journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Autophagy

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333578/hormetic-heat-shock-and-hsf-1-overexpression-improve-c-elegans-survival-by-inducing-autophagy
#1
Caroline Kumsta, Malene Hansen
The cellular recycling process of macroautophagy/autophagy is an essential homeostatic system induced by various stresses, but it remains unclear how autophagy contributes to organismal stress resistance. In a recent study, we report that a mild and physiologically beneficial ("hormetic") heat shock as well as overexpression of the heat-shock responsive transcription factor HSF-1 systemically increases autophagy in C. elegans. Accordingly, we found HSF-1- and heat stress-inducible autophagy to be required for C...
March 23, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324658/mitochondrial-respiration-links-tor-complex-2-signaling-to-calcium-regulation-and-autophagy
#2
Ariadne Vlahakis, Nerea Lopez Muniozguren, Ted Powers
The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved regulator of cell growth and functions within 2 different protein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, where TORC2 positively controls macroautophagy/autophagy during amino acid starvation. Under these conditions, TORC2 signaling inhibits the activity of the calcium-regulated phosphatase calcineurin and promotes the general amino acid control (GAAC) response and autophagy. Here we demonstrate that TORC2 regulates calcineurin by controlling the respiratory activity of mitochondria...
March 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323531/mitophagy-receptor-fundc1-regulates-mitochondrial-homeostasis-and-protects-the-heart-from-i-r-injury
#3
Weilin Zhang, Sami Siraj, Rong Zhang, Quan Chen
Mitophagy plays pivotal roles in the selective disposal of unwanted mitochondria, and accumulation of damaged mitochondria has been linked to ageing-related diseases. However, definitive proof that mitophagy regulates mitochondrial quality in vivo is lacking. It is also largely unclear whether damaged mitochondria are the cause or just the consequence of these diseases. We previously showed that FUNDC1 is a mitophagy receptor that interacts with LC3 to mediate mitophagy in response to hypoxia in cultured cells...
March 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323521/hs1bp3-provides-a-novel-mechanism-of-negative-autophagy-regulation-through-membrane-lipids
#4
Zhangyuan Yin, Daniel J Klionsky
The formation and maturation of the autophagosome, a morphological hallmark of macroautophagy/autophagy, is tightly controlled with regard to location, timing and intensity. Various proteins have been characterized to be essential in regulating autophagosome biogenesis, whereas little is known about the roles of specific lipids and their metabolizing enzymes in this process. In a recent paper, Holland et al. identified the phosphoinositide-binding protein HS1BP3 as a novel negative regulator of autophagosome formation...
March 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319438/systemic-deregulation-of-autophagy-upon-loss-of-als-and-ftd-linked-c9orf72
#5
Yon Ji, Janet Ugolino, Nathan Ryan Brady, Anne Hamacher-Brady, Jiou Wang
A genetic mutation in the C9orf72 gene causes the most common forms of neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The C9orf72 protein, predicted to be a DENN-family protein, is reduced in ALS and FTD, but its functions remain poorly understood. Using a 3110043O21Rik/C9orf72 knockout mouse model, as well as cellular analysis, we have found that loss of C9orf72 causes alterations in the signaling states of central autophagy regulators. In particular, C9orf72 depletion leads to reduced activity of MTOR, a negative regulator of macroautophagy/autophagy, and concomitantly increased TFEB levels and nuclear translocation...
March 20, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296542/the-autophagy-machinery-restrains-inkt-cell-activation-through-cd1d1-internalization
#6
Christian W Keller, Monica Loi, Svenja Ewert, Isaak Quast, Romina Theiler, Monique Gannagé, Christian Münz, Gennaro De Libero, Stefan Freigang, Jan D Lünemann
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate T cells with powerful immune regulatory functions that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1D protein. While iNKT-cell-activating glycolipids are currently being explored for their efficacy to improve immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancer, little is known about the mechanisms that control CD1D antigen presentation and iNKT cell activation in vivo. CD1D molecules survey endocytic pathways to bind lipid antigens in MHC class II containing compartments (MIICs) before recycling to the plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296535/glutamoptosis-a-new-cell-death-mechanism-inhibited-by-autophagy-during-nutritional-imbalance
#7
Victor H Villar, Raúl V Durán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318378/pexophagy-is-responsible-for-65-of-cases-of-peroxisome-biogenesis-disorders
#8
Taras Y Nazarko
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) is a group of diseases caused by mutations in one of the peroxins, proteins responsible for biogenesis of the peroxisomes. In recent years, it became clear that many peroxins (e.g., PEX3 and PEX14) play additional roles in peroxisome homeostasis (such as promoting autophagic degradation of peroxisomes or pexophagy), which are often opposite to their originally established functions in peroxisome formation and maintenance. Even more interesting, the peroxins that make up the peroxisomal AAA ATPase complex (AAA-complex) in yeast (Pex1, Pex6 and Pex15) or mammals (PEX1, PEX6, PEX26) are responsible for the downregulation of pexophagy...
