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Jacob E Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Obesity
Lisa B VanWagner, James G Terry, Lisa S Chow, Amy C Alman, Hakmook Kang, Katherine H Ingram, Christina Shay, Cora E Lewis, R Nick Bryan, Lenore J Launer, J Jeffrey Carr
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and measures of brain health in a population-based sample of adults. METHODS: Participants from the CARDIA study (Y25 exam; age 43-55 years) with concurrent computed tomography quantification of liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images were included (n = 505). NAFLD was identified after exclusion of other causes of liver fat. Total tissue volume (TTV) and gray matter cerebral blood flow (GM-CBF) were estimated using 3T brain MR images...
February 7, 2017: Obesity
Patrick Schrauwen, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Obesity
Eva Mengel, Vallo Tillmann, Liina Remmel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt, Jaak Jürimäe
OBJECTIVE: Serum inflammatory markers could help to identify those boys with overweight (OWB) who gain weight more extensively during puberty. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal changes in different serum inflammatory markers through puberty in boys with different BMI values and increments. METHODS: Twenty-six OWB and 29 normal-weight boys (NWB) were followed yearly for 3 years to measure changes in BMI and serum concentrations of 12 inflammatory markers...
February 6, 2017: Obesity
Luca Busetto, Antonio J Torres, Salvador Morales-Conde, Isaias Alarcón Del Agua, Carlo Moretto, Paola Fierabracci, Giuseppe Rovera, Gianni Segato, Miguel A Rubio, Franco Favretti
OBJECTIVE: The closed-loop gastric electrical stimulation (CLGES) abiliti(®) system provides tailored gastric electrical stimulation activated by food entry into the stomach and sensor-based data to medical professionals. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior changes using sensor-based food intake and activity data in participants treated with the CLGES system. METHODS: Food intake and activity data (3D accelerometer) were downloaded at baseline and monthly/bimonthly for 12 months in a subset of patients with obesity (N = 45) participating in a multicenter trial with CLGES...
February 6, 2017: Obesity
Lin Lin, Kui Peng, Rui Du, Xiaolin Huang, Jieli Lu, Yu Xu, Min Xu, Yuhong Chen, Yufang Bi, Weiqing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) phenotype and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a Chinese population and whether systemic inflammation affects this association. METHODS: A cohort study was performed with 2,491 Chinese adults. Body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2) was defined as obesity. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g...
February 3, 2017: Obesity
Keith Fluegge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Obesity
Malene M Kristensen, Peter K Davidsen, Andreas Vigelsø, Christina N Hansen, Lars J Jensen, Niels Jessen, Jens M Bruun, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is central in the development of insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms still need elucidation. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs; post-transcriptional regulators) in adipose tissue may present an important link. METHODS: The miRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 19 individuals with severe obesity (10 women and 9 men) before and after a 15-week weight loss intervention was studied using genome-wide microarray analysis...
February 3, 2017: Obesity
Karl Nadolsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Obesity
Justin Chosich, Andrew P Bradford, Amanda A Allshouse, Jane E B Reusch, Nanette Santoro, Irene E Schauer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of lipid/heparin versus saline infusion, with or without concurrent euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, on serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Obesity is associated with hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and relative hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It was hypothesized that acutely elevated fatty acids and insulin would impair gonadotropin secretion. METHODS: Regularly cycling women and men without obesity underwent a crossover 6-hour infusion study over four visits...
February 3, 2017: Obesity
Zhipeng Xu, Gang Wang, Yuxiao Zhu, Ran Liu, Jingwei Song, Yangyue Ni, Hongzhi Sun, Bingya Yang, Min Hou, Lin Chen, Minjun Ji, Zan Fu
OBJECTIVE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ plays critical roles in human metabolic disorders. However, the mechanism remains incompletely understood. Regulatory cells contribute to these metabolic improvements; therefore, whether PPAR-γ agonist regulates regulatory cells was investigated. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice received a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without pioglitazone treatment. Mice were sacrificed for detecting the metabolic parameters...
February 2, 2017: Obesity
Maija Vaittinen, Ville Männistö, Pirjo Käkelä, Jyrki Ågren, Mika Tiainen, Ursula Schwab, Jussi Pihlajamäki
OBJECTIVE: Fatty acid (FA) composition affects obesity-associated low-grade inflammation. It has been shown that the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 2 gene polymorphism associates with FA metabolism and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between FA metabolism and inflammation in different tissues and the possible interorgan cross talk. METHODS: Cross-sectional baseline data from 155 individuals with obesity (both male and female) participating in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation in the ongoing Kuopio Obesity Surgery Study were used...
