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Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology

Umit Eksioglu, Hasan Ikbal Atilgan, Mehmet Yakin, Nuray Yazihan, Ugur Emrah Altiparmak, Nihat Yumusak, Meliha Korkmaz, Ayten Demir, Firdevs Ornek, Pelin Aribal Ayral, Gokhan Koca
PURPOSE: To evaluate antioxidant effects of active vitamin D (calcitriol) against high-dose radioiodine (RAI) therapy-associated damage of lacrimal gland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar albino rats were used and divided into three groups randomly (n = 12/group). The first group was appointed as the negative control group and received no RAI or medication. The second group was appointed as the positive control group that only received 3 mCi/kg (111 MBq/kg) RAI via gastric gavage and the last group was the treatment group that received 3 mCi/kg RAI via same method and calcitriol (200 ng/kg/day) via intraperitoneal administration...
July 13, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Amar Pujari, Aswini Behera, Ritika Mukhija, Rohan Chawla, Suresh Yadav, Namrata Sharma
PURPOSE: To correlate the anatomical extent of ocular surface toxicity due to colours using anterior segment optical coherence tomography with the clinical findings. METHODS: Patients presenting to our emergency department with ocular colour toxicity during the Holi festival celebrations from 2nd March 2018 to 5th March 2018 were assessed for any adnexal, conjunctival, corneal and anterior chamber findings, as well as findings on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT)...
July 9, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Asghar Beigi Harchegani, Abolfazl Khor, Eisa Tahmasbpour, Mahdi Ghatresamani, Hamid Bakhtiari Kaboutaraki, Alireza Shahriary
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical compound that preferentially targets ocular, cutaneous and pulmonary tissues. Although pathologic effect of SM has been extensively considered, molecular and cellular mechanism of its toxicity, especially at the chronic phase of injury is not well-understood. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) appear to be involved in SM-induced injuries. SM may trigger several molecular and cellular pathways linked to OS and inflammation that can subsequently result in cell death and apoptosis...
July 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Erel Icel, Turgay Uçak, Burcu Agcayazi, Yücel Karakurt, Hayati Yilmaz, Ferda Keskin Çimen, Halis Süleyman
AIM: To determine the effects of Pycnogenol on cisplatin induced optic nerve damage. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Totally 18 albino Wistar male rats were assigned into 3 groups, with 6 rats in each group as follows: healthy controls (HC group), only cisplatin (2. 5 mg/kg) administered group (CIS group), and Pycnogenol (40 mg/kg) + cisplatin (2. 5 mg/kg) administered group (PYC group). We analyzed the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, total glutathione (tGSH) as a marker of antioxidant status, Nuclear Factor- Kappa B (NF-KB) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) as inflammatory markers, total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) on eye tissue together with histopathological evaluation of optic nerve in an experimental model...
July 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Ersoy Acer, Hilal Kaya Erdogan, Nihan Yüksel Çanakçı, Zeynep Nurhan Saracoglu
PURPOSE: The mechanism of action of omalizumab in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is not exactly known. In previous studies, D-dimer which is a fibrin-degradation product and interleukin-31 which has a role in inflammation were found to be decreased in patients with chronic urticaria (CU) treated with omalizumab. However, to our knowledge, there is no study on the effects of omalizumab on the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and the ratio of platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) which are inflammatory parameters in patients with CSU in the PubMed database...
July 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Rasika Reddy, Howard Maibach
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Single or multiple applications of irritants can lead to occupational contact dermatitis, and most commonly irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Tandem irritation, the sequential application of two irritants to a target skin area, has been studied using the Tandem Repeated Irritation Test (TRIT) to provide a more accurate representation of skin irritation. OBJECTIVE: Here we present an update to Kartono's review on tandem irritation studies since 2006 [1]...
June 11, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Yucel Karakurt, Turgay Ucak, Gamze Tasli, Ibrahim Ahiskali, Sare Şipal, Nezahat Kurt, Halis Süleyman
AIM: Lutein is one of the most common carotenoids defined in human plasma as having potent anti-oxidant effects. We aimed to determine the biochemical and histopathological effects of lutein on cisplatin induced oxidative retinal injury in rats. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Twenty-four rats were equally divided into four groups as healthy controls (HC group), only cisplatin (5 mg/kg) administered group (CIS group), Lutein (0.5 mg/kg) + cisplatin (5 mg/kg) administered group (LC group), and only Lutein (0...
June 4, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Lan-Hsin Chuang, An-Lun Wu, Nan-Kai Wang, Kuan-Jen Chen, Laura Liu, Yih-Shiou Hwang, Ling Yeung, Wei-Chi Wu, Chi-Chun Lai
PURPOSE: To perform preclinical studies to determine the efficacy and safety of anthocyanins as stains for the internal limiting membrane (ILM) of the eye. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cyanidin (Cya), delphinidin (Del), luteolinidin (Lut), peonidin (Peo) and pelargonidin (Pel) were evaluated. These natural dyes were used to stain the lens capsule and ILM of pig eyes. The effects of these dyes on retinal cell viability was determined using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay, and oxidative stress was measured in vitro...
June 4, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Zhan Song, Ting-Jun Fan
PURPOSE: Tetracaine is a local anesthetic widely used in ocular diagnosis and ophthalmic surgery and may lead to some adverse effects and complications at a clinical dose. To assess the cytotoxicity and molecular toxicity mechanisms of tetracaine, we used human corneal stromal (HCS) cells as an in vitro model to study the effects of tetracaine on HCS cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of tetracaine on HCS cells was investigated by examining the changes of cell growth, morphology, viability and cell cycle progressing when HCS cells were treated with tetracaine at concentrations from 10 g/L to 0...
