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Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106957/the-influence-of-habitat-heterogeneity-and-latitude-on-gamma-diversity-of-the-nearctic-simuliidae-a-ubiquitous-group-of-stream-dwelling-insects
#1
John W McCreadie, Rachel H Williams, Sam Stutsman, Debra S Finn, Peter H Adler
Among the most prominent, large-scale patterns of species richness are the increases in richness with decreasing latitude and with increasing habitat heterogeneity. Using the stream-dwelling larval and pupal stages of North American black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), we address three broad questions about species richness: (i) Does a significant latitude-richness relationship exist? (ii) How does habitat heterogeneity influence gamma diversity? (iii) What is the sign (positive or negative) of the latitude-richness and the heterogeneity-richness relationships? We found no evidence that habitat heterogeneity influences gamma diversity...
January 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101904/functional-analysis-of-the-circadian-clock-gene-timeless-in-tribolium-castaneum
#2
Chengjun Li, Xiaopei Yun, Xiaojuan Yu, Bin Li
Circadian rhythms are endogenous oscillations with a period of about 24 h driven by a circadian clock. So far, the variable oscillators were designed in insects. To explore the circadian clock of Tribolium castaneum, we have cloned the clock gene timeless (Tctimeless). Its open reading frame is 3240 bp in length and consists of 10 exons. Tctimeless is highly expressed in the late pupal stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis in late adult stages revealed high expression of Tctimeless in the head, epidermis, fat body and accessory glands...
January 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092131/finish-line-plant-insect-interactions-mediated-by-insect-feeding-mode-and-plant-interference-a-case-study-of-brassica-interactions-with-diamondback-moth-and-turnip-aphid
#3
Mahmoud Soufbaf, Yaghoub Fathipour, Jeffrey A Harvey, Cang Hui
There are gaps in our understanding of plant responses under different insect phytophagy modes and their subsequent effects on the insect herbivores' performance at late season. Here we compared different types of insect feeding by an aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, and a lepidopteran, Plutella xylostella, and how this affected defensive metabolites in leaves of two Brassica species when plants gain maturity. Thiocyanate concentrations after P. xylostella and L. erysimi feeding activities were the same. Total phenolics was higher after the phloem feeder feeding than the folivore activity...
January 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092127/induction-of-p450-genes-in-nilaparvata-lugens-and-sogatella-furcifera-by-two-neonicotinoid-insecticides
#4
Yuan-Xue Yang, Na Yu, Jian-Hua Zhang, Yi-Xi Zhang, Ze-Wen Liu
Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are two primary planthoppers on rice throughout Asian countries and areas. Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid (IMI), have been extensively used to control rice planthoppers and IMI resistance consequently occurred with an important mechanism from the over-expression of P450 genes. The induction of P450 genes by IMI may increase the ability to metabolize this insecticide in planthoppers and increase the resistance risk. In this study, the induction of P450 genes was compared in S...
January 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074632/gene-expression-profiles-of-the-southern-house-mosquito-culex-quinquefasciatus-during-exposure-to-permethrin
#5
William R Reid, Lee Zhang, Youhui Gong, Ting Li, Nannan Liu
Insecticide resistance is a major obstacle to the management of disease-vectoring mosquitoes worldwide. The genetic changes and detoxification genes involved in insecticide resistance have been extensively studied in populations of insecticide-resistant, however few studies have focused on the resistance genes up-regulated upon insecticide exposure and the possible regulation pathways involved in insecticide resistance. To characterize the changes in gene expression during insecticide exposure, and to investigate the possible connection of known regulation pathways with insecticide resistance, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis of a highly-permethrin resistant strain of Culex quinquefasciatus following permethrin exposure...
January 10, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058810/prediction-of-effective-rna-interference-targets-and-pathway-related-genes-in-lepidopteran-insects-by-rna-sequencing-analysis
#6
Ruo-Bing Guan, Hai-Chao Li, Xue-Xia Miao
When using RNAi to study gene functions in Lepidoptera insects, we discovered that some genes could not be suppressed, instead, their expression levels could be up-regulated by dsRNA. To predict which genes could be easily silenced, we treated the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) with dsGFP and dsMLP. A transcriptome sequence analysis was conducted using the cDNAs 6 h after treatment with dsRNA. The results indicated that 160 genes were up-regulated and 44 genes were down-regulated by the two dsRNAs. Then, 50 co-up-regulated, 25 co-down-regulated and 43 unaffected genes were selected to determine their RNAi responses...
January 6, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035791/indirect-plant-defense-against-insect-herbivores-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Zainab Aljbory, Ming-Shun Chen
Plants respond to herbivore attack by launching two types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant traits that increase the resistance of host plants to insect herbivores by affecting the physiology and/or behavior of the attackers. Indirect defense includes all traits that by themselves do not have significant direct impact on the attacking herbivores, but can attract natural enemies of the herbivores and thus reduce plant loss. When plants recognize herbivore-associated elicitors, they produce and release a blend of volatiles that can attract predators, parasites, and other natural enemies...
