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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144888/energy-expenditure-and-intake-during-special-operations-forces-field-training-in-a-jungle-and-glacial-environment
#1
Caleb D Johnson, Andrew J Simonson, Matthew E Darnell, James P DeLany, Meleesa F Wohleber, Christopher Connaboy
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, two in a hot environment (n=21) and one in a cool environment (n=8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly-labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the three missions, mean energy expenditure (4,618 ± 1,350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2,429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2,200 kcal/day...
November 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144887/rosiglitazone-is-superior-to-resveratrol-in-inducing-the-expression-of-glyceroneogenic-genes-in-adipose-tissue-from-obese-participants
#2
Marie-Soleil Beaudoin, Nicholas Gaudio, John K Reed, Jules Foute-Nelong, David M Mutch, David C Wright
We compared the effects of resveratrol and rosiglitazone, alone and in combination, on indices of fatty acid re-esterification in cultured adipose tissue from obese participants (n=17) undergoing gastric bypass. Rosiglitazone induced PDK4 and PEPCK gene expression to a greater extent than resveratrol. Co-treatment with both compounds induced PDK4 and PEPCK expression in parallel with reductions in the fatty acid to glycerol ratio. Our findings suggest beneficial effects of resveratrol and rosiglitazone co-treatment...
November 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136476/effectiveness-of-a-school-based-program-focusing-on-diet-and-health-habits-taught-through-physical-exercise
#3
Ana Pablos, Vicente Nebot, Vicente Vañó-Vicent, Diego Ceca, Laura Elvira
The global rate of obesity in childhood is becoming an epidemic and many authors have established a significant association between childhood obesity and overweight in adulthood. It is therefore necessary to seek effective strategies to reduce these levels of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Healthy Habits Program (HHP). The participants were 158 children from the 5th and 6th grades (Intervention Group [IG] n=82, Control Group [CG] n=76). The HHP is a school-based physical activity program focusing on promoting a healthy lifestyle...
November 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125915/a-pilot-study-investigating-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-capillary-blood-after-a-marathon-and-the-influence-of-an-antioxidant-rich-beetroot-juice
#4
Tom Clifford, Amy Bowman, Tess Capper, Dean M Allerton, Emma Foster, Mark Birch-Machin, Georg Lietz, Glyn Howatson, Emma J Stevenson
We report that reactive oxygen species (ROS), as measured in capillary blood taken from the finger-tip, increased after a marathon (+128% P < 0.01; ES = 1.17), indicating that this collection method might be useful for measuring ROS in field settings. However, mitochondrial DNA damage remained unchanged. Beetroot juice, taken before and after exercise, was unable to mitigate exercise induced-ROS production, questioning its use an antioxidant rich-food.
November 10, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106814/a-multi-ingredient-nutritional-supplement-enhances-exercise-training-related-reductions-in-markers-of-systemic-inflammation-in-healthy-older-men
#5
Kirsten E Bell, Tim Snijders, Michael A Zulyniak, Dinesh Kumbhare, Gianni Parise, Adrian Chabowski, Stuart M Phillips
We evaluated whether twice daily consumption of a multi-ingredient nutritional supplement (SUPP) would reduce systemic inflammatory markers following 6wk of supplementation alone (Phase 1), and the subsequent addition of 12wk exercise training (Phase 2) in healthy older men, in comparison to a carbohydrate-based control (CON). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were progressively reduced (P-time<0.05) in the SUPP group. No change in TNF-α or IL-6 concentrations was observed in the CON group...
November 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106812/whey-protein-hydrolysate-supplementation-accelerates-recovery-from-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females
#6
Meghan A Brown, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn Howatson
A number of different forms of protein and their analogues have been investigated for their efficacy in ameliorating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and recovery. Preliminary data regarding whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) supplementation are promising. However, its efficacy beyond acute eccentric/resistance exercise bouts or longer-term training programmes are limited and all investigations have been conducted in male or mixed-sex groups. This study sought to elucidate whether the benefits of WPH previously reported can be demonstrated in females following repeated-sprint exercise...
November 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099999/high-fat-simple-carbohydrate-diet-intake-induces-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-dysregulation-in-c57bl-6j-male-mice
#7
Swarnalatha Banavara Nagaraj, Neena Roy, Mahesh Manjunath Gouda, Rajeish Moger, Asha Abraham
Given the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome (MetS), we wanted to explore if high fat simple carbohydrate (HFSC) diet affect hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. One month old male C57BL/6J mice were fed with Control (C) and HFSC (T) feed (n=18 each) respectively for 5 months. T3 showed a significant increase in T(13.5%) compared to age matched C by 5th month.TSH was significantly high (1mo:1.9fold; 3mo:2.66 fold; 5mo:3.5fold) from 1stmonth to 5thmonth in T compared to age matched C...
