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Deana Mikhalkova, Sujata R Holman, Hui Jiang, Mohammed Saghir, Eric Novak, Andrew R Coggan, Robert O'Connor, Adil Bashir, Ali Jamal, Daniel S Ory, Jean E Schaffer, J Christopher Eagon, Linda R Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of gastric bypass on myocardial lipid deposition and function and the plasma lipidome in women with obesity and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS: A primary cohort (N = 12) with HFpEF and obesity underwent echocardiography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy both before and 3 months and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Plasma lipidomic analysis was performed before surgery and 3 months after surgery in the primary cohort and were confirmed in a validation cohort (N = 22)...
December 15, 2017: Obesity
Kathryn M Ross, Peihua Qiu, Lu You, Rena R Wing
OBJECTIVE: Although the trajectory of weight change during and/or after behavioral weight management interventions is believed to include a period of weight loss followed by maintenance and later regain, the sparse data produced by existing study designs (conducting assessments at 3- to 6-month intervals) have limited investigation into the precise pattern. METHODS: Seventy-five adults were asked to self-weigh daily via "smart" scales during a 12-week, Internet-based weight loss program and for an additional 9 months with no further intervention...
December 13, 2017: Obesity
Kristina T Legget, Marc-Andre Cornier, Daniel H Bessesen, Brianne Mohl, Elizabeth A Thomas, Jason R Tregellas
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to identify how sex influences neurobiological responses to food cues, particularly those related to hedonic eating, and how this relates to obesity propensity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Adult men and women who were either obesity resistant (OR) or obesity prone (OP) underwent fMRI while viewing visual food cues (hedonic foods, neutral foods, and nonfood objects) in both fasted and fed states...
December 13, 2017: Obesity
Karsten Königstein, Christopher Klenk, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Denis Infanger, Benjamin Hafner, Timo Hinrichs, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is clinically used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The relation to total body mass (TBM) leads to an underestimation of CRF in people with obesity and to inappropriate prognostic and therapeutic decisions. This study aimed to determine body composition-derived bias in the estimation of CRF in people with obesity. METHODS: Two hundred eleven participants (58.8% women; mean BMI 35.7 kg/m2 [± 6.94; 20.7-58...
December 12, 2017: Obesity
Dorothy Marie Meyer, Christina Brei, Lynne Stecher, Daniela Much, Stefanie Brunner, Hans Hauner
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal leptin exposure may modulate the risk of adiposity in early childhood. In previous analyses, negative associations between maternal (32 weeks' gestation) and cord blood leptin and offspring body composition at 2 years were observed. METHODS: Associations between maternal/cord blood leptin were assessed with indirect (i.e., body weight, BMI percentiles, sum of 4 skinfold thicknesses), and direct (i.e., ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging in a subgroup) growth and adipose tissue (AT) measurements in 120 children aged 3 to 5 years...
December 3, 2017: Obesity
Josiane L Broussard, Richard N Bergman, Isaac Asare Bediako, Rebecca L Paszkiewicz, Malini S Iyer, Cathryn M Kolka
OBJECTIVE: Diets high in saturated fat induce obesity and insulin resistance and impair insulin access to skeletal muscle, leading to reduced insulin levels at the muscle cell surface available to bind insulin receptors and induce glucose uptake. In contrast, diets supplemented with polyunsaturated fat improve insulin sensitivity (SI) and reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes. It was hypothesized that a diet high in polyunsaturated fat would preserve SI and insulin access to muscle, as compared with a diet high in saturated fat...
November 30, 2017: Obesity
Gregory R Keele, Jeremy W Prokop, Hong He, Katie Holl, John Littrell, Aaron Deal, Sanja Francic, Leilei Cui, Daniel M Gatti, Karl W Broman, Michael Tschannen, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Maie Zagloul, Yunjung Kim, Brittany Baur, Joseph Fox, Melanie Robinson, Shawn Levy, Michael J Flister, Richard Mott, William Valdar, Leah C Solberg Woods
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major risk factor for multiple diseases and is in part heritable, yet the majority of causative genetic variants that drive excessive adiposity remain unknown. Here, outbred heterogeneous stock (HS) rats were used in controlled environmental conditions to fine-map novel genetic modifiers of adiposity. METHODS: Body weight and visceral fat pad weights were measured in male HS rats that were also genotyped genome-wide. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified by genome-wide association of imputed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes using a linear mixed effect model that accounts for unequal relatedness between the HS rats...
November 28, 2017: Obesity
Mostafa Ibrahim, Susan Bonfiglio, Mathias Schlögl, Karyne L Vinales, Paolo Piaggi, Colleen Venti, Mary Walter, Jonathan Krakoff, Marie S Thearle
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to understand how the dietary source of carbohydrates, either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or complex carbohydrates, affects energy expenditure (EE) measures, appetitive sensations, and hormones during 24 hours of overfeeding. METHODS: Seventeen healthy participants with normal glucose regulation had 24-hour EE measures and fasting blood and 24-hour urine collection during four different 1-day diets, including an energy-balanced diet, fasting, and two 75% carbohydrate diets (5% fat) given at 200% of energy requirements with either HFCS or whole-wheat foods as the carbohydrate source...
November 28, 2017: Obesity
Dale S Bond, J Graham Thomas, Richard B Lipton, Julie Roth, Jelena M Pavlovic, Lucille Rathier, Kevin C O'Leary, E Whitney Evans, Rena R Wing
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test whether behavioral weight loss (BWL) intervention decreases headaches in women with comorbid migraine and overweight or obesity. METHODS: This randomized, single-blind trial allocated women 18 to 50 years old with 4 to 20 migraine days per month and a BMI = 25.0-49.9 kg/m2 to 16 weeks of BWL (n = 54), which targeted exercise and eating behaviors for weight loss, or to migraine education control (ME, n = 56), which delivered didactic instruction on migraine and treatments...
