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Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815952/partial-sleep-deprivation-reduces-the-efficacy-of-orexin-a-to-stimulate-physical-activity-and-energy-expenditure
#1
Danielle P DePorter, Jamie E Coborn, Jennifer A Teske
OBJECTIVE: Sufficient sleep is required for weight maintenance. Sleep deprivation due to noise exposure stimulates weight gain by increasing hyperphagia and reducing energy expenditure (EE). Yet the mechanistic basis underlying the weight gain response is unclear. Orexin-A promotes arousal and negative energy balance, and orexin terminals project to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which is involved in sleep-to-wake transitions. To determine whether sleep deprivation reduces orexin function in VLPO and to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation would attenuate the orexin-A-stimulated increase in arousal, physical activity (PA), and EE...
August 17, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815943/impact-response-comparison-between-parametric-human-models-and-postmortem-human-subjects-with-a-wide-range-of-obesity-levels
#2
Kai Zhang, Libo Cao, Yulong Wang, Eunjoo Hwang, Matthew P Reed, Jason Forman, Jingwen Hu
OBJECTIVE: Field data analyses have shown that obesity significantly increases the occupant injury risks in motor vehicle crashes, but the injury assessment tools for people with obesity are largely lacking. The objectives of this study were to use a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate parametric finite element models with a wide range of obesity levels and to evaluate their biofidelity against impact tests using postmortem human subjects (PMHS). METHODS: Frontal crash tests using three PMHS seated in a vehicle rear seat compartment with body mass index (BMI) from 24 to 40 kg/m(2) were selected...
August 17, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782918/improvements-in-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-young-adults-in-a-randomized-trial-of-approaches-to-weight-gain-prevention
#3
Rena R Wing, Deborah F Tate, Katelyn R Garcia, Judy Bahnson, Cora E Lewis, Mark A Espeland
OBJECTIVE: Weight gain occurs commonly in young adults and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Following on a previous report that two self-regulation interventions reduced weight gain relative to control, this study examines whether these interventions also benefit CVD risk factors. METHODS: The Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention was a randomized trial in two academic settings (N = 599; 18-35 years; BMI 21-30 kg/m(2) ) comparing two interventions (Self-Regulation with Small Changes; Self-Regulation with Large Changes) and a control group...
August 7, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782917/dairy-attenuates-weight-gain-to-a-similar-extent-as-exercise-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet
#4
Sarah K Trottier, Rebecca E K MacPherson, Carly M Knuth, Logan K Townsend, Willem T Peppler, John S Mikhaeil, Cam F Leveille, Paul J LeBlanc, Jane Shearer, Raylene A Reimer, David C Wright
OBJECTIVE: To compare the individual and combined effects of dairy and endurance exercise training in reducing weight gain and adiposity in a rodent model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: An 8-week feeding intervention of a high-fat, high-sugar diet was used to induce obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were then assigned to one of four groups for 6 weeks: (1) casein sedentary (casein-S), (2) casein exercise (casein-E), (3) dairy sedentary (dairy-S), and (4) dairy exercise (dairy-E)...
August 7, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782916/reduced-willingness-to-expend-effort-for-reward-in-obesity-link-to-adherence-to-a-3-month-weight-loss-intervention
#5
Fernanda Mata, Michael Treadway, Alastair Kwok, Helen Truby, Murat Yücel, Julie C Stout, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) compare the willingness to expend effort for rewards between young adults with healthy weight, overweight, and obesity; and (2) to examine how individual differences in the willingness to expend effort for rewards predict adherence to weight loss treatment. METHODS: Seventy-three participants completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Of those 73 participants, 42 young adults with excess weight took part in a 3-month weight loss treatment after completing the EEfRT...
August 7, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782888/physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-associations-with-metabolic-health-across-weight-statuses-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
Nicholas Kuzik, Valerie Carson, Lars Bo Andersen, Luís B Sardinha, Anders Grøntved, Bjørge Herman Hansen, Ulf Ekelund
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic health across weight statuses and the associations of physical activity and sedentary time within and across metabolic health-weight status groups. METHODS: Six studies (n = 4,581) from the International Children's Accelerometry Database were used. Sedentary time, light physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were accelerometer derived. Individuals were classified with normal weight (NW), overweight, or obesity...
