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Nilay Nandi, Helmut Krämer
In neurons, autophagy counteracts consequences of aging. It is therefore of interest how basal rates of macroautophagy/autophagy can be controlled independently of metabolic stress. We recently investigated the regulation of basal, starvation-independent autophagy by Acn/Acinus, a multifunctional nuclear protein with proposed roles in apoptosis, alternative RNA splicing, and basal autophagy. We found that Acn is stabilized by phosphorylation of the conserved serine 437. The phosphomimetic AcnS437D mutation causes no overt developmental phenotypes, but significantly elevates levels of basal autophagy and extends life spans...
May 21, 2018: Autophagy
Julien Moretti, J Magarian Blander
Phagocytes cope with the threat of living bacteria via detection of vita-PAMPs, a specific class of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that denotes microbial viability and trigger a commensurate innate response. Prokaryotic mRNA and cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) serve as vita-PAMPs for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively, and elicit heightened proinflammatory responses not warranted for dead bacteria. The innate sensor TMEM173/STING detects c-di-AMP produced by internalized live Gram-positive bacteria, and quickly mobilizes interdependent pre-formed cell-autonomous responses including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, MTOR inactivation, and reticulophagy...
May 21, 2018: Autophagy
Daniel J Klionsky
In my role as an instructor I am constantly looking for ways to more effectively convey information to my audience, which is typically the students in my class. However, the same concerns apply to most of the people who attend a seminar. The approach you take to making the material easier to understand is likely to be influenced by the course you teach. That is, the same instructor may use different examples when teaching an upper division vs. a lower division course. I teach introductory biology, and my students may have little familiarity with cell biology, let alone autophagy...
May 21, 2018: Autophagy
Zhi-Qiang Liu, Joon No Lee, Myeongjoo Son, Jae-Young Lim, Raghbendra Kumar Dutta, Yunash Maharjan, SeongAe Kwak, Goo Taeg Oh, Kyunghee Byun, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
The primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based cellular organelles that perceive metabolic status and thus link the sensory system to cellular signaling pathways. Therefore, ciliogenesis is thought to be tightly linked to autophagy, which is also regulated by nutrient-sensing transcription factors, such as PPARA (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha) and NR1H4/FXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4). However, the relationship between these factors and ciliogenesis has not been clearly demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Autophagy
Wenming Li, Qian Yang, Zixu Mao
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a form of selective autophagy, maintains cellular proteostasis in response to diverse stress conditions. Whether and how endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers CMA remains elusive. In our recent study, we demonstrate that various types of ER stress activate the CMA pathway via an EIF2AK3/PERK-MAP2K4/MKK4-MAPK14/p38-dependent manner. We term this process ERICA for ER stress-induced chaperone-mediated autophagy. This pathway is activated in response to stress associated with Parkinson disease and is required for the viability of the SNc dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of Parkinson disease...
May 17, 2018: Autophagy
D Vizza, A Perri, G Toteda, S Lupinacci, I Perrotta, D Lofaro, F Leone, P Gigliotti, A La Russa, R Bonofiglio
Experimental evidence demonstrated that macroautophagy/autophagy exerts a crucial role in maintain renal cellular homeostasis and represents a protective mechanism against renal injuries. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that in the human proximal tubular renal cell line, HK-2, the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin enhanced autophagy and mitigated the apoptosis damage induced by urinary protein overload. However, the underlying molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In our study we demonstrated, for the first time, that in HK-2 cells, the exposure to low doses of rapamycin transactivated the NGFR promoter, leading to autophagic activation...
May 11, 2018: Autophagy
Hua She, Yingli He, Yingren Zhao, Zixu Mao
Macroautophagy/autophagy and inflammation are 2 intertwined processes vital for immune cells to perform their functions. Under resting conditions, autophagy acts as a brake to suppress inflammation in microglia. Upon signal stimulation, their fine-tuned interplay is pivotal for proper response to stress. How inflammatory signals remove this autophagy brake on inflammation remains unclear. In a recent study, we showed that the stress kinase MAPK14/p38α in microglia senses the inflammatory cue lipopolysaccharide (LPS), directly phosphorylates and inhibits ULK1, relieves the autophagic inhibition on the inflammatory machinery, and thus allows for a full immune response...
