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Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230658/engineering-antibody-like-inhibitors-to-prevent-and-treat-hiv-1-infection
#1
Matthew R Gardner, Michael Farzan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we discuss recently developed HIV-1 entry inhibitors that can target multiple epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), with an emphasis on eCD4-Ig. Some of these inhibitors are more potent and broader than any single antibody characterized to date. We also discuss the use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors as a platform for long-term expression of these inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Much of the exterior of HIV-1 Env can be targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230657/stabilized-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-trimers-for-vaccine-use
#2
Max Medina-Ramírez, Rogier W Sanders, Quentin J Sattentau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the latest developments in the field of HIV-1 antibody-based soluble envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer design for vaccine use. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of soluble native-like HIV-1 Env trimer immunogens has moved the field of antibody-based vaccine design forward dramatically over the past few years with refinement of various stabilizing approaches. However, despite this progress, significant challenges remain...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230656/role-of-nonneutralizing-antibodies-in-vaccines-and-or-hiv-infected-individuals
#3
Luzia Mayr, Bin Su, Christiane Moog
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased body of evidence gathered over time indicate that antibodies are capable of many inhibitory mechanisms, virus neutralization being just one of them. Nonneutralizing antibodyactivities interfering with HIV replication can also lead to a decrease in viral load and even in-vivo protection. RECENT FINDINGS: It was previously believed that neutralizing antibodies can achieve sterilizing protection mainly by using their neutralization capacities against the infecting virus directly at the portal of virus entry...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230655/lessons-learned-from-human-hiv-vaccine-trials
#4
Justin Pollara, David Easterhoff, Genevieve G Fouda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses is likely essential for development of a globally effective HIV vaccine. Unfortunately, human vaccine trials conducted to date have failed to elicit broad plasma neutralization of primary virus isolates. Despite this limitation, in-depth analysis of the vaccine-induced memory B-cell repertoire can provide valuable insights into the presence and function of subdominant B-cell responses, and identify initiation of antibody lineages that may be on a path towards development of neutralization breadth...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207490/how-hiv-1-entry-mechanism-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-guide-structure-based-vaccine-design
#5
Marie Pancera, Anita Changela, Peter D Kwong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207489/b-cell-abnormalities-and-impact-on-antibody-response-in-hiv-infection
#6
Alessandra Noto, Giuseppe Pantaleo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to provide an update on the current development in the field of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) and their potential use in the prevention and therapeutic settings, and an evaluation of the B-cell abnormalities that may impair antibody responses in HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Major advances have been achieved in the characterization of bNabs directed against different vulnerable regions of HIV Envelope (Env)...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207488/lessons-learned-from-humoral-responses-of-hiv-patients
#7
Laura E McCoy, Áine McKnight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since 2009 many broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV have been identified, yet there is still no vaccine capable of inducing such antibodies in humans. This review considers the early observations of HIV sera neutralization in light of more recent studies and highlights areas for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Large clinical cohort studies using standardized neutralization assays and pseudoviruses derived from primary isolates have shown that 10-30% of HIV infections result in some level of serum neutralization breadth...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207487/antibody-mediated-immune-exclusion-of-hiv
#8
Ruth M Ruprecht, Samir K Lakhashe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although approximately 90% of all HIV transmissions in humans occur through mucosal contact, the induction of mucosal anti-HIV immune responses has remained understudied. Here we summarize data demonstrating the powerful protection that is achievable at mucosal frontlines through virus-specific mucosal IgA alone or combined with IgG. RECENT FINDINGS: Passive immunization with different monoclonal antibody subclasses but identical epitope specificity (the conserved V3-loop crown of HIV gp120) has revealed that the dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) form with its open hinge can prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition in rhesus macaques at a higher rate than dIgA2...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207486/particle-based-delivery-of-the-hiv-envelope-protein
#9
Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major focus in HIV vaccine research is the development of suitable antigens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses targeting HIV's envelope protein (Env). Delivery of Env in a repetitive manner on particle-based carriers allows higher avidity interactions and is therefore expected to efficiently engage B cells, thus leading to affinity maturation that results in superior antibody responses characterized by improved breadth, potency, and durability. This review summarizes current work that is evaluating diverse types of such particulate carriers for Env delivery...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207485/antigp41-membrane-proximal-external-region-antibodies-and-the-art-of-using-the-membrane-for-neutralization
#10
Nichole Cerutti, Juan Luis Loredo-Varela, Christophe Caillat, Winfried Weissenhorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize the latest research on the progress to understand the neutralizing epitopes present within the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41. RECENT FINDINGS: The HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41 contains a highly conserved sequence that is essential for membrane fusion and targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies such as 2F5, 4E10, Z13e1, and 10E8. These antibodies recognize a linear gp41 epitope with high affinity, but require additional hydrophobic sequences present in their heavy chain CDR3 for neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207491/intrastructural-help-improving-the-hiv-1-envelope-antibody-response-induced-by-virus-like-particle-vaccines
#11
