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Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery

Niccolò Riccardi, Filippo Del Puente, Federica Magnè, Lucia Taramasso, Antonio Di Biagio
In 2014, an estimated 1.8 million people died from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB); moreover, 680,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Currently available anti-MDR and XDR regimens are long-lasting and expensive, need high adherence and are undermined by a high frequency of adverse drug events, thus leading to a low success rate; moreover, in the last 50 years only two new molecules, bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid, have been approved and released for treatment of MDR-TB. BDQ is a diarylquinoline anti-mycobacterial drug, active regardless the state of MTB; in fact, its efficacy is conserved against replicating and non-replicating bacilli, despite extracellular or intracellular location...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Srividhya Venkataraman, Tauqeer Ahmad, Mounir AbouHaidar, Kathleen L Hefferon
With the increased comprehension of the molecular biology of viruses, there has been a recent surge in the application of virus sequences and viral gene expression strategies towards the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The scope of the patenting landscape has widened as a result and the current review discusses patents pertaining to live / attenuated viral vaccines. The vaccines addressed here have been developed by both conventional means as well as by the state-of-the-art genetic engineering techniques...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Hayati Demiraslan, Gokcen Dinc, Mehmet Doganay
BACKGROUND: Orf virus is a DNA virus that belongs to the Parapoxvirus genus. The virus is a causative agent of orf in humans or contagious ecthyma in animals which is mostly seen in sheep, goat and cattle. DISCUSSION: Orf is an emerging zoonosis with an increasing number of worldwide outbreaks that have been reported. It is a contagious disease that tends to spread very fast among livestock. The morbidity rate is very high, particularly among young unvaccinated animals...
June 1, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Mohammad Wais, Mohd Aqil, Ashish Kumar Sharma, Jaya Agnihotri
BACKGROUND: The nanoemulsion based carriers are the most suitable delivery systems for poorly soluble drugs to improve the solubility of drugs, permeation of drugs and ultimately increase bioavailability by transdermal therapeutic system. The nanoemulsion for poorly soluble drugs is the excellent and offered several advantages over others carriers. METHODS: For the nanoemulsions formulation they have to deliver the energetic element at the specific organ with nominal uneasiness...
June 1, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Sarwar Beg, Sumant Saini, Sarim Imam, Mahfoozur Rahman, Suryakanta Swain, M S Hasnain
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is considered as one of the deadliest diseases of human existence. Since ancient age the treatment of tuberculosis has been highly challenging primarily owing to the pathogenic nature of the Mycobacterium and its diverse spots of localization in human body including lungs, liver, spleen, eye, meninges and lymph nodes. METHODS: The conventional drug therapy employed for the treatment of tuberculosis is not highly satisfactorily owing to low oral bioavailability of the drugs...
May 3, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Syed Sarim Imam, Sadaf Jamal Gilani, Abdul Hafeez, Mahfoozur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology is an emerging science with the potential to create new materials and strategies involving manipulation of matter at the nanometer scale. Colloidal drug delivery systems have been extensively investigated as drug carriers for the application of different anti tubercular drugs. METHODS: The different delivery systems like solid lipid nanoparticles and polymeric nanoparticles have been investigated for a long time to treat diseases. There are number of drawbacks in conventional TB dosage forms are the development of multiple drug resistance, resulting intolerable toxicity and high dose requirements...
April 27, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Abdul Mannan Baig, Zohaib Rana, M Mohsin Mannan, S Sumayya Tariq, H R Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Loperamide is an anti-diarrheal drug prescribed for non-infectious diarrhea. The drug is an opioid receptor agonist, a blocker of voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav) and a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor on human cells. Loperamide has been reported to exert anti-amoebic effects against pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii. OBJECTIVES: The precise mode of antibiotic action, cellular target homology with human counterparts and the pattern of cell death induced by loperamide in Acanthamoeba castellanii remain to be established...
April 25, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Bhagyashree Chaudhari, Swati Jagdale
BACKGROUND: Triamcinolone is a long acting corticosteroid used in the treatment of arthritis, eczema, psoriasis and similar conditions which causes inflammation. Triamcinolone has half-life of 88 minutes. Prolonged oral use is associated with gastrointestinal adverse effects as peptic ulcer, abdominal distention and ulcerative esophagitis. Microemulgel offers advantage of better stability, better loading capacity and controlled release especially for drug with short half life. OBJECTIVE: Objective of the present study was to optimize microemulgel based transdermal delivery of triamcinolone...
April 25, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Md Tanwir Athar, Zabih Ullah
Tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a serious threat and one of the major health problems worldwide. In recent years, an estimated of 9.6 million TB cases occurred and 1.5 million death occurred due to TB worldwide. The present review is an attempt to introduce this disease focusing on the pathophysiology of the disease, the current approachesand the related patents for treatment and the future planningfor combating this disease.
April 25, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Hossein Kazemian, Samane Bourbour, Maryam Beheshti, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are very susceptible to a variety of disorders and infections during hospitalization in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Among these problems, nosocomial infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Nosocomial pneumonias, specifically ventilator associated pneumonias have become a major health care issue. The implication of oral care in hospital presents challenges that can prevent or reduce the risk of nosocomial pneumonias in ICU...
