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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742973/role-of-vitamin-a-oral-supplementation-on-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-response-in-the-liver-of-trained-rats
#1
Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Alice Kunzler, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Juciano Gasparotto, Cristiane Matté, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
The use of dietary supplements to enhance the benefit of exercise training is a common practice. The liver is the organ where all substances are metabolized, and certain supplements have been associated with liver injury. Vitamin A (VA), a liposoluble vitamin stored in the liver, is commonly used as an antioxidant supplement. Here, we evaluated the effect of chronic VA supplementation on oxidative damage and stress parameters in trained rats. Animals were divided into the following groups: sedentary (SE), sedentary/VA (SE+VA), exercise training (ET), and exercise training/VA (ET+VA)...
July 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719765/beetroot-juice-is-more-beneficial-than-sodium-nitrate-for-attenuating-muscle-pain-after-strenuous-eccentric-bias-exercise
#2
Tom Clifford, Glyn Howatson, Daniel J West, Emma J Stevenson
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of beetroot juice (BTJ) and a nitrate only drink (sodium nitrate; SN) on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Thirty recreationally active males consumed either BTJ (n=10), a nitrate matched SN drink (n=10) or an isocaloric placebo (PLA; n=10) immediately, 24 and 48 h after performing 100 drop jumps. To assess muscle damage, maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), creatine kinase (CK) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48 and 72 h following the drop jumps...
July 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715642/reduced-brain-volume-and-impaired-memory-in-betaine-homocysteine-s-methyltransferase-knockout-mice
#3
Emily A K Prieur, Eneda Pjetri, Steven H Zeisel, Nafisa M Jadavji
Using a mouse model, this study examined the impact of lack of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) on neurological function. Bhmt-/- mice maintained on a control diet had elevated concentrations of homocysteine, reduced total brain MRI volume, as well as impaired reference and short- term memories. The results of this study indicate that the absence of BHMT may play a role in neurological function.
July 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715640/voluntary-running-of-defined-distances-reduces-body-adiposity-and-its-associated-inflammation-in-c57bl-6-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#4
Lin Yan, Sneha Sundaram, Forrest H Nielsen
This study investigated the effect of voluntary running of defined distances on body adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were assigned to six groups and fed a standard AIN93G diet (sedentary) or a modified high-fat AIN93G diet (sedentary, unrestricted running, or 75%, 50% or 25% of unrestricted running) for 12 weeks. The average running distance was 8.3, 6.3, 4.2 and 2.1 km/day for the unrestricted, 75%, 50%, and 25% of unrestricted runners, respectively. Body adiposity was 46% higher in sedentary mice when fed the high-fat instead of the standard diet...
July 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708964/compounds-from-ilex-paraguariensis-extracts-confer-antioxidant-effects-in-the-brains-of-rats-subjected-to-chronic-immobilization-stress
#5
Ana C Colpo, Maria Eduarda de Lima, Marisol Maya-López, Hemerson Rosa, Cristina Márquez-Curiel, Sonia Galván-Arzate, Abel Santamaría, Vanderlei Folmer
Immobilization induces oxidative damage to the brain. Ilex paraguariensis extracts (Mate) and chlorogenic acid (CGA), its major natural compound, exert protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Here, the effects of Mate and CGA on oxidative damage induced by chronic immobilization stress (CIS) in cortex (CTX), hippocampus (HIP) and striatum (STR) were investigated. For CIS, animals were immobilized during 6 h every day for 21 consecutive days. Rats received Mate or CGA daily by intra-gastric gavage 30 min before every restraint session...
July 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704612/blood-flow-in-humans-following-low-load-exercise-with-and-without-blood-flow-restriction
#6
J Grant Mouser, Gilberto C Laurentino, Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Brittany R Counts, Kevin T Mattocks, Jeremy P Loenneke
Blood flow restriction (BFR) in combination with exercise has been used to increase muscle size and strength using relatively low loads (20%-30% 1RM). In research, the range of applied pressures based on a percentage of arterial occlusion pressure (AOP), is wide. PURPOSE: To measure the blood flow response before, following each set of exercise, and post exercise to low-load elbow flexion combined with no restriction (NOBFR), 40% of AOP (40BFR), and 80% of AOP (80BFR). METHODS: 152 participants volunteered; 140 completed the protocol (women=75, men=65)...
July 13, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700832/a-12-week-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-lchf-diet-improves-metabolic-health-outcomes-over-a-control-diet-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-with-overweight-defence-force-personnel
#7
Caryn Zinn, Julia McPhee, Nigel Kent Harris, Micalla Williden, Kate Prendergast, Grant Schofield
INTRODUCTION: Overweight, obesity and poor health is becoming a global concern for defence force personnel. Conventional nutrition guidelines are being questioned for their efficacy in achieving optimal body composition and long-term health. This study compared the effects of a 12-week low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a conventional, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight reduction and metabolic health outcomes in at-risk New Zealand Defence Force personnel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, 41 overweight personnel were assigned to intervention and control groups...
