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Yi Ding, Jing Cui, Qi Wang, Suqin Shen, Tian Xu, Huiru Tang, Min Han, Xiaohui Wu
OBJECTIVE: Identification of novel regulators involved in adipose development is important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Through isolation and analysis of a vitamin K epoxide reductase Vkorc1l1 mutant, this study aimed to disclose its function and underlying mechanism in adipose development and to obtain valuable insights regarding the mechanism of obesity. METHODS: A Vkorc1l1 mutation recovered from a forward genetic screen for obesity-related loci in mice was characterized to explore its effects in gene expression, animal metabolism, and adipose development...
July 2, 2018: Obesity
Gary R Hunter, David R Bryan, Juliano H Borges, M David Diggs, Stephen J Carter
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether there are race-specific differences in the maintenance of skeletal muscle during energy restriction. Changes in relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI; limb lean tissue divided by height squared) were compared following (1) diet alone, (2) diet + aerobic training, or (3) diet + resistance training. METHODS: Overweight, sedentary African American (AA; n = 72) and European American (EA; n = 68) women were provided an 800-kcal/d diet to reduce BMI < 25 kg/m2 ...
June 29, 2018: Obesity
Bärbel Knäuper, Kimberly Carrière, Mallory Frayn, Elena Ivanova, Zhen Xu, Anaïs Ames-Bull, Farah Islam, Ilka Lowensteyn, Gentiana Sadikaj, Aleksandra Luszczynska, Steven Grover, The McGill Chip Healthy Weight Program Investigators
OBJECTIVE: The NIH-developed Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is successful in achieving clinically significant weight loss in individuals with overweight/obesity when delivered one-on-one. The group-based DPP is less effective, with average weight losses of only 3.5%. The objective of this study was to increase weight loss outcomes of the group-based DPP by integrating habit formation tools (i.e., if-then plans). This two-arm randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of the habit formation-enhanced group-based DPP compared with the standard group-based DPP on changes in body weight (primary outcome)...
June 28, 2018: Obesity
Natalie M Hohos, Alicia K Smith, Varun Kilaru, Hea Jin Park, Dorothy B Hausman, Lynn B Bailey, Richard D Lewis, Bradley G Phillips, Richard B Meagher
OBJECTIVE: Lifestyle factors associated with obesity may alter epigenome-regulated gene expression. Most studies examining epigenetic changes in obesity have analyzed DNA 5´-methylcytosine (5mC) in whole blood, representing a weighted average of several distantly related and regulated leukocyte classes. To examine leukocyte-specific differences associated with obesity, a pilot study examining 5mC in three distinct leukocyte types isolated from peripheral blood of women with normal weight and obesity was conducted...
June 28, 2018: Obesity
Eugenia Romano, Ashleigh Haynes, Eric Robinson
OBJECTIVE: Perceiving one's own weight status as being overweight is a likely motivation for weight loss. However, self-perceived overweight status has also been found to be associated with overeating and weight gain. This study examined whether weight stigma concerns explain why individuals who perceive their weight status as overweight are at increased risk of overeating. METHODS: We conducted two survey studies of United States adults (N = 1,236) in which we assessed whether weight stigma concerns explain the cross-sectional relationship between perceived overweight and overeating tendencies...
June 28, 2018: Obesity
KayLoni L Olson, Rebecca H Neiberg, Deborah F Tate, Katelyn R Garcia, Amy A Gorin, Cora E Lewis, Jessica Unick, Rena R Wing
OBJECTIVE: The Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) trial demonstrated that two self-regulatory interventions prevented weight gain in young adults. Weight and shape concern (WSC) at baseline was evaluated as a moderator of weight outcomes at 24 months. METHODS: Young adults (n = 599) were randomized to self-regulation with small changes (to create 200 kcal/day deficit), self-regulation with large changes (to facilitate preemptive weight loss of 5-10 lb), or self-guided control...
June 28, 2018: Obesity
Senda Bahri, Michael Horowitz, Charles-Henri Malbert
OBJECTIVE: There is a general agreement that there are changes in brain metabolism in insulin-resistant individuals during conditions of hyperinsulinemia. However, the impact on obesity is unclear, and the metabolic constants underlying these modifications are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate these changes in a large animal model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Twenty adult miniature pigs were fed with either an obesogenic diet or a regular diet for 5 months...
June 28, 2018: Obesity
Gitanjali Srivastava, Erica D Johnson, Rebecca L Earle, Nitya Kadambi, Dorothy E Pazin, Lee M Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine attitudes and practices of physicians in training with respect to the evaluation and treatment of obesity. METHODS: Resident-generated admission and discharge notes of all 1,765 general medicine hospital admissions during 4 nonconsecutive months were analyzed, and any references to weight, obesity, BMI, adiposity, and body fat were identified. The full general resident cohort was then surveyed for perceptions and behaviors related to obesity...
June 28, 2018: Obesity
Linda A Barbour, Sarah S Farabi, Jacob E Friedman, Nicole M Hirsch, Melanie S Reece, Rachael E Van Pelt, Teri L Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity (OB) accounts for the majority of large-for-gestational-age infants, and newborn percent fat (NB%fat) correlates strongest with childhood OB. In addition to maternal glucose, fasting triglycerides (TGs) may contribute, but postprandial triglycerides (PPTGs) are unstudied. It was hypothesized that fasting TGs and PPTGs are higher in women with OB compared with women with normal weight (NW) throughout pregnancy, correlate more strongly with NB%fat than glucose, and may relate to dietary chylomicron TGs...