August 7, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767203/stress-related-changes-in-body-form-results-from-the-whitehall-ii-study
#7
Britta Kubera, Claudine Leonhard, Andreas Rößler, Achim Peters
OBJECTIVE: Stress is associated with body mass gain in some people but with body mass loss in others. When the stressor persists, some people adapt with their stress responses, whereas others do not. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects autonomic variability and is related to stress responses to psychosocial challenges. It was hypothesized that the combined effects of stress exposure and autonomic variability predict long-term changes in body form. METHODS: Data of 1,369 men and 612 women from the Whitehall II cohort were analyzed...
August 2, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763168/the-effect-of-nonnutritive-sweeteners-added-to-a-liquid-diet-on-volume-and-caloric-intake-and-weight-gain-in-rats
#8
David J Bissonnette, Samantha List, Penny Knoblich, M Hadley
OBJECTIVE: Long-term effects of diet beverage consumption on the regulation of caloric intake is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the chronic intake of a liquid diet with nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) would lead to greater appetite and weight gain. METHODS: Wistar rats were fed a liquid diet (Osmolite) sweetened with nutritive sweetener (NS; sucrose) and NNS (stevia and saccharin) or a nonsweetened control. Intakes and weight gain were measured...
August 1, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758372/metabolomic-profiling-of-long-term-weight-change-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-urate-levels-in-weight-gain
#9
Cristina Menni, Marie Migaud, Gabi Kastenmüller, Tess Pallister, Jonas Zierer, Annette Peters, Robert P Mohney, Tim D Spector, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Christian Gieger, Steve C Moore, Ana M Valdes
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between long-term weight change and blood metabolites. METHODS: Change in BMI over 8.6 ± 3.79 years was assessed in 3,176 females from the TwinsUK cohort (age range: 18.3-79.6, baseline BMI: 25.11 ± 4.35) measured for 280 metabolites at follow-up. Statistically significant metabolites (adjusting for covariates) were included in a multivariable least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) model. Findings were replicated in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study (n = 1,760; age range: 25-70, baseline BMI: 27...
July 31, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758370/validity-of-the-remote-food-photography-method-against-doubly-labeled-water-among-minority-preschoolers
#10
Theresa Nicklas, Rabab Saab, Noemi G Islam, William Wong, Nancy Butte, Rebecca Schulin, Yan Liu, John W Apolzan, Candice A Myers, Corby K Martin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the validity of energy intake (EI) estimations made using the remote food photography method (RFPM) compared to the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in minority preschool children in a free-living environment. METHODS: Seven days of food intake and spot urine samples excluding first void collections for DLW analysis were obtained on thirty-nine 3- to 5-year-old Hispanic and African American children. Using an iPhone, caregivers captured before and after pictures of each child's intake, pictures were wirelessly transmitted to trained raters who estimated portion size using existing visual estimation procedures, and energy and macronutrients were calculated...
July 31, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758369/early-life-factors-obesity-risk-and-the-metabolome-of-young-adults
#11
Sebastian Rauschert, Trevor A Mori, Lawrence J Beilin, Peter Jacoby, Olaf Uhl, Berthold Koletzko, Wendy H Oddy, Christian Hellmuth
OBJECTIVE: Noncommunicable diseases such as obesity have become a serious global public health epidemic. This study aimed to examine whether there was an association between early life factors (with a special focus on breastfeeding) BMI, waist circumference, and the metabolome in offspring at 20 years. METHODS: Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were analyzed using 1,024 plasma samples from the 20-year follow-up. A liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used to measure metabolites...
July 31, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758362/metabolomic-determinants-of-metabolic-risk-in-mexican-adolescents
#12
Wei Perng, Emily C Hector, Peter X K Song, Martha Maria Tellez Rojo, Sasha Raskind, Maureen Kachman, Alejandra Cantoral, Charles F Burant, Karen E Peterson
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify metabolites associated with metabolic risk, separately by sex, in Mexican adolescents. METHODS: Untargeted metabolomic profiling was carried out on fasting serum of 238 youth aged 8 to 14 years, and metabolites associated with a metabolic syndrome risk z-score (MetRisk z-score) were identified separately for boys and girls, using the simulation and extrapolation algorithm. Associations of each metabolite with MetRisk z-score were examined using linear regression models that accounted for maternal education, child's age, and pubertal status...
