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Radiation Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934968/comparison-of-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-using-simultaneous-integrated-boosts-sib-vmat-of-45%C3%A2-gy-55%C3%A2-gy-in-25-fractions-with-conventional-radiotherapy-in-preoperative-chemoradiation-for-rectal-cancers-a-propensity-score-case-matched-analysis
#1
Hideomi Yamashita, Soichiro Ishihara, Hiroaki Nozawa, Kazushige Kawai, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Kae Okuma, Osamu Abe, Toshiaki Watanabe, Keiichi Nakagawa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare volumetric-modulated arc therapy using simultaneous integrated boosts (SIB-VMAT) of 45 Gy/55 Gy in 25 fractions with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancers. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In the propensity score-matching analysis of 1:2, we selected 60 patients from the SIB-VMAT group and 120patients from the 3D-CRT group matched pairings out of 145 patients between 2005 and 2015...
September 21, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915893/dosimetric-comparison-of-different-treatment-modalities-for-stereotactic-radiotherapy
#2
Shih-Ming Hsu, Yuan-Chun Lai, Chien-Chung Jeng, Chia-Ying Tseng
BACKGROUND: The modalities for performing stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) on the brain include the cone-based linear accelerator (linac), the flattening filter-free (FFF) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) linac, and tomotherapy. In this study, the cone-based linac, FFF-VMAT linac, and tomotherapy modalities were evaluated by measuring the differences in doses delivered during brain SRT and experimentally assessing the accuracy of the output radiation doses through clinical measurements...
September 16, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915902/development-and-clinical-application-of-radiomics-in-lung-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Bojiang Chen, Rui Zhang, Yuncui Gan, Lan Yang, Weimin Li
Since the discovery of X-rays at the end of the 19(th) century, medical imageology has progressed for 100 years, and medical imaging has become an important auxiliary tool for clinical diagnosis. With the launch of the human genome project (HGP) and the development of various high-throughput detection techniques, disease exploration in the post-genome era has extended beyond investigations of structural changes to in-depth analyses of molecular abnormalities in tissues, organs and cells, on the basis of gene expression and epigenetics...
September 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893302/comprehensive-target-geometric-errors-and-margin-assessment-in-stereotactic-partial-breast-irradiation
#4
Xin Zhen, Bo Zhao, Zhuoyu Wang, Robert Timmerman, Ann Spangler, Nathan Kim, Asal Rahimi, Xuejun Gu
BACKGROUND: Recently developed stereotactic partial breast irradiation (S-PBI) allows delivery of a high biologically potent dose to the target while sparing adjacent critical organs and normal tissue. With S-PBI tumoricidal doses, accurate and precise dose delivery is critical to achieve high treatment quality. This study is to investigate both rigid and non-rigid components of target geometric error and their corresponding margins in S-PBI and identify correlated clinical factors. METHODS: Forty-three early-stage breast cancer patients with implanted gold fiducial markers were enrolled in the study...
September 11, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893300/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-higher-doses-for-larger-tumors-results-of-the-second-study
#5
Akifumi Miyakawa, Yuta Shibamoto, Fumiya Baba, Yoshihiko Manabe, Taro Murai, Chikao Sugie, Takeshi Yanagi, Taiki Takaoka
BACKGROUND: Efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has almost been established. In Japan, the protocol of 48 Gy in 4 fractions over 4 days has been most often employed, but higher doses may be necessary to control large tumors. Previously, we conducted a clinical study using SBRT for stage I NSCLC employing different doses depending on tumor diameter, which was closed in 2008. Thereafter, a new study employing higher doses has been conducted, which is reported here...
September 11, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893299/risk-for-surgical-complications-after-previous-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-of-the-spine
#6
Johannes Roesch, John B C Cho, Daniel K Fahim, Peter C Gerszten, John C Flickinger, Inga S Grills, Maha Jawad, Ronald Kersh, Daniel Letourneau, Frederick Mantel, Arjun Sahgal, John H Shin, Brian Winey, Matthias Guckenberger
OBJECT: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for vertebral metastases has emerged as a promising technique, offering high rates of symptom relief and local control combined with low risk of toxicity. Nonetheless, local failure or vertebral instability may occur after spine SBRT, generating the need for subsequent surgery in the irradiated region. This study evaluated whether there is an increased incidence of surgical complications in patients previously treated with SBRT at the index level...
