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Molecular Neurodegeneration

Li Ma, Mariet Allen, Nobutaka Sakae, Nilufer Ertekin-Taner, Neill R Graff-Radford, Dennis W Dickson, Steven G Younkin, Daniel Sevlever
BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses showed that the triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) p.R47H variant increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The question of whether the p.R47H mutation affects expression or function of the receptor remains unanswered. To address this question we quantified mRNA and analyzed protein profiles of WT and p.R47H TREM2 in human brains. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed using 2 sets of primers one that detects all TREM2 mRNA isoforms and one specific for the alternative spliced isoform (TREM2alt) that encodes for the extracellular domain (soluble TREM2)...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Roy Chun-Laam Ng, On-Yin Cheng, Min Jian, Jason Shing-Cheong Kwan, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Kenneth King-Yip Cheng, Patrick Ka Kit Yeung, Lena Lei Zhou, Ruby Lai-Chong Hoo, Sookja Kim Chung, Aimin Xu, Karen Siu-Ling Lam, Koon Ho Chan
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is the major pathogenesis underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and these patients have doubled risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in AD pathogenesis, possibly due to abnormal GSK3β activation, causing intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects. Reduced circulatory APN level is associated with insulin resistance and T2DM...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Ashutosh Kumar, Douglas Ganini, Ronald P Mason
BACKGROUND: The pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) include an abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein in the surviving dopaminergic neurons. Though PD is multifactorial, several epidemiological reports show an increased incidence of PD with co-exposure to pesticides such as Maneb and paraquat (MP). In pesticide-related PD, mitochondrial dysfunction and α-synuclein oligomers have been strongly implicated, but the link between the two has not yet been understood. Similarly, the biological effects of α-synuclein or its radical chemistry in PD is largely unknown...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Christine Altmann, Verica Vasic, Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Annett Häussler, Ilka Wittig, Mirko H H Schmidt, Irmgard Tegeder
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury is a frequent cause of lasting motor deficits and chronic pain. Although peripheral nerves are capable of regrowth they often fail to re-innervate target tissues. RESULTS: Using newly generated transgenic mice with inducible neuronal progranulin overexpression we show that progranulin accelerates axonal regrowth, restoration of neuromuscular synapses and recovery of sensory and motor functions after injury of the sciatic nerve...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Harun Najib Noristani, Jean Charles Sabourin, Hassan Boukhaddaoui, Emilie Chan-Seng, Yannick Nicolas Gerber, Florence Evelyne Perrin
BACKGROUND: Neurons have intrinsic capability to regenerate after lesion, though not spontaneously. Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent neurological impairments partly due to formation of a glial scar that is composed of astrocytes and microglia. Astrocytes play both beneficial and detrimental roles on axonal re-growth, however, their precise role after SCI is currently under debate. METHODS: We analyzed molecular changes in astrocytes at multiple stages after two SCI severities using cell-specific transcriptomic analyses...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Martina Pigoni, Johanna Wanngren, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Kathryn M Munro, Jenny M Gunnersen, Hiroshi Takeshima, Regina Feederle, Iryna Voytyuk, Bart De Strooper, Mikail D Levasseur, Brian J Hrupka, Stephan A Müller, Stefan F Lichtenthaler
BACKGROUND: The protease BACE1 (beta-site APP cleaving enzyme) is a major drug target in Alzheimer's disease. However, BACE1 therapeutic inhibition may cause unwanted adverse effects due to its additional functions in the nervous system, such as in myelination and neuronal connectivity. Additionally, recent proteomic studies investigating BACE1 inhibition in cell lines and cultured murine neurons identified a wider range of neuronal membrane proteins as potential BACE1 substrates, including seizure protein 6 (SEZ6) and its homolog SEZ6L...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Aitana Sogorb-Esteve, María-Salud García-Ayllón, Juan Fortea, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Alberto Lleó, José-Luis Molinuevo, Javier Sáez-Valero
BACKGROUND: Presenilin-1 (PS1), the active component of the intramembrane γ-secretase complex, can be detected as soluble heteromeric aggregates in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this study was to examine the different soluble PS1 complexes in the lumbar CSF (CSF-PS1) of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in both symptomatic and asymptomatic genetically determined AD, in order to evaluate their potential as early biomarkers. METHODS: Western blotting, differential centrifugation and co-immunoprecipitation served to determine and characterize CSF-PS1 complexes...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Ramon Velazquez, Darren M Shaw, Antonella Caccamo, Salvatore Oddo
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Clinically, AD is characterized by impairments of memory and cognitive functions. Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles are the prominent neuropathologies in patients with AD. Strong evidence indicates that an imbalance between production and degradation of key proteins contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in maintaining protein homeostasis as it regulates both protein synthesis and degradation...