December 30, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028926/how-do-groups-of-red-imported-fire-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-feed-on-a-droplet-of-sugar-water
#8
Cai Wang, Xuan Chen, Linda M Hooper-Bùi, Rachel Strecker, Yu-Zhen Wen, Wen-Quan Qin, Tao Ma, Zhao-Hui Sun, Xiao-Yang Chen, Xiu-Jun Wen
Many previous studies have focused on the foraging behaviors and strategies of the red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren on solid food or granular bait, little attention has been paid to how liquid sugar is fed upon. In the present study, behavioral responses of S. invicta to 25% sucrose water droplets were observed. Five foraging patterns were identified in S. invicta colonies under laboratory conditions: (1) No feeding, no sucrose water feeding was observed; (2) surround feeding, ants surrounded and fed along the edge of the sucrose droplet; (3) stacked feeding, ants stacked and fed along the edge of the sucrose droplet; (4) droplet-break feeding, ants broke the liquid droplet and sucked sucrose water that spread on surface of the substance or soil particles previously transported by ants, and (5) cover feeding, whole surface of the sucrose droplet was covered by layers of feeding ants...
December 28, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026125/effects-of-temperature-on-fitness-costs-in-chlorpyrifos-resistant-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-hemiptera-delphacidae
#9
Baojun Yang, Meiling Liu, Yixi Zhang, Zewen Liu
Insecticide resistance is inevitable if an insecticide is widely used to control insect pests. Fortunately, the resistance-associated fitness costs often give chances to manage resistances. In most cases, the fitness cost in resistant insects is often evaluated under the laboratory condition for insect development, which limits its practical application in pest control in fields. In a laboratory population R9 with 253-fold resistance to chlorpyrifos after 9-generation selection with chlorpyrifos, the relative fitness was only 0...
December 27, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026117/molecular-elements-of-pheromone-detection-in-the-female-moth-heliothis-virescens
#10
Monika Zielonka, Heinz Breer, Jürgen Krieger
Pheromones play pivotal roles in the reproductive behavior of moths, most prominently for the mate finding of male moths. Accordingly, the molecular basis for the detection of female-released pheromones by male moths has been studied in great detail. In contrast, little is known about how females can detect pheromone components released by themself or by conspecifics. In this study we assessed the antenna of female Heliothis virescens for elements of pheromone detection. In accordance with previous findings that female antennae respond to the sex pheromone component (Z)-9-tetradecenal, we identified olfactory sensory neurons that express its cognate receptor, the receptor type HR6...
December 27, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019084/heterogeneous-activity-causes-a-nonlinear-increase-in-the-group-energy-use-of-ant-workers-isolated-from-queen-and-brood
#11
Nolan Ferral, Kyara Holloway, Mingzhong Li, Zhaozheng Yin, Chen Hou
Increasing evidence has shown that the energy use of ant colonies increases sublinearly with colony size so that large colonies consume less per capita energy than small colonies. It has been postulated that social environment (e.g., in the presence of queen and brood) is critical for the sublinear group energetics, and a few studies of ant workers isolated from queens and brood observed linear relationships between group energetics and size. In this paper, we hypothesize that the sublinear energetics arise from the heterogeneity of activity in ant groups, i...
December 26, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996203/sialotranscriptome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-anopheles-sinensis-and-comparison-with-psorophora-albipes-sialotranscriptome-diptera-culicidae
#12
Ya-Jie Fang, Zhen-Tian Yan, Bin Chen
Most of adult female mosquitoes secrete saliva to facilitate blood sucking, digestion and nutrition, and mosquito-borne disease prevention. The knowledge of classification and characteristics of sialotranscriptome genes are still quite limited. Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in China and Southeast countries. In the study, the An. sinensis sialotranscriptome was sequenced using Illumina sequencing technique with a total of 10 907 unigenes to be obtained and annotated in biological function and pathway, and 10 470 unigenes were mapped to An...
December 20, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990779/current-issues-involved-with-the-identification-and-nutritional-value-of-wood-grubs-consumed-by-australian-aborigines
#13
REVIEW
Alan Yen, Conrad Bilney, Michael Shackleton, Susan Lawler
The so called witchetty grub is a publicised food source for Australian Aborigines. Despite heavy use, the identities and number of species consumed is still not known because of the lack of identified voucher specimens. Taxonomy based on adults makes identification of larval forms difficult. Dwelling in the root, trunks and stems of woody plants, grubs are a reliable and highly valued food source that may be in decline. Much information on edible insects may already be lost in parts of Australia heavily settled by Europeans...
December 19, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943620/uv-reflectance-is-associated-with-environmental-conditions-in-palaearctic-pieris-napi-lepidoptera-pieridae
#14
David Stella, Pavel Pecháček, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow, Karel Kleisner
The subject of our investigation was the visual features of wing colour with special focus on the UV reflectance in the green-veined white (Pieris napi). Previous studies had concluded that UV reflectance on dorsal wing surfaces is found only in the female P. napi. Based on UV sensitive photography, we analysed a correlation between 12 geographic and environmental factors and UV reflectance patterns on three patches on the forewings of 407 P. napi specimens from the Palaearctic region. Results had shown that females significantly differ from males: they exhibit a 25% higher UV reflectance...
