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Angela C Incollingo Rodriguez, Courtney M Heldreth, A Janet Tomiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Obesity
Angela Meadows, Sigrún Daníelsdóttir, Rachel Calogero, Caitlin O'Reilly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Obesity
Jerry Radziuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Obesity
Abdul G Dulloo
In his last review entitled "Some Adventures in Body Composition," Gilbert Forbes reminded us that "lean body mass and body fat are in a sense companions." To what extent the lean body mass (or fat-free mass) component in this companionship impacts on energy intake is rarely a topic for discussion, amid a dominant adipocentric view of appetite control. Yet an analysis of the few human studies that have investigated the relationships between objectively measured food intake and body composition reveals a potentially important role for both an increase and a decrease in fat-free mass in the drive to eat...
January 11, 2017: Obesity
Spyridon Kanellakis, Efstathios Skoufas, Vladlena Khudokonenko, Eftychia Apostolidou, Loukia Gerakiti, Maria-Chrysi Andrioti, Evangelia Bountouvi, Yannis Manios
OBJECTIVE: To validate anthropometric equations in the current literature predicting body fat percentage (%BF) in the Greek population, to develop and validate two anthropometric equations estimating %BF, and to compare them with the retrieved equations. METHODS: Anthropometric data from 642 Greek adults were incorporated. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as reference method. The comparison with other equations was made using Bland-Altman analysis, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient...
January 10, 2017: Obesity
Stephanie Zylla, Maik Pietzner, Jens-Peter Kühn, Henry Völzke, Marcus Dörr, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to confirm existing assumptions about the associations of circulating chemerin with inflammatory and metabolic parameters in a large population-based study. METHODS: Data of 3,986 subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania were analyzed. Residual method was used to investigate the different associations of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with serum chemerin levels. Multivariable regression models were applied to examine the association of chemerin with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
January 10, 2017: Obesity
Darline El Reda, Peter Ström, Sven Sandin, Jin-Kyoung Oh, Hans-Olov Adami, Marie Löf, Elisabete Weiderpass
OBJECTIVE: To describe the determinants of 12-year weight change among middle-aged women in Sweden. METHODS: In 1991/1992, 49,259 women across Sweden were recruited into a cohort. In 2003, 34,402 (73%) completed follow-up. Lifestyle and health characteristics including weight were collected, and 12-year weight change and substantial weight gain (≥+5.0 kg) were calculated; association between baseline characteristics and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of substantial weight gain were estimated...
January 7, 2017: Obesity
Dong Wook Shin, Jae Moon Yun, Jung-Hyun Shin, Hyuktae Kwon, Hye Yeon Min, Hee-Kyung Joh, Won Joo Chung, Jin Ho Park, Kee-Taig Jung, BeLong Cho
OBJECTIVE: A pilot randomized trial assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention combining Smartcare (activity tracker with a smartphone application) and financial incentives. METHODS: A three-arm, open-label randomized controlled trial design involving traditional education, Smartcare, and Smartcare with financial incentives was involved in this study. The latter group received financial incentives depending on the achievement of daily physical activity goals (process incentive) and weight loss targets (outcome incentive)...
January 7, 2017: Obesity
Linda J Luecken, Shannon L Jewell, David P MacKinnon
OBJECTIVE: Identification of early life risk factors that predispose low-income Hispanic children to obesity is critical. For low-income Mexican American mothers, the cultural context may influence maternal experience and behaviors relevant to infant weight and growth. METHODS: In a longitudinal study of 322 low-income Mexican American mother-infant dyads, linear growth modeling examined the relation of maternal acculturation to infant weight gain across the first year and evaluated birth outcomes, breastfeeding, and maternal BMI as mediators...
January 7, 2017: Obesity
Jennifer L Temple, Erika Van der Kloet, Amanda M Atkins, Amanda K Crandall, Amanda M Ziegler
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of daily exposure to a low-energy-dense (LED) or a high-energy-dense (HED) snack food on its reinforcing value (RRV) in adolescents with healthy weight, overweight, or obesity. METHODS: A parallel-group, randomized trial was used to assess RRV of LED or HED snack food at baseline and again after exposure to that snack food daily for 2 weeks in 77 adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years. Information on eating-related subject characteristics was also collected at baseline...
January 7, 2017: Obesity
Elizabeth Ruth Wilson, Theodore K Kyle, Joseph F Nadglowski, Fatima Cody Stanford
OBJECTIVE: Evidence-based obesity treatments, such as bariatric surgery, are not considered essential health benefits under the Affordable Care Act. Employer-sponsored wellness programs with incentives based on biometric outcomes are allowed and often used despite mixed evidence regarding their effectiveness. This study examines consumers' perceptions of their coverage for obesity treatments and exposure to workplace wellness programs. METHODS: A total of 7,378 participants completed an online survey during 2015-2016...
