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Ya-Qin Tan, Jing Zhang, Gang Zhou
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved lysosomal degradation process essential for cell physiology and human health. By regulating apoptosis, inflammation, pathogen clearance, immune response and other cellular processes, autophagy acts as a modulator of pathogenesis and is a potential therapeutic target in diverse diseases. With regard to oral disease, autophagy can be problematic either when it is activated or impaired, because this process is involved in diverse functions, depending on the specific disease and its level of progression...
October 20, 2016: Autophagy
Jin Kyung Kim, Hye-Mi Lee, Ki-Sun Park, Dong-Min Shin, Tae Sung Kim, Yi Sak Kim, Hyun-Woo Suh, Soo Yeon Kim, In Soo Kim, Jin-Man Kim, Ji-Woong Son, Kyung Mok Sohn, Sung Soo Jung, Chaeuk Chung, Sang-Bae Han, Chul-Su Yang, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Autophagy is an important antimicrobial effector process that defends against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the human pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB). MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous noncoding RNAs, are involved in various biological functions and act as post-transcriptional regulators to target mRNAs. The process by which miRNAs affect antibacterial autophagy and host defense mechanisms against Mtb infections in human monocytes and macrophages is largely uncharacterized. In this study, we show that Mtb significantly induces the expression of MIR144*/hsa-miR-144-5p, which targets the 3'-untranslated region of DRAM2 (DNA damage regulated autophagy modulator 2) in human monocytes and macrophages...
October 20, 2016: Autophagy
Zuriñe Antón, Ane Landajuela, Javier H Hervás, L Ruth Montes, Sonia Hernández-Tiedra, Guillermo Velasco, Felix M Goñi, Alicia Alonso
The phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) has been proposed to play a role in selective mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy. CL externalization to the outer mitochondrial membrane would act as a signal for the human Atg8 ortholog subfamily, MAP1LC3 (LC3). The latter would mediate both mitochondrial recognition and autophagosome formation, ultimately leading to removal of damaged mitochondria. We have applied quantitative biophysical techniques to the study of CL interaction with various Atg8 human orthologs, namely LC3B, GABARAPL2 and GABARAP...
October 20, 2016: Autophagy
Rui Kang, Ling Zeng, Yangchun Xie, Zhengwen Yan, Borong Zhou, Lizhi Cao, Daniel J Klionsky, Kevin J Tracey, Jianhua Li, Haichao Wang, Timothy R Billiar, Jianxin Jiang, Daolin Tang
Although the PINK1-PARK2 pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, its roles in sepsis (a major challenge for critical care) were previously unknown. Here, we show that pink1(-/-) and park2(-/-) mice are more sensitive to polymicrobial sepsis-induced multiple organ failure and death. The decrease in the circulating level of the neurotransmitter dopamine in pink1(-/-) and park2(-/-) mice accelerates the release of a late sepsis mediator, HMGB1, via HIF1A-dependent anaerobic glycolysis and subsequent NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation...
October 18, 2016: Autophagy
Mihwa Kim, Ji-Yeon Jung, Seungho Choi, Hyunseung Lee, Liza D Morales, Jeong-Tae Koh, Sun Hun Kim, Yoo-Duk Choi, Chan Choi, Thomas J Slaga, Won Jae Kim, Dae Joon Kim
Recent progress in chemotherapy has significantly increased its efficacy, yet the development of chemoresistance remains a major drawback. In this study, we show that GFRA1/GFRα1 (GDNF family receptor alpha 1), contributes to cisplatin-induced chemoresistance by regulating autophagy in osteosarcoma. We demonstrate that cisplatin treatment induced GFRA1 expression in human osteosarcoma cells. Induction of GFRA1 expression reduced cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death and it significantly increased osteosarcoma cell survival via autophagy...
October 18, 2016: Autophagy
Jingyu Yao, Lin Jia, Kecia Feathers, Chengmao Lin, Naheed W Khan, Daniel J Klionsky, Thomas A Ferguson, David N Zacks
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway critical to preventing the accumulation of cytotoxic proteins. Deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 from the rod photoreceptors of the retina (atg5(Δrod) mouse) results in the accumulation of the phototransduction protein transducin and the degeneration of these neurons. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that autophagic degradation of visual transduction proteins prevents retinal degeneration. Targeted deletion of both Gnat1 (a gene encoding the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein transducin) and Atg5 in the rod photoreceptors resulted in a significantly decreased rate of rod cell degeneration as compared to the atg5(Δrod) mouse retina, and considerable preservation of photoreceptors...