Vladimir Temchura, Klaus Überla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of IgG Fc-effector functions for the efficacy of HIV vaccines is increasingly recognized. Although different types of vaccines were shown to induce antibodies with different Fc-activities, there is no clear strategy how to raise antibody responses with a desired pattern of Fc-effector functions. Given the central role of T-helper cells in regulating the germinal center reaction and the differentiation of B cells in an antigen-specific manner, the review will discuss whether T-helper cells directed against non-HIV envelope (Env) antigens could be harnessed to improve the HIV-Env antibody response...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141619/editorial-introduction
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134713/hiv-viral-load-scale-up-multiple-interventions-to-meet-the-hiv-treatment-cascade
#13
Sergio Carmona, Trevor Peter, Leigh Berrie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2015, the WHO urged countries to provide ART to all people living with HIV, irrespective of their CD4 cell count, this new recommendation supports the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS elimination targets. However, to meet these aims, urgent scale-up of viral load testing is critical. The multiple interventions in the healthcare system required to support scale-up of viral load testing are reviewed here. RECENT FINDINGS: It is estimated that 18...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134712/diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-hiv-programmes-to-support-treatment-initiation-and-follow-up-and-improve-programme-quality
#14
Willem Daniel Francois Venter, Nathan Ford, Marco Vitoria, Wendy Stevens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The HIV 'cascade of care' breaks down at several points, with delayed HIV diagnosis, late treatment initiation, or interruption, leading to new morbidity and mortality and loss of prevention effects. New approaches are needed at each step. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV testing is still not reaching certain communities, resulting in late presentation. Creative ways to reach these communities is being explored, including with self-testing. HIV misdiagnosis is increasingly recognized as undermining testing programmes, highlighting the need for better quality control...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134711/looking-for-fungi-in-all-the-right-places-screening-for-cryptococcal-disease-and-other-aids-related-mycoses-among-patients-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#15
Greg Greene, Charlotte Sriruttan, Thuy Le, Tom Chiller, Nelesh P Govender
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As HIV treatment programmes scale up to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals, care must be taken to start antiretroviral treatment safely in patients with advanced disease (CD4 counts <200 cells/μl) who are simultaneously at risk for opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Invasive fungal diseases pose a great threat at this critical time point, though the development of inexpensive and highly accurate rapid diagnostic tests has changed the approach HIV programmes are taking to reduce the high mortality associated with these opportunistic infections...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134710/mortal-allies-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-noncommunicable-diseases
#16
Elizabeth S Mayne, Jaya A George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected individuals have improved access to antiretroviral therapy. This has resulted in a shift in causes of mortality from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and malignancies. This review will look at the epidemiological shift, risk factors for the development of these diseases and examine some of the supporting laboratory diagnostic testing, which may be required. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors for the development of these diseases in HIV-infected patients include underlying genetic predisposition, lifestyle risk factors, chronic inflammation as a consequence of HIV infection, the presence and persistence of opportunistic infections and in some cases, highly active antiretroviral therapy, itself...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079593/improving-the-clinic-laboratory-interface-in-the-context-of-hiv-diagnosis-treatment-and-monitoring
#17
Timothy Johan Tucker, Peter Tsakani Manyike
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laboratory support is central to clinical medicine. The present review focuses on the health systems strengthening needs of the clinic-laboratory-interface (CLI) in developing countries within the context of HIV diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring. RECENT FINDINGS: Although significant improvements have been made in reducing error rates in the analytical phase of pathology services within laboratories, there remain substantial deficits in both the preanalytic and postanalytic phases of the entire value chain that require strengthening...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079592/implementation-science-the-laboratory-as-a-command-centre
#18
Debrah I Boeras, John N Nkengasong, Rosanna W Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in point-of-care technologies to ensure universal access to affordable quality-assured diagnostics have the potential to transform patient management, surveillance programmes, and control of infectious diseases. Decentralization of testing can put tremendous stresses on fragile health systems if the laboratory is not involved in the planning, introduction, and scale-up strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of investments in novel technologies can only be realized if these tests are evaluated, adopted, and scaled up within the healthcare system with appropriate planning and understanding of the local contexts in which these technologies will be used...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079591/point-of-care-diagnostics-extending-the-laboratory-network-to-reach-the-last-mile
#19
Paul K Drain, Christine Rousseau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests are becoming available for HIV diagnosis and treatment in resource-limited settings. These novel technologies have the potential to foster decentralized HIV care and treatment for the benefit of clinical laboratories, HIV clinics, and HIV-infected patients. There continue to be many business, technological, and operational challenges that limit product development and regulatory approval, which limits products available for the required operational and cost-effectiveness studies and delays policy adoption and implementation...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059958/future-technologies-for-monitoring-hiv-drug-resistance-and-cure
#20
Urvi M Parikh, Kevin McCormick, Gert van Zyl, John W Mellors
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sensitive, scalable and affordable assays are critically needed for monitoring the success of interventions for preventing, treating and attempting to cure HIV infection. This review evaluates current and emerging technologies that are applicable for both surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and characterization of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and are obstacles to curing HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to be adapted into high-throughput, cost-efficient approaches for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring during continued scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and rollout of preexposure prophylaxis...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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