July 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692807/the-effect-of-moderate-consumption-of-non-nutritive-sweeteners-on-glucose-tolerance-and-body-composition-in-rats
#8
Ashley P Tovar, James W Navalta, Laura J Kruskall, John C Young
Glucose tolerance and body composition were determined in male rats given non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) (aspartame or sucralose) in drinking water. AUC for glucose and insulin with NNS did not differ from control. NNS treatment had no effect on weight gain or percent body fat. Epididymal fat pad mass was higher with aspartame and the ratio of trunk to total fat was less with sucralose versus control, suggesting that NNS consumption altered body fat distribution.
July 10, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683243/timing-and-pattern-of-post-exercise-protein-ingestion-affects-whole-body-protein-balance-in-healthy-children-a-randomized-trial
#9
Kimberly A Volterman, Daniel R Moore, Peter Breithaupt, Dominik Grathwohl, Elizabeth A Offord, Leonidas G Karagounis, Brian W Timmons
The dose and timing of post-exercise protein ingestion can influence WBPB in adults, although comparable data from children are scarce. This study investigated how protein intake (both, amount and distribution) post-exercise can affect WBPB in physically active children. Thirty-five children (26 males; 9-13 years old) underwent a 5-d adaptation diet consuming 0.95 g protein·kg-1·d-1. To assess whole body protein kinetics over 6h and 24h of recovery, participants consumed 2 mg·kg-1 [15N]glycine before performing 3 × 20-min of variable intensity cycling...
July 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683208/short-term-consumption-of-i-ilex-paraguariensis-i-extracts-protects-isolated-hearts-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-contradicts-exercise-mediated-cardioprotection
#10
Fábio Cahuê, Simone Souza, Camilli Fernanda Martins Santos, Victor Machado, Jose H M Nascimento, Luciane Barcellos, Verônica P Salerno
PURPOSE: Perfusion of hearts with extracts of <i>Ilex paraguariensis</i> (IP/mate) appears to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. To determine if oral consumption of IP/mate can provide similar cardioprotection, short-term consumption was investigated alone or in association with exercise in rats. METHODS: Animals were grouped into control (C), IP/mate consumption (M), exercise (E) and exercise with mate (E+M). M and E+M groups consumed IP/mate (1g/kg body weight in 1mL water) by gavage...
July 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675792/non-localized-postactivation-performance-enhancement-pape-effects-in-trained-athletes-a-pilot-study
#11
Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Ian C Smith, Matthew J Jordan, Brian R MacIntosh, Gracia López-Contreras, Raúl Arellano, Walter Herzog
Fifteen trained athletes were assessed for postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) of squat jumps (SJ) and power push-ups (PPU) following upper body activation, lower body activation, upper and lower body activation, and rest. SJ improved similarly across all four conditions. PPU could not be assessed. Since the test protocol of SJ and PPU involved upper and lower body activation and caused PAPE in SJ, future work is required to determine if a non-localized PAPE effect exists.
July 4, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666093/the-impact-of-moderate-altitude-on-exercise-metabolism-in-recreational-sportsmen-a-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-metabolomic-approach
#12
Florian M Messier, Laurence Le Moyec, Carole Santi, Anne-Fleur Gaston, Mohamed N Triba, Emma Roca, Fabienne Durand
Although it is known that altitude impairs performance in endurance sports, there is no consensus on the involvement of energy substrates in this process. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the metabolomic pathways used during endurance exercise differ according to whether the effort is performed at SL or at moderate ALT (at the same exercise intensity, using proton nuclear magnetic resonance, 1H NMR). Twenty subjects performed two 60-min endurance exercise tests at sea level and at 2150 m at identical relative intensity on a cycle ergometer...
June 30, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658582/effect-of-acute-nitrate-ingestion-on-vo-sub-2-sub-response-at-different-exercise-intensity-domains
#13
Thaysa Ghiarone, Thays Ataide-Silva, Romulo Bertuzzi, Glenn Kevin McConell, Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva
While nitrate supplementation influences VO2 response to exercise, this effect may be intensity dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute nitrate supplementation on VO2 response during different exercise intensity domains in humans. Eleven men ingested 10 mg.kg-1 body mass (8.76 ± 1.35 mmol) of sodium nitrate or sodium chloride (placebo) 2.5 h before cycling at moderate (90 % of gas exchange threshold, GET), heavy (GET + 40 % of the difference between GET and VO2peak, Δ 40) or severe (GET + 80 % of the difference between GET and VO2peak, Δ 80) exercise intensities...