November 3, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096069/exercise-training-and-weight-loss-not-always-a-happy-marriage-single-blind-exercise-trials-in-females-with-diverse-bmi
#8
Matthew Jackson, Fardin Fatahi, Kholoud Alabduljader, Charlotte Jelleyman, Jonathan P Moore, Hans-Peter Kubis
Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted two single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50-90% VO2peak, for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted...
November 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091744/effects-of-spirulina-platensis-on-lipid-peroxidation-antioxidant-defenses-and-tissue-damages-in-kidney-of-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#9
Manel Gargouri, Houda Hamed, Amel Akrouti, Xavier Dauvergne, Christian Magné, Abdelfattah El Feki
Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes causes free radicals overproduction, which contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. In modern medicine, no satisfactory therapy is available to cure diabetes mellitus. In that context, we investigated the potential therapeutic action of spirulina-enriched diet on renal impairment and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (120 mg kg-1) in rats. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0...
November 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091740/comparison-between-pre-exercise-casein-peptide-and-intact-casein-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#10
Yutaka Matsunaga, Yuki Tamura, Yasuyuki Sakata, Yudai Nonaka, Noriko Saito, Hirohiko Nakamura, Takashi Shimizu, Yasuhiro Takeda, Shin Terada, Hideo Hatta
We hypothesized that along with exercise, casein peptide supplementation would have a higher impact on improving glucose tolerance than intact casein. Male six-week-old ICR mice were provided a high-fat diet to induce obesity and glucose intolerance. The mice were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control (Con), endurance training (Tr), endurance training with intact casein supplementation (Cas+Tr), and endurance training with casein peptide supplementation (CP+Tr). The mice in each group were orally administrated water, intact casein, or casein peptide (1...
November 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084391/the-effect-of-rolling-massage-on-the-excitability-of-the-corticospinal-pathway
#11
Saied J Aboodarda, Rebecca M Greene, Devin T Philpott, Ramandeep S Jaswal, Guillaume Y Millet, David G Behm
The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations of corticospinal excitability (motor evoked potential, MEP) and inhibition (silent period, SP) following rolling massage of the quadriceps muscles. Transcranial magnetic and femoral nerve electrical stimuli were used to elicit MEPs and compound muscle action potential (Mmax) in the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles prior to and following either: i) 4 sets of 90-s rolling massage (ROLLING) or ii) rest (CONTROL). One series of neuromuscular evaluations, performed after each set of ROLLING or CONTROL, included three MEPs and one Mmax elicited every 4 s during 15 s submaximal contractions at 10% (experiment 1, n = 16) and 50% (experiment 2, n = 10) of maximal voluntary knee extensions (MVC)...
October 30, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073365/energy-expenditure-during-an-exercise-training-session-for-cardiac-patients
#12
Helena Santa-Clara, Xavier Melo, Romina Willi, Rita Pinto, Vanessa Santos, José P Almeida, Rodrigo Martins, Ron Clijsen, Miguel Mendes, Bo Fernhall
Background Increasing energy expenditure (EE) in cardiac patients remains a challenge. Exercise approaches in cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs (CR/SP) have consistently resulted in minimal weight loss, due in part to the low exercise-related EE. Purpose To measure the EE among patients participating in a routine exercise session of Phase III maintenance CR/SP where a recreational activity was introduced. Methods Twelve overweight/obese male patients with coronary artery disease (62.6 ± 8...
October 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069548/evidence-of-homologous-and-heterologous-effects-after-unilateral-leg-training-in-youth
#13
Aymen Ben Othman, David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi
The positive effects of unilateral training on contralateral muscles (cross education) has been demonstrated with adults for over a century. There is limited evidence for cross education of heterologous muscles. Cross education has not been demonstrated with children. It was the objective of this study to investigate cross education training in children examining ipsilateral and contralateral homologous and heterologous muscles. Forty-eight male children (10-13 years) were assessed for unilateral, ipsilateral and contralateral lower limb strength, power and endurance (1 repetition maximum (RM) leg press, knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), countermovement jump (CMJ), muscle endurance test (leg press repetitions with 60% 1RM)), and upper body unilateral MVIC elbow flexors (EF) and handgrip strength...
October 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065278/the-effects-of-low-and-moderate-dose-caffeine-supplementation-on-upper-and-lower-body-maximal-voluntary-concentric-and-eccentric-muscle-force
#14
Jason Tallis, Harley C M Yavuz
Despite the growing quantity of literature exploring the effect of caffeine on muscular strength, there is a dearth of data that directly explores differences in erogenicity between upper and lower body musculature and the dose response effect. The present study sought to investigate the effects of low and moderate dose caffeine on the maximal voluntary strength of the elbow flexors and knee extensors. Ten non-specifically strength trained, recreationally active participants (21 ± 0.3 yrs) completed the study...
