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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216735/effects-of-citrus-leaf-extract-on-aortic-vascular-reactivity-in-repeatedly-heated-vegetable-oil-induced-hypertensive-rats
#1
Siti Hawa Nordin, Yusof Kamisah, Suhaila Mohamed, Kamsiah Jaarin
The prolonged intake of diet containing repeatedly heated vegetable oil can cause hypertension in the long run. In this study, the effects of citrus leaf extract (CLE) supplementation on vascular reactivity, plasma nitrite, and aortic structure in repeatedly-heated vegetable oil-induced hypertension rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 56) were divided into seven groups corresponding to the respective diets. For 16 weeks, one group was given standard rat chow (control) while other groups were given diets containing 15% w/w of palm oil, fresh palm oil (FPO), five-time-heated palm oil (5HPO) and ten-time-heated palm oil (10HPO), with or without 0...
September 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216730/safety-of-8-h-time-restricted-feeding-in-adults-with-obesity
#2
Kelsey Gabel, Kristin K Hoddy, Krista A Varady
This study examines the safety of time restricted feeding (TRF; 8-h feeding window/16-h fasting window daily) in obese adults. Twenty-three subjects participated in an 8-h TRF intervention for 12 weeks. Self-reported adverse events, body image perception, complete blood count and disordered eating patterns did not change from baseline to week 12. These findings suggest that consuming food within an 8-h window can safely facilitate weight loss in subjects with obesity.
September 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212637/switching-to-normal-diet-reverses-kwashiorkor-induced-salivary-impairments-via-increased-nitric-oxide-level-and-expression-of-aquaporin-5-in-the-submandibular-glands-of-male-wistar-rats
#3
Taye Jemilat Lasisi, Shehu-Tijani Toyin Shittu, Akinola Rasak Alada
Kwashiorkor, a form of malnutrition has been shown to cause impaired salivary secretion. However, there is dearth of information on mechanism that underlies this complication. Also, whether returning to normal-diet after kwashiorkor will reverse these complications or not is yet to be discerned. Thus, this study aimed at assessing the mechanisms that underlie kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments and to evaluate the effects of switching back to normal-diet on kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments. Weaning rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (control, kwashiorkor, re-fed kwashiorkor) of 7 rats each...
September 13, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208279/improving-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis-as-a-postulated-mechanism-for-the-antidiabetic-effect-of-spirulina-platensis-in-comparison-with-metformin
#4
Ghaleb A Oriquat, Mennatallah A Ali, Shimaa A Mahmoud, Rania Mhm Eid, Rania Hassan, Maher A Kamel
Various nutritional and medicinal potencies have been accredited to metabolites from the cyanobacteria, Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) sp. Hence, our study was designed to examine whether the Spirulina supplementation would possess beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in comparison with metformin. High fat diet/low dose streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) model was adopted and the diabetic rats were orally treated with metformin (200 mg/kg) or Spirulina (250 or 500 or 750 mg/kg) for 30 days...
September 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205017/pulse-wave-reflection-responses-to-bench-press-with-and-without-practical-blood-flow-restriction
#5
Yu Lun Tai, Erica M Marshall, Alaina Glasgow, Jason C Parks, Leslie Sensibello, J Derek Kingsley
Resistance exercise is recommended to increase muscular strength, but may also increase pulse wave reflection. Resistance exercise combined with practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) on pulse wave reflection is unknown. PURPOSE: To evaluate the differences between bench press with pBFR and traditional high-load bench press on pulse wave reflection characteristics in resistance-trained men. METHODS: Sixteen resistance-trained men participated in the study. Pulse wave reflection characteristics were assessed before and after low-load bench press with pBFR (LL-pBFR), traditional high-load bench press (HL), and a control (CON)...
September 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193078/moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-and-impact-loading-independently-predict-variance-in-bone-strength-at-the-tibia-but-not-at-the-radius-in-children
#6
Anthony M Kehrig, Kelsey Bjorkman, Nazeem Muhajarine, James D Johnston, Saija A Kontulainen
OBJECTIVES: To assess if daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) or vigorous physical activity (VPA) and impact counts (acceleration peaks ≥3.9g) would independently predict variance in bone strength in children and youth. Second, to estimate bone strength gain associated with increases in daily MVPA, VPA or impact counts. METHODS: We recorded 7-day activity of 49 participants, mean age 11.0; SD 1.7 years, using accelerometers and estimated radius and tibia bone strength using peripheral quantitative computed tomography...
