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Hong-Jian Shi, Yan-Feng Li, Wen-Jie Ji, Zhi-Chun Lin, Wei Cai, Tao Chen, Bin Yuan, Xiu-Long Niu, Han-Ying Li, Wen Shu, Yu-Ming Li, Fei Yuan, Xin Zhou, Zhuoli Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) to evaluate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) oxygenation in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and its associations with systemic metaflammation. METHODS: Five-week-old ZDF rats and Zucker lean (ZL) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. A baseline BOLD-MRI scan of perirenal adipose tissue was performed after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, and then the rats were randomized to receive pioglitazone or a vehicle for the following 10 weeks...
May 7, 2018: Obesity
Justin R Ryder, Claudia K Fox, Aaron S Kelly
OBJECTIVE: Severe obesity is the only obesity classification increasing in prevalence among children and adolescents. Treatment options that produce meaningful and sustained weight loss and comorbidity resolution are urgently needed. METHODS: The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of the current treatment options for pediatric severe obesity and offer suggestions regarding future opportunities for accelerating the development and evaluation of innovative treatment strategies...
May 7, 2018: Obesity
Kyeong-Mi Choi, Hwan-Soo Yoo
OBJECTIVE: Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring compound found in cruciferous vegetables, and its metabolite 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) reduce body mass and serum glucose levels in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. This study aimed to determine whether I3C or DIM could increase glucose uptake via enhanced insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as the mechanism involved. METHODS: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated by using a mixture of adipogenic inducers, including a suboptimal concentration of insulin...
May 3, 2018: Obesity
Anne Bichteler, Elizabeth T Gershoff
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify patterns of BMI changes across childhood (ages 24 months to 13 years) and to assess whether demographic characteristics, birth weight, and percent infant weight gain from birth to 15 months predicted BMI patterns. METHODS: Eleven waves of data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were used. Trained technicians assessed children's weight at birth and 10 times from 15 months to eighth grade (N = 1364)...
May 3, 2018: Obesity
Rebecca L Pearl, Thomas A Wadden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Obesity
Xuhong Hou, Peizhu Chen, Gang Hu, Li Wei, Lei Jiao, Hongmei Wang, Yebei Liang, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the associations of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue with blood glucose and beta-cell function. METHODS: In this study, 11,223 participants without known diabetes were selected for this cross-sectional analysis. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and beta-cell function was evaluated. RESULTS: Men had significantly larger VFA but smaller SFA than women...
May 2, 2018: Obesity
Da-Young Lee, Mi-Yeon Lee, Ki-Chul Sung
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigated the impact of A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on the risk of all-cause mortality compared with the impact of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This paper reviewed data of 213,569 Korean adults who participated in health checkups between 2002 and 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in Seoul, Korea. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed on the BMI, WC, and ABSI z score continuous variables as well as quintiles...
May 2, 2018: Obesity
Julia A Licholai, Katrina P Nguyen, Wambura C Fobbs, Corbin J Schuster, Mohamed A Ali, Alexxai V Kravitz
OBJECTIVE: Ad libitum high-fat diets (HFDs) spontaneously increase caloric intake in rodents, which correlates positively with weight gain. However, it remains unclear why rodents overeat HFDs. This paper investigated how changing the proportion of diet that came from HFDs might alter daily caloric intake in mice. METHODS: Mice were given 25%, 50%, or 90% of their daily caloric need from an HFD, along with ad libitum access to a low-fat rodent chow diet. Food intake was measured daily to determine how these HFD supplements impacted total daily caloric intake...
April 29, 2018: Obesity
Ju Hee Lee, Ji Min Kim, Min Jeong Choi, Yea Eun Kang, Kyoung Hye Joung, Hyon-Seung Yi, Koon Soon Kim, Bon Jeong Ku, Bon Seok Koo, Minho Shong, Hyun Jin Kim
OBJECTIVE: The clinical implications of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) were investigated based on the analysis of cervical adipose tissue gene expression under normal physiological conditions. METHODS: Matched-pair specimens of adipose tissue (AT) were collected from beneath the incision plane (subcutaneous AT) and from the area surrounding the carotid sheath (carotid AT) from 60 patients undergoing thyroidectomy. The mRNA expression of BAT-associated genes in these tissues was examined, and this expression was correlated with the clinical characteristics of the subjects...
April 26, 2018: Obesity
Deborah Davis, Wendy J Brown, Maralyn Foureur, Ellen A Nohr, Fenglian Xu
OBJECTIVE: In longitudinal studies, women gain significant amounts of weight during young adulthood, pointing to pregnancy as an important trigger for weight gain. Studies examining the effect of parity vary in their findings and are complicated by multiple potential confounders. This study examines the association between parity and long-term weight gain in a cohort of young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). METHODS: A sample of 8,009 parous and nulliparous women was drawn from this cohort and allocated to one of six parity groups (0-5+)...
