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Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547918/exercise-with-weight-loss-improves-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-markers-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-postmenopausal-women
#1
Heidi K Ortmeyer, Andrew P Goldberg, Alice S Ryan
OBJECTIVE: The effects of 6-month weight loss (WL) versus aerobic exercise training (AEX)+WL on fat and skeletal muscle markers of fatty acid metabolism were determined in normal (NGT) and impaired (IGT) glucose tolerant African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women with overweight/obesity. METHODS: Fat (gluteal and abdominal) lipoprotein lipase (LPL), skeletal muscle LPL, acyl-CoA synthase (ACS), ß-hydroxacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), and citrate synthase (CS) activities were measured at baseline (n = 104) and before and after WL (n = 34) and AEX+WL (n = 37)...
May 26, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544651/genetic-determination-of-body-fat-distribution-and-the-attributive-influence-on-metabolism
#2
Ellen Fehlert, Róbert Wagner, Caroline Ketterer, Anja Böhm, Jürgen Machann, Louise Fritsche, Fausto Machicao, Fritz Schick, Harald Staiger, Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Martin Heni
OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with estimates of body fat distribution. Using predefined risk allele scores, the correlation of these scores with precisely quantified body fat distribution assessed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques and with metabolic traits was investigated. METHODS: Data from 4,944 MR scans from 915 subjects of European ancestry were analyzed. Body fat distribution was determined by MR imaging and liver fat content by (1) H-MR spectroscopy...
May 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544480/obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-developing-functional-limitation-among-older-adults-a-conditional-inference-tree-analysis
#3
Feon W Cheng, Xiang Gao, Le Bao, Diane C Mitchell, Craig Wood, Martin J Sliwinski, Helen Smiciklas-Wright, Christopher D Still, David D K Rolston, Gordon L Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk factors of developing functional decline and make probabilistic predictions by using a tree-based method that allows higher order polynomials and interactions of the risk factors. METHODS: The conditional inference tree analysis, a data mining approach, was used to construct a risk stratification algorithm for developing functional limitation based on BMI and other potential risk factors for disability in 1,951 older adults without functional limitations at baseline (baseline age 73...
May 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508493/exome-sequencing-reveals-novel-genetic-loci-influencing-obesity-related-traits-in-hispanic-children
#4
Aniko Sabo, Pamela Mishra, Shannon Dugan-Perez, V Saroja Voruganti, Jack W Kent, Divya Kalra, Shelley A Cole, Anthony G Comuzzie, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Nancy F Butte
OBJECTIVE: To perform whole exome sequencing in 928 Hispanic children and identify variants and genes associated with childhood obesity. METHODS: Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified from Illumina whole exome sequencing data using integrated read mapping, variant calling, and an annotation pipeline (Mercury). Association analyses of 74 obesity-related traits and exonic variants were performed using SeqMeta software. Rare autosomal variants were analyzed using gene-based association analyses, and common autosomal variants were analyzed at the SNV level...
May 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500692/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-fat-sugar-and-umami-taste-preference-and-food-intake-and-body-weight-regulation
#5
Simonetta Camandola, Mark P Mattson
OBJECTIVE: Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. METHODS: Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium...
May 12, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500684/impact-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-on-appetite-alcohol-intake-behaviors-and-midbrain-ghrelin-signaling-in-the-rat
#6
Sunil Sirohi, Ben D Richardson, Janelle M Lugo, David J Rossi, Jon F Davis
OBJECTIVE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery reduces appetite and stimulates new onset alcohol misuse; however, the genesis of these behavioral changes is unclear. This study is hypothesized that new onset alcohol intake is a behavioral adaptation that occurs secondary to reduced appetite and correlates with altered central ghrelin signaling. METHODS: Hedonic high-fat diet (HFD) intake was evaluated prior to the assessment of alcohol intake behaviors in RYGB and control rats...
May 12, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500663/obesity-and-related-risk-of-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-among-israeli-adolescents
#7
Adi Leiba, Adrian Duek, Arnon Afek, Estela Derazne, Merav Leiba
OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been associated with various malignancies, but a clear association between overweight and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has not been established. METHODS: This study assessed the association between adolescent obesity and future risk for MPN. Data on 2,516,256 Israeli adolescents, who underwent a compulsory general health examination at ages 16 to 19, between 1967 and 2011, were linked to the National Cancer Registry in this nationwide, population-based cohort study...
May 12, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494136/effects-of-an-abbreviated-obesity-intervention-supported-by-mobile-technology-the-engaged-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Bonnie Spring, Christine A Pellegrini, Angela Pfammatter, Jennifer M Duncan, Alex Pictor, H Gene McFadden, Juned Siddique, Donald Hedeker
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects on weight loss of three abbreviated behavioral weight loss interventions with and without coaching and mobile technology. METHODS: A randomized controlled efficacy study of three 6-month weight loss treatments was conducted in 96 adults with obesity: 1) self-guided (SELF), 2) standard (STND), or 3) technology-supported (TECH). STND and TECH received eight in-person group treatment sessions. SELF and STND used paper diaries to self-monitor diet, activity, and weight; TECH used a smartphone application with social networking features and wireless accelerometer...
