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Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079593/improving-the-clinic-laboratory-interface-in-the-context-of-hiv-diagnosis-treatment-and-monitoring
#1
Timothy Johan Tucker, Peter Tsakani Manyike
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laboratory support is central to clinical medicine. The present review focuses on the health systems strengthening needs of the clinic-laboratory-interface (CLI) in developing countries within the context of HIV diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring. RECENT FINDINGS: Although significant improvements have been made in reducing error rates in the analytical phase of pathology services within laboratories, there remain substantial deficits in both the preanalytic and postanalytic phases of the entire value chain that require strengthening...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079592/implementation-science-the-laboratory-as-a-command-centre
#2
Debrah I Boeras, John N Nkengasong, Rosanna W Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in point-of-care technologies to ensure universal access to affordable quality-assured diagnostics have the potential to transform patient management, surveillance programmes, and control of infectious diseases. Decentralization of testing can put tremendous stresses on fragile health systems if the laboratory is not involved in the planning, introduction, and scale-up strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of investments in novel technologies can only be realized if these tests are evaluated, adopted, and scaled up within the healthcare system with appropriate planning and understanding of the local contexts in which these technologies will be used...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079591/point-of-care-diagnostics-extending-the-laboratory-network-to-reach-the-last-mile
#3
Paul K Drain, Christine Rousseau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests are becoming available for HIV diagnosis and treatment in resource-limited settings. These novel technologies have the potential to foster decentralized HIV care and treatment for the benefit of clinical laboratories, HIV clinics, and HIV-infected patients. There continue to be many business, technological, and operational challenges that limit product development and regulatory approval, which limits products available for the required operational and cost-effectiveness studies and delays policy adoption and implementation...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059958/future-technologies-for-monitoring-hiv-drug-resistance-and-cure
#4
Urvi M Parikh, Kevin McCormick, Gert van Zyl, John W Mellors
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sensitive, scalable and affordable assays are critically needed for monitoring the success of interventions for preventing, treating and attempting to cure HIV infection. This review evaluates current and emerging technologies that are applicable for both surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and characterization of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and are obstacles to curing HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to be adapted into high-throughput, cost-efficient approaches for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring during continued scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and rollout of preexposure prophylaxis...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059957/the-evolving-role-of-cd4-cell-counts-in-hiv-care
#5
Nathan Ford, Graeme Meintjes, Marco Vitoria, Greg Greene, Tom Chiller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of the CD4 cell count in the management of people living with HIV is once again changing, most notably with a shift away from using CD4 assays to decide when to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). This article reflects on the past, current and future role of CD4 cell count testing in HIV programmes, and the implications for clinicians, programme managers and diagnostics manufacturers. RECENT FINDINGS: Following the results of recent randomized trials demonstrating the clinical and public health benefits of starting ART as soon as possible after HIV diagnosis is confirmed, CD4 cell count is no longer recommended as a way to decide when to initiate ART...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059956/improving-laboratory-efficiencies-to-scale-up-hiv-viral-load-testing
#6
George Alemnji, Philip Onyebujoh, John N Nkengasong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Viral load measurement is a key indicator that determines patients' response to treatment and risk for disease progression. Efforts are ongoing in different countries to scale-up access to viral load testing to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS target of achieving 90% viral suppression among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of these initiatives may be challenged by increased inefficiencies along the viral load testing spectrum...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#7
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941493/early-infant-diagnosis-of-hiv-review-of-current-and-innovative-practices
#8
Francesca Celletti, Gayle Sherman, Ahmad H Mazanderani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Only 51% of HIV-exposed infants receive an HIV test between 4 and 6 weeks of age, with even lower repeat testing rates at older ages, and only 49% of infants tested are initiated on antiretroviral therapy. The purpose of this article is to discuss potential solutions for increasing coverage of early infant diagnosis (EID), decreasing turnaround time for result return, improving linkages to care and treatment and fulfilling the objective of improving outcomes for HIV-infected children...