July 13, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Christopher J Holler, Georgia Taylor, Zachary T McEachin, Qiudong Deng, William J Watkins, Kathryn Hudson, Charles A Easley, William T Hu, Chadwick M Hales, Wilfried Rossoll, Gary J Bassell, Thomas Kukar
BACKGROUND: Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted growth factor important for neuronal survival and may do so, in part, by regulating lysosome homeostasis. Mutations in the PGRN gene (GRN) are a common cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and lead to disease through PGRN haploinsufficiency. Additionally, complete loss of PGRN in humans leads to neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disease. Importantly, Grn-/- mouse models recapitulate pathogenic lysosomal features of NCL...
June 24, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Byung-Jin Kim, Sean M Silverman, Yang Liu, Robert J Wordinger, Iok-Hou Pang, Abbot F Clark
BACKGROUND: The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway plays an important role in neuronal pathophysiology. Using JNK inhibitors, we examined involvement of the JNK pathway in cultured rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and in mouse retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the visual axis. The in vitro effects of JNK inhibitors were evaluated in cultured adult rat retinal cells enriched in RGCs. Retinal I/R was induced in C57BL/6J mice through elevation of intraocular pressure to 120 mmHg for 60 min followed by reperfusion...
April 21, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Bruno A Benitez, Albert A Davis, Sheng Chih Jin, Laura Ibanez, Sara Ortega-Cubero, Pau Pastor, Jiyoon Choi, Breanna Cooper, Joel S Perlmutter, Carlos Cruchaga
BACKGROUND: Most sequencing studies in Parkinson's disease (PD) have focused on either a particular gene, primarily in familial and early onset PD samples, or on screening single variants in sporadic PD cases. To date, there is no systematic study that sequences the most common PD causing genes with Mendelian inheritance [α-synuclein (SNCA), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), PARKIN, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and DJ-1 (Daisuke-Junko-1)] and susceptibility genes [glucocerebrosidase beta acid (GBA) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)] identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a European-American case-control sample (n=815)...
April 19, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Yan Zhou, Ming Lu, Ren-Hong Du, Chen Qiao, Chun-Yi Jiang, Ke-Zhong Zhang, Jian-Hua Ding, Gang Hu
BACKGROUND: α-Synuclein (α-Syn), a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), has been recognized to induce the production of interleukin-1β in a process that depends, at least in vitro, on nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in monocytes. However, the role of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the onset of PD has not yet been fully established. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that NLRP3 inflammasomes were activated in the serum of PD patients and the midbrain of PD model mice...
April 16, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Marina Saresella, Francesca La Rosa, Federica Piancone, Martina Zoppis, Ivana Marventano, Elena Calabrese, Veronica Rainone, Raffaello Nemni, Roberta Mancuso, Mario Clerici
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and its key regulator, the inflammasome, are suspected to play a role in the neuroinflammation observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD); no conclusive data are nevertheless available in AD patients. RESULTS: mRNA for inflammasome components (NLRP1, NLRP3, PYCARD, caspase 1, 5 and 8) and downstream effectors (IL-1β, IL-18) was up-regulated in severe and MILD AD. Monocytes co-expressing NLRP3 with caspase 1 or caspase 8 were significantly increased in severe AD alone, whereas those co-expressing NLRP1 and NLRP3 with PYCARD were augmented in both severe and MILD AD...
March 3, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Raffaele Ferrari, Paola Forabosco, Jana Vandrovcova, Juan A Botía, Sebastian Guelfi, Jason D Warren, Parastoo Momeni, Michael E Weale, Mina Ryten, John Hardy
BACKGROUND: In frontotemporal dementia (FTD) there is a critical lack in the understanding of biological and molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis. The heterogeneous genetic features associated with FTD suggest that multiple disease-mechanisms are likely to contribute to the development of this neurodegenerative condition. We here present a systems biology approach with the scope of i) shedding light on the biological processes potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of FTD and ii) identifying novel potential risk factors for FTD...
