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Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771694/fostemsavir-a-new-cd4-attachment-inhibitor
#1
Pedro Cahn, Valeria Fink, Patricia Patterson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Even in the era of modern HAART, antiretroviral (ARV) failure and emergence of drug resistance is still a problem worldwide. New classes with different mechanisms of action are needed to overcome this challenge. After the integrase inhibitors were launched, more than a decade ago, no new classes were added to the ARV armamentarium. RECENT FINDINGS: Fostemsavir (FTR) is an attachment inhibitor, active regardless of viral tropism, without cross-resistance to any of the existing ARV compounds...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746267/cabotegravir-its-potential-for-antiretroviral-therapy-and-preexposure-prophylaxis
#2
Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Christian Hoffmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Analyzing the evidence for the strand transfer integrase inhibitor cabotegravir (CAB; GSK744, GSK1265744), its properties and differences from other compounds in the class, as well as reviewing the preclinical and clinical evidence for its potential in antretroviral therapy and medical HIV prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: CAB has been investigated both as an oral and an injectable compound. Recent results show that it has promising properties with regards to its potential for parenteral maintenance therapy in combination with other compounds in HIV-infected patients currently suppressed on oral agents, as well as in preexposure prophylaxis...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746266/ibalizumab
#3
Robert L Bettiker, David E Koren, Jeffrey M Jacobson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antiretroviral options for patients infected with multiclass resistant HIV-1 warrant the development of new agents with unique mechanisms of action and modes of delivery. Here we review one such agent, ibalizumab, a parenteral CD4 postattachment inhibitor that has demonstrated efficacy as part of combination antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV-1. RECENT FINDINGS: In a phase III clinical trial in HIV-infected participants with multiclass antiretroviral drug resistance, the intravenous administration of ibalizumab led to declines in plasma HIV-1 RNA more than 0...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746268/bictegravir
#4
Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Antonella Castagna, Adriano Lazzarin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we will highlight and discuss the recent efficacy and safety data of bictegravir (BIC), a novel second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) that has been recently approved, in coformulation with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF), for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in antiretroviral naïve subjects and in those with suppressed viremia. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical data showed that BIC has a genetic barrier that is higher than that of raltegravir and elvitegravir but is similar to that of dolutegravir (DTG), with retained activity in vitro against isolates containing substitutions associated with resistance against other INSTIs...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708899/the-return-of-pro-140-a-ccr5-directed-mab
#5
Melanie A Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although antiretroviral therapy has become more potent and tolerable, adherence remains a barrier to continuous viral suppression and new approaches are needed. PRO 140 is a C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)-directed mAb with potential for weekly subcutaneous dosing. This review discusses data from the PRO 140 clinical development program including emerging data from ongoing efficacy studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Phase II development of PRO 140 began over a decade ago, and recently initiated phase IIb and III trials are ongoing in study participants with virologic failure and as monotherapy maintenance in virologically suppressed study participants...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702493/new-hiv-drugs-2018-and-beyond
#6
Roy M Gulick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697469/broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-hiv-1-infection
#7
Yehuda Z Cohen, Marina Caskey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) with exceptional breadth and potency that target different HIV-1 envelope epitopes have been identified. bNAbs are an attractive new strategy for HIV-1 prevention and therapy, and potentially, for long-term remission or cure. Here, we discuss findings from early clinical studies that have evaluated these novel bNAbs. RECENT FINDINGS: Phase 1 studies of bNAbs targeting two distinct HIV-1 envelope epitopes have demonstrated their favorable safety and pharmacokinetic profile...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697468/4-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2-deoxyadenosine-mk-8591-a-novel-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-translocation-inhibitor
#8
Martin Markowitz, Stefan G Sarafianos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with a novel mechanism of action, unique structure, and amongst NRTIs, unparalleled anti-HIV-1 activity. We will summarize its structure and function, antiviral activity, resistance profile, and potential as an antiretroviral for use in the treatment and preexposure prophylaxis of HIV-1 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: EFdA is active against wild-type (EC50 as low as 50 pmol/l) and most highly NRTI-resistant viruses...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570471/retention-and-adherence-global-challenges-for-the-long-term-care-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-living-with-hiv
#9
Leslie A Enane, Rachel C Vreeman, Caroline Foster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adolescents living with HIV are the only age group with increasing HIV mortality at a time of global scale-up of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). As a 'treat all' strategy is implemented worldwide, it is critically important to optimize retention and adherence for this vulnerable group. RECENT FINDINGS: Adolescents and young adults living with HIV have poorer outcomes when compared with adults at each stage of the HIV care cascade, irrespective of income setting...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553948/dolutegravir-rilpivirine-coformulation
#10
Hsin-Yun Sun, Sui-Yuan Chang, Chien-Ching Hung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With prolonged life expectancy in HIV-positive patients on combination antiretroviral therapy, the quest for reducing lifelong drug exposure and minimizing or avoiding the toxicities of combination antiretroviral therapy while maintaining viral suppression has emerged when coformulations of antiretroviral agents with improved convenience, and better tolerability and efficacy became available. This review aims to update the current experience with the novel two-drug combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV) and elucidate the possible applications and limitations of coformulated DTG-RPV in the future...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547411/novel-therapies-hopes-for-hiv-cure-in-perinatally-acquired-hiv-positive-adolescents
