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Carmen D Samuel-Hodge, Judith C Holder-Cooper, Ziya Gizlice, Gwendolyn Davis, Sonia P Steele, Thomas C Keyserling, Shiriki K Kumanyika, Phillip J Brantley, Laura P Svetkey
OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a family-centered behavioral weight loss intervention for African American adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this randomized trial, dyads consisting of an African American adult with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes (index participant) paired with a family partner with overweight or obesity but not diagnosed with diabetes were assigned in a 2:1 ratio to a 20-week special intervention (SI) or delayed intervention (DI) control group...
December 2, 2016: Obesity
Jennifer B Parrish, Jennifer A Teske
OBJECTIVE: Chronic partial sleep deprivation (SD) by environmental noise exposure increases weight gain and feeding in rodents, which contrasts weight loss after acute SD by physical methods. This study tested whether acute environmental noise exposure reduced sleep and its effect on weight gain, food intake, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE). It was hypothesized that acute exposure would (1) increase weight gain and feeding and (2) reduce sleep, physical activity, and EE (total and individual components); and (3) behavioral changes would persist throughout recovery from SD...
November 29, 2016: Obesity
Francesca M Filbey, Uma S Yezhuvath
OBJECTIVE: Dimensions of impulsivity are related to obesity. Accordingly, characterization of impulsivity in individuals with overweight and obesity holds promise for more targeted and effective intervention. METHODS: Forty-five individuals (13 males, mean age = 32.6, mean body mass index [BMI] = 30.7) were recruited to determine the role of impulsivity in elevated body weight by evaluating: (1) trait impulsivity via impulsive sensation-seeking scale (ImpSS), (2) state impulsivity via continuous performance test, and (3) activation and integration of brain cognitive control regions via functional magnetic resonance imaging during a response inhibition task (i...
November 29, 2016: Obesity
Weicang Wang, Jun Yang, Weipeng Qi, Haixia Yang, Chang Wang, Bowen Tan, Bruce D Hammock, Yeonhwa Park, Daeyoung Kim, Guodong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Enzymatic metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids leads to formation of bioactive lipid metabolites (LMs). Previous studies have shown that obesity leads to deregulation of LMs in adipose tissues. However, most previous studies have focused on a single or limited number of LMs, and few systematical analyses have been carried out. METHODS: A LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics approach was used, which can analyze >100 LMs produced by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, to analyze the profile of LMs in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice...
November 28, 2016: Obesity
Neil J Weissman, Steven R Smith, Randi Fain, Nancy Hall, William R Shanahan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of lorcaserin in patients with pre-existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-defined valvulopathy. METHODS: This is a pooled, post hoc analysis of three Phase 3 studies. BLOOM and BLOSSOM patients were 18 to 65 years of age without diabetes and with a body mass index (BMI) of 27 to 29.9 kg/m(2) and ≥1 weight-related comorbidity or a BMI of 30 to 45 kg/m(2) . BLOOM-DM patients had a BMI of 27 to 45 kg/m(2) and type 2 diabetes...
November 26, 2016: Obesity
Aihua Li, Koon K Teo, Katherine M Morrison, Sarah D McDonald, Stephanie A Atkinson, Sonia S Anand, David Meyre
OBJECTIVE: The effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on maternal and offspring obesity traits, as well as the maternal and offspring genetic contribution to GWG and postpartum weight retention, were examined. METHODS: Blood samples from mothers (n = 608) and offspring (n = 541) were genotyped for 83 BMI-associated SNPs and 47 waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)-associated SNPs. Linear regression and mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine clinical epidemiological and genetic associations with unweighted and weighted BMI and WHR genetic risk scores (GRS)...
November 24, 2016: Obesity
Sofia Laforest, Andréanne Michaud, Gaétan Paris, Mélissa Pelletier, Hubert Vidal, Alain Géloën, André Tchernof
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adipocyte diameters from three measurement methods are similarly associated with adiposity measurements and cardiometabolic variables. METHODS: Surgical samples of omental and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained in a sample of 60 women (age 35-59 years; body mass index 20.3-41.1 kg/m(2) ). Median adipocyte diameter of the main cell population was determined by collagenase digestion, osmium tetroxide fixation, and histological analysis...
November 24, 2016: Obesity
Monica J Hubal, Evan P Nadler, Sarah C Ferrante, Matthew D Barberio, Jung-Hyuk Suh, Justin Wang, G Lynis Dohm, Walter J Pories, Michelle Mietus-Snyder, Robert J Freishtat
OBJECTIVE: Exosomes from obese adipose contain dysregulated microRNAs linked to insulin signaling, as compared with lean controls, providing a direct connection between adiposity and insulin resistance. This study tested the hypotheses that gastric bypass surgery and its subsequent weight loss would normalize adipocyte-derived exosomal microRNAs associated with insulin signaling and the associated metabolome related to glucose homeostasis. METHODS: African American female subjects with obesity (N = 6; age: 38...
November 24, 2016: Obesity
You-Cheol Hwang, In-Jin Cho, In-Kyung Jeong, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sarcopenia was associated with metabolic phenotype in subjects with and without obesity. METHODS: A total of 6,021 participants (2,592 men, 3,429 women) aged 30 to 93 years were assessed using data from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (%) that is <1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Metabolically unhealthy was defined as ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome or the presence of hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease...
