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Radiation Oncology

Olli Metsälä, Joose Kreutzer, Heidi Högel, Petra Miikkulainen, Pasi Kallio, Panu M Jaakkola
BACKGROUND: Cells in solid tumours are variably hypoxic and hence resistant to radiotherapy - the essential role of oxygen in the efficiency of irradiation has been acknowledged for decades. However, the currently available methods for performing hypoxic experiments in vitro have several limitations, such as a limited amount of parallel experiments, incapability of keeping stable growth conditions and dependence on CO2 incubator or a hypoxia workstation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of a novel portable system (Minihypoxy) in performing in vitro irradiation studies under hypoxia, and present supporting biological data...
November 13, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Chih-Yuan Lin, An-Cheng Shiau, Jin-Huei Ji, Chia-Jung Lee, Ti-Hao Wang, Shu-Hui Hsu, Ji-An Liang
PURPOSE: The dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) and multileaf collimator (MLC) transmission are two important systematic parameters used to model the rounded MLC leaf ends effect when commissioning an Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). Determining the optimal DLG is a time consuming process. This study develops a simple and reliable method for determining the DLG using the cross-field dose width. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A Varian TrueBeam linac with 6 MV, 10 MV, 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) and 10 MV FFF photon beams and equipped with the 120 Millennium MLC and the Eclipse™ TPS was used in this study...
November 13, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Yongsook C Lee, Shih-Chi Lin, Yongbok Kim
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that proximity of the tumor to the optic disc and macula, and radiation dose to the critical structures are substantial risk factors for vision loss following plaque brachytherapy. However, there is little dosimetry data published on this. In this study, therefore, the relationship between distance from tumor margin and radiation dose to the optic disc and macula in ocular brachytherapy using 125 I Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques was comprehensively investigated...
November 13, 2018: Radiation Oncology
J Ganem, S Thureau, I Gardin, R Modzelewski, S Hapdey, P Vera
OBJECTIVES: To propose an easily applicable segmentation method (perPET-RT) for delineation of tumour volume during radiotherapy on interim fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients (51 primary tumours, 60 lymph nodes), from 4 prospective studies, underwent an FDG PET/CT scan during the fifth week of radiation therapy, using different generations of PET/CT...
November 12, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Kai J Borm, Maximilian Loos, Markus Oechsner, Michael C Mayinger, Daniela Paepke, Marion B Kiechle, Stephanie E Combs, Marciana N Duma
PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate skin toxicity during modern three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and to evaluate the importance of dose distribution and patient related factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprises 255 patients with breast cancer treated with tangential three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after breast conserving surgery between 03/2012 and 05/2017. The median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy (range 50-50...
November 7, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Halima Saadia Kidar, Hacene Azizi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work is to assess the impact of using different deformable registration (DR) algorithms on the quality of cone-beam CT (CBCT) correction with histogram matching (HM). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data sets containing planning CT (pCT) and CBCT images for ten patients with prostate cancer were used. Each pCT image was registered to its corresponding CBCT image using one rigid registration algorithm with mutual information similarity metric (RR-MI) and three DR algorithms with normalized correlation coefficient, mutual information and normalized mutual information (DR-NCC, DR-MI and DR-NMI, respectively)...
November 7, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Manuel Grote, Cornelius Maihöfer, Martin Weigl, Patricia Davies-Knorr, Claus Belka
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a prevalent symptom of head and neck neoplasms. The reduction in skeletal muscle mass is one of the main characteristics which can lead to poor physical functioning. The purposes of this pilot randomized controlled trial were to determine the feasibility of progressive resistance training in cachectic head and neck cancer patients during radiotherapy and to explore possible risks and benefits. METHODS: Twenty cachectic participants with head and neck cancer receiving radiation were randomized to obtain either a machine supported progressive resistance training (n = 10) or usual care (n = 10)...
November 6, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Beat Bojaxhiu, Arnoud J Templeton, Olgun Elicin, Mohamed Shelan, Kathrin Zaugg, Marc Walser, Roland Giger, Daniel M Aebersold, Alan Dal Pra
BACKGROUND: A high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammation and together with the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is associated with worse outcomes in several solid tumors. We investigated the prognostic value of NLR and PLR in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with primary or adjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy ((C)RT). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with HNSCC was performed...
November 6, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Sung Jun Ma, Kavitha M Prezzano, Gregory M Hermann, Anurag K Singh
BACKGROUND: Dose escalation of conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) above 45-54 Gy has an unclear survival benefit. Prior National Cancer Database (NCDB) analyses have shown improved overall survival with induction chemotherapy (iC) prior to concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Our study compared dose-escalated CFRT with and without iC. METHODS: The NCDB was queried for primary stage III, cT4 N0-1 M0 LAPC treated with CRT with or without iC (2004-2015)...
November 6, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Julia Dreyer, Michael Bremer, Christoph Henkenberens
PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic impact of comorbidity and age in medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using the age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (aCCI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between November 2008 and January 2015, 196 consecutive patients with medically inoperable NSCLC were treated with SBRT at a single institution. The prescribed isocenter dose was either 60.0 Gray (Gy) in six fractions for central lung cancer or 56...
November 3, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Tanja Sprave, Vivek Verma, Robert Förster, Ingmar Schlampp, Katharina Hees, Thomas Bruckner, Tilman Bostel, Rami Ateyah El Shafie, Thomas Welzel, Nils Henrik Nicolay, Jürgen Debus, Harald Rief
BACKGROUND: This was a prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized trial that analyzed bone density and pain response following fractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for palliative management of spinal metastases. METHODS/MATERIALS: Sixty patients were enrolled in the single-institutional randomized exploratory trial, randomly assigned to receive IMRT or 3DCRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions). Along with pain response (measured by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Chow criteria), quantitative bone density was evaluated at baseline, 3, and 6 months in both irradiated and unirradiated spinal bodies, along with rates of pathologic fractures and vertebral compression fractures...