February 24, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Matteo Cornaglia, Gopalan Krishnamani, Laurent Mouchiroud, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Thomas Lehnert, Johan Auwerx, Martin A M Gijs
BACKGROUND: While many biological studies can be performed on cell-based systems, the investigation of molecular pathways related to complex human dysfunctions - e.g. neurodegenerative diseases - often requires long-term studies in animal models. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans represents one of the best model organisms for many of these tests and, therefore, versatile and automated systems for accurate time-resolved analyses on C. elegans are becoming highly desirable tools in the field...
February 9, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Sighild Lemarchant, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Iurii Kidin, Virve Kärkkäinen, Piia Valonen, Sarka Lehtonen, Gundars Goldsteins, Tarja Malm, Katja Kanninen, Jari Koistinaho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Sighild Lemarchant, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Iurii Kidin, Virve Kärkkäinen, Piia Valonen, Sarka Lehtonen, Gundars Goldsteins, Tarja Malm, Katja Kanninen, Jari Koistinaho
BACKGROUND: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) proteoglycanases are specialized in the degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and participate in mechanisms mediating neuroplasticity. Despite the beneficial effect of ADAMTS-4 on neurorepair after spinal cord injury, the functions of ADAMTS proteoglycanases in other CNS disease states have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the expression, effects and associated mechanisms of ADAMTS-4 during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model...
January 25, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Nour K Majbour, Nishant N Vaikath, Karin D van Dijk, Mustafa T Ardah, Shiji Varghese, Louise B Vesterager, Liliana P Montezinho, Stephen Poole, Bared Safieh-Garabedian, Takahiko Tokuda, Charlotte E Teunissen, Henk W Berendse, Wilma D J van de Berg, Omar M A El-Agnaf
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of intensive research, to date, there is no accepted diagnosis for Parkinson's disease (PD) based on biochemical analysis of blood or CSF. However, neurodegeneration in the brains of PD patients begins several years before the manifestation of the clinical symptoms, pointing to serious flaw/limitations in this approach. RESULTS: To explore the potential use of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) species as candidate biomarkers for PD, we generated specific antibodies directed against wide array of α-syn species, namely total-, oligomeric- and phosphorylated-Ser129-α-syn (t-, o- and p-S129-α-syn)...
January 19, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Mária Baranyi, Pier Francesca Porceddu, Flóra Gölöncsér, Szabina Kulcsár, Lilla Otrokocsi, Ágnes Kittel, Annalisa Pinna, Lucia Frau, Paul B Huleatt, Mui-Ling Khoo, Christina L L Chai, Petra Dunkel, Peter Mátyus, Micaela Morelli, Beáta Sperlágh
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and their interplay are core pathological features of Parkinson's disease. In dopaminergic neurons, monoamines and their metabolites provide an additional source of reactive free radicals during their breakdown by monoamine oxidase or auto-oxidation. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have a supraadditive impact on the pathological, cytoplasmic accumulation of dopamine and its subsequent release. Here we report the effects of a novel series of potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory (hetero)arylalkenylpropargylamine compounds having protective properties against the supraadditive effect of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress...
January 13, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Elisa Belluzzi, Adriano Gonnelli, Maria-Daniela Cirnaru, Antonella Marte, Nicoletta Plotegher, Isabella Russo, Laura Civiero, Susanna Cogo, Maria Perèz Carrion, Cinzia Franchin, Giorgio Arrigoni, Mariano Beltramini, Luigi Bubacco, Franco Onofri, Giovanni Piccoli, Elisa Greggio
BACKGROUND: Lrrk2, a gene linked to Parkinson's disease, encodes a large scaffolding protein with kinase and GTPase activities implicated in vesicle and cytoskeletal-related processes. At the presynaptic site, LRRK2 associates with synaptic vesicles through interaction with a panel of presynaptic proteins. RESULTS: Here, we show that LRRK2 kinase activity influences the dynamics of synaptic vesicle fusion. We therefore investigated whether LRRK2 phosphorylates component(s) of the exo/endocytosis machinery...
January 13, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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