February 1, 2017: Obesity
Bianca J Sykes-Muskett, Andrew Prestwich, Rebecca J Lawton, Christopher J Armitage
OBJECTIVE: Monetary contingency contracts (MCCs), in which deposited money is returned contingent on weight loss, could promote weight/adiposity reduction. This study piloted individual- and pair-based MCCs (when refunds are contingent on two individuals losing weight) and assessed effects on weight/body composition. METHODS: Seventy-seven participants with BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2) were recruited. In a non-blinded, randomized controlled trial conducted in a university laboratory setting, participants were randomized in pairs via a computer-generated sequence to one of four conditions: partner with pair-based refund (P-PBR), partner with individual refund (P-IR), individual weight loss with individual refund (I-IR), or no MCC (comparison)...
February 1, 2017: Obesity
Renlong Li, Enshuang Guo, Jiankun Yang, Anyi Li, Yan Yang, Shenpei Liu, Anding Liu, Xiaojing Jiang
OBJECTIVE: 1,25(OH)2 D3 has been reported to attenuate liver steatosis; however, its exact mechanism of action remains poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether 1,25(OH)2 D3 can attenuate hepatic steatosis by inducing autophagy. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were injected with 1,25(OH)2 D3 for 4 weeks. These mice were given 3-methyladenine (3-MA) to inhibit autophagy. HepG2 cells were preincubated with a free fatty acid (FFA) and then treated with 1,25(OH)2 D3 ...
February 1, 2017: Obesity
Veerle Rottiers, Adam Francisco, Michael Platov, Yehudit Zaltsman, Antonella Ruggiero, Siu Sylvia Lee, Atan Gross, Sergiy Libert
OBJECTIVE: More than one-third of U.S. adults have obesity, causing an alarming increase in obesity-related comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. The functional role of mitochondrial carrier homolog 2 (MTCH2), a human obesity-associated gene, in lipid homeostasis was investigated in Caenorhabditis elegans, cell culture, and mice. METHODS: In C. elegans, MTCH2/MTCH-1 was depleted, using RNAi and a genetic mutant, and overexpressed to assess its effect on lipid accumulation...
January 27, 2017: Obesity
Elly A Fletcher, Valerie Carson, Sarah A McNaughton, David W Dunstan, Genevieve N Healy, Jo Salmon
OBJECTIVE: Examine the mediating role of diet in the relationship between volume and duration of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health in adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents (12-19 years) participating in the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were examined. Cardiometabolic health indicators were body mass index z-scores (zBMI) (n = 1,797) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 812). An ActiGraph hip-worn accelerometer was used to derive total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration...
January 25, 2017: Obesity
Courtney M Peterson, Mahdi Orooji, Deanna N Johnson, Mort Naraghi-Pour, Eric Ravussin
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat in response to cold, and low BAT activity has been linked to obesity. However, recent studies were inconclusive as to whether BAT is involved in diet-induced thermogenesis and mitigates weight gain from prolonged overeating. Therefore, this study investigated whether BAT activity is related to metabolic adaptation arising from 8 weeks of overfeeding in humans. METHODS: Fourteen men (aged 24 ± 3 years, BMI 24...
January 24, 2017: Obesity
Saravanan Subramanian, Pradeep K Pallati, Vikrant Rai, Poonam Sharma, Devendra K Agrawal, Kalyana C Nandipati
OBJECTIVE: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 has recently been recognized as one of the potent amplifiers of acute and chronic inflammation. However, the exact role of TREM-1 in regard to insulin insensitivity is unknown. METHODS: mRNA transcripts and protein expression of TREM-1, TREM-2, and TREM-1/TREM-2 ratio were examined in the tissue biopsies (liver, omentum, and subcutaneous fat) and blood samples (neutrophils and monocytes) of subjects with obesity and diabetes (SO(+) D(+) ; n = 15), subjects with obesity but not diabetes (SO(+) D(-) ; n = 7), and subjects without obesity (BMI < 30) and diabetes (SO(-) D(-) ; n = 5)...
January 23, 2017: Obesity
Angela C Incollingo Rodriguez, Courtney M Heldreth, A Janet Tomiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Obesity
Angela Meadows, Sigrún Daníelsdóttir, Rachel Calogero, Caitlin O'Reilly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Obesity
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