#11
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528852/fixed-dose-darunavir-boosted-with-cobicistat-combined-with-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-fumarate
#12
Muge Cevik, Chloe Orkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In an era when virological efficacy approaches 100%, novel antiretroviral (ARV) therapies must deliver better tolerability, safety, and convenient coformulated regimens. We review the phase II and III clinical data on the fixed dose combination (FDC) darunavir (DRV) 800mg / cobicistat (COBI/C) 150 mg / emtricitabine (F/FTC) 200 mg / tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) 10mg (D/C/F/TAF) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: In an exploratory phase II study, D/C/F/TAF FDC demonstrated similar virological efficacy to darunavir/cobicistat FDC + F /tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) FDC in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected individuals with favorable bone and renal outcomes...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528851/adolescent-transition-among-young-people-with-perinatal-hiv-in-high-income-and-low-income-settings
#13
Ali Judd, Mary-Ann Davies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize evidence for health outcomes among adolescents and young people living with HIV (AYLHIV) who have transitioned to adult care/adulthood, views of AYLHIV and providers on the transition process, and the effect of adolescent and youth friendly services (AYFS) on outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 43 studies were identified [n = 13 high-income countries (HICs), n = 30 low-/middle-income countries (LMICs)]. In HICs, around 75% of patients were retained in care at approximately 4 years posttransition...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528850/adolescent-lives-matter-preventing-hiv-in-adolescents
#14
Audrey Pettifor, Marie Stoner, Carey Pike, Linda-Gail Bekker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many of the almost 2 million HIV infections that occurred globally in the last year occurred among adolescents and young people, particularly those from East and Southern Africa and within key populations. Global HIV epidemic control will require that new infections among these youth populations be curtailed. This review examines the most effective prevention approaches to reach these adolescent populations in the next 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Adolescents are in transition and are developmentally unique...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517500/hiv-and-adolescents-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
Mary-Ann Davies, Elizabeth Hamlyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461330/sexual-and-reproductive-health-in-hiv-positive-adolescents
#16
Lisa Hamzah, Elizabeth Hamlyn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize data in the last 18 months on the sexual and reproductive health of perinatally and horizontally infected adolescents and young people living with HIV (age 13-25 years) and to highlight some key issues faced by this group of adolescents as they reach puberty and sexual debut. RECENT FINDINGS: Adolescents and young people living with HIV are a growing cohort worldwide and a significant proportion engage in high-risk sexual activity, pose risk of onward HIV transmission, yet have poor access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and lack the knowledge and support to advocate for their needs...
May 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461329/cancer-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-living-with-hiv
#17
Julia Bohlius, Caroline Foster, Gita Naidu, Mazvita Sengayi, Anna Turkova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adults living with HIV have an increased risk of malignancy yet there is little data for adolescents and young adults. We reviewed recently published cancer epidemiology, treatment, and outcome data for adolescents and young adults living with HIV (AYALHIV) aged 10 to less than 25 years between 2016 and 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: AYALHIV are at increased risk of developing cancer compared to their uninfected peers. Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma occur most frequently with variation by geographical region...
May 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461328/the-challenges-of-timely-and-safe-hiv-disclosure-among-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
Désiré Dahourou, Jean-Philippe Raynaud, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Improved access to antiretroviral therapy has resulted in an emerging population of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Full disclosure of an HIV diagnosis includes naming HIV/AIDS and is an important step in coping with HIV. We reviewed the recent trends in the rates of children/adolescents who have been informed of their HIV infection according to age groups, the barriers and the evaluated interventions aimed at improving the HIV disclosure process to ALHIV in sub-Saharan Africa...
May 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432231/noncommunicable-diseases-in-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-1-infection-in-high-income-and-low-income-settings
#19
Steve Innes, Kunjal Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents may be at increased risk of noninfectious comorbidities later in life. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among HIV-infected adolescents in high-income and lower middle-income countries, and identifies key questions that remain unanswered. We review atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), chronic bone disease (CBD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic lung disease (CLD)...
May 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432230/youth-friendly-services-and-differentiated-models-of-care-are-needed-to-improve-outcomes-for-young-people-living-with-hiv
#20
Lindsey K Reif, Margaret L McNairy, Matthew R Lamb, Ruby Fayorsey, Batya Elul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Outcomes among young people living with HIV (YPLWH) remain disturbingly poor. We summarize recent research on youth-friendly services (YFS) and adolescent-specific differentiated care models, which may improve outcomes across the HIV care continuum for this vulnerable population. We further emphasize unique complexities that characterize the transition from childhood through adolescence to adulthood which must be considered when caring for YPLWH. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggest that YFS may improve outcomes in some but not all steps of the HIV care continuum...
May 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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