September 11, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888224/long-term-patient-reported-outcomes-following-radiation-therapy-for-oropharyngeal-cancer-cross-sectional-assessment-of-a-prospective-symptom-survey-in-patients-%C3%A2-65%C3%A2-years-old
#7
Salman A Eraj, Mona K Jomaa, Crosby D Rock, Abdallah S R Mohamed, Blaine D Smith, Joshua B Smith, Theodora Browne, Luke C Cooksey, Bowman Williams, Brandi Temple, Kathryn E Preston, Jeremy M Aymar, Neil D Gross, Randal S Weber, Amy C Hessel, Renata Ferrarotto, Jack Phan, Erich M Sturgis, Ehab Y Hanna, Steven J Frank, William H Morrison, Ryan P Goepfert, Stephen Y Lai, David I Rosenthal, Tito R Mendoza, Charles S Cleeland, Kate A Hutcheson, Clifton D Fuller, Adam S Garden, G Brandon Gunn
BACKGROUND: Given the potential for older patients to experience exaggerated toxicity and symptoms, this study was performed to characterize patient reported outcomes in older patients following definitive radiation therapy (RT) for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). METHODS: Cancer-free head and neck cancer survivors (>6 months since treatment completion) were eligible for participation in a questionnaire-based study. Participants completed the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck module (MDASI-HN)...
September 9, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882187/nadir-psa-is-a-strong-predictor-of-treatment-outcome-in-intermediate-and-high-risk-localized-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-by-definitive-external-beam-radiotherapy-and-androgen-deprivation
#8
Fady B Geara, Muhammad Bulbul, Raja B Khauli, Therese Y Andraos, Mirna Abboud, Abdelatif Al Mousa, Nasim Sarhan, Ahmed Salem, Hamza Ghatasheh, Anoud Alnsour, Zeina Ayoub, Ibrahim Abu Gheida, Maya Charafeddine, Mohammed Shahait, Ali Shamseddine, Rami Abu Gheida, Jamal Khader
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of tumor characteristics and parameters of treatment response in predicting biochemical disease-free survival (BFS) for patients with intermediate or high risk prostate cancer treated by combined definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: Between June 1995 and January 2015, 375 patients with localized prostate cancer and a National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) intermediate or high risk categories were treated by definitive EBRT and ADT...
September 7, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877734/local-relapse-of-nasopharyngeal-cancer-and-voxel-based-analysis-of-fmiso-uptake-using-pet-with-semiconductor-detectors
#9
Yukiko Nishikawa, Koichi Yasuda, Shozo Okamoto, Yoichi M Ito, Rikiya Onimaru, Tohru Shiga, Kazuhiko Tsuchiya, Shiro Watanabe, Wataru Takeuchi, Yuji Kuge, Hao Peng, Nagara Tamaki, Hiroki Shirato
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic cancer cells are thought to be radioresistant and could impact local recurrence after radiotherapy (RT). One of the major hypoxic imaging modalities is [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography (FMISO-PET). High FMISO uptake before RT could indicate radioresistant sites and might be associated with future local recurrence. The predictive value of FMISO-PET for intra-tumoral recurrence regions was evaluated using high-resolution semiconductor detectors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874205/target-volume-delineation-of-anal-cancer-based-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-or-positron-emission-tomography
#10
Espen Rusten, Bernt Louni Rekstad, Christine Undseth, Ghazwan Al-Haidari, Bettina Hanekamp, Eivor Hernes, Taran Paulsen Hellebust, Eirik Malinen, Marianne Grønlie Guren
PURPOSE: To compare target volume delineation of anal cancer using positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with respect to inter-observer and inter-modality variability. METHODS: Nineteen patients with anal cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy were prospectively included. Planning computed tomography (CT) images were co-registered with 18F-fluorodexocyglucose (FDG) PET/CT images and T2 and diffusion weighted (DW) MR images. Three oncologists delineated the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) according to national guidelines and the visible tumor tissue (GTVT)...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870211/re-irradiation-for-oligo-recurrence-from-esophageal-cancer-with-radiotherapy-history-a-multi-institutional-study
#11
Keiichi Jingu, Yuzuru Niibe, Hideomi Yamashita, Kuniaki Katsui, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Tomohiro Nishina, Atsuro Terahara
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy following surgery has recently become a standard therapy. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and toxicity of re-irradiation for oligo-recurrence in lymph nodes from esophageal cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy or by surgery with additional radiotherapy. METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively 248 patients treated with (chemo)radiotherapy for oligo-recurrence in lymph nodes from esophageal cancer in five Japanese high-volume centers between 2000 and 2015...
