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Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726347/md2-blockage-protects-obesity-induced-vascular-remodeling-via-activating-ampk-nrf2
#1
Lintao Wang, Jibo Han, Peiren Shan, Shengban You, Xuemei Chen, Yiyi Jin, Jingying Wang, Weijian Huang, Yi Wang, Guang Liang
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels are tightly linked with vascular oxidative stress and remodeling. Myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), an important protein in innate immunity, is requisite for endotoxin lipopolysaccharide responsiveness. This study shows that palmitic acid (PA) also bonds to MD2, initiating cardiac inflammatory injury. However, it is not clear whether MD2 plays a role in noninflammatory systems such as obesity- and FFA-related oxidative stress involved in vascular remodeling and injury...
July 20, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722317/reward-capacity-predicts-leptin-dynamics-during-laboratory-controlled-eating-in-women-as-a-function-of-body-mass-index
#2
Laura M Holsen, Benita Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The role of leptin in mesolimbic signaling of non-food-related rewards has been well established at the preclinical level, yet studies in humans are lacking. The present investigation explored the association between hedonic capacity and leptin dynamics and whether this association differed by BMI class. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 75 women (42 with BMIs in the lean range and 33 with BMIs in the obesity range), serum leptin before and after meal consumption was measured...
July 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722299/cost-and-health-care-utilization-implications-of-bariatric-surgery-versus-intensive-lifestyle-and-medical-intervention-for-type-2-diabetes
#3
Souvik Banerjee, Louis P Garrison, David R Flum, David E Arterburn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the cost and health care utilization of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) randomized into either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery or an intensive lifestyle and medical intervention (ILMI). METHODS: This analysis (N = 745) is based on 2-year follow-up of a small randomized controlled trial (RCT); adult patients with obesity and T2DM were recruited between 2011 and 2012 from Kaiser Permanente Washington...
July 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712161/a-health-behavior-score-is-associated-with-hypertension-and-obesity-among-australian-adults
#4
Katherine M Livingstone, Sarah A McNaughton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between a health behavior score and prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity. METHODS: Adults (n = 4,609; 19-85 years) were included from the cross-sectional Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A health behavior score was derived based on individuals meeting recommendations for diet quality, smoking, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep. Poisson regression estimated the prevalence ratio (PR) of hypertension and overweight/obesity by health behavior score...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712159/association-of-the-cardiometabolic-staging-system-with-individual-engagement-and-quality-of-life-in-the-us-adult-population
#5
Sandra A Tsai, Lan Xiao, Nan Lv, Ying Liu, Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of Cardiometabolic Disease Staging (CMDS), a validated five-stage system for assessing risk for diabetes, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality, with measures of individual engagement and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the US adult population. METHODS: Data from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to derive the CMDS stages, five participant engagement measures, and four HRQOL measures among adult participants ≥ 40 years of age...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712143/reliability-of-the-echomri-infants-system-for-water-and-fat-measurements-in-newborns
#6
Tatiana Toro-Ramos, Charles Paley, William W Wong, F Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Wen W Yu, John Thornton, Dympna Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: The precision and accuracy of a quantitative magnetic resonance (EchoMRI Infants) system in newborns were determined. METHODS: Canola oil and drinking water phantoms (increments of 10 g to 1.9 kg) were scanned four times. Instrument reproducibility was assessed from three scans (within 10 minutes) in 42 healthy term newborns (12-70 hours post birth). Instrument precision was determined from the coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated scans for total water, lean mass, and fat measures for newborns and the mean difference between weight and measurement for phantoms...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712125/oral-contraceptive-pill-alters-acute-dietary-protein-induced-thermogenesis-in-young-women
#7
Maharani Retna Duhita, Yves Schutz, Jean-Pierre Montani, Abdul G Dulloo, Jennifer L Miles-Chan