May 9, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Ayşe Akbaş, Fadime Kilinç
BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis is a condition where the amount of sweat released to skin surface increases due to the over-active eccrine sweat glands. Hyperhidrosis causes considerable psychosocial distress in affected people. It affects the quality of life and leads to social anxiety disorders. AIMS: No study has been conducted in our country to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data of patients with hyperhidrosis. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics, causes of sweating and laboratory findings in patients treated for hyperhidrosis at our outpatient clinic and to compare these data with the literature data...
May 7, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Ertugrul Kilic, Mesut Ortatatli, Sermet Sezigen, Rusen Koray Eyison, Levent Kenar
PURPOSE: Sulphur mustard (SM) is an highly toxic and vesicant chemical weapon that was used in various military conflicts several times in the history. The severity of ocular, dermal, and pulmonary symptoms that may appear following a characteristic asymptomatic period are depending on the SM concentration and exposure duration. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features and share the intensive care unit (ICU) experiences for the medical management of mustard gas victims...
May 7, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Jason E Ham, Paul Siegel, Howard Maibach
Formaldehyde allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may be due to products with free formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing agents, however, assessment of formaldehyde levels in such products is infrequently conducted. The present study quantifies total releasable formaldehyde from "in-use" products associated with formaldehyde ACD and tests the utility of commercially available formaldehyde spot test kits. Personal care products from 2 patients with ACD to formaldehyde were initially screened at the clinic for formaldehyde using a formaldehyde spot test kit...
May 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Wu Dayang, Pang Dongbo
AIM: To explore the osmolytes expression in ultraviolet (UVA) stressed human retinal pigment epithelial cells. METHODS: Osmolyte transporters and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) messenger RNA (mRNA) were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Osmolyte uptake was measured by radioimmunoassay. VEGF concentrations were determined by immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Osmolyte taurine transporter (TAUT) were silenced by siRNA technology...
May 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Fehim Esen, Azer Erdagi Bulut, Ebru Toker
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical atropine and topical atropine combined with intracameral low-concentration, bisulphite-containing epinephrine treatment for the prophylaxis of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two eyes of 55 male patients who were treated with alpha-adrenergic antagonist medications for benign prostatic hyperplasia were included in this study. Standard premedication with topical cyclopentolate, phenylephrine, tropicamide and ketorolac was applied to all of the patients...
May 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Gul Arikan, Ezgi Karatas, Banu Lebe, Ziya Ayhan, Canan Asli Utine, Oya Eren Kutsoylu, Uzeyir Gunenc, Osman Yilmaz
PURPOSE: To identify the risk of inducing ocular surface dysplasia following topical administration of 1% voriconazole eye drop. METHODS: Fourteen noninflamed healthy eyes of 14 white adult New Zealand rabbits were included in the study. The rabbits were randomly divided into two groups comprised of 7 rabbits each. Group 1 received topical 1% voriconazole and Group 2 received topical saline as the control group. In all animals, right eye was selected for the study...
April 26, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Katarzyna Nowomiejska, Agnieszka Kiszka, Ryszard Maciejewski, Anselm Jünemann, Robert Rejdak
PURPOSE: To measure the area of central scotoma obtained with semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) in patients suffering from tobacco-alcohol toxic neuropathy (TATN). METHODS: Twelve eyes of six patients with TATN were examined with SKP. Area of central scotoma was measured in square degrees (deg2 ). Additionally, static automated perimetry (SAP) within 60° was performed in each patient. RESULTS: Area of central scotoma was 41.8 deg2 for III4e isopter, 22...
April 24, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Silvana Cervantes-Yépez, Lorena Sofía López-Zepeda, Teresa I Fortoul
BACKGROUND: Vanadium (V) is a transition metal adhered to suspended particles. Previous studies demonstrated that V inhalation causes oxidative stress in the ependymal epithelium, the choroid plexus on brain lateral ventricles and in the retina. Inhaled-V reaches the eye´s retina through the systemic circulation; however, its effect on the retina has not been widely studied. The Müller glial cell provides support and structure to the retina, facilitates synapses and regulates the microenvironment and neuronal metabolism...
June 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Emel Bulbul Baskan, Serkan Yazici
BACKGROUND: Because of irreversible outcome of the lichen planopilaris (LPP), systemic therapy should be used in early inflammatory stages of the disease, without allowing the irreversible scar formation and permanent hair loss. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the efficacy and safety of methotrexate (MTX) and cyclosporine A (CsA) in the management of recalcitrant, extensive LPP and compared their efficacy and safety profile. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the 16 LPP cases treated with either CsA or MTX therapy...
June 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Harun Cakmak, Esra Gokmen, Gokay Bozkurt, Tolga Kocaturk, Kemal Ergin
AIM: To evaluate the effects of sunitinib (0.5 mg/ml) and bevacizumab (5 mg/ml) on VEGF-A, VEGFR-2 and microRNA (miRNA) levels on corneal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: In this study, CNV was induced by silver nitrate application to the cornea, and 40 Albino male rats were equally divided into four subgroups: Group 1 (sunitinib): After silver nitrate application to the cornea, 0.5 mg/ml sunitinib eyedrop was administered twice daily for two weeks (n = 10)...
June 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Christopher Dalton, Charlotte Hall, Helen Lydon, John Jenner, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a candidate haemostat (WoundStat™), down-selected from previous in vitro studies, for efficacy as a potential skin decontaminant against the chemical warfare agent pinacoyl methylfluorophosphonate (Soman, GD) using an in vivo pig model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An area of approximately 3 cm2 was dermatomed from the dorsal ear skin to a nominal depth of 100 µm. A discrete droplet of 14 C-GD (300 µg kg-1 ) was applied directly onto the surface of the damaged skin at the centre of the dosing site...
June 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
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