October 18, 2016: Autophagy
Keith B Boyle, Teresa L M Thurston, Felix Randow
Defense of the mammalian cell cytosol against Salmonella invasion is reliant upon capture of the infiltrating bacteria by macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy), a process controlled by the kinase TBK1. In our recent study we showed that recruitment of TBK1 activity to Salmonella stabilizes the key autophagy regulator WIPI2 on those bacteria, a novel and essential function for TBK1 in the control of the early steps of antibacterial autophagy. Substantial redundancy exists in the precise recruitment mechanism for TBK1 because engagement with any of several Salmonella-associated 'eat-me' signals, including host-derived glycans, and K48- and K63-linked ubiquitin chains, suffices to recruit TBK1 functionality...
October 18, 2016: Autophagy
Gu-Choul Shin, Hong Seok Kang, Ah Ram Lee, Kyun-Hwan Kim
Death receptors of TNFSF10/TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 10) contribute to immune surveillance against virus-infected or transformed cells by promoting apoptosis. Many viruses evade antiviral immunity by modulating TNFSF10 receptor signaling, leading to persistent infection. Here, we report that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) restricts TNFSF10 receptor signaling via macroautophagy/autophagy-mediated degradation of TNFRSF10B/DR5, a TNFSF10 death receptor, and thus permits survival of virus-infected cells...
October 14, 2016: Autophagy
Won-Hee Song, Young-Joo Yi, Miriam Sutovsky, Stuart Meyers, Peter Sutovsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Autophagy
Pranjali Dalvi, Himanshu Sharma, Mahendran Chinnappan, Miles Sanderson, Julie Allen, Ruoxi Zeng, Augustine Choi, Amy O'Brien-Ladner, Navneet K Dhillon
Intravenous drug use is one of the major risk factors for HIV-infection in HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. We previously demonstrated exaggerated pulmonary vascular remodeling with enhanced apoptosis followed by increased proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells on simultaneous exposure to both opioids and HIV protein(s). Here we hypothesize that the exacerbation of autophagy may be involved in the switching of endothelial cells from an early apoptotic state to later hyper-proliferative state...
October 10, 2016: Autophagy
Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter, Suresh Subramani
One of the main unanswered questions regarding the early steps of macroautophagy/autophagy is the mechanism of membrane-modeling events required for autophagosome formation. Three independent studies have recently revealed an actin cytoskeleton involvement in this process, providing significant details regarding the role of actin in nucleation events both inside and outside the phagophore membrane during its expansion and assembly.
October 10, 2016: Autophagy
Pierre-Michaël Coly, Nicolas Perzo, Vadim Le Joncour, Céline Lecointre, Marie-Thérèse Schouft, Laurence Desrues, Marie-Christine Tonon, Olivier Wurtz, Pierrick Gandolfo, Hélène Castel, Fabrice Morin
Chemotactic migration is a fundamental behavior of cells and its regulation is particularly relevant in physiological processes such as organogenesis and angiogenesis, as well as in pathological processes such as tumor metastasis. The majority of chemotactic stimuli activate cell surface receptors that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. Although the autophagy machinery has been shown to play a role in cell migration, its mode of regulation by chemotactic GPCRs remains largely unexplored...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
Lisa B Frankel, Michal Lubas, Anders H Lund
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a key catabolic process, essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival through the removal and recycling of unwanted cellular material. Emerging evidence has revealed intricate connections between the RNA and autophagy research fields. While a majority of studies have focused on protein, lipid and carbohydrate catabolism via autophagy, accumulating data supports the view that several types of RNA and associated ribonucleoprotein complexes are specifically recruited to phagophores (precursors to autophagosomes) and subsequently degraded in the lysosome/vacuole...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
R Santarelli, M Granato, G Pentassuglia, V Lacconi, M S Gilardini Montani, R Gonnella, M Tafani, M R Torrisi, A Faggioni, M Cirone
We have previously shown that Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) impairs monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs). Macroautophagy/autophagy has been reported to be essential in such a differentiating process. Here we extended these studies and found that the impairment of DC formation by KSHV occurs through autophagy inhibition. KSHV indeed reduces CAST (calpastatin) and consequently decreases ATG5 expression in both THP-1 monocytoid cells and primary monocytes. We unveiled a new mechanism put in place by KSHV to escape from immune control...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
