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Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538284/the-advance-study-a-groundbreaking-trial-to-evaluate-a-candidate-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#1
Willem D F Venter, Polly Clayden, Celicia Serenata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current WHO-recommended first-line therapy in low-income and middle-income countries has been very successful in saving millions of lives but still has toxicity concerns and a low barrier to resistance. RECENT FINDINGS: Two candidate antiretrovirals may substantially transform first-line therapy in low-income and middle-income countries, yielding a safer, more robust and cheaper regimen. Tenofovir alafenamide carries toxicity and cost benefits over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520610/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-dolutegravir
#2
Pedro Cahn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review addresses the role of dolutegravir (DTG) in first-line therapy. In the era of test and treat, where United Nations AIDS Program and WHO have set the ambitious targets of 90/90/90, new efficacious, well tolerated, and simple therapeutic options are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: DTG has been tested in large clinical trials in treatment-naïve patients, showing noninferiority to raltegravir and superiority compared with efavirenz and ritonavir-boosted darunavir, respectively...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509712/accelerating-access-and-scale-up-of-optimized-art-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-call-for-a-coordinated-end-to-end-approach
#3
Emily Harris, Carmen Pérez-Casas, Matthew Barnhart, Amy H Lin, Danielle Ferris, Olawale Ajose, Emma K Burgess, Rachel Fowler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss how aligning the collective power of scientists, regulators, drug companies, donors, implementers and advocates to achieve a single goal - accelerating access to simpler, safer, more robust and more affordable HIV treatment - can rapidly advance antiretroviral optimization efforts and enable scale-up. RECENT FINDINGS: Harmonization of traditionally sequential processes can address the delays commonly experienced in introducing new products to low-income and middle-income countries, by facilitating an 'end-to-end' approach that mitigates risk and encourages early planning for all aspects of product introduction...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486340/why-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#4
Charles Flexner, Polly Clayden, Francois Venter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463853/the-role-of-activists-in-access-to-hiv-and-tuberculosis-treatment-and-prevention
#5
Nathan Geffen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe the role of activism in improving access to quality HIV treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: In many countries, AIDS activists have campaigned for improved access to HIV treatment and prevention interventions. Studying medicine, epidemiology and law, and developing expertise in these fields, has been crucial to the success of these campaigns. Also important has been the building of alliances by activists with clinicians, nurses, scientists, and public health policy experts, persuading them of the importance of these campaigns...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441147/can-the-generic-antiretroviral-industry-support-access-to-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#6
Carolyn D Amole, Caroline Middlecote, Vineet R Prabhu, N Kumarasamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The generic antiretroviral (ARV) industry played a critical role in the massive scale-up of HIV treatment in low-income and middle-income countries since 2000. As the global community looks ahead to a universal antiretroviral regimen, this article considers the industry's role in supporting universal access to affordable, simpler, more durable, and tolerable HIV treatment regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Generic manufacturers made treatment scale-up in low-income and middle-income countries possible through reducing prices, combining molecules from different originator companies to develop optimal fixed-dose combinations, and investing in production capacity to meet escalating demand...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426519/toward-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-special-considerations-of-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding
#7
Amy L Slogrove, Polly Clayden, Elaine J Abrams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are prepared for introduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), we consider the current evidence related to dosing, efficacy and safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding of next-generation first-line and second-line ART regimens proposed for imminent introduction in the global marketplace. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy pharmacokinetic considerations include potentially insufficient efavirenz exposure if dosed at 400 mg/day, the need for twice daily darunavir dosing and the paucity of data related to tenofovir alafenamide and dolutegravir dosing, safety and efficacy...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410249/when-could-new-antiretrovirals-be-recommended-for-national-treatment-programmes-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-results-of-a-who-think-tank
#8
Marco Vitoria, Nathan Ford, Polly Clayden, Anton L Pozniak, Andrew M Hill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss barriers and opportunities for the introduction of new antiretrovirals into national treatment programmes in low-income and middle-income countries to support further treatment scale-up. Invitees to a WHO Think Tank in February 2017 evaluated recently published results. RECENT FINDINGS: There is not sufficient clinical experience of dolutegravir (DTG), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) or efavirenz 400 mg (EFV400) to recommend their use in pregnancy...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403028/compatibility-of-next-generation-first-line-antiretrovirals-with-rifampicin-based-antituberculosis-therapy-in-resource-limited-settings
#9
Gary Maartens, Marta Boffito, Charles Flexner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reduced dose efavirenz, dolutegravir, and/or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) are likely to be used in the next generation of first-line antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings, where HIV-associated tuberculosis is common. Rifampicin, which is a key component of first-line antituberculosis therapy, is a potent inducer of many drug transporters and metabolising enzymes. We reviewed the literature for potential or actual drug--drug interactions between these antiretrovirals and rifampicin...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403027/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-tenofovir-alafenamide
#10
Dzintars Gotham, Andrew Hill, Anton L Pozniak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a standard first-line therapy for HIV. Recently, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a different prodrug for the same active moiety, has been approved. In this review, we have conducted a meta-analysis comparing efficacy and safety data for TDF and TAF, to inform a discussion of which drug would be best for a proposed 'universal antiretroviral (ARV) regimen'. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 10 randomized controlled trials comparing TDF with TAF (6969 patients, 8043 patient-years of follow-up)...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403026/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-are-lamivudine-and-emtricitabine-interchangeable
#11