May 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494135/prospective-association-between-body-mass-index-at-midlife-and-healthy-aging-among-french-adults
#9
Indunil Ruhunuhewa, Moufidath Adjibade, Valentina A Andreeva, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Karen E Assmann, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between midlife body mass index (BMI) and healthy aging (HA) in the French SU.VI.MAX cohort. METHODS: HA was assessed in 2007 to 2009 among 2,733 individuals, aged 45 to 60 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline (1994-1995). HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health, and no function-limiting pain...
May 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494125/harassment-and-mental-distress-among-adolescent-female-students-by-sexual-identity-and-bmi-or-perceived-weight-status
#10
Michelle Marie Johns, Richard Lowry, Zewditu Demissie, Leah Robin
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls' risk for harassment and mental distress. METHODS: Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight...
May 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371524/accumulation-of-adverse-childhood-events-and-overweight-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Leonie K Elsenburg, Kim J E van Wijk, Aart C Liefbroer, Nynke Smidt
OBJECTIVE: This study systematically summarizes the evidence of all observational studies investigating the relation between accumulation of adverse life events and measures of overweight in children <18 years. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were systematically searched (last search date 18 February 2015). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for methodological quality assessment. Study estimates were pooled using a random-effects model, and sources of heterogeneity were explored (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014014927)...
April 3, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371313/obesogenic-eating-behaviors-mediate-the-relationships-between-psychological-problems-and-bmi-in-children
#12
Kimberley Margaret Mallan, Lynne Allison Daniels, Jan Maree Nicholson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between psychological problems and weight status in children aged 3.5 to 4 years and test whether obesogenic eating behaviors mediate this relationship. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from first-time mothers (N = 194) in the control arm of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. At child age 3.5 to 4 years, maternal-reported child eating behaviors and psychological problems were collected via valid tools, and child weight and height data were collected by trained study staff...
March 29, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345799/george-lincoln-blackburn-md-phd-1936-2017
#13
Steven B Heymsfield, Caroline M Apovian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345789/childhood-body-mass-index-and-development-of-type-2-diabetes-throughout-adult-life-a-large-scale-danish-cohort-study
#14
Esther Zimmermann, Lise G Bjerregaard, Michael Gamborg, Allan A Vaag, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Jennifer L Baker
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how a wide spectrum of body mass index (BMI) values at ages 7 to 13 years are associated with type 2 diabetes throughout adulthood, including potential modifying effects of sex and birth weight. METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, 292,827 individuals, born between 1930 and 1989, were followed in national registers for type 2 diabetes (women, n = 7,472; men, n = 11,548). Heights and weights were measured at ages 7 to 13 years...
March 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342299/plasma-microrna-signature-predicting-weight-gain-among-mexican-american-women
#15
Hua Zhao, Jie Shen, Carrie Daniel-MacDougall, Xifeng Wu, Wong-Ho Chow
OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in obesity. However, whether they can contribute to adult weight gain is still unclear. METHODS: In the training set with 40 nonsmoking, healthy women identified from the Mano-A-Mano Mexican American Cohort study, global circulating miRNA profiles in plasma samples were assessed. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the effects of plasma miRNAs on significant weight gain during a 5-year follow-up...
March 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339172/maternal-high-fat-diet-consumption-enhances-offspring-susceptibility-to-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#16
Shima Bibi, Yifei Kang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) may alter the offspring intestinal immune system, thereby enhancing susceptibility toward inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of maternal HFD on offspring intestinal health using a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Dams were provided with either HFD (60%) or control diet. After weaning, female offspring from both groups were kept on 45% HFD...
March 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337849/early-infancy-interventions-to-prevent-childhood-obesity
#17
Matthew W Gillman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332771/prenatal-high-fat-diet-alters-placental-morphology-nutrient-transporter-expression-and-mtorc1-signaling-in-rat
#18
Lin Song, Bo Sun, Gretha J Boersma, Zachary A Cordner, Jianqun Yan, Timothy H Moran, Kellie L K Tamashiro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine how the rat placenta and fetus respond to maternal high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and to identify the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow (13.5% fat) or HF (60% fat) diet during gestation. Placentas were collected on gestation day 21. RESULTS: HF dams had greater fat mass, higher plasma leptin, lower plasma adiponectin, and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332298/impact-of-maternal-obesity-on-very-preterm-infants
#19
Rubia Khalak, Asha Rijhsinghani, Sarah E McCallum
OBJECTIVE: Infants born at less than  34 weeks' gestational age are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality. Data are limited on the impact of maternal obesity on the very preterm infant. This study reviewed whether maternal obesity further increases the intensive care needs of very preterm infants of less than 34 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Maternal and neonatal data for live-born singleton births of 23 0/7 to 33 6/7 weeks' gestation delivering in upstate New York were reviewed...
March 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296206/assessing-adiposity-using-bmi-z-score-in-children-with-severe-obesity
#20
Jessica G Woo, Tim J Cole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: Obesity
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