Ana Mesquita, Elena Cardenal-Muñoz, Eunice Dominguez, Sandra Muñoz-Braceras, Beatriz Nuñez-Corcuera, Ben A Phillips, Luis C Tábara, Qiuhong Xiong, Roberto Coria, Ludwig Eichinger, Pierre Golstein, Jason S King, Thierry Soldati, Olivier Vincent, Ricardo Escalante
Autophagy is a fast-moving field with an enormous impact on human health and disease. Understanding the complexity of the mechanism and regulation of this process often benefits from the use of simple experimental models such as the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Since the publication of the first review describing the potential of D. discoideum in autophagy, significant advances have been made that demonstrate both the experimental advantages and interest in using this model. Since our previous review, research in D...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
Shuhei Nakamura, Junya Hasegawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori
Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a multistep intracellular degradation system. Autophagosomes form, mature, and ultimately fuse with lysosomes, where their sequestered cargo molecules are digested. In contrast to autophagosome formation, our knowledge of autophagosome-lysosome fusion is limited. In a recent study, we identified a novel regulator of autophagy, INPP5E (inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase E), which is essential for autophagosome-lysosome fusion. INPP5E primarily functions in neuronal cells, and knockdown of the corresponding gene causes accumulation of autophagosomes by impairing fusion with lysosomes...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
Guangyan Miao, Yan G Zhao, Hongyu Zhao, Cuicui Ji, Huayu Sun, Yingyu Chen, Hong Zhang
Autophagy helps to maintain cellular homeostasis by removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles, and generally acts as a cytoprotective mechanism for neuronal survival. Here we showed that mice deficient in the Vici syndrome gene Epg5, which is required for autophagosome maturation, show accumulation of ubiquitin-positive inclusions and SQSTM1 aggregates in various retinal cell types. In epg5(-/-) retinas, photoreceptor function is greatly impaired, and degenerative features including progressively reduced numbers of photoreceptor cells and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the outer nuclear layer are observed, while the morphology of other parts of the retina is not severely affected...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
John Alam, Wiep Scheper
Dysregulated autophagic-lysosomal degradation of proteins has been linked to the most common genetic defect in familial Alzheimer disease, and has been correlated with disease progression in both human disease and in animal models. Recently, it was demonstrated that the expression of MAPK14/p38α protein is upregulated in the brain of APP-PS1 transgenic Alzheimer mouse and further that genetic deficiency of Mapk14 in the APP-PS1 mouse stimulates macroautophagy/autophagy, which then leads to reduced amyloid pathology via increasing autophagic-lysosomal degradation of BACE1...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
Gayathri Swaminathan, Wan Zhu, Edward D Plowey
The regulation of plasma membrane (PM)-localized transmembrane protein/receptor trafficking has critical implications for cell signaling, metabolism and survival. In this study, we investigated the role of BECN1 (beclin 1) in the degradative trafficking of PM-associated APP (amyloid beta precursor protein), whose metabolism to amyloid-beta, an essential event in Alzheimer disease, is dependent on divergent PM trafficking pathways. We report a novel interaction between PM-associated APP and BECN1 that recruits macroautophagy/endosomal regulatory proteins PIK3C3 and UVRAG...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
Franziska Wild, Muzamil Majid Khan, Tatjana Straka, Rüdiger Rudolf
Endocytosed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (CHRN) are degraded via macroautophagy/autophagy during atrophic conditions and are accompanied by the autophagic regulator protein SH3GLB1. The present study addressed the functional role of SH3GLB1 on CHRN trafficking and its implementation. We found an augmented ratio of total SH3GLB1 to threonine-145 phosphorylated SH3GLB1 (SH3GLB1:p-SH3GLB1) under conditions of increased CHRN vesicle numbers. Overexpression of T145 phosphomimetic (T145E) and phosphodeficient (T145A) mutants of SH3GLB1, were found to either slow down or augment the processing of endocytic CHRN vesicles, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
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