Nathan Ford, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Andy Gray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) are the most widely used antiretroviral medications worldwide and are considered by the WHO to be interchangeable. This article reviews evidence supporting interchangeability of 3TC and FTC and considerations for future use. RECENT FINDINGS: Three randomized trials have directly compared the safety and efficacy of 3TC and FTC against identical backbone regimens. Each of these trials reported a nonsignificant difference in virological suppression, and when results were pooled the overall difference was nonsignificant (relative risk 1...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383299/a-cost-savings-analysis-of-a-candidate-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#12
David Ripin, Vineet R Prabhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite significant strides in tackling HIV/AIDS in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), many treatment shortcomings remain, with limited drug selection to patients emerging as a critical challenge. The potential cost-savings benefits of adopting newer drugs as near-universal first-line antiretroviral (ARV) regimens that also provide improved clinical outcomes are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: In the near term, a fixed-dose combination of dolutegravir (DTG or D) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and either lamivudine or emtricitabine (XTC), that is, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/XTC/DTG (TXD) (X = XTC), could represent a near-universal first-line antiretroviral regimen offering significant clinical benefit, commodity savings, and overall health system savings...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368868/universal-antiretroviral-regimens-thinking-beyond-one-pill-once-a-day
#13
Jeffrey M Jacobson, Charles Flexner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor adherence to oral antiretroviral treatment in a subpopulation of persons with HIV-1 infection interferes with the potential success of the drug regimens in treating the infection. Here, we review long-acting antiretroviral strategies currently in clinical development that could prove useful for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in individuals not succeeding with short-acting oral regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has succeeded in creating two novel long-acting injectable antiretroviral compounds, carbotegravir and rilpivirine, which have completed early clinical trials demonstrating the safety, tolerability and prolonged antiretroviral activity...
March 31, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257302/progress-in-hiv-1-antibody-research-using-humanized-mice
#14
Henning Gruell, Florian Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent discoveries of highly potent broadly HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies provide new opportunities to successfully prevent, treat, and potentially cure HIV-1 infection. To test their activity in vivo, humanized mice have been shown to be a powerful model and were used to investigate antibody-mediated prevention and therapy approaches. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in humanized mice that have informed on the potential use of broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting HIV-1 in humans...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422793/engineering-antibody-like-inhibitors-to-prevent-and-treat-hiv-1-infection
#15
Matthew R Gardner, Michael Farzan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we discuss recently developed HIV-1 entry inhibitors that can target multiple epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), with an emphasis on eCD4-Ig. Some of these inhibitors are more potent and broader than any single antibody characterized to date. We also discuss the use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors as a platform for long-term expression of these inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Much of the exterior of HIV-1 Env can be targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422792/progress-in-hiv-1-antibody-research-using-humanized-mice
#16
Henning Gruell, Florian Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent discoveries of highly potent broadly HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies provide new opportunities to successfully prevent, treat, and potentially cure HIV-1 infection. To test their activity in vivo, humanized mice have been shown to be a powerful model and were used to investigate antibody-mediated prevention and therapy approaches. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in humanized mice that have informed on the potential use of broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting HIV-1 in humans...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422791/intrastructural-help-improving-the-hiv-1-envelope-antibody-response-induced-by-virus-like-particle-vaccines
#17
Vladimir Temchura, Klaus Überla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of IgG Fc-effector functions for the efficacy of HIV vaccines is increasingly recognized. Although different types of vaccines were shown to induce antibodies with different Fc-activities, there is no clear strategy how to raise antibody responses with a desired pattern of Fc-effector functions. Given the central role of T-helper cells in regulating the germinal center reaction and the differentiation of B cells in an antigen-specific manner, the review will discuss whether T-helper cells directed against non-HIV envelope (Env) antigens could be harnessed to improve the HIV-Env antibody response...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422790/particle-based-delivery-of-the-hiv-envelope-protein
#18
Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major focus in HIV vaccine research is the development of suitable antigens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses targeting HIV's envelope protein (Env). Delivery of Env in a repetitive manner on particle-based carriers allows higher avidity interactions and is therefore expected to efficiently engage B cells, thus leading to affinity maturation that results in superior antibody responses characterized by improved breadth, potency, and durability. This review summarizes current work that is evaluating diverse types of such particulate carriers for Env delivery...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422789/antigp41-membrane-proximal-external-region-antibodies-and-the-art-of-using-the-membrane-for-neutralization
#19
Nichole Cerutti, Juan Luis Loredo-Varela, Christophe Caillat, Winfried Weissenhorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize the latest research on the progress to understand the neutralizing epitopes present within the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41. RECENT FINDINGS: The HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41 contains a highly conserved sequence that is essential for membrane fusion and targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies such as 2F5, 4E10, Z13e1, and 10E8. These antibodies recognize a linear gp41 epitope with high affinity, but require additional hydrophobic sequences present in their heavy chain CDR3 for neutralization...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422788/stabilized-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-trimers-for-vaccine-use
#20
Max Medina-Ramírez, Rogier W Sanders, Quentin J Sattentau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the latest developments in the field of HIV-1 antibody-based soluble envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer design for vaccine use. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of soluble native-like HIV-1 Env trimer immunogens has moved the field of antibody-based vaccine design forward dramatically over the past few years with refinement of various stabilizing approaches. However, despite this progress, significant challenges remain...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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