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Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329113/therapeutic-hiv-1-vaccine-time-for-immunomodulation-and-combinatorial-strategies
#1
Nabila Seddiki, Yves Lévy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to recall some of the key immunological elements that are at the crossroad and need to be combined for developing a potent therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccines and cytokines have been commonly used to enhance and/or recall preexisting HIV-1 specific cell-mediated immune responses aiming to suppress virus replication. While the vaccine is important to stimulate HIV-1 specific T-cell responses, the cytokine may support the expansion of the stimulated virus-specific T cells...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278532/risks-of-cardiovascular-or-central-nervous-system-adverse-events-and-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-for-dolutegravir-versus-other-antiretrovirals-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#2
Andrew M Hill, Nikkita Mitchell, Sophie Hughes, Anton L Pozniak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Results from nonrandomized cohort studies suggest higher risks of CNS adverse events for dolutegravir, versus other ARVs. There have been two case reports of myocarditis on dolutegravir. Integrase inhibitors have been associated with IRIS in two cohort studies. Meta-analysis of randomized trials can be used to cross-check potential safety signals. This systematic review of drug safety used an EMBASE and MEDLINE search combined with serious adverse event (SAE) reports on the website www...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266013/neutralization-tiers-of-hiv-1
#3
David C Montefiori, Mario Roederer, Lynn Morris, Michael S Seaman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-1 isolates are often classified on the basis of neutralization 'tier' phenotype. Tier classification has important implications for the monitoring and interpretation of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses. The molecular basis that distinguishes the multiple neutralization phenotypes of HIV-1 has been unclear. We present a model based on the dynamic nature of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins and its impact on epitope exposure. We also describe a new approach for ranking HIV-1 vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses...
December 20, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266012/insights-on-transmission-of-hiv-from-phylogenetic-analysis-to-locally-optimize-hiv-prevention-strategies
#4
David A M C van de Vijver, Charles A B Boucher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Phylogenetic analysis can identify transmission networks by clustering genetically related HIV genotypes that are routinely collected. In this study, we will review phylogenetic insights gained on transmission of HIV and phylogenetically optimized HIV prevention strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analysis reports that HIV transmission varies by geographical region and by route of transmission. In high-income countries, HIV is predominantly transmitted between recently infected MSM who live in the same country...
December 20, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232209/recent-progress-in-understanding-hiv-reservoirs
#5
Hsiao-Hsuan Kuo, Mathias Lichterfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reservoirs of HIV-1-infected cells persist long-term despite highly effective antiretroviral suppression therapy and represent the main barrier against a cure for HIV-1. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the complexity and diversity of viral reservoir cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Latently infected memory CD4 T cells are the predominant cell compartment responsible for viral persistence, but some studies suggest that myeloid cells, and possibly hematopoietic progenitors, can also serve as long-term viral reservoirs...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227356/novel-advances-on-tissue-immune-dynamics-in-hiv-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-lessons-from-imaging-studies
#6
Eirini Moysi, Kartika Padhan, Giulia Fabozzi, Constantinos Petrovas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent findings on the effect of HIV/SIV infection on lymph node viral and T-cell dynamics using imaging-based methodologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic infection, particularly HIV/SIV, alters dramatically the microenvironment, immune cell frequency, distribution, function and tissue organization of secondary lymphoid tissues. These changes are not always reversible. Over the past few years, the implementation of advanced imaging protocols on human lymph node biopsies as well as on longitudinal lymphoid tissues samples from nonhuman primates (NHP) have provided a wealth of information on how local immune responses evolve over time in response to a persisting retroviral pathogen...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206656/hiv-integration-sites-and-implications-for-maintenance-of-the-reservoir
#7
Jori Symons, Paul U Cameron, Sharon R Lewin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recent research of how HIV integration relates to productive and latent infection and implications for cure strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: How and where HIV integrates provides new insights into how HIV persists on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Clonal expansion of infected cells with the same integration site demonstrates that T-cell proliferation is an important factor in HIV persistence, however, the driver of proliferation remains unclear...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194124/humanized-mouse-models-to-study-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#8
Guillemette Masse-Ranson, Hugo Mouquet, James P Di Santo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunodeficient mice that lack all lymphocyte subsets and have phagocytic cells that are tolerant of human cells can be stably xenografted with human hematopoietic stem cell as well as other human tissues (fetal liver and thymus) creating 'human immune system' (HIS) mice. HIS mice develop all major human lymphocyte classes (B, T, natural killer, and innate lymphoid cell) and their specialized subsets as well as a variety of myeloid cells (dendritic cell, monocytes, and macrophages) thereby providing a small animal model in which to interrogate human immune responses to infection...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194123/anti-hiv-1-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-is-there-more-to-antibodies-than-neutralization
#9
Wen Shi Lee, Stephen J Kent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An increasing body of evidence suggests that nonneutralizing Fc effector functions including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) contribute to protection against HIV-1 acquisition. We discuss recent advances in anti-HIV-1 ADCC research with a particular focus on ADCC mediated by Env-specific antibodies in vitro and in vivo, the curative potential of HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies and the mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance to ADCC. RECENT FINDINGS: ADCC activities of broadly neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibody panels were recently characterized in vitro against several lab-adapted and primary isolates of HIV-1...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176431/utilizing-gnotobiotic-models-to-inform-the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-vaccine-response-heterogeneity
#10
Jacob A Cram, Kevin W Hager, James G Kublin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gnotobiotic models have the potential to provide substantial insight into how the microbiome shapes its host's response to vaccines. This review aims to summarize literature about the role of the microbiome in shaping the immune system and vaccine response heterogeneity, summarize gnotobiotic and other murine models that help us understand the immune system and vaccine response, and suggest novel ways that these models could be used to further understand vaccine response heterogeneity...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045253/gut-microbial-diversity-in-hiv-infection-post-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-key-target-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Mohamed El-Far, Cécile L Tremblay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity. RECENT FINDING: Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135490/the-microbiome-and-hiv-persistence-implications-for-viral-remission-and-cure
#12
Wei Li A Koay, Lilly V Siems, Deborah Persaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the interaction between HIV infection, the gut microbiome, inflammation and immune activation, and HIV reservoirs, along with interventions to target the microbiome and their implications for HIV remission and cure. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies show that HIV-infected adults have a gut microbiome associated with decreased bacterial richness and diversity, and associated systemic inflammation and immune activation. A unique set of individuals, elite controllers, who spontaneously control HIV replication, have a similar microbiome to HIV-uninfected individuals...
