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Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury

Yigit Uyanikgil, Turker Cavusoglu, Kubilay Dogan Kılıc, Gurkan Yigitturk, Servet Celik, Richard Shane Tubbs, Mehmet Turgut
This review summarizes the role of melatonin (MLT) in defense against toxic-free radicals and its novel effects in the development of the nervous system, and the effect of endogenously produced and exogenously administered MLT in reducing the degree of tissue and nerve injuries. MLT was recently reported to be an effective free radical scavenger and antioxidant. Since endogenous MLT levels fall significantly in senility, these findings imply that the loss of this antioxidant could contribute to the incidence or severity of some age-related neurodegenerative diseases...
January 2017: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
David P Bray, Andrew K Chan, Cynthia T Chin, Line Jacques
Neurofibromas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors that occur commonly in individuals with neurocutaneous disorders such as neurofibromatosis type 1. Vagal nerve neurofibromas, however, are a relatively rare occurrence. We present the case of a 22-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 with a neurofibroma of the left cervical vagal nerve. The mass was resected through an anterior approach without major event. In the postoperative course, the patient developed left vocal cord paralysis treated with medialization with injectable gel...
2016: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Lori A Belfiore, Carol Rosen, Rachel Sarshalom, Leslie Grossman, Debra A Sala, John A I Grossman
Background The reported incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) is 0.87 to 2.2 per 1,000 live births. The psychological functioning, including self-concept and emotional-behavioral functioning, of children with BPBI has only been examined to a limited extent. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the self-concept and emotional-behavioral functioning in children with BPBI from both the child's and parent's perspective. Methods Thirty-one children with BPBI, mean age 11 years 1 month, completed the Draw A Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED) and Piers Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS)...
2016: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Vikas Parmar, Clayton Haldeman, Steve Amaefuna, Amgad S Hanna
We present the case of a venous malformation (VM) masquerading as a schwannoma. VMs are thin-walled vascular dilations of various sizes that typically present as soft, compressible, blue masses that are associated with pain or dysesthesia. VMs are commonly found in the head and neck as well as the distal extremities. Notably, slow-flow VMs are hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging, and enhance markedly with contrast. However, VMs tend to be poorly circumscribed and fraught with venous lakes and phleboliths...
2016: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Ahmed Abouelela, Andrzej Wieraszko
Background Our previous experiments demonstrated modulation of the amplitude of the axonal compound action potential (CAP) by electrical stimulation. To verify assumption that glutamate released from axons could be involved in this phenomenon, the modification of the axonal CAP induced by glutamate was investigated. Objectives The major objective of this research is to verify the hypothesis that axonal activity would trigger the release of glutamate, which in turn would interact with specific axonal receptors modifying the amplitude of the action potential...
2016: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Anne-Marie A Verenna, Daniela Alexandru, Afshin Karimi, Justin M Brown, Geoffrey M Bove, Frank J Daly, Anthony M Pastore, Helen E Pearson, Mary F Barbe
Rationale Knowledge of the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery (DSA) with the brachial plexus is limited. Objective We report a case of a variant DSA path, and revisit DSA origins and under-investigated relationship with the plexus in cadavers. Methods The DSA was examined in a male patient and 106 cadavers. Results In the case, we observed an unusual DSA compressing the lower plexus trunk, that resulted in intermittent radiating pain and paresthesia. In the cadavers, the DSA originated most commonly from the subclavian artery (71%), with 35% from the thyrocervical trunk...
2016: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Andrei Odobescu, Sami P Moubayed, Michel Alain Danino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
J Bahm
In upper brachial plexus birth injury, rotational balance of the glenohumeral joint is frequently affected and contracture in medial rotation of the arm develops, due to a severe palsy or insufficient recovery of the lateral rotators. Some of these children present with a severe glenohumeral joint contracture in the first months, although regular physiotherapy has been provided, a condition associated with a posteriorly subdislocated or dislocated humeral head. These conditions should be screened early by a pediatrician or specialized physiotherapist...
2016: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Jorg Bahm
Multifactorial motion analysis was first established for gait and then developed in the upper extremity. Recordings of infrared light reflecting sensitive passive markers in space, combined with surface eletromyographic recordings and/or transmitted forces, allow eclectic study of muscular coordination in the upper limb. Brachial plexus birth injury is responsible for various patterns of muscle weakness, imbalance, and/or simultaneous activation, soft tissue contractures, and bone-joint deformities, leading to individual motion patterns and adaptations, which we studied by means of motion analysis tools...