June 28, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651061/modelling-of-optimal-training-load-patterns-during-the-11-weeks-preceding-major-competition-in-elite-swimmers
#14
Philippe Hellard, Charlotte Scordia, Marta Avalos, Inigo Mujika, David B Pyne
Periodization of swim training in the final training phases prior to competition and its effect on performance have been poorly described. PURPOSE: We modelled the relationships between the final 11 weeks of training and competition performance in 138 elite sprint, middle-distance and distance swimmers over 20 competitive seasons. METHODS: Total training load (TTL), strength training (ST), low-to medium and high-intensity training variables were monitored. Training loads were scaled as a percentage of the maximal volume measured at each intensity level...
June 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651060/mechanism-underlying-methyl-eugenol-attenuation-of-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Hanan Saleh, Haidan M El-Shorbagy
Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion injury (I/R) is associated with a high risk of mortality in the clinical situation. Many factors are involved in I/R including reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokine release and apoptosis. We aimed to determine whether a pure methyl eugenol (ME) given before intestinal ischemia, protects against intestinal I/R and the possible mechanism involved in this protection. Rat received ME (100 mg/kg) for 30 days then underwent intestinal I/R with 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion...
June 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644929/short-interpregnancy-intervals-maternal-folate-levels-and-infants-born-small-for-gestational-age-a-preliminary-study-in-a-canadian-supplement-using-population
#16
Buffy Chen, Prescilla Carrion, Ravneet Grewal, Angela Inglis, Catriona Hippman, Emily Morris, Heather J Andrighetti, Arianne Albert, Jehannine Austin
BACKGROUND: Short interpregnancy intervals (SIPI) have been associated with increased risks for adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm delivery and infants small for gestational age (SGA). It has been suggested that mechanistically, adverse neonatal outcomes after SIPI arise due to insufficient recovery of depleted maternal folate levels prior to the second pregnancy. However, empirical data are lacking regarding physiological folate levels in pregnant women with SIPI, and relationships between quantified physiological folate levels and outcomes like SGA...
June 23, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636840/influence-of-sex-on-performance-fatigability-of-the-plantar-flexors-following-repeated-maximal-dynamic-shortening-contractions
#17
Amelia C Lanning, Geoffrey Alonzo Power, Anita D Christie, Brian H Dalton
The purpose was to determine sex-differences in fatigability during maximal, unconstrained velocity, shortening plantar flexions. The role of time-dependent measures (i.e., rate of torque development (RTD), rate of velocity development (RVD), rate of neuromuscular activation) in such sex-related differences was also examined. By task termination, females exhibited less reductions in power and similar changes in rate of neuromuscular activation than males, indicating females were less fatigable than males.
June 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636830/attenuation-of-hepatic-steatosis-by-purple-sweet-potato-color-is-associated-with-blocking-src-erk-c-ebp%C3%AE-signalling-in-high-fat-diet-treated-mice
#18
Xin Wang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Gui-Hong Zheng, Ai-Min Wang, Chun-Hui Sun, Su-Ping Qin, Juan Zhuang, Jun Lu, Dai-Fu Ma, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Our previous work showed that purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, effectively improved hepatic glucose metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice. This study investigated the effects of PSPC on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and the signalling events associated with these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD+PSPC group and PSPC group. PSPC was administered daily for 20 weeks at oral doses of 700 mg/kg/day. Our results showed that PSPC significantly improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, as well as liver injury in HFD-treated mice...
June 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633001/impact-of-4-weeks-of-interval-training-on-resting-metabolic-rate-fitness-and-health-related-outcomes
#19
Matthew M Schubert, Holly E Clarke, Rebekah F Seay, Katie K Spain
PURPOSE: Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and substrate oxidation (RER) are important indicators of health. The effects of interval training on RMR have not been thoroughly investigated, which was the purpose of the present study. METHODS: Thirty men and women (mean ± SD age and VO2max: 28.8 ± 7.6 yrs and 33.0 ± 8.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed 4 weeks of Wingate-based sprint interval training (SIT), repeated 1-minute high-intensity intervals (HIIT), or served as controls (CON)...
June 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618238/antiglycating-potential-of-acesulfame-potassium-an-artificial-sweetener
#20
Ahmad Ali, Tejashree Anil More, Amaritpal Kaur Hoonjan, Subramanian Sivakami
Sweeteners have replaced the natural sugars in the food and beverage industry because of many reasons such as hyperglycemia and cost. Saccharin, Sucralose, Aspartame and Acesulfame-K are the most commonly used sweeteners. In the present study, the above mentioned artificial sweeteners were used to assess their glycating properties by established methods like browning, fructosamine assay, determination of carbonyl content, protein aggregation and measurement of fluorescence. Amadori and Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) are formed as a result of the interaction between carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins and other macromolecules during Glycation...
June 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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