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Shima Bibi, Yifei Kang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) may alter the offspring intestinal immune system, thereby enhancing susceptibility toward inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of maternal HFD on offspring intestinal health using a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Dams were provided with either HFD (60%) or control diet. After weaning, female offspring from both groups were kept on 45% HFD...
March 24, 2017: Obesity
Matthew W Gillman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Obesity
Meghan L Butryn, Evan M Forman, Michael R Lowe, Amy A Gorin, Fengqing Zhang, Katherine Schaumberg
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare weight loss through a traditional behavioral treatment (BT) approach that integrated skills for managing the obesogenic food environment (BT + E) with an approach that integrated environmental and acceptance-based skills (BT + EA). Moderators were examined as an exploratory aim. METHODS: Adults (N = 283) were randomly assigned to treatment condition and provided with 26 group-based sessions over the course of 12 months...
March 23, 2017: Obesity
Lin Song, Bo Sun, Gretha J Boersma, Zachary A Cordner, Jianqun Yan, Timothy H Moran, Kellie L K Tamashiro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine how the rat placenta and fetus respond to maternal high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and to identify the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow (13.5% fat) or HF (60% fat) diet during gestation. Placentas were collected on gestation day 21. RESULTS: HF dams had greater fat mass, higher plasma leptin, lower plasma adiponectin, and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Obesity
Rachel S Gross, Alan L Mendelsohn, H Shonna Yin, Suzy Tomopoulos, Michelle B Gross, Roberta Scheinmann, Mary Jo Messito
OBJECTIVE: To describe infant activity at 3 months old and to test the efficacy of a primary care-based child obesity prevention intervention on promoting infant activity in low-income Hispanic families. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial (n = 533) comparing a control group of mother-infant dyads receiving standard prenatal and pediatric primary care with an intervention group receiving "Starting Early," with individual nutrition counseling and nutrition and parenting support groups coordinated with prenatal and pediatric visits...
March 22, 2017: Obesity
Rubia Khalak, Asha Rijhsinghani, Sarah E McCallum
OBJECTIVE: Infants born at less than  34 weeks' gestational age are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality. Data are limited on the impact of maternal obesity on the very preterm infant. This study reviewed whether maternal obesity further increases the intensive care needs of very preterm infants of less than 34 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Maternal and neonatal data for live-born singleton births of 23 0/7 to 33 6/7 weeks' gestation delivering in upstate New York were reviewed...
March 22, 2017: Obesity
Su-Hsin Chang, Yao-Chi Yu, Nils P Carlsson, Xiaoyan Liu, Graham A Colditz
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated racial disparity in life expectancies (LEs) and life years lost (LYL) associated with multiple obesity-related chronic conditions (OCCs). METHODS: Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008-2012, were used. Four OCCs were studied: diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke. LE for each subpopulation was simulated by Markov modelling. LYL associated with a disease for a subpopulation was computed by taking the difference between LEs for members of that subpopulation without disease and LEs for members of that subpopulation who had that disease...
March 22, 2017: Obesity
Marie-France Hivert, Denise M Scholtens, Catherine Allard, Michael Nodzenski, Luigi Bouchard, Diane Brisson, Lynn P Lowe, Ian McDowell, Tim Reddy, Zari Dastani, J Brent Richards, M Geoffrey Hayes, William L Lowe
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated genetic determinants of adiponectin during pregnancy to reveal novel biology of adipocyte regulation. METHODS: A genome-wide association study was conducted in 1,322 pregnant women from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study with adiponectin measured at ∼28 weeks of gestation. Variants reaching P < 5×10(-5) for de novo genotyping in two replication cohorts (Genetics of Glycemic regulation in Gestation and Growth N = 522; ECOGENE-21 N = 174) were selected...
March 20, 2017: Obesity
Tasuku Terada, Normand G Boulé, Mary Forhan, Carla M Prado, Glen P Kenny, Denis Prud'homme, Eiji Ito, Ronald J Sigal
OBJECTIVE: To examine the interplay between high fat and low muscle mass on cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline and in response to exercise in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using baseline percent body fat and skeletal muscle mass index, 248 participants were divided into high fat versus low fat and low muscle versus high muscle. Linear mixed models were used to examine the main effects of fat mass and muscle mass and their interaction on baseline cardiometabolic risk factors and changes in risk factors in response to 6-month exercise training...
March 20, 2017: Obesity
Guanjie Chen, Ayo P Doumatey, Jie Zhou, Lin Lei, Amy R Bentley, Olufemi Fasanmade, Godfrey Okafor, Benjamin Eghan, Kofi Agyenim-Boateng, Albert Amoah, Clement Adebamowo, Joseph Acheampong, Thomas Johnson, Johnnie Oli, Daniel Shriner, Adebowale A Adeyemo, Charles N Rotimi
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity varies between ethnic groups. No genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body mass index (BMI) has been conducted in continental Africans. METHODS: We performed a GWAS for BMI in 1,570 West Africans (WA). Replication was conducted in independent samples of WA (n = 1,411) and African Americans (AA) (n = 9,020). RESULTS: We identified a novel genome-wide significant African-specific locus for BMI (SEMA4D, rs80068415; minor allele frequency = 0...
March 13, 2017: Obesity
Jessica G Woo, Tim J Cole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: Obesity
Jillian L S Byrne, Tamara Yee, Kathleen O'Connor, Michele P Dyson, Geoff D C Ball
OBJECTIVE: To assess registration and reporting details of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from 2011 to 2016 across four obesity journals. METHODS: All issues from four leading obesity journals were searched systematically for RCTs from January 2011 to June 2016. Data on registration status were extracted from manuscripts, online trial registries, and a trial database; corresponding authors were contacted for registration details, when necessary. The methodological reporting of RCTs was assessed on specific criteria from the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials...