OBJECTIVE: There is much interest in the role of dietary protein for weight control. However, there remains a need to characterize individual determinants of the thermogenic effects of protein. This study aimed to investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the combined, monophasic oral contraceptive pill on the thermogenic response to a standardized high-protein (HP) versus normal-protein (NP) meal. METHODS: Following an overnight fast, resting energy expenditure (EE) was measured in 16 healthy young women (8 taking and 8 not taking the pill) and 8 men for 30 minutes pre ingestion and 3 hours post ingestion of a NP (11%) or HP (24%) meal...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707376/immunosenescence-induced-by-plasma-from-individuals-with-obesity-caused-cell-signaling-dysfunction-and-inflammation
#8
Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Lucas Kich Grun, Patrícia Lavandoski, Letícia Biscaino Alves, Ivi Juliana Bristot, Rita Mattiello, Cláudio Corá Mottin, Fábio Klamt, Marcus Herbert Jones, Alexandre Vontobel Padoin, Fátima Costa Rodrigues Guma, Florencia María Barbé-Tuana
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consequences of plasma from individuals with obesity on parameters associated with immunosenescence in unrelated healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: Freshly isolated PBMC were incubated in media supplemented with 10% of plasma from individuals with obesity or control subjects for the first 4 hours of 24 to 120 hours of culture. RESULTS: Plasma from individuals with obesity modulated the phenotype of healthy PBMC, leading to a higher rate of apoptosis, lower amounts of phospho-γH2AX and -p53, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
July 14, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686006/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-in-women-with-overweight-or-obesity-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Nazia Raja-Khan, Katrina Agito, Julie Shah, Christy M Stetter, Theresa S Gustafson, Holly Socolow, Allen R Kunselman, Diane K Reibel, Richard S Legro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and cardiometabolic effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in women with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Eighty-six women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) were randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes included the Perceived Stress Scale-10, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. RESULTS: Compared to health education, the MBSR group demonstrated significantly improved mindfulness at 8 weeks (mean change from baseline, 4...
July 7, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677328/developing-and-testing-interventions-to-improve-obesity-related-outcomes-in-underserved-rural-communities-lessons-from-empower
#10
Michele Heisler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677241/neural-circuits-that-suppress-appetite-targets-for-treating-obesity
#11
Richard D Palmiter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660719/a-community-health-worker-delivered-intervention-in-african-american-women-with-type-2-diabetes-a-12-month-randomized-trial
#12
Lesley D Lutes, Doyle M Cummings, Kerry Littlewood, Emily Dinatale, Bertha Hambidge
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW)-delivered lifestyle intervention for African American women with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Participants were randomized to either 16 phone-based lifestyle intervention sessions aimed at making small changes in their diet and activity or 16 educational mailings sent across 12 months. Main outcomes included glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and weight (kg) changes. RESULTS: Two hundred middle-aged (mean = 53 ± 10...
June 29, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660652/change-in-use-of-sleep-medications-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-or-intensive-lifestyle-treatment-in-adults-with-obesity
#13
Winda L Ng, Anna Peeters, Ingmar Näslund, Johan Ottosson, Kari Johansson, Claude Marcus, Jonathan E Shaw, Gustaf Bruze, Johan Sundström, Martin Neovius
OBJECTIVE: To examine the change in use of hypnotics and/or sedatives after gastric bypass surgery or intensive lifestyle modification in adults with obesity. METHODS: Adults with obesity who underwent gastric bypass surgery or initiated intensive lifestyle modification between 2007 and 2012 were identified through the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry and a Swedish commercial weight loss database. The two cohorts were matched on BMI, age, sex, education, history of hypnotics and/or sedatives use, and treatment year (surgery n = 20,626; lifestyle n = 11,973; 77% women, mean age 41 years, mean BMI 41 kg/m(2) )...
June 29, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656645/regulation-of-nuclear-receptor-interacting-protein-1-nrip1-gene-expression-in-response-to-weight-loss-and-exercise-in-humans
#14
Yang De Marinis, Jiangming Sun, Pradeep Bompada, Judit Domènech Omella, Cheng Luan, Arda Halu, Erik Renström, Amitabh Sharma, Martin Ridderstråle
OBJECTIVE: Nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 (NRIP1) is an important energy regulator, but few studies have addressed its role in humans. This study investigated adipose tissue and skeletal muscle NRIP1 gene expression and serum levels in response to weight loss and exercise in humans. METHODS: NRIP1 expression was measured by microarray and serum NRIP1 by ELISA and Western blotting. Skeletal muscle transcriptomes were analyzed from Gene Expression Omnibus databases...
