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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30011376/intramuscular-fiber-conduction-velocity-and-muscle-fascicle-length-in-human-vastus-lateralis
#1
Spyridon Methenitis, Angeliki-Nikoletta Stasinaki, Nikolaos Zaras, Konstantinos Spengos, Nikolaos Karandreas, Gerasimos Terzis
Muscle fascicle length and muscle fibre conduction velocity are thought to be important parameters for power performance. It might be expected that faster muscle fibre conduction velocities would compensate for longer fascicle lengths to increase the speed of action potential propagation along the elongated fibres. However, the relationship between muscle fascicle length and muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between average vastus lateralis MFCV and average fascicle length...
July 16, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001503/low-intensity-resistance-training-with-partial-blood-flow-restriction-and-high-intensity-resistance-training-induce-similar-changes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-transcriptome-in-elderly-humans
#2
Felipe C Vechin, Cleiton A Libardi, Miguel S Conceição, Felipe Damas, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Mara Patrícia T Chacon-Mikahil, Luiz L Coutinho, Sonia C S Andrade, Manoel Neves-Jr, Hamilton Roschel, Valmor Tricoli, Igor L Baptista, Anselmo Moriscot, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
We aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying muscle growth after 12 weeks of RT-BFR and HRT in older individuals. Participants were allocated into the groups HRT, RT-BFR and control (CG). High-throughput transcriptome sequencing was performed by the Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. HRT and RT-BFR presented similar increases in quadriceps femoris CSA and few genes were differently expressed between interventions. The small differences in gene expression between interventions suggest that similar mechanisms may underpin training-induced muscle growth...
July 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996064/switching-to-a-fibre-rich-and-low-fat-diet-increases-colonic-folate-contents-among-african-americans
#3
Yen-Ming Chan, Susanne Aufreiter, Stephen J O'Keefe, Deborah L O'Connor
How dietary patterns impact colonic bacterial biosynthesis of vitamins and utilization by humans is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate whether a reciprocal dietary switch between rural South Africans (traditionally high fibre, low fat) and African Americans (Western diet of low fibre, high fat) affects colonic folate synthesis. Colonic evacuants were obtained from 20 rural South Africans and 20 African Americans consuming their usual diets at baseline. For two weeks thereafter, rural South Africans were provided with a Western diet (protein 27%, fat 52%, carbohydrate 20% and fibre 8 g/d) and African Americans were provided with a high fibre, low fat diet (protein 16%, fat 17%, carbohydrate 63% and fiber 43 g/d)...
July 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990445/are-canadian-protein-and-physical-activity-guidelines-optimal-for-sarcopenia-prevention-in-older-adults
#4
Camila L P Oliveira, Isabelle J Dionne, Carla M Prado
Aging is characterized by physiological and morphological changes that affect body composition, strength, and function ultimately leading to sarcopenia. This condition results in physical disability, falls, fractures, poor quality of life and increased health care costs. Evidence suggests that increased consumption of dietary protein and physical activity levels, especially resistance exercise, can counteract the trajectory of sarcopenia. Canadian guidelines for protein intake and physical activity were last updated in 2005 and 2011, respectively and new evidence on sarcopenia diagnosis, prevention and treatment is rapidly evolving...
July 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990442/pentraxin3-increases-in-adult-overweight-and-obese-men-after-weight-loss-by-dietary-modification-with-exercise-training
#5
Asako Zempo-Miyaki, Hiroshi Kumagai, Toru Yoshikawa, Kanae Myoenzono, Rina So, Takeshi Otsuki, Kiyoji Tanaka, Seiji Maeda
The circulatory level of pentraxin3 (PTX3), an anti-inflammatory cardio-protective protein, has been known to be lower in obese individuals than in those with normal weight. However, reports on the effects of different weight-loss methods on PTX3 were limited. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of weight loss on the circulating PTX3 levels in overweight and obese men and to examine the combined effect of dietary modification and exercise training on PTX3 levels. Forty-eight overweight and obese men were assigned to two groups: the dietary modification (group D) or exercise training and dietary modification (group DE)...