February 28, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318364/defective-retrograde-transport-impairs-autophagic-clearance-in-alzheimer-disease-neurons
#9
Prasad Tammineni, Qian Cai
Macroautophagy/autophagy plays a key role in cellular quality control by eliminating protein aggregates and damaged organelles, which is essential for the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis. Defective autophagy has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). In AD brains, autophagic vacuoles (AVs) accumulate massively within dystrophic neurites. This raises a fundamental question as to whether impaired autophagic clearance contributes to AD-associated autophagic stress. We recently revealed that AD neurons display defective retrograde transport and accumulation of amphisomes predominantly in axons and presynaptic terminals...
February 28, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318352/the-role-of-nlrp3-casp1-in-inflammasome-mediated-neuroinflammation-and-autophagy-dysfunction-in-manganese-induced-hippocampal-dependent-impairment-of-learning-and-memory-ability
#10
Diya Wang, Jianbin Zhang, Wenkai Jiang, Zipeng Cao, Fang Zhao, Tongjian Cai, Michael Aschner, Wenjing Luo
Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and autophagy dysfunction are known to be involved in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Manganese (Mn), a neurotoxic metal, has the potential to induce microglia-mediated neuroinflammation as well as autophagy dysfunction. NLRP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3)- CASP1 (caspase 1) inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation in microglia has specific relevance to neurological diseases. However, the mechanism driving these phenomena remains poorly understood...
February 27, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318354/hs1bp3-inhibits-autophagy-by-regulation-of-pld1
#11
Kristiane Søreng, Helene Knævelsrud, Petter Holland, Anne Simonsen
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a membrane trafficking and intracellular degradation process involving the formation of double-membrane autophagosomes and their ultimate fusion with lysosomes. Much is yet to be learned about the regulation of this process, especially at the level of the membranes and lipids involved. We have recently found that the PX domain protein HS1BP3 (HCLS1 binding protein 3) is a negative regulator of autophagosome formation. HS1BP3 depletion increases the formation of LC3-positive autophagosomes both in human cells and zebrafish...
February 25, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296541/pharmacological-modulators-of-autophagy-activate-a-parallel-noncanonical-pathway-driving-unconventional-lc3-lipidation
#12
Elise Jacquin, Stéphanie Leclerc-Mercier, Celine Judon, Emmanuelle Blanchard, Sylvie Fraitag, Oliver Florey
The modulation of canonical macroautophagy/autophagy for therapeutic benefit is an emerging strategy of medical and pharmaceutical interest. Many drugs act to inhibit autophagic flux by targeting lysosome function, while others were developed to activate the pathway. Here, we report the surprising finding that many therapeutically relevant autophagy modulators with lysosomotropic and ionophore properties, classified as inhibitors of canonical autophagy, are also capable of activating a parallel noncanonical autophagy pathway that drives MAP1LC3/LC3 lipidation on endolysosomal membranes...
February 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287860/autophagosome-formation-where-the-secretory-and-autophagy-pathways-meet
#13
Juan Wang, Saralin Davis, Ming Zhu, Elizabeth A Miller, Susan Ferro-Novick
The upregulation of autophagosome formation in response to nutrient deprivation requires significant intracellular membrane rearrangements that are poorly understood. Recent findings have implicated COPII-coated vesicles, well known as ER-Golgi cargo transport carriers, as key players in macroautophagy. The role of COPII vesicles in macroautophagy and how they interact with autophagy-related (Atg) proteins was unknown. In our recent report, we show that during nutrient deprivation, phosphorylation of the membrane-distal surface of the COPII coat subunit Sec24 facilitates the interaction of Sec24 with the Atg machinery (specifically, Atg9) to regulate the abundance of autophagosomes during starvation...
February 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287329/atg4b-contains-a-c-terminal-lir-motif-important-for-binding-and-efficient-cleavage-of-mammalian-orthologs-of-yeast-atg8
#14
Mads Skytte Rasmussen, Stéphane Mouilleron, Birendra Kumar Shrestha, Martina Wirth, Rebecca Lee, Kenneth Bowitz Larsen, Yakubu Abudu Princely, Nicola O'Reilly, Eva Sjøttem, Sharon A Tooze, Trond Lamark, Terje Johansen
The cysteine protease ATG4B cleaves off one or more C-terminal residues of the inactive proform of proteins of the ortholog and paralog LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies of yeast Atg8 to expose a C-terminal glycine that is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine during autophagosome formation. We show that ATG4B contains a C-terminal LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif important for efficient binding to and cleavage of LC3 and GABARAP proteins. We solved the crystal structures of the GABARAPL1-ATG4B C-terminal LIR complex...