January 7, 2017: Obesity
Lan Xiao, Nan Lv, Lisa G Rosas, David Au, Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: To validate clinic weights in electronic health records against researcher-measured weights for outcome assessment in weight loss trials. METHODS: Clinic and researcher-measured weights from a published trial (BE WELL) were compared using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, Bland and Altman's limits of agreement, and polynomial regression model. Changes in clinic and researcher-measured weights in BE WELL and another trial, E-LITE, were analyzed using growth curve modeling...
January 6, 2017: Obesity
Alessandro da Costa Machado, Thales Coelho Barbosa, Allan Robson Kluser Sales, Marcio Nogueira de Souza, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Bruno Moreira Silva
OBJECTIVE: Reduced aerobic power is independently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence and prevalence in adults. This study investigated whether muscle deoxygenation (proxy of microvascular O2 extraction) during incremental exercise is altered in MetS and associated with reduced oxygen consumption ( V˙O2peak ). METHODS: Twelve men with initial MetS (no overt diseases and medication-naive; mean ± SD, age 38 ± 7 years) and 12 healthy controls (HCs) (34 ± 7 years) completed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion, in which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange (metabolic analyzer), as well as vastus lateralis deoxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy), were measured...
January 6, 2017: Obesity
Amy Halseth, Kevin Shan, Brandon Walsh, Kye Gilder, Ken Fujioka
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effects of 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) on body weight in adults with obesity, with comprehensive lifestyle intervention (CLI), for 78 weeks. METHODS: In this phase 3b, randomized, open-label, controlled study, subjects received NB + CLI or usual care (standard diet/exercise advice) for 26 weeks. NB subjects not achieving 5% weight loss at week 16 were discontinued, as indicated by product labeling...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
Michael R Skilton, Si Qin Yeo, Jia Yi Anna Ne, David S Celermajer, Ian D Caterson, Crystal Man Ying Lee
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular disease, putatively via increased burden of atherosclerosis. It remains contentious as to whether weight loss in people with obesity is accompanied by a reduction in intima-media thickness, a noninvasive marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with a lowering of risk of cardiovascular events. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify all surgical and nonsurgical weight loss interventions that reported intima-media thickness...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
Woongchul Shin, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Ken Machida, Ayumi Tsubota, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Kimura
OBJECTIVE: There are two types of thermogenic adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein (UCP)-1: the brown adipocyte activated by adrenergic stimulation and the beige adipocyte that appears within the white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation. This study examined age-related changes in responses of both types of adipocytes to adrenergic stimulation in mice. METHODS: Aged (age 20 months) and young (4 months) mice were injected daily with either saline or β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL; 0...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
Sonja Yokum, Eric Stice
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with obesity versus those within a healthy weight range show brain volume differences, but it is unclear whether these differences reflect initial vulnerability factors or are secondary to weight gain. METHODS: One hundred sixty-two adolescents (M age = 15.3 ± 1.1; 81 females) with healthy weight were scanned at baseline. Sixty subjects (M baseline age: 15.2 ± 1.1; M follow-up age: 17.7 ± 1.2; 34 females) completed a second scan at 2- or 3-year follow-up...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
Gwendolyn A Thomas, Brenda Cartmel, Maura Harrigan, Martha Fiellin, Scott Capozza, Yang Zhou, Elizabeth Ercolano, Cary P Gross, Dawn Hershman, Jennifer Ligibel, Kathryn Schmitz, Fang-Yong Li, Tara Sanft, Melinda L Irwin
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of 12 months of aerobic and resistance exercise versus usual care on changes in body composition in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs). METHODS: The Hormones and Physical Exercise study enrolled 121 breast cancer survivors and randomized them to either supervised twice-weekly resistance exercise training and 150 min/wk of aerobic exercise (N = 61) or a usual care (N = 60) group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were conducted at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months to assess changes in body mass index, percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
Candice A Myers, Tim Slack, Stephanie T Broyles, Steven B Heymsfield, Timothy S Church, Corby K Martin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in community characteristics associated with diabetes prevalence between the Diabetes Belt and the rest of the contiguous United States (U.S.) METHODS: County-level adult diabetes prevalence estimates (i.e., percent of people [≥20 years] with diagnosed diabetes 2009) were used from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in addition to data from the U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, to carry out a spatial regime analysis to identify county-level factors correlated with diabetes prevalence in the Diabetes Belt versus the remainder of the U...
December 23, 2016: Obesity
Matias C Vieira, Lucilla Poston, Elaine Fyfe, Alexandra Gillett, Louise C Kenny, Claire T Roberts, Philip N Baker, Jenny E Myers, James J Walker, Lesley M McCowan, Robyn A North, Dharmintra Pasupathy
OBJECTIVE: To compare early pregnancy clinical and biomarker risk factors for later development of preeclampsia between women with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) ) and those with a normal BMI (20-25 kg/m(2) ). METHODS: In 3,940 eligible nulliparous women from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study, a total of 53 biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism, placental function, and known markers of preeclampsia were measured at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation...
December 23, 2016: Obesity
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