July 31, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737293/reduced-prenatal-weight-gain-and-or-augmented-postnatal-weight-gain-precedes-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescent-girls
#13
Francis de Zegher, Thomas Reinehr, Rita Malpique, Feyza Darendeliler, Abel López-Bermejo, Lourdes Ibáñez
OBJECTIVE: Hepato-visceral fat excess is a feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Risk factors for such excess include low prenatal weight gain and high postnatal weight gain. This study examined whether adolescent PCOS was preceded by a relatively low birth weight and/or a relatively high BMI at diagnosis. METHODS: Study participants included 467 girls with PCOS (298 without obesity and 169 with obesity), diagnosed, respectively, in Spain and Germany; 87 healthy girls were controls...
July 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737292/obesity-as-a-disease-why-ignore-the-numbers
#14
LETTER
June Stevens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737258/preclinical-alterations-in-myocardial-microstructure-in-people-with-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Jennifer E Ho, Youssef Rahban, Harpaul Sandhu, Pranoti G Hiremath, Nir Ayalon, Fuzhong Qin, Alejandro J Perez, Jill Downing, Deepa M Gopal, Susan Cheng, Wilson S Colucci
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) can lead to myocardial fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, and eventual heart failure. This study evaluated alterations in myocardial microstructure in people with MetS by using a novel algorithm to characterize ultrasonic signal intensity variation. METHODS: Among 254 participants without existing cardiovascular disease (mean age 42 ± 11 years, 75% women), there were 162 with MetS, 47 with obesity without MetS, and 45 nonobese controls...
July 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726347/md2-blockage-protects-obesity-induced-vascular-remodeling-via-activating-ampk-nrf2
#16
Lintao Wang, Jibo Han, Peiren Shan, Shengban You, Xuemei Chen, Yiyi Jin, Jingying Wang, Weijian Huang, Yi Wang, Guang Liang
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels are tightly linked with vascular oxidative stress and remodeling. Myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), an important protein in innate immunity, is requisite for endotoxin lipopolysaccharide responsiveness. This study shows that palmitic acid (PA) also bonds to MD2, initiating cardiac inflammatory injury. However, it is not clear whether MD2 plays a role in noninflammatory systems such as obesity- and FFA-related oxidative stress involved in vascular remodeling and injury...
July 20, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722317/reward-capacity-predicts-leptin-dynamics-during-laboratory-controlled-eating-in-women-as-a-function-of-body-mass-index
#17
Laura M Holsen, Benita Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The role of leptin in mesolimbic signaling of non-food-related rewards has been well established at the preclinical level, yet studies in humans are lacking. The present investigation explored the association between hedonic capacity and leptin dynamics and whether this association differed by BMI class. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 75 women (42 with BMIs in the lean range and 33 with BMIs in the obesity range), serum leptin before and after meal consumption was measured...
July 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722299/cost-and-health-care-utilization-implications-of-bariatric-surgery-versus-intensive-lifestyle-and-medical-intervention-for-type-2-diabetes
#18
Souvik Banerjee, Louis P Garrison, David R Flum, David E Arterburn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the cost and health care utilization of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) randomized into either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery or an intensive lifestyle and medical intervention (ILMI). METHODS: This analysis (N = 745) is based on 2-year follow-up of a small randomized controlled trial (RCT); adult patients with obesity and T2DM were recruited between 2011 and 2012 from Kaiser Permanente Washington...
July 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712161/a-health-behavior-score-is-associated-with-hypertension-and-obesity-among-australian-adults
#19
Katherine M Livingstone, Sarah A McNaughton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between a health behavior score and prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity. METHODS: Adults (n = 4,609; 19-85 years) were included from the cross-sectional Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A health behavior score was derived based on individuals meeting recommendations for diet quality, smoking, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep. Poisson regression estimated the prevalence ratio (PR) of hypertension and overweight/obesity by health behavior score...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712159/association-of-the-cardiometabolic-staging-system-with-individual-engagement-and-quality-of-life-in-the-us-adult-population
#20
Sandra A Tsai, Lan Xiao, Nan Lv, Ying Liu, Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of Cardiometabolic Disease Staging (CMDS), a validated five-stage system for assessing risk for diabetes, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality, with measures of individual engagement and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the US adult population. METHODS: Data from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to derive the CMDS stages, five participant engagement measures, and four HRQOL measures among adult participants ≥ 40 years of age...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
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