February 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282269/endoa-endophilin-a-creates-docking-stations-for-autophagic-proteins-at-synapses
#15
Sandra-Fausia Soukup, Patrik Verstreken
Synapses are very specialized compartments with high metabolic demand to maintain neurotransmission, an essential step for basic brain function. Neurons are post-mitotic and synapses need to stay functional over time-sometimes over decades. Given that synapses are often at a long distance from the cell body, they must use local mechanisms to regulate protein quality control. We show that macroautophagy/autophagy is one of these local processes and found that it is under strict control of the synapse-enriched protein EndoA/Endophilin-A, previously only implicated in endocytosis...
February 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282266/autophagy-is-dispensable-for-kmt2a-mll-mllt3-af9-aml-maintenance-and-anti-leukemic-effect-of-chloroquine
#16
Xiaoyi Chen, Jason Clark, Mark Wunderlich, Cuiqing Fan, Ashley Davis, Song Chen, Jun-Lin Guan, James C Mulloy, Ashish Kumar, Yi Zheng
Recently, macroautophagy/autophagy has emerged as a promising target in various types of solid tumor treatment. However, the impact of autophagy on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) maintenance and the validity of autophagy as a viable target in AML therapy remain unclear. Here we show that Kmt2a/Mll-Mllt3/Af9 AML (MA9-AML) cells have high autophagy flux compared with normal bone marrow cells, but autophagy-specific targeting, either through Rb1cc1-disruption to abolish autophagy initiation, or via Atg5-disruption to prevent phagophore (the autophagosome precursor) membrane elongation, does not affect the growth or survival of MA9-AML cells, either in vitro or in vivo...
February 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282264/autophagy-up-and-down-by-outsmarting-the-incredible-ulk
#17
Francesca Nazio, Francesco Cecconi
Macroautophagy/autophagy initiation is finely regulated by post-translational modifications of key proteins, to comply with the fast kinetics of the cellular response to several stress stimuli. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination play a central role in controlling autophagy by influencing the activity, recruitment and turnover of autophagic components. Recently, we found that, upon autophagy progression, ULK1 kinase is specifically ubiquitinated by the E3 ligase NEDD4L and then degraded via the proteasome. However, during prolonged autophagy, while the ULK1 protein undergoes this inhibition, ULK1 mRNA is actively transcribed, translated and then inhibited again by MTOR-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation...
February 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282258/wnk1-is-an-unexpected-autophagy-inhibitor
#18
Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage, A-Young Lee, Chonlarat Wichaidit, Andres Lorente-Rodriguez, Akansha M Shah, Steve Stippec, Angelique W Whitehurst, Melanie H Cobb
Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway that is essential to maintain cellular physiology, and deregulation of autophagy leads to multiple diseases in humans. In a recent study, we discovered that the protein kinase WNK1 (WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1) is an inhibitor of autophagy. The loss of WNK1 increases both basal and starvation-induced autophagy. In addition, the depletion of WNK1 increases the activation of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex, which is required to induce autophagy...
February 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165887/a-small-molecule-activator-induces-ulk1-modulating-autophagy-associated-cell-death-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#19
Liang Ouyang, Lan Zhang, Leilei Fu, Bo Liu
ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) is well known to be required to initiate the macroautophagy/autophagy process, and thus activation of ULK1-modulating autophagy/autophagy-associated cell death (ACD) may be a possible therapeutic strategy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, our integrated The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, tissue microarray-based analyses and multiple biological evaluations together demonstrate a new small-molecule activator of ULK1 for better understanding of how ULK1, the mammalian homolog of yeast Atg1, as a potential drug target can regulate ACD by the ULK complex (ULK1-ATG13-RB1CC1/FIP200-ATG101), as well as other possible ULK1 interactors, including ATF3, RAD21 and CASP3/caspase3 in TNBC...
February 6, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165866/direct-quantification-of-autophagic-flux-by-a-single-molecule-based-probe
#20
Jiefei Geng, Daniel J Klionsky
Macroautophagy/autophagy remains a rapidly advancing research topic, and there continues to be a need for constantly evolving methodology to investigate this pathway at each individual step. Accordingly, new assays to measure autophagic flux in a robust and reliable manner are essential to understand the mechanism and physiological roles of autophagy. Kaizuka et al. recently reported a new fluorescence probe, GFP-LC3-RFP-LC3δG to directly demonstrate autophagic flux without being combined with lysosomal inhibitors (see the punctum in this issue of the journal)...
February 6, 2017: Autophagy
journal
journal
41266
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"