May 11, 2018: Autophagy
Frédéric Checler, Thomas Goiran, Cristine Alves da Costa
The tumor suppressor TP53/p53 is a key protein in both neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Thus, TP53-linked cell death appears exacerbated in several age-related neuropathologies, while TP53 mutation-associated phenotypes indicate a loss of function accounting for approximately half of cancers. Thus, TP53 plays a pivotal role in these phenotypically distinct pathologies, a hypothesis reinforced by recent epidemiological studies suggesting an opposite risk to develop one type of pathology relative to the other...
May 11, 2018: Autophagy
Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter, Suresh Subramani
Macroautophagy/autophagy, a catabolic process by which cytoplasmic materials are degraded and recycled in lysosomes/vacuoles, remains a rapidly expanding research topic with the need for constantly improved methodologies to study each step of this pathway. Recently Lee and colleagues, as well as Stolz et al., independently reported the development of new AIM/LIR-based fluorescent sensors, which mark individual endogenous mammalian Atg8-family (mAtg8) proteins without affecting the autophagic flux. When expressed in cells, each sensor selectively recognizes individual mAtg8 isoforms and distinguishes mammalian MAP1LC3/LC3 proteins from the related GABARAPs...
May 11, 2018: Autophagy
Joseph Robert Burgoyne
Dysfunctional macroautophagy/autophagy has been causatively linked to aging and the pathogenesis of many diseases, which are also broadly characterized by dysregulated cellular redox. As the autophagy-related (ATG) conjugation systems that mediate autophagosome maturation are cysteine dependent, their oxidation may account for loss in this catabolic process under conditions of oxidative stress. During active autophagy, LC3 is transferred from the catalytic thiol of ATG7 to the active site thiol of ATG3, where it is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine...
May 10, 2018: Autophagy
Huiwen Song, Xing Feng, Min Zhang, Xian Jin, Xiangdong Xu, Lin Wang, Xue Ding, Yunmei Luo, Fengqin Lin, Qin Wu, Guiyou Liang, Tian Yu, Qigong Liu, Zhiyong Zhang
Post-translational modifications of autophagy-related (ATG) genes are necessary to modulate their functions. However, ATG protein methylation and its physiological role have not yet been elucidated. The methylation of non-histone proteins by SETD7, a SET domain-containing lysine methyltransferase, is a novel regulatory mechanism to control cell protein function in response to various cellular stresses. Here we present evidence that the precise activity of ATG16L1 protein in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-treated cardiomyocytes is regulated by a balanced methylation and phosphorylation switch...
April 10, 2018: Autophagy
Karlina J Kauffman, Shenliang Yu, Jiaxin Jin, Brian Mugo, Nathan Nguyen, Aidan O'Brien, Shanta Nag, Alf Håkon Lystad, Thomas J Melia
During macroautophagy/autophagy, mammalian Atg8-family proteins undergo 2 proteolytic processing events. The first exposes a COOH-terminal glycine used in the conjugation of these proteins to lipids on the phagophore, the precursor to the autophagosome, whereas the second releases the lipid. The ATG4 family of proteases drives both cleavages, but how ATG4 proteins distinguish between soluble and lipid-anchored Atg8 proteins is not well understood. In a fully reconstituted delipidation assay, we establish that the physical anchoring of mammalian Atg8-family proteins in the membrane dramatically shifts the way ATG4 proteases recognize these substrates...
April 10, 2018: Autophagy
Jie Han, Leslie A Goldstein, Wen Hou, Suman Chatterjee, Timothy F Burns, Hannah Rabinowich
Macroautophagy/autophagy has emerged as a resistance mechanism to anticancer drug treatments that induce metabolic stress. Certain tumors, including a subset of KRAS-mutant NSCLCs have been shown to be addicted to autophagy, and potentially vulnerable to autophagy inhibition. Currently, autophagy inhibition is being tested in the clinic as a therapeutic component for tumors that utilize this degradation process as a drug resistance mechanism. The current study provides evidence that HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) inhibition diminishes the expression of ATG7, thereby impeding the cellular capability of mounting an effective autophagic response in NSCLC cells...