September 7, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189156/is-there-sufficient-evidence-to-explain-the-cause-of-sexually-dimorphic-behaviour-in-force-steadiness
#7
Jennifer M Jakobi, Elijah M K Haynes, Rowan R Smart
Neuromuscular noise is a determining factor in the control of isometric force steadiness (FS); quantified as coefficient of variation (CV) of force around a pre-established target output. In this paper we examine sex-related differences of neural, muscular and tendon influences on neuromuscular noise, to understand FS in females and males. We use evidence from the literature to identify that CV of force is higher in females compared with males in the upper and lower body, with sex-related differences becoming less apparent with increasing age...
September 6, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189154/camellia-oleifera-seed-extract-attenuated-abdominal-and-hepatic-fat-accumulation-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Hsin-Yi Yang, Wan-Ju Yeh, Jung Ko, Jiun Rong Chen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the hot-water extract of defatted Camellia oleifera seeds (CSE) on body and liver fat accumulation in rats. Forty rats were divided into five groups and each group was fed either an isocaloric control diet (C) or a high-fat liquid diet with 0% (H), 0.12% (H1), 0.24% (H2), or 0.48% CSE (H3) for 8 weeks. Ingestion of the high-fat liquid diet increased abdominal and liver fat accumulation, although no difference was found in body weights compared to rats fed the control diet...
September 6, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189152/the-influence-of-preceding-activity-and-muscle-length-on-voluntary-and-electrically-evoked-contractions
#9
Mathew I B Debenham, Geoffrey Alonzo Power
Muscle length and preceding activity independently influence rate of torque development (RTD) and electromechanical delay (EMD), however it is unclear whether these parameters interact to optimize RTD and EMD. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of muscle length and preceding activity on RTD and EMD during voluntary and electrically stimulated (e-stim) contractions. Participants (n=17, males, 24 ± 3yrs) performed isometric knee extensions on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. Explosive maximal contractions were performed at 2 knee angles (35° and 100° referenced to a 0º straight leg) during an unloaded (UNL) contraction and preceding activations: 20, 40, 60, and 80% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) torque...
September 6, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189147/interleukin-15-as-a-myokine-mechanistic-insight-into-its-effect-on-skeletal-muscle-metabolism
#10
Lucien Nadeau, Céline Aguer
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine with important immunological functions. This cytokine is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is believed to be a myokine. This hypothesis is supported by the rapid increase in circulating levels of IL-15 in response to exercise. Treatment with high doses of IL-15 results in metabolic adaptations such as improved insulin sensitivity, whole-body fatty acid oxidation and protection from high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. IL-15 secreted by contracting muscle may therefore act as an endocrine factor to improve adiposity and energy metabolism in different tissues...
September 6, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189146/assessing-the-usefulness-of-acute-physiological-responses-following-resistance-exercise-sensitivity-magnitude-of-change-and-time-course-of-measures
#11
Joshua S Jackman, Phillip G Bell, Simone Gill, Ken van Someren, Gareth W Davison, Emma Cockburn
A variety of strategies exist to modulate acute physiological responses following resistance exercise aimed at enhancing recovery and/or adaptation processes. To assess the true impact of these strategies, it is important to know the ability of measures to detect meaningful change. We investigated the sensitivity of measures used to quantify acute physiological responses to resistance exercise and constructed a physiological profile to characterise the magnitude of change and time course of this response. Eight males, accustomed to regular resistance exercise, performed experimental sessions during a 'control week', void of an exercise stimulus...
September 6, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30157384/are-french-canadians-able-to-accurately-self-rate-the-quality-of-their-diet-insights-from-the-predise-study
#12
Elise Carbonneau, Benoît Lamarche, Jacynthe Lafrenière, Julie Robitaille, Véronique Provencher, Sophie Desroches, Louise Corneau, Simone Lemieux
The main objective of this study was to compare self-rated diet quality to a more comprehensive score of diet quality and to assess the ability of self-rated diet quality to predict adherence to healthy eating guidelines. This study also aimed at evaluating the influence of individual characteristics on the association between self-rated diet quality and the overall diet quality score. As part of the PREDISE study, 1045 participants (51% women) from the Province of Québec, Canada, self-rated their diet quality ("In general, would you say that your dietary habits are: excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?")...
August 29, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153424/total-energy-expenditure-in-elite-open-water-swimmers
#13
Hiroyuki Sagayama, Kosuke Mimura, Makiko Toguchi, Jun Yasukata, Hiroaki Tanaka, Yasuki Higaki
This study aimed to examine the total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) of elite open-water swimmers. Our study group included five world-class competitive open-water swimmers. TEE was measured using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method for 1 week. The TEE was 4549±1185 kcal/day. The PAL was 3.22±0.46. Our results may provide a reference to optimize energy requirement support.
August 28, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152238/physical-activity-among-canadian-adults-with-obstructive-respiratory-diseases
#14
David Jagroop, Shilpa Dogra
The objective of this study was to investigate the amount and modes of physical activity in which adults with obstructive respiratory disease engage. Data from respondents with self-reported asthma (n = 4293), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 3118), both diseases (n = 1569), and neither obstructive respiratory disease (n = 64 175); these data are from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012). Logistic regressions were used to assess associations between modes of physical activity and type of respiratory disease...