July 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990440/effects-of-isokinetic-eccentric-versus-traditional-lower-body-resistance-training-on-muscle-function-examining-a-multiple-joint-short-term-training-model
#6
Joshua Gordon, Brennan J Thompson, Joshua S Crane, Eadric Bressel, Dale R Wagner
Early adaptations of eccentric training show several advantages over concentric training. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of 4-weeks of multi-joint eccentric versus traditional leg press (TLP) training on muscle strength, rate of torque development (RTD) and jump and sprint performance adaptations. Twenty-six resistance trained adults performed either an eccentric or a TLP resistance training program twice per week for 4-weeks. Single-joint isometric maximum and rapid strength (peak torque and RTD, respectively) and isokinetic strength of the knee extensors and flexors, multi-joint eccentric strength, leg press strength (1-RM), 40-m sprint, and vertical and long jump were measured before (Pre), at the midpoint (Mid), and after (Post) a 4-week training period...
July 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986151/neuromuscular-adaptations-to-healthy-aging
#7
Chris J McNeil, Charles L Rice
Even in the absence of disease or disability, aging is associated with marked physiological adaptations within the neuromuscular system. An ability to perform activities of daily living and maintain independence with advanced age is reliant on the health of the neuromuscular system. Hence, it is critical to elucidate the age-related adaptations that occur within the central nervous system and the associated muscles in order to design interventions to maintain or improve neuromuscular function in the elderly...
July 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986150/a-short-term-intervention-combining-aerobic-exercise-with-medium-chain-triglyceride-mct-is-more-ketogenic-than-either-mct-or-aerobic-exercise-alone-a-comparison-of-normoglycemic-and-pre-diabetic-older-women
#8
Camille Vandenberghe, Christian-Alexandre Castellano, Mathieu Maltais, Mélanie Fortier, Valérie St-Pierre, Isabelle J Dionne, Stephen C Cunnane
OBJECTIVES: Determine whether - (1) a five-day aerobic exercise (AE) program combined with a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplement would increase the plasma ketone response in older women more than either intervention alone, and (2) ketonemia after these combined or separate treatments was alike in normoglycemic (NG) versus pre-diabetic (PD) women. DESIGN: Older women (NG=10; PD=9) underwent a 4 h metabolic study after each of four different treatments: (i) no treatment control, (ii) five days of MCT alone (30 g/day), (iii) one session of 30 min of AE alone, and (iv) five days of MCT and AE combined (MCT+AE)...
July 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986146/effect-of-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-10-km-performance-in-recreational-runners
#9
Talitha Fernandes de Castro, Francisco de Assis Manoel, Diogo Hilgemberg Figueiredo, Diego Hilgemberg Figueiredo, Fabiana Andrade Machado
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on 10-km running performance in recreational runners. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed study, fourteen male recreational runners (age: 27.8 ± 3.4 y) performed three 10-km running tests at baseline, under the conditions of BRJ supplementation and placebo (PLA). Supplementation was administered for three days, and on the day of the assessments, the ingestion occurred two hours before each test and consisted of a dose of 420 mL of BRJ in natura (8...
July 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972738/effects-of-adipokine-zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-on-adipose-tissue-metabolism-after-dexamethasone-treatment
#10
Yu Qiao, Guoqiang Fan, Jun Guo, Shixing Gao, Ruqian Zhao, Xiaojing Yang
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) has been demonstrated to play a role in stimulating lipid mobilization under normal conditions. However, further studies are required to determine whether ZAG overexpression can alleviate the reduction in plasma lipid levels under stress conditions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ZAG on lipometabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT) after dexamethasone (DEX) stimulation using C57BL/6 male mice as the experimental models. Transcript and protein levels of genes associated with the β-adrenoreceptor (β-AR)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase a (PKA) pathway, lipid mobilization, and energy metabolism were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting...
