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Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

Timothy J Henrich, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Kathryn E Stephenson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the recent landscape of HIV therapeutic vaccine research, emphasizing the results of randomized controlled trials that included analytical treatment interruption (ATI) to assess efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccines for HIV are designed to re-educate the host immune response in HIV-infected individuals to better control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. No therapeutic vaccine has yet to induce long-term HIV remission following ATI in a randomized controlled trial...
June 27, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Alison L Hill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of the contributions of mathematical modeling to understanding of HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Although HIV persistence during therapy could be caused by continual viral replication or slow-decaying latent infection, most evidence points toward the latter mechanism. The latent reservoir is maintained by a balance of cell death, proliferation, and reactivation, and new methods to estimate the relative contributions of these rates use a wide range of experimental data...
June 16, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Maria Pino, Mirko Paiardini, Vincent C Marconi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to describe the major barriers to HIV eradication and assess the most promising cure strategies under investigation. RECENT FINDINGS: There are significant challenges to achieve HIV eradication. These include the establishment of persistent latently infected cells, systemic chronic immune activation, and immune dysfunction. Since the announcement of the first HIV cure involving the Berlin patient, several attempts to reproduce these results have failed...
June 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Genevieve E Martin, John Frater
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the current review is to explore the evidence around virological remission in ART-treated and untreated individuals living with HIV. With increasing evidence and interest in post-treatment control within the HIV-cure field, it is now increasingly important to agree on definitions to allow different 'controller' phenotypes to be clearly distinguished and mechanisms compared. RECENT FINDINGS: This review explores recent data on potential predictors and mechanisms driving spontaneous and post-treatment control...
June 6, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Anne-Sophie Kuhlmann, Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has enabled tremendous progress in suppressing HIV replication in infected patients. However, ART alone cannot eradicate HIV and its latent, persisting reservoirs. Novel approaches are needed to eradicate the virus or achieve functional cure in the absence of ART. RECENT FINDINGS: Adoptive T-cell therapies were initially tested in HIV-infected individuals with limited efficiency. Benefiting from new and improved methodologies, an increasing array of CAR T-cell therapies has been successfully developed in the cancer immunotherapy field, demonstrating promising new avenues that could be applied to HIV...
June 6, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Ying Wen, Katharine J Bar, Jonathan Z Li
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical trials with an antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption remains indispensable for assessing strategies for ART-free HIV remission. This review highlights the lessons learned from ART interruption studies so far, including the risks to the participants and implications for HIV remission. RECENT FINDINGS: Historically, analytic HIV treatment interruption (ATI) studies were commonly designed with a prolonged duration of ART interruption and with viral load set point as the primary outcome...
June 6, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Pierre Gantner, Jade Ghosn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV functional cure requires the elimination or a major reduction of HIV reservoir pool including male and female genital HIV reservoirs. A comprehensive understanding of HIV dynamics in these compartments is mandatory. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from chronically HIV-infected therapy-naïve individuals or fully suppressed on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) or undergoing ART interruptions are now available. Using paired blood/genital samples, HIV-RNA/DNA quantification and sequencing provide new insights on HIV dynamics in genital reservoirs...
May 29, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Timothée Bruel, Olivier Schwartz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The HIV-1 reservoir is composed of infected cells poised to replicate and spread the virus upon treatment interruption. It constitutes the main obstacle toward an HIV-1 cure. Whether marker(s) may allow the detection of cells that form the reservoir is an outstanding question. Here, we present and discuss recent advances and controversies in the identification and characterization of markers of the HIV-1 reservoir. RECENT FINDINGS: Latently infected T cells that persist under successful therapy do not express viral antigens, making their identification challenging...