June 28, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650582/synergistic-modulation-of-inflammatory-but-not-metabolic-effects-of-high-fat-feeding-by-ccr2-and-cx3cr1
#15
Hanrui Zhang, Christine C Hinkle, Sean M O'Neill, Jianting Shi, Jennifer Caughey, Emma Lynch, Gina Lynch, Mark Gerelus, Andrew S D Tsai, Rachana Shah, Jane F Ferguson, Rexford S Ahima, Muredach P Reilly
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore the impact of dual targeting of C-C motif chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) on the metabolic and inflammatory consequences of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: C57BL/6J wild-type, Cx3cr1(-/-) , Ccr2(-/-) , and Cx3cr1(-/-) Ccr2(-/-) double-knockout male and female mice were fed a 45% HFD for up to 25 weeks starting at 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: All groups gained weight at a similar rate and developed a similar degree of adiposity, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and impairment of insulin sensitivity in response to HFD...
June 26, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650578/intake-of-energy-and-protein-is-associated-with-overweight-risk-at-age-5-5-years-results-from-the-prospective-teddy-study
#16
Andreas Beyerlein, Ulla M Uusitalo, Suvi M Virtanen, Kendra Vehik, Jimin Yang, Christiane Winkler, Mathilde Kersting, Sibylle Koletzko, Desmond Schatz, Carin Andrén Aronsson, Helena Elding Larsson, Jeffrey P Krischer, Anette-G Ziegler, Jill M Norris, Sandra Hummel
OBJECTIVE: The associations of energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake with weight status up to the age of 5.5 years were prospectively assessed in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. METHODS: Food record data (over 3 days) and BMI measurements between 0.25 and 5.5 years were available from 5,563 children with an increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes followed from shortly after birth. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for overweight and obesity by previous intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat with adjustment for potential confounders...
June 26, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649807/microrna-196-regulates-hox-gene-expression-in-human-gluteal-adipose-tissue
#17
Adeline Divoux, Hui Xie, Jian-Liang Li, Kalypso Karastergiou, Ranjan J Perera, R Jeffrey Chang, Susan K Fried, Steven R Smith
OBJECTIVE: Lower body fat is associated with diminishing cardiometabolic risk. Physiological differences between gluteofemoral and abdominal subcutaneous adipocyte functions are known, but the molecular basis for depot differences in adipocyte function is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify depot differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression in human abdominal and gluteofemoral subcutaneous adipose tissues and their implication in gene regulation. METHODS: Abdominal and gluteofemoral adipose tissue aspirates obtained from 18 participants (9 male and 9 female, age 30 ± 1...
June 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646548/targeted-calorie-message-promotes-healthy-beverage-consumption-better-than-charity-incentive
#18
Peggy Policastro, Taylor Palm, Janet Schwartz, Gretchen Chapman
OBJECTIVE: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is cited as a major contributor to the U.S. obesity epidemic. The objective of this paper was to leverage insights from behavioral economics to examine whether nudges would entice college students to save meal calories by choosing water over SSBs. METHODS: Three message-based nudge interventions, with washout periods between, were used during the 7-week study. Calorie savings (self-interest), charity (prosocial), or charity-plus-calorie message posters were displayed in a college-based food franchise...
June 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646541/health-care-quality-measuring-obesity-in-performance-frameworks
#19
REVIEW
Tracy Zvenyach, Matthew K Pickering
OBJECTIVE: Obesity affects over one-third of Americans and leads to several chronic and costly comorbid conditions. The national movement toward value-based care calls for a refocusing of efforts to address the US obesity epidemic. To help set the stage, the current landscape of obesity-specific quality measures was evaluated. METHODS: Seven quality measure databases and nine professional societies were searched. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Measures were then classified by domain and by implementation in national public programs...
June 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643464/adiponectin-isoform-patterns-in-ethnic-specific-adipoq-mutation-carriers-the-iras-family-study
#20
Keri L Tabb, Chuan Gao, Pamela J Hicks, Gregory A Hawkins, Jerome I Rotter, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Xiuqing Guo, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Barry I Freedman, Donald W Bowden, Nicholette D Palmer
OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin is found in human serum in three groups of multimers (high molecular weight [HMW], medium molecular weight [MMW], and low molecular weight [LMW]). Two ethnic-specific variants in ADIPOQ, G45R (Hispanic-Americans) and R55C (African-Americans), were previously reported. Although carriers of both variants had mean adiponectin levels ≤ 20% of those of noncarriers, they were not clinically different from noncarriers. To compare carriers of both variants and noncarriers, relative quantification of adiponectin isoforms to total adiponectin was performed on serum samples...
June 23, 2017: Obesity
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