March 11, 2017: Obesity
Sergio Valdés, Cristina Maldonado-Araque, Ana Lago-Sampedro, Juan Antonio Lillo-Muñoz, Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes, Vidal Perez-Valero, Carolina Gutiérrez-Repiso, Eva Garcia-Escobar, Albert Goday, Inés Urrutia, Laura Peláez, Alfonso Calle-Pascual, Elena Bordiú, Luis Castaño, Conxa Castell, Elias Delgado, Edelmiro Menéndez, Josep Franch-Nadal, Sonia Gaztambide, Joan Girbés, Emilio Ortega, Joan Vendrell, Matilde R Chacón, F Javier Chaves, Federico Soriguer, Gemma Rojo-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reference range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in different BMI categories and its impact on the classification of hypothyroidism. METHODS: The study included 3,928 individuals free of thyroid disease (without previous thyroid disease, no interfering medications, TSH <10 µUI/mL and thyroid peroxidase antibodies [TPO Abs] <50 IU/mL) who participated in a national, cross-sectional, population-based study and were representative of the adult population of Spain...
March 9, 2017: Obesity
Jessica M Cronce, Michele A Bedard-Gilligan, Lindsey Zimmerman, Kimberley A Hodge, Debra Kaysen
OBJECTIVE: Sexual-minority women are at elevated risk for obesity, as well as exposure to traumatic events. Rates of obesity are elevated in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but little is known about why this relationship exists. Behavioral mechanisms, such as eating patterns and alcohol use, are possible explanations that would be clinically useful to identify. METHODS: Binge eating and alcohol use were longitudinally investigated as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and body mass index (BMI) in a large sample of young-adult, sexual-minority women (N = 425)...
March 9, 2017: Obesity
Laura A Forney, Desiree Wanders, Kirsten P Stone, Alicia Pierse, Thomas W Gettys
OBJECTIVE: Restricting dietary methionine to 0.17% produces a series of physiological responses through coordinated transcriptional effects in liver and adipose tissue. The goal of the present work was to determine the threshold concentrations above and below 0.17% at which the beneficial responses to 0.17% dietary methionine are preserved. METHODS: Diets were formulated to restrict methionine to different degrees, followed by evaluation of the transcriptional and physiological responses to the different diets...
March 6, 2017: Obesity
Dominic N Reeds, Terri A Pietka, Kevin E Yarasheski, W Todd Cade, Bruce W Patterson, Adewole Okunade, Nada A Abumrad, Samuel Klein
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that HIV infection impairs the beneficial effects of weight loss on insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. METHODS: A prospective clinical trial evaluated the effects of moderate diet-induced weight loss on body composition, metabolic function, and adipose tissue biology in women with obesity who were HIV-seronegative (HIV-) or HIV-positive (HIV+). Body composition, multiorgan insulin sensitivity (assessed by using a two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with stable isotopically labeled tracer infusions), and adipose tissue expression of markers of inflammation, autophagy, and ER stress were evaluated in 8 HIV- and 20 HIV+ women with obesity before and after diet-induced weight loss of 6% to 8%...
February 28, 2017: Obesity
David S Freedman, Nancy F Butte, Elsie M Taveras, Elizabeth A Lundeen, Heidi M Blanck, Alyson B Goodman, Cynthia L Ogden
OBJECTIVE: Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts are widely used, BMI-for-age z-Scores (BMIz) are known to be uninformative above the 97th percentile. This study compared the relations of BMIz and other BMI metrics (%BMIp95 , percent of 95th percentile, and ΔBMIp95 , BMI minus 95th percentile) to circumferences, skinfolds, and fat mass. We were particularly interested in the differences among children with severe obesity (%BMIp95  ≥ 120). METHODS: Data was used from 30,003 2- to 19-year-olds who were examined from 1999-2000 through 2013-2014 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
February 28, 2017: Obesity
Claire Monnereau, Pauline W Jansen, Henning Tiemeier, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Janine F Felix
OBJECTIVE: Childhood eating behaviors are associated with body mass index (BMI). Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adult and childhood BMI. This study hypothesized that these SNPs also influence eating behavior. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 3,031 children (mean age [standard deviation]: 4.0 [0.1] years), two weighted genetic risk scores, based on 15 childhood and 97 adult BMI SNPs, and ten individual appetite- and/or satiety-related SNPs were tested for association with food fussiness, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, satiety responsiveness, and slowness in eating...
February 28, 2017: Obesity
Alok S Pachori, Meenu Madan, Yury O Nunez Lopez, Fanchao Yi, Christian Meyer, Attila A Seyhan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of secreted frizzled-related protein 3 (Sfrp3) in insulin sensitivity (ISi) and β-cell function in humans across a spectrum of glucose homeostasis. METHODS: Subjects included those with normal glucose homeostasis (NGT; n = 18), prediabetes (PD; n = 11), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; n=12). Serum and skeletal muscle (SkM) Sfrp3 levels were measured by ELISA and qPCR, respectively, and insulin signaling pathway was assessed by Western blot...
February 27, 2017: Obesity
Shristi Rawal, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Howard J Hoffman, Helen Swede, Valerie B Duffy
OBJECTIVE: Variation in taste perception and exposure to risk factors of taste alterations have been independently linked with elevated adiposity. Using a laboratory database, taste-adiposity associations were modeled and examined for whether taste functioning mediates the association between taste-related risk factors and adiposity. METHODS: Healthy women (n = 407, 35.5 ± 16.9 y) self-reported histories of risk factors of altered taste functioning (tonsillectomy, multiple ear infections, head trauma) and were assessed for taste functioning (tongue-tip and whole-mouth intensities of quinine and salt) and density of taste papillae...
February 27, 2017: Obesity
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