Tumefactipes prolongates gen. et sp...
April 27, 2018: Insect Science
Angélica Albuquerque Tomilhero Frias, Freddy Ibanez, Azucena Mendoza, William Mario de Carvalho Nunes, Cecilia Tamborindeguy
"Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso) are phloem-restricted and unculturable Gram-negative bacteria. Presently five haplotypes have been identified worldwide; but only haplotypes A and B are associated with the vector Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc.) in the Americas. Previous studies showed that Lso-infection reduces B. cockerelli reproductive output and that Lso haplotype B is more pathogenic than Lso haplotype A. To understand the interaction of Lso haplotype B and B. cockerelli, the fitness of Lso-free and Lso B-infected insects, and the expression of vitellogenin (BcVg1-like), a gene involved directly in the insect reproduction were analyzed...
April 20, 2018: Insect Science
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