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Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology

Neepa Y Choksi, James Truax, Adrienne Layton, Joanna Matheson, David Mattie, Timothy Varney, Jenny Tao, Krystle Yozzo, Andrew J McDougal, Jill Merrill, Donnie Lowther, Joao Barroso, Brenda Linke, Warren Casey, David Allen
PURPOSE: Eye and skin irritation test data are required or considered by chemical regulation authorities in the United States to develop product hazard labeling and/or to assess risks for exposure to skin- and eye-irritating chemicals. The combination of animal welfare concerns and interest in implementing methods with greater human relevance has led to development of non-animal skin- and eye-irritation test methods. To identify opportunities for regulatory uses of non-animal replacements for skin and eye irritation tests, the needs and uses for these types of test data at U...
November 11, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Yasser Helmy Mohamed, Masafumi Uematsu, Ryotaro Ueki, Daisuke Inoue, Hitoshi Sasaki, Takashi Kitaoka
PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated the effects of commercially available multi-dose Sodium Hyaluronate 0.1% (Hyalein®; Santen, Osaka, Japan) containing 0.003% C12 benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the corneal epithelial and its degree of safety. METHODS: Japanese white male rabbits were divided into 4 groups. The corneas of each group exposed to one of the following solutions, Sodium Hyaluronate 0.1%, C12- benzalkomium chloride (BAC), C12, 14, 16-BAC Mixture, and Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS)(as control) respectively...
November 7, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Yucel Karakurt, Halis Süleyman, Ferda Keskin Cimen, Gamze Tasli, Turgay Ucak, Erel Icel, Nezahat Kurt
AIM: Ethambutol and isoniazid are 2 major effective first line agents in tuberculosis treatment having some visual adverse effects. We aimed to determine the protective effects of lutein on oxidative optic neuropathy induced by ethambutol and isoniazid in an experimental model. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Totally 24 albino Wistar male rats were assigned into 4 groups, with 6 rats in each group as follows: healthy controls (HC group), 50 mg/kg ethambutol + 50 mg/kg isoniazid administered group (EI), 0...
October 26, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Murat Gunay, Mahmut Dogru, Gokhan Celik, Betul Onal Gunay
PURPOSE: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), ganglion cell layer thickness (GCLT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and central retinal thickness (CRT) in asthmatic children who were under inhaled corticosteroid treatment by using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three children were prospectively analysed in the study. Group 1 included 31 asthmatic children and group 2 included 22 healthy children...
October 26, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Taha Sezer, Muhammed Altinisik, Eray Metin Guler, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Hakan Ozdemir, Arif Koytak
OBJECTIVE: To compare the possible toxic effects of three light sources used in vitreoretinal endoillumination systems; halogen, xenon, and light-emitting diode (LED) on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell cultures, after two different exposure times. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ARPE-19 human RPE cell cultures were exposed to halogen, xenon and LED light sources at a distance of 1,5 cm for 30 and 60 minutes with equal lumen output levels. Cells in the control group were not exposed...
October 26, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Xiu-Fang Lv, Li-Ming Tao, Hui Zhong
As a powerful psychostimulant with high potential for abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes long-lasting neurotoxicity. This study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of MDMA on retinal damage in C57 mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 mice were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): group 1 receiving PBS by intraperitoneal injection daily; group 2 receiving 1 mg/kg MDMA by intraperitoneal injection daily for 3 months. The retinal function was tested by electroretinography (ERG)...
October 26, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Dieter Franz Rabensteiner, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Jutta Horwath-Winter, Doris Lang-Loidolt, Andreas Wedrich, Andrea Heidinger, Gerold Schwantzer, Otto Schmut
PURPOSE: Hazelnut and birch pollen are known to destroy tear film components and attack ocular surface cells. We investigated further pollen species from different plant families, whether they show similar effects on human tear fluid and an epithelial cell line in vitro, to provide a broad basis for further research on pollen reactions affecting the tear film and ocular surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regional pollen species from different plant families (Adoxaceae, Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Malvaceae, Oleaceae, Pinaceae, Plantaginaceae, Poaceae, Salicacea, Sapindaceae) were collected...