November 27, 2017: Obesity
Emmani B M Nascimento, Lauren M Sparks, Adeline Divoux, Marike W van Gisbergen, Evie P M Broeders, Johanna A Jörgensen, Gert Schaart, Nicole D Bouvy, Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt, Patrick Schrauwen
OBJECTIVE: Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity decreases with age and obesity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), several genetic markers of BAT in humans have been published. However, the link between human BAT activity and genetic markers has been inadequately explored. METHODS: White adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT biopsies were obtained from 16 patients undergoing deep neck surgery. In vitro differentiated adipocytes were used to measure norepinephrine-stimulated mitochondrial uncoupling as a measure of in vitro BAT activity...
November 27, 2017: Obesity
Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Maria Pisu, Suzanne E Judd, Michael Goodman, James M Shikany, Virginia J Howard, Monika Safford, Susan C Gilchrist
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether metabolic health status is associated with risk of cancer mortality and whether this varies by body mass index (BMI) category. METHODS: A prospective study of 22,514 participants from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort was performed. Metabolically unhealthy status was defined as having three or more of the following: (1) elevated fasting glucose, (2) high triglycerides, (3) dyslipidemia, (4) hypertension, and (5) elevated waist circumference...
November 27, 2017: Obesity
Chuan Gao, Carl D Langefeld, Julie T Ziegler, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Yii-Der I Chen, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Xiuqing Guo, Matthew A Allison, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Jerome I Rotter, Donald W Bowden, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Nicholette D Palmer
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the genetic mechanisms of regional fat deposition, which is a strong risk factor for metabolic diseases beyond total adiposity. METHODS: A genome-wide association study of 7,757,139 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 983 Mexican Americans (nmale  = 403; nfemale  = 580) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study was performed. Association analyses were performed with and without sex stratification for subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and visceral-subcutaneous ratio (VSR) obtained from computed tomography...
November 27, 2017: Obesity
Seung-Mi Lee, In-Sun Choi, Euna Han, David Suh, Eun-Kyung Shin, Seyunghe Je, Sung Su Lee, Dong-Churl Suh
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate treatment costs attributable to overweight and obesity in patients with diabetes who were less than 65 years of age in the United States. METHODS: This study used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2001 to 2013. Patients with diabetes were identified by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code (250), clinical classification codes (049 and 050), or self-reported physician diagnoses...
November 27, 2017: Obesity
Rodney A Velliquette, Arun Rajgopal, John Rebhun, Kelly Glynn
OBJECTIVE: To examine specific molecular mechanisms involved in modulating hepatic lipogenesis and mitochondria biogenesis signals by Lithospermum erythrorhizon (gromwell) root extract. METHODS: Stable cell lines with luciferase reporter constructs were generated to examine sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 (PGC1) α promoter activity and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) α response element activity...
November 22, 2017: Obesity
Xiaoling Cai, Wenjia Yang, Xueying Gao, Yifei Chen, Lingli Zhou, Simin Zhang, Xueyao Han, Linong Ji
OBJECTIVE: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may induce urinary glucose excretion via the inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption, improve glycemic control, and lower body weight. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate weight changes in patients who received different dosages of SGLT2 inhibitors. METHODS: Overall, 55 placebo-controlled trials were included. RESULTS: The results indicated that treatment with 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg of dapagliflozin led to significant decreases in body weight compared with a placebo (weighted mean difference [WMD], -1...
November 22, 2017: Obesity
Ana Basto-Abreu, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo Zepeda-Tello, Vanessa Camacho, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila
OBJECTIVE: The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI) in middle-income countries is mixed. Heterogeneity in SES indicators used could explain some differences. This study aimed to identify SES indicators consistently associated with BMI in Mexican adults in 2006, 2012, and 2016. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 2006, 2012, and 2016, including adults 20 to 59 years old. Given expected differences by sex, sex-stratified linear regression models were fitted for each survey...
November 20, 2017: Obesity
Theodore K Kyle, Fatima Cody Stanford, Joseph F Nadglowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Obesity
Megan W Harvey, Barry Braun, Karen A Ertel, Penelope S Pekow, Glenn Markenson, Lisa Chasan-Taber
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and cesarean delivery in Hispanics. METHODS: We examined these associations among 1,215 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort of Hispanic women studied from 2006 to 2011. Prepregnancy BMI, GWG, and the mode of delivery were abstracted from medical records. RESULTS: A quarter of the participants entered pregnancy with obesity, 23% delivered via cesarean, and 52% exceeded the Institute of Medicine guidelines for GWG...
November 16, 2017: Obesity
Ana Luiza G Soares, Alicia Matijasevich, Ana M B Menezes, Maria Cecília Assunção, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Laura D Howe, Helen Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adiposity in adolescents from two cohorts in different socioeconomic contexts. METHODS: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, United Kingdom) and the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (Brazil) were used. Six ACEs were assessed in both cohorts up to age 15. At 15 years, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and at 18 years, BMI, fat mass index, and android fat percentage were assessed...
November 14, 2017: Obesity
Sara N Bleich, Kelsey A Vercammen, Jonathan Wyatt Koma, Zhonghe Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide the most recent national estimates for beverage consumption among children and adults in the United States. METHODS: Dietary data were collected from 18,600 children aged 2 to 19 years and from 27,652 adults aged ≥ 20 years in the 2003 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Total beverage and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was measured by 24-hour dietary recall. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2014, per capita consumption of all beverages declined significantly among children (473...
November 14, 2017: Obesity
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