March 21, 2018: Autophagy
Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Emma Abernathy, Nicholas J Lennemann, Amélie Bernard, Aileen Ariosa, Carolyn B Coyne, Karla Kirkegaard, Daniel J Klionsky
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that promotes survival during stress. Autophagic dysfunction is associated with pathologies such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, autophagy must be strictly modulated at multiple levels (transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational) to prevent deregulation. Relatively little is known about the post-transcriptional control of autophagy. Here we report that the exoribonuclease Xrn1/XRN1 functions as a negative autophagy factor in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in mammalian cells...
March 21, 2018: Autophagy
Konstantin G Lyamzaev, Artem V Tokarchuk, Alisa A Panteleeva, Armen Y Mulkidjanian, Vladimir P Skulachev, Boris V Chernyak
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the macroautophagy/autophagy cascade. In a recently published study Sun et al. described the induction of autophagy by the membranophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP)-based cation 10-(6'-ubiquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (MitoQ) in HepG2 cells (Sun C, et al. "MitoQ regulates autophagy by inducing a pseudo-mitochondrial membrane potential [PMMP]", Autophagy 2017, 13:730-738.). Sun et al. suggested that MitoQ adsorbed to the inner mitochondrial membrane with its cationic moiety remaining in the intermembrane space, adding a large number of positive charges and establishing a "pseudo-mitochondrial membrane potential," which blocked the ATP synthase...
March 13, 2018: Autophagy
Ying Song, Dantong Shang, Hanhua Cheng, Rongjia Zhou
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a catabolic process that is essential for cellular homeostasis. How autophagosomal vesicle forms in a spatio-temporally regulated manner remains elusive. Our recent study revealed that small GTPase, RAB37 (RAB37, member RAS oncogene family), functions as a key organizer of autophagosomal membrane biogenesis. RAB37 interacts with ATG5 (autophagy related 5) and promotes autophagosome formation by modulating ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex assembly. These findings provide new insights into autophagy regulation...
March 13, 2018: Autophagy
Vicente Valenzuela, Melissa Nassif, Claudio Hetz
In recent years, the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative diseases has transitioned into a limbo of protective or detrimental effects. Genetic evidence indicates that mutations in autophagy-regulatory genes can result in the occurrence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting a physiological role of the pathway to motoneuron function. However, experimental manipulation of autophagy in ALS models led to conflicting results depending on the intervention strategy and the disease model used...
March 13, 2018: Autophagy
Trent D Evans, Se-Jin Jeong, Xiangyu Zhang, Ismail Sergin, Babak Razani
In the atherosclerotic plaque, macrophages are the key catabolic workhorse responsible for clearing lipid and dead cell debris. To survive the highly proinflammatory and lipotoxic plaque environment, macrophages must adopt strategies for maintaining tight homeostasis and self-renewal. Macroautophagy/autophagy is a pro-survival cellular pathway wherein damaged or excess cellular cargoes are encapsulated by a double-membrane compartment and delivered to the lysosome for hydrolysis. Previously, macrophage-specific autophagy deficiency has been shown to be atherogenic through several complementary mechanisms including hyperactivation of the inflammasome, defective efferocytosis, accumulation of cytotoxic protein aggregates, and impaired lipid degradation...
March 8, 2018: Autophagy
Shai Bel, Lora V Hooper
Secretion of antimicrobial proteins is an important host defense mechanism against bacteria, yet how secretory cells maintain function during bacterial invasion has been unclear. We discovered that Paneth cells, specialized secretory cells in the small intestine, react to bacterial invasion by rerouting a critical secreted antibacterial protein through a macroautophagy/autophagy-based secretion system termed secretory autophagy. Mice harboring a mutation in an essential autophagy gene, a mutation which is common in Crohn disease patients, cannot reroute their antimicrobial cargo during bacterial invasion and thus have compromised innate immunity...
March 8, 2018: Autophagy
Hui Qian, Xiaojuan Chao, Wen-Xing Ding
Macroautophagy/autophagy plays a dual role in cancer depending on the stage of tumorigenesis. Autophagy prevents tumor initiation by suppressing chronic tissue damage, inflammation, accumulation of damaged organelles and genome instability. Autophagy can also sustain tumor metabolism and provide nutrients for tumor growth and survival via nutrient recycling. Moreover, autophagy is required for benign tumors to progress to malignant tumors. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy or mitophagy can inactivate tumor suppressors such as TP53/TRP53/p53 to promote tumor progression once carcinogenesis has been initiated...
February 21, 2018: Autophagy
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