October 2, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Erel Icel, Aykut Icel, Turgay Uçak, Yücel Karakurt, Burcu Elpeze, Ferda Keskin Çimen, Halis Süleyman
AIM: To determine the effects of lycopene treatment in prevention of diabetes associated inflammatory response and oxidative stress in an experimental model. With this aim we investigated the levels of oxidative stress markers including Malondialdehyde (mda), and total oxidative status (tos)together with inflammatory markers including Nuclear Factor- Kappa B (nfkb) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (tnf-α) and antioxidants including total glutathione (tgsh), total oxidative status (tos) and total anti-oxidative status (tas) levels on eye tissue...
October 2, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Yan-Yan Wang, Chen-Guang Wang, Shou-Nan Qi, Zao-Xia Liu, Guan-Fang Su, Ya-Juan Zheng
INTRODUCTION: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) caused by the photoreceptor cell degeneration is currently incurable and leads to partial or complete blindness eventually. 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy myricanol (DM) is a novel compound isolated from the leaves of Micromelum integerrimum, with proliferative activities on NIH3T3 cells. This study was to investigate whether DM could mitigate retinal degeneration of rd10 mice, a well-characterized mouse model of RP. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Rd10 mice were treated with DM daily by intraperitoneal injection from postnatal day 12 (P12) to P26...
October 2, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Leshuai W Zhang, Nancy A Monteiro-Riviere
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the toxicity of six different types of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles (NP) on human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six TiO2 NP (A (10nm), A*(32nm), B (27.5nm), C (200nm), C*(30-40nm) and D*(200-400nm)) were suspended in water or culture medium, and characterized by transmission electron microcopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, these NP were assayed with cell viability, cytokine release and cellular uptake in HEK...
September 28, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Fatih Baltu, Ahmet Murat Sarici, Onur Yildirim, Burak Mergen, Erkut Bolat
PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease by using the noninvasive flow-mediated dilation (FMD) test to show endothelial dysfunction as an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis. METHOD: Participants in this study included 30 dry AMD patients, 30 wet AMD patients, and 30 healthy controls without any systemic disease, including AMD. FMD and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery were compared between the groups...
September 11, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Umit Eksioglu, Hasan Ikbal Atilgan, Mehmet Yakin, Nuray Yazihan, Ugur Emrah Altiparmak, Nihat Yumusak, Meliha Korkmaz, Ayten Demir, Firdevs Ornek, Pelin Aribal Ayral, Gokhan Koca
PURPOSE: To evaluate antioxidant effects of active vitamin D (calcitriol) against high-dose radioiodine (RAI) therapy-associated damage of lacrimal gland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar albino rats were used and divided into three groups randomly (n = 12/group). The first group was appointed as the negative control group and received no RAI or medication. The second group was appointed as the positive control group that only received 3 mCi/kg (111 MBq/kg) RAI via gastric gavage and the last group was the treatment group that received 3 mCi/kg RAI via same method and calcitriol (200 ng/kg/day) via intraperitoneal administration...
September 11, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Amar Pujari, Aswini Behera, Ritika Mukhija, Rohan Chawla, Suresh Yadav, Namrata Sharma
PURPOSE: To correlate the anatomical extent of ocular surface toxicity due to colours using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) with the clinical findings. METHODS: Patients presenting to our emergency department with ocular colour toxicity during the Holi festival celebrations from March 2 2018 to March 5 2018 were assessed for any adnexal, conjunctival, corneal, and anterior chamber findings, as well as findings on anterior segment optical coherence tomography...
September 10, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Asghar Beigi Harchegani, Abolfazl Khor, Eisa Tahmasbpour, Mahdi Ghatrehsamani, Hamid Bakhtiari Kaboutaraki, Alireza Shahriary
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical compound that preferentially targets ocular, cutaneous and pulmonary tissues. Although pathologic effect of SM has been extensively considered, molecular and cellular mechanism of its toxicity, especially at the chronic phase of injury is not well-understood. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) appears to be involved in SM-induced injuries. SM may trigger several molecular and cellular pathways linked to OS and inflammation that can subsequently result in cell death and apoptosis...
