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Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets

Kurt S Zaenker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Masaki Kaibori, Tadayoshi Okumura, Kenji Sato, Mikio Nishizawa, Masanori Kon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Following injury to the liver, liver cells, including Kupffer cells and hepatocytes express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), followed by the production of excess levels of nitric oxide (NO). NO produced by iNOS has been found to contribute to liver injury. Treatment of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β stimulated iNOS expression and NO production. Experiments with this in vitro hepatocyte model of liver injury and with in vivo animal models of liver injury have demonstrated that drugs showing a liver-protective effect in vivo also inhibited the induction of iNOS expression and NO production both in vivo and in vitro...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Bhagirath Singh, Nan Qin, Gregor Reid
Extensive analysis of the complexity and diversity of microbiota using metagenomics in the gut and other body sites has provided evidence that dysbiosis occurs in many disease states. With the application of next generation sequencing technology this research is starting to uncover the impact of microbiota on metabolic, physiological and immunological pathways and elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. To highlight these advances we have focused on autoimmunity and gut and liver related diseases and discuss the opportunities and challenges of translating microbiome research towards its application in humans...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar, Mohammad Abdollahi
Uranium is the heaviest metal known as nuclear fuel, and employed in the production of glass tinting compounds, ceramic glazes, gyroscope wheels, chemical catalysts and X-ray tube targets. Inhalation and ingestion are two of the most usual ways of exposure. Uranium may be released into drinking water through the mining leading to contamination. Uranium is able to damage the DNA by generation of free radicals and acting as a catalyst in the Fenton reactions causing oxidative stress. In fact, reproductive system contains high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and therefore it is highly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sensitive to uranium toxicity...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Sophie Mavrogeni, Petros P Sfikakis, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Georgia Karabela, Gikas Katsifis, Efthymios Stavropoulos, Elias Gialafos, George Spiliotis, Genovefa Kolovou, George D Kitas
BACKGROUND: To clarify the imaging patterns of cardiovascular lesions in patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and cardiovascular symptoms with or/ without abnormal routine non-invasive evaluation. PATIENTS-METHODS: Twenty-two MCTD patients (19F/3M), aged 38±4 yrs with cardiovascular symptoms were evaluated using a 1.5 T scanner. Of them, 8/22 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 5/22 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 5/22 scleroderma (SSc) and 4/22 myositis (MY) overlap syndromes; 10/22 patients with MCTD presented with Raynaud phenomenon (RP) and all were positive for Anti-RNP antibodies...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Giovanni Clemente Actis, Rinaldo Pellicano, Floriano Rosina
Thiopurines have been shown to effectively maintain remission of both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), and to behave as disease modifiers if used for >12 months in UC. Gastric intolerance manifesting as nausea constitutes a demanding drawback of thiopurines, at times forcing treatment discontinuance. A few studies have now indicated that some patients might tolerate mercaptopurine (6-MP) for azathioprine. In this paper, we review the literature, and reappraise our own data against the published figures...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Éric Toussirot, Matthieu Bereau
Vaccines have been suspected of playing a role in inducing autoimmune disease (AID) for a long time. However, apart from certain specific vaccine strains and complications (such as the swine flu vaccine and Guillain-Barré syndrome in 1976, thrombocytopenia and the Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine), this role has not been established. In spite of this, many isolated cases or series of cases of arthritis, vasculitis, and central or peripheral nervous system symptoms following vaccination have been reported. These cases tend to be very infrequent and usually only the shortterm outcomes are described...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Bharat Singh, Ram A Sharma
Heliotropium subulatum is an erect or procumbent perennial herb; leaves contain foliar trichomes and its resinous exudate is used in traditional medicine. The anti-inflammatory activity of dichloromethane fraction and isolated flavonoids was evaluated by using carrageenan and CFA-induced paw oedema models. Similarly, the disc diffusion and microdilution methods were used for the assessment of antimicrobial activity. Five isolated flavonoids were investigated for their antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Bhagyashree Nijampurkar, Farheen Qureshi, Neha Jain, Tushar Banerjee, Anil Kumar, Hamendra Singh Parmar
BACKGROUND: Many studies showed anti-inflammatory potential of thyroid hormones, but no direct report available showing influence of thyroid hormones on inflammation state. Therefore, in present study anti-inflammatory and antioxidative role of thyroid hormones being evaluated on rat air pouch model of inflammation. METHODS: Reference doses of both the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were administered to rat airpouches. Air pouch model was developed by injecting air into intra-scapular region of animals, followed by carrageenan administration (AP+C)...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Kurt S Zaenker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Patil Kashmira, Suneela Dhaneshwar, Chopade Shakuntala, Joshi Poorvashree
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that results in a chronic, systemic inflammation that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally the synovial joints. The tendency for joint destruction is greatest in the early stages of disease hence current trend is to introduce a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) immediately after the diagnosis of RA in a step- up approach which is generally followed by its combination with a corticosteroid or NSAID...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Alireza Badiei, Steven Gieseg, Sian Davies, Mohd Izani Othman, Madhav Bhatia