October 24, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057678/healthfulness-and-nutritional-composition-of-canadian-prepackaged-foods-with-and-without-sugar-claims
#15
Jodi T Bernstein, Beatriz Franco-Arellano, Alyssa Schermel, Marie-Ève Labonté, Mary R L'Abbé
The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in calories, nutrient content, overall healthfulness, and use of sweetener ingredients between products with and without sugar claims. Consumers assume products with sugar claims are healthier and lower in calories. It is therefore important claims be found on comparatively healthier items. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of the University of Toronto's 2013 Food Label Database. Subcategories where at least 5% of products (and n ≥ 5) carried a sugar claim were included (n = 3048)...
October 23, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053944/investigation-of-the-3-epi-25-oh-d3-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-in-urban-schoolchildren
#16
Samantha E Berger, Maria I Van Rompay, Catherine M Gordon, Elizabeth Goodman, Misha Eliasziw, Michael F Holick, Jennifer M Sacheck
BACKGROUND: The physiological relevance C-3 epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [3-epi-25(OH)D] is not well understood among youth. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether demographic/physiologic characteristics were associated with 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in youth. METHODS: Associations between 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and demographics, 3-epi-25(OH)D3, total 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OH)D) (25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides were examined in racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (n=682, 8-15yrs) at Boston-area urban schools...
October 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053943/inflammation-status-of-healthy-young-men-initial-and-specific-responses-to-resistance-training
#17
Johanna K Ihalainen, Heikki Peltonen, Göran Paulsen, Juha P Ahtiainen, Ritva S Taipale, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Antti A Mero
PURPOSE: Our primary aim was to study the effects of a 4 wk preparatory resistance training (RT) period followed by 12 wks of two specific RT protocols (either hypertrophic-strength, HS, or strength-hypertrophy-power, SHP, training) on inflammation markers and the possible relationship of the changes in abdominal fat and lean mass to the changes in inflammation status. METHODS: A total of 82 healthy men were included in the study. Maximal concentric leg press strength (1RM), total body lean mass, total body and abdominal fat mass, circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and selected adipocytokines (resistin, adiponectin and leptin) concentrations were measured before (PRE) and after 4 (wk4) and 16 weeks (wk16) of RT...
October 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053942/do-elite-breath-hold-divers-suffer-from-mild-short-term-memory-impairments
#18
François Billaut, Patrice Gueit, Sylvane Faure, Guillaume Costalat, Frédéric Lemaitre
Repeated apneas are associated with severe hypoxemia that may ultimately lead to loss of consciousness in some breath-hold divers. Despite increasing number of practitioners, the relationship between apnea-induced hypoxia and neurocognitive functions is still poorly understood in the sport of free diving. To shed light onto this phenomenon, we examined the impact of long-term breath-hold diving training on attentional processing, short-term memory, and long-term mnesic and executive functions. Thirty-six men matched for age, height and weight were separated into three groups [12 elite breath-hold divers (EBHD, mean static apnea best time 371 sec, 105 months mean apnea experience); 12 novice breath-hold divers (NBHD, mean best time 243 sec, 8...
October 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053933/chronic-administration-of-ellagic-acid-improved-the-cognition-in-male-middle-aged-overweight
#19
Ying Liu, Shuyi Yu, Fen Wang, Haitao Yu, Xueli Li, Wanru Dong, Ruichao Lin, Qingshan Liu
This study aims to investigate whether ellagic acid has beneficial effects on cognitive deficits in middle-aged overweight individuals and the possible mechanism. A total of 150 middle-aged male participants, including 76 normal weight and 74 overweight, aged between 45 to 55 years were recruited for this study. Both normal weight and overweight participants were administered either 50 mg ellagic acid or placebo cellulose daily for 12 weeks. Blood lipids, peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and saliva cortisol were assessed on the last day of the procedure to investigate the effects induced by ellagic acid...
October 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049892/velocity-of-the-muscle-tendon-unit-is-sex-dependent-and-not-altered-with-acute-static-stretch
#20
Carey L Simpson, Rowan R Smart, Dylan Ee Melady, Jennifer M Jakobi
Contraction velocity of a muscle tendon unit (MTU) is dependent upon the interrelationship between fascicles shortening and the tendon lengthening. Altering the mechanical properties of these tissues through a perturbation such as static stretching slows force generation. Females, who have inherently greater compliance compared with males have slower velocity of MTU components. The addition of a static stretch might further exacerbate this sex difference. The purpose of this study was to investigate the velocity of fascicle shortening and tendon lengthening in males and females during isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar flexors prior to and following an acute static stretch...
October 19, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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