December 12, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943577/response-of-life-history-traits-to-artificial-and-natural-selection-for-virulence-and-non-virulence-in-a-drosophila-parastitoid-asobara-tabida
#15
Joffrey Moiroux, Joan van Baaren, Mathilde Poyet, Aude Couty, Patrice Eslin, Geneviève Prévost, Jérémy Séguin, Vincent Le Roux
Co-evolution of host-parasitoid interactions is determined by the costs of host resistance, which received empirical evidence, and the costs of parasitoid virulence, which have been mostly hypothesized. Asobara tabida is a parasitoid which mainly parasitizes Drosophila melanogaster and D. subobscura, the first species being able to resist to the parasitoid development while the second species is not. To parasitize resistant hosts, including D. melanogaster, A. tabida develops sticky eggs which prevent encapsulation, but this virulence mechanism may be costly...
December 12, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925389/the-long-term-immunological-effects-of-alloferon-and-its-analogues-in-the-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor
#16
Elżbieta Czarniewska, Arkadiusz Urbański, Szymon Chowański, Mariola Kuczer
The subject of this paper is a search for the long-term immunological effects of alloferon and 3 structural analogues of alloferon, which were earlier characterised by the highest pro-apoptotic activity in Tenebrio molitor. The differences in the actions of these peptides on immune response were observed. Alloferon increased nodulation and significantly phenoloxidase activity in the haemolymph of experimentally infected T. molitor. However, [Phe(p-NH2 )(1) ]- and [Phe(p-OMe)(1) ]-alloferon strongly inhibited cellular and humoral defense of the mealworm against Staphylococcus aureus infection...
December 7, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900827/the-role-of-latitudinal-genetic-and-temperature-variation-in-the-induction-of-diapause-of-papilio-glaucus-lepidoptera-papilionidae
#17
Sean F Ryan, Patti Valella, Gabrielle Thivierge, Matthew L Aardema, J Mark Scriber
A key adaptation in insects for dealing with variable environmental conditions is the ability to diapause. The tiger swallowtail butterflies, Papilio glaucus and P. canadensis are ideal species to explore the genetic causes and population genetic consequences of diapause because divergence in this trait is believed to be a salient factor in maintaining a hybrid zone between these species. Yet little is known about the factors that influence diapause induction in this system. Here we explored how spatial (latitudinal), environmental (temperature) and genetic (hybridization) factors affect diapause induction in this system...
November 29, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900825/fungal-infection-dynamics-in-response-to-temperature-in-the-lepidopteran-insect-galleria-mellonella
#18
Vadim Y Kryukov, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Miranda M A Whitten, Maksim V Tyurin, Katherine J Ficken, Carolyn Greig, Nadja R Melo, Viktor V Glupov, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Tariq M Butt
This study examines how the dynamics of fungus - insect interactions can be modulated by temperature. The wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is a well-studied and important model insect whose larvae in the wild develop optimally at around 34°C in beehives. However, surprisingly little research on wax moths has been conducted at relevant temperatures. In this study, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii inflicted rapid and substantial mortality on wax moth larvae maintained at a constant temperature of 24°C, but at 34°C a ten-fold higher dose was required to achieve an equivalent mortality...
November 29, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891761/agro-ecological-management-of-a-soil-dwelling-orthopteran-pest-in-vineyards
#19
Jerry Asalma Nboyine, Stephane Boyer, David J Saville, Stephen David Wratten
The efficacy of different combinations of under-vine and inter-row treatments for managing a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest, weta (Hemiandrus sp.), in vineyards was investigated over two seasons. This insect damages vine buds, thus reducing subsequent grape yield. The under-vine treatments comprised pea straw mulch, mussel shells, tick beans (Vicia faba Linn. var minor (Fab)), plastic sleeves on vine trunks (treated control) and control (no intervention), while inter-rows contained either the existing vegetation or tick beans...
November 28, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882649/impact-of-male-condition-on-his-spermatophore-and-consequences-for-female-reproductive-performance-in-the-glanville-fritillary-butterfly
#20
Anne Duplouy, Luisa Woestmann, Juan Gallego-Zamorano, Marjo Saastamoinen
In butterflies, male reproductive success is highly related to the quality and the size of the spermatophore transferred to the female. The spermatophore is a capsule produced by the male during copulation, which in many species contains sperm in addition to a nuptial gift, and which is digested by the female after copulation. The nuptial gift may contribute to egg production and offspring quality, and in some cases also to female body maintenance. The production of the spermatophore, however, represents a cost for the male and, in polyandrous species, ejaculates are sometimes allocated adaptively across matings...
November 24, 2016: Insect Science
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