August 28, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148973/the-type-of-training-program-affects-appetite-regulating-hormones-and-body-weight-in-overweight-sedentary-men
#15
Ebrahim Shakiba, Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Naser Rostamzadeh, Hosein Karim
Exercise-induced weight loss can occur for several reasons including changes in circulatory levels of appetite-regulating hormones. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various trainings on fasting serum levels of acylated ghrelin, Peptide YY (PYY3-36) and Glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) as well as weight and BMI changes. 44 overweight men were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 11 individuals including: endurance (3 sets of 10 minutes with 80-90% of HRmax), resistance (4 sets of 8 repetitions with 80% of 1RM), concurrent (combination of programs of endurance and resistance groups in an alternate manner) and control groups...
August 27, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148969/very-low-load-resistance-exercise-in-the-upper-body-with-and-without-blood-flow-restriction-cardiovascular-outcomes
#16
J Grant Mouser, Kevin T Mattocks, Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Zachary W Bell, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
It is proposed that, at very low loads, greater blood flow restriction (BFR) pressures might be required for muscular adaptation to occur. The cardiovascular and hyperemic response to very low loads combined with relative levels of BFR is unknown. METHODS: Ninety-seven participants were recruited and assigned to one of four exercise conditions: 15% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) without BFR (15/00), 15% 1RM with BFR at 40% of arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) (15/40), 15% of 1RM with BFR at 80% of AOP (15/80), and 70% of 1RM without BFR (70/00)...
August 27, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138571/maternal-cardioautonomic-responses-during-and-following-exercise-throughout-pregnancy
#17
Graeme M Purdy, Marina A James, Paige K Wakefield, Rachel J Skow, Sean Van Diepen, Linda E May, Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback
Blood pressure regulation during pregnancy is poorly understood. Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (BRG) is an important contributor to blood pressure regulation via its influence on heart-rate. Heart-rate fluctuations occur in response to various physiological stimuli and can be measured using heart-rate variability (HRV). It is unclear how these mechanisms operate during pregnancy, particularly related to exercise. We examined BRG and HRV prior to, during, and following prenatal exercise. Forty-three pregnant (n=10 first trimester [TM1], n=17 second trimester [TM2]; n=16 third trimester [TM3]) and 20 non-pregnant (NP) women underwent an incremental peak exercise test...
August 23, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138570/research-and-regulatory-gaps-for-the-substantiation-of-protein-content-claims-on-foods
#18
Ashleigh K A Wiggins, G Harvey Anderson, James D House
Protein claims provide guidance to consumers seeking protein-rich foods. Protein claim regulations differ globally, and both Canada and the U.S. require protein quality assessments, however methods differ. A tripartite workshop identified the need to: 1) harmonize; 2) update existing amino acid composition and digestibility databases; 3) develop non-animal bioassays; and 4) evaluate the impact of protein claims on human health. The Protein-Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score method is recommended for current regulatory use in Canada...
August 23, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138569/potential-protective-effects-of-the-edible-algae-arthrospira-platensis-against-lead-induced-oxidative-stress-anemia-kidney-variables-and-histopathological-changes-in-adult-rats
#19
Manel Gargouri, Ahlem Soussi, Amel Akrouti, Christian Magné, Abdelfattah El Feki
Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. This study aimed at investigating the possible protective effect of dietary Arthrospira platensis supplementation against lead acetate-induced kidney injury in adult rats. We took adult male rats as models. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Normal rats (control rats, C), rats treated with spirulina (S), rats treated with lead (0.344 g/kg body weight) (Pb), and rats treated with Pb associated with 5% Spirulina (S+Pb). The exposure of rats to Pb for 30 days provoked renal damages with a significant increase in hematological parameters, oxidative stress-related parameters (ie, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products and hydrogen peroxide), creatinine and urea levels in plasma and uric acid level in urine...
August 23, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107135/high-fat-diet-leads-to-adiposity-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-the-effect-of-whey-protein-supplementation-and-aerobic-exercise-training
#20
Farhad Ahmadi-Kani Golzar, Rozita Fathi, Soleiman Mahjoub
There is little understanding about dietary proteins and their potential contribution to obesity-induced inflammation. This study investigates the effect of 10 weeks of aerobic training and whey protein (WP) supplementation on visceral adipose tissue inflammation in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). In the first phase, 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: 1- normal diet (n=8), 2- high-fat diet (n=32). After this period-which lasted nine weeks-in the second phase, rats fed a HFD were randomly assigned into four groups: (n=8/group): 1- sedentary, 2- WP, 3- aerobic training, and 4- WP + aerobic training...
August 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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