September 10, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Ersoy Acer, Hilal Kaya Erdogan, Nihan Yüksel Çanakçı, Zeynep Nurhan Saracoglu
PURPOSE: The mechanism of action of omalizumab in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is not exactly known. In previous studies, d-dimer which is a fibrin-degradation product and interleukin-31 which has a role in inflammation were found to be decreased in patients with chronic urticaria treated with omalizumab. However, to our knowledge, there is no study on the effects of omalizumab on the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and the ratio of platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) which are inflammatory parameters in patients with CSU in the PubMed database...
September 10, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Hüseyin Fındık, Levent Tumkaya, Adnan Yılmaz, Mehmet Gökhan Aslan, Murat Okutucu, Kerimali Akyildizi, Tolga Mercantepe
This study investigated the toxic effects of an antineoplastic agent, Cisplatin (CIS), on retinal cells and the potential capacity of Astaxanthin (ASTA) to elicit a future therapeutic protocol in CIS-induced retinal toxicity. Six groups were formed for the assessment; control (healthy; Group 1), olive oil (olive oil only; Group 2), ASTA control group (ASTA only, Group 3), the single intraperitoneal (IP) dose of 16 mg/kg CIS (CIS only group; Group 4), 16 mg/kg CIS + 25 mg/kg (IP) ASTA (Group 5) and 16 mg/kg CIS + 75 mg/kg (IP) ASTA (Group 6)...
September 5, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Yue Zheng, Songchao Yin, Yue Xia, Jian Chen, Congxiu Ye, Quanrong Zeng, Wei Lai
BACKGROUND: Topical drugs for mild to moderate acne include adapalene(ADA) and benzoyl peroxide(BPO). Supramolecular salicylic acid (SSA), a modified SA preparation, is considered as a new effective therapeutic schemes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety and efficacy of 2% supramolecular SA (2%SSA) with 0.01% adapalene plus 5% benzoyl peroxide (5%BPO+0.1%ADA)for treatment of facial acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an open-label, split face, randomized and single center clinical trial ...
September 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Sertac Sener, Ayse Akbas, Fadime Kılınc, Pervin Baran, Ozcan Erel, Akin Aktas
BACKGROUND: Rosacea is the chronic inflammatory disease of the facial skin. Although its etiology is not clear yet, inflammatory processes triggered by oxidative stress and oxidation of lipids have been suggested to have a role. While studies on the relationship between inflammation and oxidative stress are ongoing, thiol metabolism and its role in oxidative stress have also begun to be investigated. Thiols are among the key molecules of protein metabolism in the organism and they are firstly consumed antioxidants in case of oxidative stress...
September 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Hidehisa Sekijima, Kenji Goto, Keiichi Hiramoto, Rio Komori, Kazuya Ooi
PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) induces various dermatological conditions that can affect patient quality of life, including increased susceptibility to skin infections and dry skin. While the mechanisms that underlie the causes of dry skin in type 1 DM have been widely studied, how type 2 DM elicits similar effects is unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate skin barrier and hydration function using a KK-Ay /TaJcl mouse model of type 2 DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: KK-Ay /TaJcl and control mice were housed separately for 4 weeks and then body weight, water intake, urine production, and blood glucose levels were measured...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Jessica C Graham, Nathan Wilt, Gertrude-Emilia Costin, Caren Villano, Jackie Bader, Lindsay Krawiec, Elizabeth Sly, Janet Gould
INTRODUCTION: Irritation reactions are a frequently reported occupational illness. The potential adverse effects of pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) on eye and skin can now be assessed using validated in vitro methods. OBJECTIVES: Our overall aim is to reduce animal testing by replacing the historically utilized in vivo test methods with validated in vitro test methods which accurately determine the ocular and dermal irritation/corrosion potential of PCs to inform worker safety within the pharmaceutical space...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
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