2016: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
John G Skedros, Casey J Kiser, Bryce B Hill
This report describes a patient who had an open repair of a small supraspinatus tendon tear performed 6 months after an arthroscopic acromioplasty with debridement had failed to provide pain relief. Three months prior to the tendon repair, he had a two-level cervical spine discectomy and fusion (C4-5, C5-6) that improved his neck pain. Florid suprascapular neuropathy was detected 10 weeks after the open rotator cuff repair. Evidence of some nerve recovery resulted in a long period of observation. But unsatisfactory improvement warranted decompression of the suprascapular notch, which was found to be very stenotic...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Kazufumi Sano, Satoru Ozeki
A 20-year-old man suffered the combined axillary and suprascapular nerve palsies associated with scapulothoracic dissociation by motorcycle accident. The dislocated shoulder girdle was reduced and stabilized with osteosynthesis of the fractured clavicle and reattachment of the trapezius avulsed from the scapular spine for removal of continuous traction force to these damaged nerves. Because of no evidence of recovery on manual muscle test and electromyogram, exploration for these nerves was administered 6 weeks after injury...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Shiro Nawa
BACKGROUND:  In neurological diseases, winging of the scapula occurs because of serratus anterior muscle dysfunction due to long thoracic nerve palsy, or trapezius muscle dysfunction due to accessory nerve palsy. Several sports can cause long thoracic nerve palsy, including archery and tennis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of long thoracic nerve palsy in an aquatic sport. OBJECTIVE:  The present study is a rare case of winging of the scapula that occurred during synchronized swimming practice...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Bernadette Calabek, Stefan Meng, Sabine Pollanz, Walter Klepetko, Konrad Hoetzenecker, Felicitas Oberndorfer, Wolfgang Grisold
INTRODUCTION:  The Pancoast syndrome (PS) has been termed after Henry Pancoast. Its neurologic core symptoms include pain, radicular sensory and motor syndromes, and Horner syndrome. A PS is often the presenting sign of lung cancer and bears a grim prognosis. METHODS:  This case report describes an atypical onset of a lung tumor causing a PS. Electrophysiological examination was not conclusive. The diagnosis was confirmed by MRI, CT scan, and biopsy. The intervention consisted of preoperative chemo- and radiotherapy and was followed by an extensive surgical approach with histologically confirmed perineural invasion of the brachial plexus...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Jessica Wade, Taryn Taylor
Idiopathic brachial neuritis is a distinctive condition that occurs most often in healthy individuals. It characteristically starts with an acute unilateral shoulder pain followed by a complex of symptoms, including weakness, paresthesias, and numbness. The cause of this syndrome is unknown and difficult to diagnose in the initial phase but may occur postsurgery, postinfection, posttrauma, or postvaccination. In this case, the patient's inciting event appeared to be a cesarean section. There was no trauma to the shoulder or upper extremity by way of positioning during the procedure...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Abolfazl Rahimizadeh, Saeed Ehteshami, Touraj Yazdi, Shagayegh Rahimizadeh
Traumatic extradural arachnoid cyst is a rare entity. However, late appearance of paraparesis due to formation of an extradural arachnoid cyst as a sequel of brachial plexus injury is extremely rare and the literature regarding this issue is scarce revealing only 11 cases. Herein, we report a patient with delayed progressive spastic paraparesis appearing after a multilevel brachial plexus root avulsion injury where imaging revealed formation of a large traumatic extradural arachnoid cyst at the cervicothoracic region...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Sarah A Cain, Andreas Gohritz, Jan Fridén, Natasha van Zyl
OBJECTIVE:  Several nerve transfers have now been successfully performed for upper limb reanimation in tetraplegia. This study was performed to review the use of nerve transfers for upper limb reanimation in tetraplegia. METHODS:  Medline and Embase (1950 to February 11, 2015) were searched using a search strategy designed to include any studies that reported cases of nerve transfer in persons with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). RESULTS:  A total of 103 manuscripts were selected initially and full-text analysis produced 13 studies with extractable data...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Shunsuke Sakakibara, Kazunobu Hashikawa, Hiroto Terashi
In the treatment of the soft tissue defect of the elbow, flap reconstruction is necessitated in many cases because of thinness of soft tissue at this region. In addition, reacquirement of tactile sensation is desirable because of the anatomical and specific functions of the elbow. Of three cases treated for elbow defects, one was reconstructed with a pedicled island forearm flap containing the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm, another was reconstructed with a venoneuro-accompanying artery fasciocutaneous flap (VNAF flap) containing the basilic vein, and the third with the VNAF flap containing the cephalic vein...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Valerie M van Gelein Vitringa, Arthur van Noort, Marco J P F Ritt, Barend J van Royen, Johannes A van der Sluijs
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:  Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). In OBPL a shoulder joint contracture is a frequent finding. We hypothesize that residual internal and external rotator strength and their balance are related to the extent of shoulder joint contracture...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Maaike J van der Sluijs, Willem-Jan R van Ouwerkerk, Johannes A van der Sluijs, Barend J van Royen
OBJECTIVE:  Little knowledge exists on the development of elbow flexion contractures in children with obstetrical brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of several neuromuscular parameters in infants with OBPL regarding the later development of elbow flexion contractures. METHODS:  Twenty infants with OBPL with insufficient signs of recovery in the first months of life who were neurosurgically reconstructed were included...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Filippo Sénès, Nunzio Catena, Jacopo Sénès
OBJECTIVE:  When root avulsions are detected in children suffering from obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), neurotization procedures of different nerve trunks are commonly applied in primary brachial plexus repair, to connect distally the nerves of the upper limbs using healthy nerve structures. This article aims to outline our experience of neurotization procedures in OBPP, which involves nerve transfers in the event of delayed repair, when a primary repair has not occurred or has failed...
December 2015: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
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