December 9, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902516/editorial-introductions
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875372/cutaneous-malignancies-in-hiv
#10
Aileen Y Chang, Phil Doiron, Toby Maurer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As patients with HIV infection are living longer with their disease, we have seen the evolution of skin cancer in this population. Cancer registries have not documented the incidence and prevalence of these cancers but we do have relevant data from cohorts. This article attempts to bring to light the extent to which skin cancer is an issue in HIV disease both domestically and internationally. RECENT FINDINGS: Squamous cell cancer is increasing in incidence in the United States and elsewhere...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849632/malignancies-in-women-with-hiv-infection
#11
Nora T Oliver, Elizabeth Y Chiao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current knowledge of different cancer states affecting women with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: With improved survival of persons with HIV in the post-cART era, the landscape of malignancies in this population has greatly changed with fewer AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and a growing number of non-AIDS defining malignancies (NADM). Women, however, continue to represent a vulnerable population at risk for certain ADM and NADM such as cervical, anal, and breast cancer...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828801/human-papillomavirus-associated-anal-and-cervical-cancers-in-hiv-infected-individuals-incidence-and-prevention-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era
#12
Joel M Palefsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased (anal cancer) or not declined (cervical cancer) since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This article reviews recent data on incidence and prevention efforts for HPV-related cancers in the ART era. RECENT FINDINGS: ART may confer some benefit with respect to reducing the risk of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and cancer, but the degree of that benefit appears to be limited...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763914/clinical-and-scientific-challenges-in-hiv-associated-malignancies
#13
Mark N Polizzotto, Ronald T Mitsuyasu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755153/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-and-cancer-risk
#14
Álvaro H Borges
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755152/hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-hiv
#15
Imane El Dika, James J Harding, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is becoming an important cause of mortality in patients with HIV, attributed to coinfection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and the longer survival advantage these patients are achieving after introducing the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to hepatitis infection, immunosuppression secondary to HIV infection, direct impact of the virus on liver parenchyma, and the use of hepatotoxic antiretroviral drugs, all contribute to HCC pathogenesis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755151/epstein-barr-virus-associated-lymphomas-in-people-with-hiv
#16
Antonino Carbone, Chiara C Volpi, Ambra V Gualeni, Annunziata Gloghini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the association of the different histotypes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas with known genetic lesions and/or oncogenic viruses. A more comprehensive understanding of the complex interplay existing between genetic abnormalities of tumor cells and the viral contribution to the development of EBV-associated lymphomas is pivotal for the development of more effective treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that HIV may contribute to lymphomagenesis by acting directly on B lymphocytes as a critical microenvironmental factor...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753654/cancer-care-disparities-in-people-with-hiv-in-the-united-states
#17
Gita Suneja, Anna Coghill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer is a growing problem in the HIV population, in large part because of aging of HIV-infected people treated with antiretroviral therapy. Overall and cancer-specific survival is worse in HIV-infected cancer patients compared with uninfected patients. One potential reason for the observed survival deficit is differences in cancer treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent population-based data suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients are less likely to receive cancer treatment compared with uninfected patients...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749369/evolving-epidemiology-of-hiv-associated-malignancies
#18
Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685986/hiv-associated-malignancies-in-children
#19
Elvira Singh, Gita Naidu, Mary-Ann Davies, Julia Bohlius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected children are at an increased risk of developing cancer. Many of the cancers in HIV-infected children are linked to immunosuppression and oncogenic coinfections. Worldwide most HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, but cancer data for this population are scarce. In this article, we review the current literature on the epidemiology and prevention of cancer in HIV-infected children. RECENT FINDINGS: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of developing cancer in HIV-infected children...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662501/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-associated-cancers-and-related-diseases
#20
Priscila H Goncalves, Joseph Ziegelbauer, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the pathogenesis and recent advances in the management of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: KSHV, a gammaherpesvirus, causes several tumors and related diseases, including Kaposi sarcoma, a form of multicentric Castleman disease (KSHV-MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma. These most often develop in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) is a newly described syndrome with high mortality that has inflammatory symptoms-like MCD but not the pathologic lymph node findings...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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