April 24, 2018: Obesity
Mary S Himmelstein, Rebecca M Puhl, Diane M Quinn
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the weight stigma experiences of men, examining characteristics of men who experienced weight stigma versus men who did not. METHODS: Data from three samples of men were examined (N = 1,513). Sample 1 consisted of men with obesity at elevated risk for weight stigma. Sample 2 comprised a convenience online panel. Sample 3 included men from a national online panel of US adults. Men in all samples completed almost identical questionnaires assessing demographics, anthropometrics, weight stigma, and dieting...
April 23, 2018: Obesity
Rebecca L Pearl, Thomas A Wadden, Jena Shaw Tronieri, Robert I Berkowitz, Ariana M Chao, Naji Alamuddin, Sharon M Leonard, Raymond Carvajal, Zayna M Bakizada, Emilie Pinkasavage, Kathryn A Gruber, Olivia A Walsh, Nasreen Alfaris
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of weight loss and weight loss maintenance (WLM) on weight-specific health-related quality of life in a 66-week trial. METHODS: Adults with obesity (N = 137, 86.1% female, 68.6% black, mean age = 46.1 years) who had lost ≥ 5% of initial weight in a 14-week intensive lifestyle intervention/low-calorie diet (LCD) program were randomly assigned to lorcaserin or placebo for an additional 52-week WLM program...
April 20, 2018: Obesity
Yu Chung Chooi, Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, Yijun Lee, S Sendhil Velan, Faidon Magkos
OBJECTIVE: Individuals who have "metabolically obese normal weight" (MONW) have an increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. Moderate weight loss has multiple benefits in people with obesity, but its effects in lean people are unknown. Thus, the effects of diet-induced 5% weight loss on body composition and metabolic function in MONW subjects were evaluated. METHODS: Total body fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) volumes, intrahepatic and intramyocellular lipid contents, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), glucose tolerance, and postprandial insulin secretion and clearance rates (mixed meal with minimal modeling) were measured before and after 4...
April 19, 2018: Obesity
Shannon M McGinty, Stavroula K Osganian, Henry A Feldman, Carly E Milliren, Alison E Field, Tracy K Richmond
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare BMI trajectories from childhood to early adulthood in those with overweight and/or obesity versus severe obesity. METHODS: Longitudinal BMI values (2,542 measurements) were calculated from measured heights and weights for 103 children, adolescents, or young adults with overweight, obesity, or severe obesity. Segmented regression with splines was used to model BMI trajectories. RESULTS: Sixty-nine participants were classified as ever having severe obesity versus 34 who never had severe obesity...
April 19, 2018: Obesity
Alison L Miller, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to critically review the literature on early life stress in relation to obesity in humans, including the multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms through which early life stress exposure (birth to the age of 5 years) may associate with obesity risk during childhood. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on associations between early childhood stress and risk for obesity and the mechanisms of association...
April 14, 2018: Obesity
Alexandria Kachurak, Adam Davey, Regan L Bailey, Jennifer O Fisher
OBJECTIVE: To characterize associations of snacking frequency with weight status among US children aged 1 to 5 years. METHODS: Participants were children (n = 4,669) aged 1 to 5 years in the 2005 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Snacking was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls using definitions that considered "snack" occasions as well as other foods/beverages consumed between meals. Overweight/obesity (OW/OB) was defined using percentile cutoffs: ≥ 97...
April 14, 2018: Obesity
Kevin D Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Obesity
Rebecca A Seguin, Lynn Paul, Sara C Folta, Miriam E Nelson, David Strogatz, Meredith L Graham, Anna Diffenderfer, Galen Eldridge, Stephen A Parry
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a multilevel cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention program for rural women. METHODS: This 6-month, community-based, randomized trial enrolled 194 sedentary rural women aged 40 or older with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 . Intervention participants attended 6 months of twice-weekly exercise, nutrition, and heart health classes (48 total) that included individual-, social-, and environment-level components. An education-only control program included didactic healthy lifestyle classes once a month (six total)...
April 10, 2018: Obesity
Seth A Creasy, Wei Lang, Deborah F Tate, Kelliann K Davis, John M Jakicic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between the amount, intensity, and pattern of steps·day-1 with weight loss. METHODS: Participants (N = 260; age = 42.8 ± 8.9 y; BMI = 32.8 ± 3.5 kg/m2 ) completed an 18-month weight-loss intervention that included a calorie-restricted diet and prescribed physical activity. Participants were categorized by 18-month weight loss as weight gain (GAIN), weight loss of 0% to < 5% (WL < 5%), 5% to < 10% (WL < 10%), or ≥ 10% (WL ≥ 10%)...
April 6, 2018: Obesity
Tao Wang, Rong Zhang, Xiaojing Ma, Shiyun Wang, Zhen He, Yeping Huang, Bo Xu, Yangyang Li, Hong Zhang, Feng Jiang, Yuqian Bao, Cheng Hu, Weiping Jia
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the causal effect of overall obesity and abdominal obesity on type 2 diabetes among Chinese Han individuals. METHODS: The causal relationship of BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with the risk of glucose deterioration and glycemic traits was compared using two different genetic instruments based on 30 BMI loci and 6 WHR loci with Mendelian randomization (MR) in three prospective cohorts (n = 6,476). RESULTS: Each 1-SD genetically instrumented higher WHR was associated with a 65...
April 6, 2018: Obesity
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