October 30, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Letizia Deantonio, Angela Caroli, Erinda Puta, Daniela Ferrante, Francesco Apicella, Lucia Turri, Gianmauro Sacchetti, Marco Brambilla, Marco Krengli
BACKGROUND: [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F] FDG-PET/CT) may be used for tumor staging and prognosis in several tumors but its role in rectal cancer is still debated. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation of baseline [18F] FDG-PET parameters with tumor staging, tumor response (tumor regression grade (TRG)), and outcome in a series of patients affected by locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT)...
October 25, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Mélanie Guilhen, Christophe Hennequin, Idir Ouzaid, Ingrid Fumagalli, Valentine Martin, Sophie Guillerm, Pierre Mongiat-Artus, Vincent Ravery, François Desgrandchamps, Laurent Quéro
BACKGROUND: To evaluate long-term IPSS score and urinary quality of life after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, in patients with prior history of surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed medical records of patients treated in our department, between 2007 and 2013 with surgery for BPH followed by radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Patients were contacted to fill in IPSS questionnaire and they were also asked for urinary quality of life...
October 24, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Ning Li, Dan-Dan Meng, Ling Gao, Yue Xu, Pei-Jie Liu, Yong-Wei Tian, Zhen-Ying Yi, Yan Zhang, Xiao-Jing Tie, Zhi-Qiao Xu
BACKGROUND: HOTAIR was known to enhance radioresistance in several cancers. However, the function of HOTAIR on radioresistance involving the regulation of HIF-1α in cervical cancer has not been reported. METHODS: BALB/c nude mice were injected subcutaneously with HeLa cells and irradiated by X-ray. The tumor volume was measured and the expression of HOTAIR in tumors was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot was performed to detect the protein level of HIF-1α...
October 24, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Sébastien Thureau, Bernard Dubray, Romain Modzelewski, Pierre Bohn, Sébastien Hapdey, Sabine Vincent, Elodie Anger, David Gensanne, Nicolas Pirault, Gouel Pierrick, Pierre Vera
BACKGROUND: Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy is the reference treatment for non-resectable locally-advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Increasing radiotherapy total dose in the whole tumour volume has been shown to be deleterious. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET/CT) offers the potential to identify smaller and biologically meaningful target volumes that could be irradiated with larger doses without compromising Organs At Risk (OAR) tolerance. This study investigated four scenarios, based on 18 FDG and 18 F-miso PET/CT, to delineate the target volumes and derive radiotherapy plans delivering up to 74Gy...
October 23, 2018: Radiation Oncology
L Nicosia, L Agolli, C Reverberi, V De Sanctis, L Marinelli, G Minniti, J Di Muzio, M Valeriani, M F Osti
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate feasibility, toxicity profile and local control of salvage intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivered with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) associated or not to concomitant weekly cisplatin in patients affected by NSCLC with mediastinal nodal recurrence after surgery. Patterns of recurrence, outcomes and prognostic factors were assessed. METHODS: Fourteen consecutive patients received 25 fractions of 50Gy/2Gy to the elective nodal stations and boost up to 62...
October 23, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Gracinda Mondlane, Ana Ureba, Michael Gubanski, P A Lind, Albert Siegbahn
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy of liver metastases is commonly being performed with photon-beam based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The high risk for radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) is a limiting factor in these treatments. The use of proton-beam based SBRT could potentially improve the sparing of the healthy part of the liver. The aim of this study was to use estimations of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) to identify liver-metastases patients that could benefit from being treated with intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), based on the reduction of the risk for RILD...
October 22, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Xianzhi Zhao, Xiaofei Zhu, Jianfeng Fei, Haipeng Ren, Yangsen Cao, Xiaoping Ju, Zhiyong Yuan, Huojun Zhang
BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy and safety of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the management of adrenal gland metastases (AGMs) from lung cancer. Moreover, it is the first two-institutional experience and the largest-to-date study to report the safety and efficacy of SBRT for inoperable AGM from lung cancer. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 30 patients (27 males, 3 females) with 32 AGMs were treated by SBRT from October 2006 to June 2016. Of these, 11 patients were treated with the intent of controlling all known metastatic sites and 19 for palliation of bulky AGMs...
October 22, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Hanna Aula, Tanja Skyttä, Suvi Tuohinen, Tiina Luukkaala, Mari Hämäläinen, Vesa Virtanen, Pekka Raatikainen, Eeva Moilanen, Pirkko-Liisa Kellokumpu-Lehtinen
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced heart disease is mainly caused by activation of the fibrotic process. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are pro-fibrotic mediators. The aim of our study was to evaluate the behavior of TGF-β1 and PDGF during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer and the association of these cytokines with echocardiographic changes. METHODS: Our study included 73 women with early-stage breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) receiving post-operative RT but not chemotherapy...
October 19, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Christy Goldsmith, P Nicholas Plowman, Melanie M Green, Roger G Dale, Patricia M Price
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) offers an alternative treatment for pancreatic cancer, with the potential for improved tumour control and reduced toxicity compared with conventional therapies. However, optimal dose planning and delivery strategies are unelucidated and gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicity remains a key concern. METHODS: Patients with inoperable non-metastatic pancreatic cancer who received CyberKnife® SABR (18-36 Gy) in three fractions as primary, adjuvant, consolidation or re-treatment options were studied...
October 19, 2018: Radiation Oncology
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