November 22, 2016: Obesity
Elisabet Wentz, Anna Björk, Jovanna Dahlgren
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children with obesity and to compare body mass index (BMI) and metabolic profile in the children. METHODS: Seventy-six children (37 girls, 39 boys) were consecutively recruited from a university outpatient clinic specialized in severe obesity. Neurodevelopmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were assessed using interviews and questionnaires...
November 22, 2016: Obesity
Noemí Arias, Catalina Picó, M Teresa Macarulla, Paula Oliver, Jonatan Miranda, Andreu Palou, María P Portillo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether a combination of quercetin (Q) and resveratrol (RSV) would induce a white adipose tissue (WAT) browning effect. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were fed an obesogenic diet and divided into four groups: control, treated with RSV (15 mg/kg body weight/day; RSV group), treated with Q (30 mg/kg body weight/day; Q group), or treated with both polyphenols (RSV + Q group). RESULTS: After 6 weeks, body and WAT weights were significantly reduced in the RSV + Q group...
November 22, 2016: Obesity
Joseph Frankl, Paolo Piaggi, James E Foley, Jonathan Krakoff, Susanne B Votruba
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of adipocyte size with cellular lipolysis and between cellular lipolysis and whole-body lipid oxidation. This study also assessed the association between adipocyte size and cellular lipolysis with weight and fat mass gain. METHODS: Subjects had assessment of percent body fat (%fat) and adipose tissue biopsy for in vitro lipolysis (n = 325), and a subset of subjects had measurement of whole-body lipid oxidation (n = 112). A subset of subjects (n = 243) returned for repeated measurements of body weight and composition (mean follow-up 8...
November 21, 2016: Obesity
Megan P Mueller, Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Caitlin E Blakeley, Sara C Folta, Parke Wilde, Christina D Economos
OBJECTIVE: Identify ordering patterns following implementation of a healthier children's menu. METHODS: A healthier children's menu was introduced in 2012 at a regional restaurant chain, featuring more meals meeting Kids LiveWell (KLW) nutrition standards, KLW side dishes bundled with meals, and the removal of French fries and soda. Latent class analysis was conducted on child meal orders placed after menu implementation (n = 8,611). The average calorie content and proportion of orders meeting calorie recommendations (≤600 kcal) in each class were evaluated...
November 17, 2016: Obesity
Chunhua Liu, Baiyan Wu, Niyang Lin, Xiaoyi Fang
OBJECTIVE: To assess insulin resistance and β-cell function from birth to age 4 years and to examine their associations with catch-up growth (CUG) in Chinese small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. METHODS: Weight and height were measured yearly from birth to age 4 years, and transformed into age- and gender-adjusted SD scores. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured, and fasting insulin resistance and β-cell function were estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)...
November 16, 2016: Obesity
Monica L Wang, Christina F Haughton, Christine Frisard, Lori Pbert, Christine Geer, Stephenie C Lemon
OBJECTIVE: Examine bidirectional associations between weight perception and weight change over time among adults. METHODS: Data are from adult employees (N = 623) across 12 U.S. public high schools participating in a cluster-randomized multilevel weight gain prevention intervention. Data were collected at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. Perceived weight status (very/somewhat underweight, just right, somewhat overweight, very overweight) were obtained via self-administered surveys...
November 15, 2016: Obesity
Shira Zelber-Sagi, Shahar Azar, Alina Nemirovski, Muriel Webb, Zamir Halpern, Oren Shibolet, Joseph Tam
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between circulating levels of endocannabinoids (eCBs) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The serum levels of the main eCBs, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and their endogenous precursor and breakdown product, arachidonic acid (AA), were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in 105 volunteers screened for NAFLD. Hepatic ultrasound, fasting blood tests, and anthropometrics were assessed...
November 15, 2016: Obesity
Tracy K Richmond, Erin C Dunn, Carly E Milliren, Clare Rosenfeld Evans, S V Subramanian
OBJECTIVE: To compare the simultaneous influence of schools and neighborhoods on adolescent body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Analyzing data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (n = 18,200), cross-classified multilevel modeling was used to examine the fixed and random effects of individuals, schools, and neighborhoods on adolescent BMI. Additionally, the ability of school and neighborhood demographics to explain racial/ethnic disparities in BMI was assessed...
November 10, 2016: Obesity
Julia M Gohlke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Obesity
Rohan S Wijesurendra, Oliver J Rider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Obesity
Yijie Zhang, Xianlong Fang, Mingyan Dai, Quan Cao, Tuantuan Tan, Wenbo He, Yan Huang, Liang Chu, Mingwei Bao
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether inhibiting cardiac carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b (CPT-1b) improves obesity-related cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity. At 6 weeks of age, mice were subjected to intramyocardial injection with lentivirus to down-regulate the expression of either cardiac CPT-1b or green fluorescent protein. Morphological, biochemical, functional, histological, and ultrastructural profiles were assessed at 16 weeks of age...
November 2, 2016: Obesity
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