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous inflammatory mediator produced by the activity of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in mammals. Macrophages are a key element of the immune system and play a crucial role in inflammation. To determine the role of H2S and macrophages in inflammation, we investigated the expression of CSE in human primary macrophages. Our results show that H2S is produced by the activity of CSE in these cells. To investigate the role of common signalling pathway in biosynthesis of CSE in human primary macrophages, specific inhibitors were used to block NF-κB, ERK, p38 and JNK...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Nicolás Fernández Hurst, Natalí L Chanaday, German A Roth
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that mimics many of the clinical and pathological features of multiple sclerosis. We have previously described a significant diminution in the GABAergic regulation of glutamate release from synaptosomes of EAE rats isolated during the acute stage of the disease. In order to explore the possible metabolic pathways responsible for this alteration, in this work we evaluate the direct effect of different GABAergic agonists on the glutamate release and concomitant synapsin I phosphorylation in synaptosomes from the frontal cortex of control and EAE animals...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Adilson Costa, Samara Eberlin, Stefano P Clerici, Beatrice M Z Abdalla
Harmful influences in the process of photoaging and skin damage are associated with infrared A (IRA) radiation, such as, disturbance of dermal extracellular matrix by up regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1). Furthermore, DNA damage, induction of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress by decreasing natural antioxidant ability has been reported after acute exposure to IRA. The present study provides additional evidence that IRA radiation response in human skin fibroblasts produces deleterious effects to the cell, such as accelerating aging and weakening of their antioxidant defense mechanism...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Laura Celano, Yolanda K Cupertino Da Silva, Nicolás Cataldo, Martín Gabay, Alicia Merlino, Magna S Alexandre-Moreira, Lidia Moreira Lima, Hugo Cerecetto, Mercedes González, Leonor Thomson
In a recent work, we described the design and synthesis of arylnitroalkenes, able to scavenge macrophagederived oxidants, in particular peroxynitrite and peroxynitrite derived radicals. Four compounds emerged as potential leads, 1,1-dimethylamino-4-(2-nitro-1Z-ethenyl)benzene (1), 1,1-dimethylamino-4-(2-nitro-1Z-propenyl)benzene (2), 5- (2-nitro-1Z-ethenyl)benzo[d][1,3]dioxol (3), and 5-(2-nitro-1Z-ethenyl)benzo[d][1,3]dioxol (4). In the present work, the possibility of the preclinical validation of these molecules as anti-inflammatory and analgesic was explored in appropriate in vivo mouse models...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Stephen Hsu
Pathogenic viral infections pose major health risks to humans and livestock due to viral infection-associated illnesses such as chronic or acute inflammation in crucial organs and systems, malignant and benign lesions. These lead to large number of illnesses and deaths worldwide each year. Outbreaks of emerging lethal viruses, such as Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) virus, could lead to epidemics or even pandemics if they are not effectively controlled...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Marcus Vinicius Pereira Dos Santos Nascimento, Fábio Arruda-Silva, Ana Beatriz G Luz, Dalila Venzke, Gustavo S Queiroz, Beatriz G Mendes, Eduardo R Fernandes-Ribeiro, Tânia S Fröde, Moacir G Pizzolatti, Eduardo M Dalmarco
CONTEXT: Polygala sabulosa, popularly known as "timutu-pinheirinho," has been used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of bowel and kidney disorders and as an expectorant. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract (CE), acetonic fraction (Ac), and the main compound, 7-prenyloxi-6-methoxycoumarin (PC) on a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy was used to investigate the effects of P...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Konstantinos Bratis, Georgia Karabela, George Spiliotis, Kees van Wijk, David Hautemann, Johan H C Reiber, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Genovefa Kolovou, Efthymios Stavropoulos
BACKGROUND: Myopericardial inflammation, perfusion's defects and fibrosis are major causes of cardiac disease in scleroderma (SSc). We hypothesized that using inflammation and stress perfusion-fibrosis cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), we can identify the pathophysiology of heart disease in asymptomatic diffuse SSc. PATIENTS-METHODS: 46 recently diagnosed, asymptomatic patients with diffuse SSc had a CMR examination using a 1.5T system. ECG gated breath hold cine and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) T2 images were initially acquired...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Heather L Evans-Marin, Yingzi Cong
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic, debilitating immunological disorder for which there are few effective treatments. New therapies targeting gut homing molecules, such as CCR9 and α4β7, are currently in development, with some of these reaching clinical trials. Gut-trophic molecules and their receptors are critical to the development of both tolerant and inflammatory immune responses in the gut. However, we know little regarding the function of homing molecules as it relates to IBD. Data have suggested both pathological and protective roles for gut homing molecules in IBD development and maintenance...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Ghasem Ahangari, Somayeh Emadi Koochak, Leila Mohammadi Amirabad, Gholamreza Derkhshan Deilami
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an inflammatory airway disorder in which different immune cells in the blood and lungs play a fundamental role. In asthma condition, the airway inflammation accompanied by bronchial smooth muscle spasm cause airway obstruction. A study showed that high concentration of blood serotonin is associated with the intensity and exacerbation of asthma disease. Other studies showed that a subtype of serotonin receptor called 5-Hydroxytriptamine 2A receptor (5- HT2A) can enhance T-cell blastogenesis and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ...
2015: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
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