February 15, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Saeed Hemati, Sobhan Ghafourian, Nourkhoda Sadeghfard, Zahra Mahdavi, Abbas Maleki, Fatemeh Sayehmiri, Kouroush Sayehmiri, Lidija Bogdanović, Morovat Taherikalani
BACKGROUND: Recently, increasing antibiotic resistance is causing serious public-health concerns worldwide. This phenomenon increased patient's morbidity and mortality rate, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. METHODS: Considering that antimicrobial resistance can vary according to geographical location, we investigated the status of antibiotic resistance in Ilam province from 2008 to 2009. RESULTS: The results of our study showed that antibiotic resistance rates to aztreonam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone were 38%, 39%, 43% and 48% respectively...
January 29, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Vilma G Duschak
BACKGROUND: The American trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, is a parasitic infection typically spread by triatomine vectors affecting millions of people all over Latin America. Existing chemotherapy is centered on the nitroaromatic compounds benznidazole and nifurtimox that provide unsatisfactory results and substantial side effects. So, the finding and exploration of novel ways to challenge this neglected disease is a main priority. METHODS: The biologic and biochemical progress in the scientific knowledge of Trypanosoma cruzi in the period comprising last 15-years has increased the identification of multiple targets for Chagas´ disease chemotherapy...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Farzaneh Firoozeh, Mehdi Aghaseyed-Hosseini, Mohammad Zibaei, Ahmad Piroozmand
INTRODUCTION: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria are among the highly antimicrobial resistant gram negative bacteria and infections due to them are an increasingly major health problem worldwide. METHODS: In this study we have detected the blaKPC and blaGES carbapenemase genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients in Kashan, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 181 K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered from clinical specimens during November 2013 to October 2014...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Maryam Shafaati, Mohammadali Boroumand, Jamileh Nowroozi, Pouya Amiri, Hossein Kazemian
INTRODUCTION: Antiseptics and disinfectants have been used widely in hospitals and other health care settings to control the growth of microorganisms. However, some disinfectant resistant strains were reported. The objectives of our study were to evaluate correlation between the efflux pump genes, drugs and disinfectant resistant among clinical isolates of E.coli. METHODS: A total of 102 of E. coli strains were isolated from urine sample of hospitalized patients...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Judy Ly, Devin Morris, Minette Lagman, Christopher Ng, Shelby Anderson, John Daliva, Naji Muwanas, Igal Tarash, Cesar Ochoa, Airani Sathananthan, Vishwanath Venketaraman
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, as of 2014 9% of the world's adult population is affected by diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes is a pro-inflammatory process that increases generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). METHODS: The production of ROS leads to a chronic increase in oxidative stress which results in an increased susceptibility to infections. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Mahfoozur Rahman, Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, Sumant Saini, Rehan A Rub, Preeti Aneja, Firoz Anwar, Mohammad A Alam, Vikas Kumar
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune mediated joint-based chronic inflammatory disorder recognized by joint inflammation, destruction, pain and remission. Currently, numerous pharmacotherapeutic strategies have gained immense popularity in RA therapy and improving the patient life. METHODS: Besides, it exhibits numerous drawbacks such as requirement of high dose of drugs, unavoidable adverse effects and diseases remission. Thus, use of currently available pharmacotherapeutics employing conventional formulations can only provide therapeutic effects to a certain extent...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Victor Norris, Cecile Verrier, Marc Feuilloley
BACKGROUND: Hyperstructures are large assemblies of molecules and macromolecules that perform functions such as metabolism (including RNA and protein synthesis and degradation), transport, DNA replication, cell division, signalling and chemotaxis. METHODS: Such hyperstructures might be manipulated by hybrid metabolites or hybolites made by a pairwise, covalently linked combination of the thousands of small molecules involved in metabolism and signalling. RESULTS: Here, we review recent evidence for hyperstructures in prokaryotes and for interactions between hyperstructures as a determinant of the phenotype...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Satyajit Das, Shyamalie Bopitya, Ananya R Chowdhury, Archik Das, Huda Taha
BACKGROUND: There is high prevalence of vitamin-D deficiency and abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV patients. Our aim is to find out the effect of replacement of low dose oral vitamin-D (800 International unit) with calcium (500mg) as a once daily regimen along with antiretroviral (ARV) on serum vitamin-D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and bone mineral density (BMD) changes on patients with HIV infection who have vitamin- D deficiency. METHODS: This is a non-randomised, open label study...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Ogbonna J Ikechukwu, Ofoefule S Ifeanyi
BACKGROUND: Allium cepa has been in use in traditional medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts have been found effective in lowering blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats and guinea pigs. METHODS: The study was carried out to isolate the active principle responsible for the observed hypoglycaemic effect in experimental animals. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of Allium cepa was separated into various fractions using column chromatography with silica gel as a stationary phase...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Mohammad Zibaei, Reza Rostamipour, Hassan Nayebzadeh
BACKGROUND: Treatment of human hydatidosis is mainly surgical, with chemical treatment being reserved as a coadjuvant treatment. Use of effective protoscolicidal agents during surgery of hydatid disease is essential to reduce the recurrence rate. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the scolicidal effects of Pistacia atlantica leaf and fruit hydroalcoholic extracts on protoscolices of hydatid cyst. METHOD: Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices were obtained from 50 sheep infected with hydatid cysts...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
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