June 22, 2018: Obesity
Emma Frew, Shu Wen Ng, Joanna Coast, Bruce Hollingsworth, Richard Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Obesity
Jennifer Linge, Magnus Borga, Janne West, Theresa Tuthill, Melissa R Miller, Alexandra Dumitriu, E Louise Thomas, Thobias Romu, Patrik Tunón, Jimmy D Bell, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the value of imaging-based multivariable body composition profiling by describing its association with coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic health on individual and population levels. METHODS: The first 6,021 participants scanned by UK Biobank were included. Body composition profiles (BCPs) were calculated, including abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh muscle volume, liver fat, and muscle fat infiltration (MFI), determined using magnetic resonance imaging...
May 22, 2018: Obesity
Dario Gregori, Alexander Hochdorn, Danila Azzolina, Paola Berchialla, Giulia Lorenzoni
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess maternal misperception rates (perception as normal or underweight of a child with overweight or obesity) and their role in affecting the chance of implementing actions to change children's weight. METHODS: Obesogeneicity of Gadgets Marketed with Snacks (OBEY-AD) is an international study investigating factors promoting childhood overweight and obesity in 10 countries, in which 2,720 child-mother dyads have been enrolled...
July 2018: Obesity
Martina Totzauer, Veronica Luque, Joaquin Escribano, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Elvira Verduci, Alice ReDionigi, Joana Hoyos, Jean-Paul Langhendries, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Piotr Socha, Berthold Koletzko, Veit Grote
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lower protein (LP) versus higher protein (HP) content in infant formula on body composition from 3 months to 6 years. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind European trial, healthy infants (N = 1,090) were randomly assigned to different protein content formulas (upper [HP] and lower [LP] limits of the European Union regulations in 2001) during the first year; breastfed infants (N = 588) were recruited for reference values...
July 2018: Obesity
Raya Muttarak
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate trends and sociodemographic factors underlying weight misperception in adults with overweight and obesity in England. METHODS: This study used descriptive and logistic regression analyses based on a pooled nationally representative cross-sectional survey, Health Survey for England, for the years 1997, 1998, 2002, 2014, and 2015 of individuals with BMI ≥ 25 (n = 23,459). The main outcomes were (1) weight misperception and (2) weight-loss attempts as well as the associations with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and health status...
July 2018: Obesity
Lucy F Faulconbridge, Colleen F B Driscoll, Christina M Hopkins, Brooke Bailer Benforado, Chanelle Bishop-Gilyard, Raymond Carvajal, Robert I Berkowitz, Robert DeRubeis, Thomas A Wadden
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and depression frequently co-occur, and each increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study tested whether a combined treatment, targeting obesity and depression simultaneously, would yield greater improvements in weight, mood, and CVD risk factors than treatments that targeted each disease individually. METHODS: Seventy-six participants with obesity and major depression were randomly assigned to (1) behavioral weight control (BWC), (2) cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D), or (3) BWC combined with CBT-D...
July 2018: Obesity
Tiffany M Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Obesity
Holly R Hull
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Obesity
Susan J Burke, Heidi M Batdorf, Thomas M Martin, David H Burk, Robert C Noland, Christopher R Cooley, Michael D Karlstad, William D Johnson, J Jason Collier
OBJECTIVE: Multiple factors contribute to the rising rates of obesity and to difficulties in weight reduction that exist in the worldwide population. Caloric intake via sugar-sweetened beverages may be influential. This study tested the hypothesis that liquid sucrose intake promotes obesity by increasing serum insulin levels and tissue lipid accumulation. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were given 30% sucrose in liquid form. Changes in weight gain, body composition, energy expenditure (EE), and tissue lipid content were measured...
July 2018: Obesity
Isabel Viola Wagner, Lena Sahlin, Iuliia Savchuk, Nora Klöting, Konstantin Svechnikov, Olle Söder
OBJECTIVE: Obesity in females is often associated with metabolic complications and hyperandrogenism, but the sources of androgens are not completely understood. Therefore, this study investigated whether adipose tissue could be a source of androgens promoting hyperandrogenism development in obese female rats. METHODS: Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and testosterone levels were determined in periovarian and inguinal adipose tissue and in the supernatant of cultured preadipocytes and adipocytes...
July 2018: Obesity
Lee Tran, Katon A Kras, Nyssa Hoffman, Jayachandran Ravichandran, Jared M Dickinson, Andrew D'Lugos, Chad C Carroll, Shivam H Patel, Lawrence J Mandarino, Lori Roust, Christos S Katsanos
OBJECTIVE: Obesity alters protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, but consistent evidence is lacking. This study compared muscle protein synthesis in adults with obesity and in lean controls in the fasted state and during an amino acid infusion. METHODS: Ten subjects with obesity (age: 36 ± 3 years; BMI: 34 ± 1 kg/m2 ) and ten controls (age: 35 ± 3 years; BMI: 23 ± 1 kg/m2 ) received an infusion of L-[2,3,3,4,5,5,5,6,6,6-2 H10 ]leucine (0.15 μmol/kg fat-free mass/min) to measure muscle protein synthesis after an overnight fast and during amino acid infusion...
July 2018: Obesity
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