July 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969577/physiological-responses-to-partial-body-cryotherapy-performed-during-a-concurrent-strength-and-endurance-session
#11
Alessandro Piras, Francesco Campa, Stefania Toselli, Rocco Di Michele, Milena Raffi
This investigation examined the effect of partial-body cryostimulation (PBC) performed in the recovery time between a strength training and an interval running (IR). Nine rugby players [age 23.7±3.6, BMI 28.0±2.6 kg/m2] were randomly exposed to two different conditions: i) PBC: 3-min at -160°C; ii) passive recovery at 21°C. We recorded the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), temperature, and cardiac autonomic variables in three moments: at baseline, after strength training (R0) and after 90-min of recovery (R90)...
July 3, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969571/association-between-major-dietary-patterns-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-evidence-from-a-case-control-study
#12
Farnaz Shahdadian, Reza Ghiasvand, Behnood Abbasi, Awat Feizi, Parvane Saneei, Zahra Shahshahan
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial endocrine disorder in women. Change in lifestyle, especially dietary pattern, might have a role in prevalence of PCOS. The limited number of studies has made it difficult to draw any conclusion about the dietary patterns with PCOS. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary patterns with PCOS. METHODS: This case-control study was performed on 225 new diagnosed patients and 345 healthy women in Isfahan, Iran...
July 3, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969568/horizon-meeting-on-cardiovascular-physiology-dedicated-to-dr-mike-sharratt
#13
Catherine F Notarius, Robert Boushel, Maureen J MacDonald, J Kevin Shoemaker
This perspective document summarizes discussions held at the CSEP Annual Meeting in Winnipeg on October 27, 2017 when an expert panel was assembled to discuss the key questions and challenges for future research in cardiovascular exercise physiology. We were inspired by the example of the late Dr. Mike Sharratt, an accomplished and impactful Professor in the Faculty of Kinesiology at the University of Waterloo. Dr. Sharratt had a unique ability to bring experts together and translate theory into action, with a central goal of optimizing the health benefits of exercise, particularly in the fields of cardiac rehabilitation and aging (University of Waterloo Applied Health Science Dept...
July 3, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953821/effects-of-a-single-bout-of-high-intensity-interval-exercise-on-c1q-tnf-related-proteins
#14
Michihiro Kon, Yoshiko Ebi, Kohei Nakagaki
High intensity interval training (HIIT) is known to be an effective exercise training regimen to improve energy substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms of improvement in insulin sensitivity due to HIIT have not yet been fully clarified. C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 1 and CTRP9, which are adiponectin paralogs and novel adipokines, have favorable effects on energy substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of HIIT on CTRP1 and CTRP9 secretions in healthy men...
June 28, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953820/fluid-energy-and-nutrient-recovery-via-ad-libitum-intake-of-different-commercial-beverages-and-food-in-female-athletes
#15
Danielle McCartney, Christopher Irwin, Gregory R Cox, Ben Desbrow
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of consuming different commercial beverages with food ad libitum post-exercise on fluid, energy and nutrient recovery in trained females. METHODS: On 4 separate occasions, 8 females (body mass [BM]: 61.8±10.7 kg; VO2max: 46.3±7.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) lost 2.0±0.3% BM cycling at ~75%VO2max before completing a 4 h recovery period with ad libitum access to one of 4 beverages: Water, Powerade® (Sports Drink), Up & Go Reduced SugarTM (Lower Sugar [LS]-MILK) or Up & Go EnergizeTM (Higher Protein [HP]-MILK)...