January 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035948/hiv-and-aging-role-of-the-microbiome
#13
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
January 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984703/pathophysiology-of-ischaemic-heart-disease
#14
Mamatha O Pocock, Lucy Dorrell, Paola Cicconi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in people living with HIV (PLWH). RECENT FINDINGS: PLWH have an elevated risk of IHD. Although incidence is declining, this condition still represents a major cause of non-AIDS-related mortality. The cause is likely multifactorial: traditional risk factors play an important role and IHD risk might be reduced with greater emphasis on primary prevention. The contribution of specific antiretroviral agents to IHD risk is changing as antiretroviral coverage increases globally and as safer agents have replaced drugs with well-described metabolic toxicities...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984702/current-assessment-of-heart-rate-variability-and-qtc-interval-length-in-hiv-aids
#15
Roger C McIntosh, Judith D Lobo, Barry E Hurwitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease comorbidity in persons infected with the HIV has become a global concern. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is increasingly being utilized to provide clinically relevant information regarding cardiac arrhythmias and cardio-autonomic dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest research comparing QT and R-to-R interval length as a function of HIV+ status or antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. RECENT FINDINGS: Prolongation of the corrected QTc interval may be acquired in HIV+ ART-naive individuals, exacerbated by various classes of ART drugs, and is generally predictive of lethal cardiac arrhythmias, with effects observed from childhood to adulthood...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984701/hiv-related-cardiovascular-disease-closing-the-gap-in-mortality
#16
Cameron J Holloway, Franck Boccara
: This series of review articles outlines the complex cause of HIV-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) particularly the interactions of viral factors, complications of antiviral therapy such as metabolic derangement, and chronic systemic inflammation. These factors, directly stemming from chronic HIV infection, are important in the pathogenesis of HIV-related CVD. Addressing each issue has likely underpinned the improved morbidity and increased life expectancy enjoyed by patients in the modern era of HIV management...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902721/hiv-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
Harish Jarrett, Christopher Barnett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) is a well-recognized severe cardiovascular complication of HIV infection that confers an adverse prognosis irrespective of the stage of disease. This review will summarize the available data on HIV-PAH epidemiology and provide insights into the pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies currently available. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with HIV are several thousand times more likely to develop HIV-PAH compared to the incidence of idiopathic PAH...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863015/heart-failure-in-persons-living-with-hiv-infection
#18
Priscilla Y Hsue, David D Waters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss presentation, pathophysiology, complications, and treatment of heart failure in persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the advent of effective ART and improved longevity, heart failure has become more chronic and insidious and is often characterized by preserved ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. The mechanism underlying heart failure in the setting of HIV infection remains unknown...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832366/hiv-and-myocarditis
#19
Ntobeko A B Ntusi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the literature on HIV and myocarditis and HIV-associated heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, 17 million people are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. There is a decrease in mortality from HIV in the last decade with increased survival in those receiving ART. HIV-associated cardiac failure is on the increase, with more cases of diastolic dysfunction reported in the ART era. The pathophysiology of HIV-associated myocarditis is multifactorial...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799998/use-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-for-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-hiv-a-review
#20
Timothy A West, Jacinta Perram, Cameron J Holloway
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is increasingly common in the ageing population. Patients with atrial fibrillation and HIV have a higher stroke risk, with guidelines recommending anticoagulation in the majority. Whilst anticoagulation options have diversified in the last decade for the general population, there is limited evidence for the safety and efficacy of these medications when used concurrently with antiretroviral therapy. We review the potential for patients with HIV on antiretroviral therapy to have direct-acting oral anticoagulations (DOACs)...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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