September 5, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870227/cone-beam-ct-reconstruction-for-non-periodic-organ-motion-using-time-ordered-chain-graph-model
#12
Masahiro Nakano, Akihiro Haga, Jun'ichi Kotoku, Taiki Magome, Yoshitaka Masutani, Shouhei Hanaoka, Satoshi Kida, Keiichi Nakagawa
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to introduce the new concept of a four-dimensional (4D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction approach for non-periodic organ motion in cooperation with the time-ordered chain graph model (TCGM) and to compare it with previously developed methods such as total variation-based compressed sensing (TVCS) and prior-image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our proposed reconstruction is based on a model including the constraint originating from the images of neighboring time phases...
September 4, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865463/carbon-ion-radiotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-interstitial-lung-disease-a%C3%A2-retrospective-analysis
#13
Mio Nakajima, Naoyoshi Yamamoto, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masataka Karube, Daniel K Ebner, Wataru Takahashi, Makoto Anzai, Kenji Tsushima, Yuji Tada, Koichiro Tatsumi, Tadaaiki Miyamoto, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takehiko Fujisawa, Tadashi Kamada
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is frequently complicated by interstitial lung disease (ILD). Treatment protocols for lung cancer patients with ILD have not been established; surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy can all cause acute exacerbation of ILD. This study evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and ILD. METHODS: Between June 2004 and November 2014, 29 patients diagnosed with NSCLC and ILD were treated with CIRT...
September 2, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854948/novel-three-dimensional-bone-mapping-software-can-help-assess-progression-of-osseous-metastases-from-routine-ct
#14
D Thurtle, G M Treece, T Barrett, V J Gnanapragasam
Imaging of bone metastasis response to therapy is a research priority. Stradwin is a new software-tool, with demonstrated sub-voxel accuracy in assessing cortical bone properties from routine CT. We applied this technology to the context of osseous metastases, with particular focus on disease progression using prostate cancer as a model. 3D-rendered 'bone-maps' were produced for 20 men with advanced prostate cancer, including a sub-cohort of 9 who had undergone serial scans. Correlation between baseline interpretation and assessments of progression between modalities was assessed...
August 30, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836991/modeling-dna%C3%A2-damage-induced-pneumopathy-in-mice-insight-from-danger-signaling-cascades
#15
REVIEW
Florian Wirsdörfer, Verena Jendrossek
Radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis represent severe and dose-limiting side effects in the radiotherapy of thorax-associated neoplasms leading to decreased quality of life or - as a consequence of treatment with suboptimal radiation doses - to fatal outcomes by local recurrence or metastatic disease. It is assumed that the initial radiation-induced damage to the resident cells triggers a multifaceted damage-signalling cascade in irradiated normal tissues including a multifactorial secretory program. The resulting pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic microenvironment triggers a cascade of events that can lead within weeks to a pronounced lung inflammation (pneumonitis) or after months to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix molecules and tissue scarring (pulmonary fibrosis)...