May 24, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Francesca Ferretti, Marta Boffito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rilpivirine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARV). The development of the long-acting formulation of rilpivirine (RPV-LA) and its use in clinical settings is the subject of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2017, the results of the phase IIb study LATTE2 have been published. This study demonstrated that the combination of RPV-LA with a second long-acting agent (cabotegravir) administered intramuscularly every 4--8 weeks was similar in virologic suppression rates to standard of care ARV treatment...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Marie-Alice Colombier, Jean-Michel Molina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review addresses the role of doravirine (DOR), a novel once-daily nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in first-line therapy at a time in which multiple options are available, and issues of antiviral efficacy, safety, simplicity and cost are critical to make informed decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: DOR combination regimens have been tested in two large randomized double-blinded clinical trials in treatment-naïve patients, showing noninferiority to ritonavir-boosted darunavir-based and efavirenz (EFV)-based regimens...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Charles Flexner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor adherence to oral antiretroviral formulations remains the major barrier to the success of long-term treatment and prevention strategies. Although a number of approaches have been developed for long-acting parenteral delivery of antiretroviral drugs, subcutaneous implants are a particularly promising technology as they may be able to provide protective drugs concentrations for a year or longer following a single implant. This review addresses the current status of preclinical and clinical development of antiretroviral implants...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Stephanie K Carnes, Jonathan H Sheehan, Christopher Aiken
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent advances in the discovery of chemical inhibitors targeting the HIV capsid and research on their mechanisms of action. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV infection is critically dependent on functions of the viral capsid. Numerous studies have reported the identification of a variety of compounds that bind to the capsid protein; some of these inhibit reverse transcription and nuclear entry, steps required for infection. Other capsid-targeting compounds appear to act by perturbing capsid assembly, resulting in noninfectious progeny virions...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Pedro Cahn, Valeria Fink, Patricia Patterson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Even in the era of modern HAART, antiretroviral (ARV) failure and emergence of drug resistance is still a problem worldwide. New classes with different mechanisms of action are needed to overcome this challenge. After the integrase inhibitors were launched, more than a decade ago, no new classes were added to the ARV armamentarium. RECENT FINDINGS: Fostemsavir (FTR) is an attachment inhibitor, active regardless of viral tropism, without cross-resistance to any of the existing ARV compounds...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Antonella Castagna, Adriano Lazzarin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we will highlight and discuss the recent efficacy and safety data of bictegravir (BIC), a novel second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) that has been recently approved, in coformulation with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF), for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in antiretroviral naïve subjects and in those with suppressed viremia. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical data showed that BIC has a genetic barrier that is higher than that of raltegravir and elvitegravir but is similar to that of dolutegravir (DTG), with retained activity in vitro against isolates containing substitutions associated with resistance against other INSTIs...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Christian Hoffmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Analyzing the evidence for the strand transfer integrase inhibitor cabotegravir (CAB; GSK744, GSK1265744), its properties and differences from other compounds in the class, as well as reviewing the preclinical and clinical evidence for its potential in antretroviral therapy and medical HIV prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: CAB has been investigated both as an oral and an injectable compound. Recent results show that it has promising properties with regards to its potential for parenteral maintenance therapy in combination with other compounds in HIV-infected patients currently suppressed on oral agents, as well as in preexposure prophylaxis...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Robert L Bettiker, David E Koren, Jeffrey M Jacobson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antiretroviral options for patients infected with multiclass resistant HIV-1 warrant the development of new agents with unique mechanisms of action and modes of delivery. Here we review one such agent, ibalizumab, a parenteral CD4 postattachment inhibitor that has demonstrated efficacy as part of combination antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV-1. RECENT FINDINGS: In a phase III clinical trial in HIV-infected participants with multiclass antiretroviral drug resistance, the intravenous administration of ibalizumab led to declines in plasma HIV-1 RNA more than 0...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Melanie A Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although antiretroviral therapy has become more potent and tolerable, adherence remains a barrier to continuous viral suppression and new approaches are needed. PRO 140 is a C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)-directed mAb with potential for weekly subcutaneous dosing. This review discusses data from the PRO 140 clinical development program including emerging data from ongoing efficacy studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Phase II development of PRO 140 began over a decade ago, and recently initiated phase IIb and III trials are ongoing in study participants with virologic failure and as monotherapy maintenance in virologically suppressed study participants...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Roy M Gulick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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