June 28, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944848/exercise-biology-of-neuromuscular-disorders
#16
Sean Y Ng, Alexander Manta, Vladimir Ljubicic
Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are chronic conditions that affect the neuromuscular system. Many NMDs currently have no cure, however as more effective therapies become available for NMD patients, these individuals will exhibit prolonged health- and/or lifespans. As a result, persons with NMDs will likely desire to engage in a more diverse variety of activities of daily living, including increased physical activity or exercise. Therefore, there is a need to increase our knowledge of the effects of acute exercise and chronic training on the neuromuscular system in NMD contexts...
June 26, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944847/effect-of-food-intake-on-the-ventilatory-response-to-increasing-core-temperature-during-exercise
#17
Keiji Hayashi, Nozomi Ito, Yoko Ichikawa, Yuichi Suzuki
Food intake increases metabolism and body temperature, which may in turn influence ventilatory responses. Our aim was to assess the effect of food intake on ventilatory sensitivity to rising core temperature during exercise. Nine healthy male subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in sessions with and without prior food intake. Ventilatory sensitivity to rising core temperature was defined by the slopes of regression lines relating ventilatory parameters to core temperature. Mean skin temperature, mean body temperature (calculated from esophageal temperature and mean skin temperature), oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide elimination, minute ventilation, alveolar ventilation, and tidal volume (VT) were all significantly higher at baseline in sessions with food intake than without food intake...
June 26, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944845/cardiac-autonomic-function-during-hypothermia-and-its-measurement-repeatability
#18
Gary J Hodges, Steven Ah Ferguson, Stephen S Cheung
This study examined the effect of mild hypothermia (a 0.5°C decrease in rectal temperature) on heart rate variability (HRV), with the identical hypothermia protocol performed twice and compared using intraclass correlation coefficient (r) analysis to study the repeatability. Twelve healthy males each completed a Neutral (23°C) and two Cold (0°C) trials. In the Neutral trial participants sat quietly for 30 min. In the Cold trials, baseline data were obtained from a 5-min sample following 30 min of quiet sitting at 23°C, followed by passive exposure to 0°C; hypothermic measures were taken from a 5-min period immediately prior to rectal temperature decreasing by 0...
June 26, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939770/effect-of-strength-training-combined-with-antioxidant-supplementation-on-muscular-performance
#19
Maurilio T Dutra, Sávio Alex, Marcio Rabelo Mota, Nathalia B Sales, Lee E Brown, Martim Bottaro
This was a placebo-controlled randomized study that aimed to investigate the effects of strength training (ST) combined with antioxidant supplementation on muscle performance and thickness. Forty-two women (age, 23.8 ± 2.7 years; body mass, 58.7 ± 11.0 kg; height, 1.63 ± 0.1 m) were allocated into 3 groups: vitamins (n = 15), placebo (n = 12), or control (n = 15). The vitamins and placebo groups underwent an ST program, twice a week, for 10 weeks. The vitamins group was supplemented with vitamins C (1 g/day) and E (400 IU/day) during the ST period...
June 25, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932877/nutritional-recovery-with-a-soybean-diet-impaired-the-glucagon-response-but-did-not-alter-liver-gluconeogenesis-in-the-adult-offspring-of-rats-deprived-of-protein-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#20
Nelma Cristina Silva Pacheco, Ana Paula Carli de Almeida, Kariny Cássia de Siqueira, Faena Moura de Lima, Silvia Regina de Lima Reis, Marcia Queiroz Latorraca, Luiz Fabrizio Stoppiglia
Nutritional recovery of early malnutrition with soybean diet reduces liver glycogen stores in the fed state and produces liver insulin resistance. We investigated whether nutritional recovery on a soybean flour diet alters hepatic gluconeogenesis in the adult offspring of rats deprived of protein during pregnancy and lactation. Male rats from mothers that were fed either 17% (C) or 6% (L) protein during pregnancy and lactation were maintained on a 17% casein (CC, n=16 and LC, n=17), 17% soybean flour (CS, n=10 and LS, n=10) or 6% casein (LL, n=10) diet after weaning...
June 22, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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