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Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748670/lessons-from-acute-hiv-infection
#1
Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the characteristics of transmission during acute HIV infection (AHI) may inform targets for vaccine-induced immune interdiction. Individuals treated in AHI with a small HIV reservoir size may be ideal candidates for therapeutic HIV vaccines aiming for HIV remission (i.e. viremic control after treatment interruption). RECENT FINDINGS: The AHI period is brief and peak viremia predicts a viral set point that occurs 4-5 weeks following infection...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902516/editorial-introductions
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875372/cutaneous-malignancies-in-hiv
#3
Aileen Y Chang, Phil Doiron, Toby Maurer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As patients with HIV infection are living longer with their disease, we have seen the evolution of skin cancer in this population. Cancer registries have not documented the incidence and prevalence of these cancers but we do have relevant data from cohorts. This article attempts to bring to light the extent to which skin cancer is an issue in HIV disease both domestically and internationally. RECENT FINDINGS: Squamous cell cancer is increasing in incidence in the United States and elsewhere...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849632/malignancies-in-women-with-hiv-infection
#4
Nora T Oliver, Elizabeth Y Chiao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current knowledge of different cancer states affecting women with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: With improved survival of persons with HIV in the post-cART era, the landscape of malignancies in this population has greatly changed with fewer AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and a growing number of non-AIDS defining malignancies (NADM). Women, however, continue to represent a vulnerable population at risk for certain ADM and NADM such as cervical, anal, and breast cancer...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828801/human-papillomavirus-associated-anal-and-cervical-cancers-in-hiv-infected-individuals-incidence-and-prevention-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era
#5
Joel M Palefsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased (anal cancer) or not declined (cervical cancer) since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This article reviews recent data on incidence and prevention efforts for HPV-related cancers in the ART era. RECENT FINDINGS: ART may confer some benefit with respect to reducing the risk of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and cancer, but the degree of that benefit appears to be limited...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763914/clinical-and-scientific-challenges-in-hiv-associated-malignancies
#6
Mark N Polizzotto, Ronald T Mitsuyasu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755153/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-and-cancer-risk
#7
Álvaro H Borges
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755152/hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-hiv
#8
Imane El Dika, James J Harding, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is becoming an important cause of mortality in patients with HIV, attributed to coinfection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and the longer survival advantage these patients are achieving after introducing the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to hepatitis infection, immunosuppression secondary to HIV infection, direct impact of the virus on liver parenchyma, and the use of hepatotoxic antiretroviral drugs, all contribute to HCC pathogenesis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755151/epstein-barr-virus-associated-lymphomas-in-people-with-hiv
#9
Antonino Carbone, Chiara C Volpi, Ambra V Gualeni, Annunziata Gloghini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the association of the different histotypes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas with known genetic lesions and/or oncogenic viruses. A more comprehensive understanding of the complex interplay existing between genetic abnormalities of tumor cells and the viral contribution to the development of EBV-associated lymphomas is pivotal for the development of more effective treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that HIV may contribute to lymphomagenesis by acting directly on B lymphocytes as a critical microenvironmental factor...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753654/cancer-care-disparities-in-people-with-hiv-in-the-united-states
#10
Gita Suneja, Anna Coghill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer is a growing problem in the HIV population, in large part because of aging of HIV-infected people treated with antiretroviral therapy. Overall and cancer-specific survival is worse in HIV-infected cancer patients compared with uninfected patients. One potential reason for the observed survival deficit is differences in cancer treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent population-based data suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients are less likely to receive cancer treatment compared with uninfected patients...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749369/evolving-epidemiology-of-hiv-associated-malignancies
#11
Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685986/hiv-associated-malignancies-in-children
#12
Elvira Singh, Gita Naidu, Mary-Ann Davies, Julia Bohlius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected children are at an increased risk of developing cancer. Many of the cancers in HIV-infected children are linked to immunosuppression and oncogenic coinfections. Worldwide most HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, but cancer data for this population are scarce. In this article, we review the current literature on the epidemiology and prevention of cancer in HIV-infected children. RECENT FINDINGS: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of developing cancer in HIV-infected children...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662501/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-associated-cancers-and-related-diseases
#13
Priscila H Goncalves, Joseph Ziegelbauer, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the pathogenesis and recent advances in the management of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: KSHV, a gammaherpesvirus, causes several tumors and related diseases, including Kaposi sarcoma, a form of multicentric Castleman disease (KSHV-MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma. These most often develop in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) is a newly described syndrome with high mortality that has inflammatory symptoms-like MCD but not the pathologic lymph node findings...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607596/lung-cancer-in-persons-with-hiv
#14
Keith Sigel, Alain Makinson, Jonathan Thaler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung cancer is emerging as a leading cause of death in HIV-infected persons. This review will discuss the latest scientific evidence regarding the mechanisms driving lung cancer risk in HIV infection, the clinical presentation of lung cancer in HIV-infected persons and recent data regarding the outcomes, treatment and prevention of lung cancer in this group. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased risk of lung cancer in HIV-infected persons is primarily due to higher smoking rates, but emerging evidence also implicates immunosuppression and inflammatory processes...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607593/hiv-associated-malignancies-in-sub-saharan-africa-progress-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
Lameck Chinula, Agnes Moses, Satish Gopal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent developments for HIV-associated malignancies (HIVAM) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) with particular focus on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up is leading to epidemiologic transitions in LMIC similar to high-income countries, with aging and growth of HIV-infected populations, declining infectious deaths, increasing cancer deaths, and transitions from AIDS-defining cancers to non-AIDS defining cancers...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607592/cancer-therapies-in-hiv-cure-research
#16
Thomas A Rasmussen, Jenny L Anderson, Fiona Wightman, Sharon R Lewin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of anticancer therapies in various stages of clinical development as potential interventions to target HIV persistence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetic drugs developed for cancer have been investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in clinical trials as interventions aimed at reversing HIV latency and depleting the amount of virus that persists on antiretroviral therapy. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors induced HIV expression in patients on antiretroviral therapy but did not reduce the frequency of infected cells...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559711/cancer-clinical-trials-in-persons-with-hiv-infection
#17
Richard F Little
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The era of modern HIV therapeutics is well underway. The cancer and infectious disease epidemiology of HIV disease has markedly altered as populations are availed to the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV). The types of cancers occurring among those with HIV infection has broadened but the case burden in absolute numbers is very low relative to the background population. There are fewer incident cases of the AIDS-defining cancers (aggressive B-cell lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, and cervical cancer)...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716734/lessons-from-acute-hiv-infection
#18
Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the characteristics of transmission during acute HIV infection (AHI) may inform targets for vaccine-induced immune interdiction. Individuals treated in AHI with a small HIV reservoir size may be ideal candidates for therapeutic HIV vaccines aiming for HIV remission (i.e. viremic control after treatment interruption). RECENT FINDINGS: The AHI period is brief and peak viremia predicts a viral set point that occurs 4-5 weeks following infection...
November 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716733/editorial-introductions
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662407/modeling-hiv-vaccine-trials-of-the-future
#20
Peter B Gilbert, Ying Huang, Holly E Janes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Models of implementation of known-effective interventions for HIV prevention indicate that an efficacious vaccine to prevent HIV infection would be critical for controlling the HIV pandemic. Key issues in the design of future HIV vaccine trials are: first, how to develop reliable immunological correlates of vaccine efficacy, second, how to down-select candidate vaccine regimens into efficacy trials, and third, how to learn about vaccine efficacy in the context of the evolving HIV prevention landscape...
November 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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