August 24, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835256/preoperative-radiotherapy-improves-survival-in-rectal-signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-a-population-based-study
#16
San-Gang Wu, Wen-Wen Zhang, Jia-Yuan Sun, Zhen-Yu He, Guo-Qiang Su, Feng-Yan Li
BACKGROUND: To investigate the clinical value of preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in patients with rectal signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program patients with stage II-III rectal SRCC were retrospectively included between 1988 and 2012. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze the effect of preoperative and postoperative RT on cause-specific survival (CSS)...
August 23, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830532/intermediate-term-outcome-after-psma-pet-guided-high-dose-radiotherapy-of-recurrent-high-risk-prostate-cancer-patients
#17
Sebastian Zschaeck, Peter Wust, Marcus Beck, Waldemar Wlodarczyk, David Kaul, Julian Rogasch, Volker Budach, Christian Furth, Pirus Ghadjar
BACKGROUND: By the use of PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) detection of prostate cancer lesions with a high sensitivity and specificity combined with a favorable lesion to background contrast is feasible. Therefore, PSMA-PET is increasingly used for planning of radiotherapy treatment; however, any data on intermediate-term outcome is missing so far. METHODS: Patients with high-risk or very high risk prostate cancer, referred for salvage radiotherapy (SRT, n = 22) between 2013 and 2015, underwent PSMA-PET prior to therapy...
August 23, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830475/preoperative-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-with-a-simultaneous-integrated-boost-combined-with-capecitabine-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-short-term-results-of-a-multicentric-study
#18
Marco Lupattelli, Fabio Matrone, Maria Antonietta Gambacorta, Mattia Osti, Gabriella Macchia, Elisa Palazzari, Luca Nicosia, Federico Navarria, Giuditta Chiloiro, Vincenzo Valentini, Cynthia Aristei, Antonino De Paoli
BACKGROUND: Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) in combination with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy (CT) is the standard of care in patients with locally advanced, T3-T4 N0-2, rectal cancer (LARC). Given the correlation between RT dose-tumor response and the prognostic role of the tumor regression grade (TRG), treatment intensification represents an area of active investigation. The aim of the study was to analyze the role of RT dose-intensification in the preoperative treatment of LARC in terms of feasibility, efficacy and toxicity...
August 22, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821277/the-feasibility-analysis-of-omission-of-elective-irradiation-to-level-ib-lymph-nodes-in-low-risk-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-based-on-the-2013-updated-consensus-guideline-for-neck-nodal-levels
#19
Xiaomin Ou, Yibing Miao, Xiaoshen Wang, Jianhui Ding, Xiayun He, Chaosu Hu
BACKGROUND: Level IB metastasis is rare in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study is to investigate the high-risk factors for level IB metastasis and evaluate the feasibility of omission of elective irradiation to level IB in the low-risk subgroups in NPC. METHODS: This retrospective study identified 532 patients with NPC treated by definitive radiation in our institution from 2009 to 2010. Level IB nodes were electively irradiated based on the physician's decision...
August 18, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821268/hypo-fractionated-sbrt-for-localized-prostate-cancer-a-german-bi-center-single-treatment-group-feasibility-trial
#20
Ping Jiang, Katja Krockenberger, Reinhard Vonthein, Jane Tereszczuk, Arne Schreiber, Sebastian Liebau, Stefan Huttenlocher, Detlef Imhoff, Panagiotis Balermpas, Christian Keller, Kathrin Dellas, Rene Baumann, Claus Rödel, Guido Hildebrandt, Klaus-Peter Jünemann, Alex S Merseburger, Alan Katz, Andreas Ziegler, Oliver Blanck, Jürgen Dunst
BACKGROUND: For prostate cancer treatment, treatment options with minimal side effects are desired. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is non-invasive, standard of care and delivered in either conventional fractionation over 8 weeks or with moderate hypo-fractionation over about 5 weeks. Recent advances in radiotherapy technology have made extreme hypo-fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of prostate cancer feasible, which has not yet been introduced as a standard treatment method in Germany...
August 18, 2017: Radiation Oncology
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