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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044449/efficacy-of-a-randomized-trial-examining-commercial-weight-loss-programs-and-exercise-on-metabolic-syndrome-in-overweight-and-obese-women
#1
Claire Baetge, Conrad P Earnest, Brittanie Lockard, Adriana M Coletta, Elfego Galvan, Christopher Rasmussen, Kyle Levers, Sunday Y Simbo, Y Peter Jung, Majid Koozehchian, Jonathan Oliver, Ryan Dalton, Brittany Sanchez, Michael J Byrd, Deepesh Khanna, Andrew Jagim, Julie Kresta, Mike Greenwood, Richard B Kreider
While commercial dietary weight-loss programs typically advise exercise, few provide actual programing. The goal of this study was to compare the Curves Complete 90-day Challenge (CC, n = 29), which incorporates exercising and diet, to programs advocating exercise (Weight Watchers Points Plus (WW, n = 29), Jenny Craig At Home (JC, n = 27), and Nutrisystem Advance Select (NS, n = 28)) or control (n = 20) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and weight loss. We randomized 133 sedentary, overweight women (age, 47 ± 11 years; body mass, 86 ± 14 kg; body mass index, 35 ± 6 kg/m(2)) into respective treatment groups for 12 weeks...
January 3, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055244/canadian-society-for-exercise-physiology-symposium-on-integrative-physiology-honouring-dr-bengt-saltin-the-use-of-exercise-to-study-integrative-physiology
#2
Coral L Murrant, Maureen J MacDonald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055243/a-tribute-to-bengt-saltin-the-use-of-exercise-to-study-integrative-physiology-hommage-%C3%A3-bengt-saltin-le-recours-%C3%A3-l-exercice-pour-%C3%A3-tudier-la-physiologie-int%C3%A3-grative
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045333/discussion-of-the-impact-of-cihr-reforms-on-the-funding-of-nutritional-sciences-in-canada
#4
David W L Ma, Robert F Bertolo, Sarah Robbins, Valerie Marchand, Alison M Duncan, Melanie Plourde, Andrea Grantham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045332/reply-to-discussion-of-dietary-assessment-is-a-critical-element-of-health-research-perspective-from-the-partnership-for-advancing-nutritional-and-dietary-assessment-in-canada-misrepresentations-distort-the-scientific-record
#5
Benoît Lamarche, Marie-Ève Labonté, Sharon I Kirkpatrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045331/discussion-of-dietary-assessment-is-a-critical-element-of-health-research-perspective-from-the-partnership-for-advancing-nutritional-and-dietary-assessment-in-canada-misrepresentations-distort-the-scientific-record
#6
Edward Archer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009533/cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-obese-adults-assessed-using-established-values-for-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#7
William Bostad, Thomas Alexander Ricketts, Paula Jean Stotz, Robert Ross
The present study was designed to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease as determined by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a large sample of inactive, obese adults. Cardiovascular disease risk was determined using published age- and sex-adjusted values for low, moderate, and high CRF from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Contrary to expectations, ACLS-CRF classifications identified approximately 60% of our inactive, obese adults as having moderate or high CRF and hence, low cardiovascular disease risk...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009532/feed-forward-regulation-of-self-selected-exercise-intensity-in-response-to-different-rates-of-arterial-deoxygenation
#8
Saro D Farra
Arterial desaturation impairs exercise performance in a dose-dependent manner. However, new theories of exercise-induced fatigue suggest that increasing rates of arterial deoxygenation augment the fatigue response during exercise. The purpose of this dissertation is to clarify if self-selected exercise intensity, while exercising at a constant rate of perceived exertion (RPE), is sensitive to alterations in the absolute arterial saturation (SPO2) and/or the rate of change in SPO2. Subjects performed constant RPE exercise for 30 min...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006438/accelerometer-thresholds-accounting-for-body-mass-reduces-discrepancies-between-measures-of-physical-activity-for-individuals-with-overweight-and-obesity
#9
Lilian Raiber, Rebecca A G Christensen, Veronica K Jamnik, Jennifer L Kuk
The objective of this study was to explore whether accelerometer thresholds that are adjusted to account for differences in body mass influence discrepancies between self-report and accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) volume for individuals with overweight and obesity. We analyzed 6164 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003-2006. Established accelerometer thresholds were adjusted to account for differences in body mass to produce a similar energy expenditure (EE) rate as individuals with normal weight...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006437/does-exercise-pose-a-challenge-to-glucoregulation-after-clinical-islet-transplantation
#10
Deanna R Funk, Normand G Boulé, Peter A Senior, Jane E Yardley
Islet transplantation (ITx) is effective in preventing severe hypoglycemia by restoring glucose-dependent insulin secretion in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but may not normalize glucose regulation. Studies suggest that physical activity plays a role in maintaining β-cell mass and function in individuals with type 2 diabetes and animal models of diabetes. This could indicate that physical activity plays a role in graft survival in ITx recipients. This review's objective is to assess current knowledge related to physical activity in ITx recipients...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006436/professor-bengt-saltin-symposium-environmental-challenges-to-human-performance
#11
Philip N Ainslie
This short review is from a presentation made at the Bengt Saltin Symposium, October 15-17, at the 2015 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology conference, Hamilton, Canada. The review provides context of the important work of the late Dr. Saltin's contributions to environmental physiology. In addition to well-controlled laboratory experiments to better understand the influence of hypoxia or temperature, or both, Dr. Saltin also led several field expeditions to the North Greenland, Kenya, Himalayas, and the Andes, where he studied several aspects of human adaptation to environment...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006435/linking-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-and-metabolism-to-the-limits-of-human-performance
#12
Robert Boushel
Over the last 50 years, Bengt Saltin's contributions to our understanding of physiology of the circulation, the matching of the circulation to muscle metabolism, and the underlying mechanisms that set the limits for exercise performance were enormous. His research addressed the key questions in the field using sophisticated experimental methods including field expeditions. From the Dallas Bedrest Study to the 1-leg knee model to the physiology of lifelong training, his prodigious body of work was foundational in the field of exercise physiology and his leadership propelled integrative human physiology into the mainstream of biological sciences...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006434/lactate-minimum-underestimates-the-maximal-lactate-steady-state-in-swimming-mice
#13
Natalia Almeida Rodrigues, Adriana Souza Torsoni, Thais Fante, Ivan Gustavo Masselli Dos Reis, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros Manchado-Gobatto
The intensity of lactate minimum (LM) has presented a good estimate of the intensity of maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS); however, this relationship has not yet been verified in the mouse model. We proposed validating the LM protocol for swimming mice by investigating the relationship among intensities of LM and MLSS as well as differences between sexes, in terms of aerobic capacity. Nineteen mice (male: 10, female: 9) were submitted to the evaluation protocols for LM and MLSS. The LM protocol consisted of hyperlactatemia induction (30 s exercise (13% body mass (bm)), 30 s resting pause and exhaustive exercise (13% bm), 9 min resting pause and incremental test)...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006433/intracerebroventricular-tempol-administration-in-older-rats-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-the-hypothalamus-but-does-not-change-stat3-signalling-or-sirt1-ampk-pathway
#14
Hale Z Toklu, Philip J Scarpace, Yasemin Sakarya, Nataliya Kirichenko, Michael Matheny, Erin B Bruce, Christy S Carter, Drake Morgan, Nihal Tümer
Hypothalamic inflammation and increased oxidative stress are believed to be mechanisms that contribute to obesity. 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (tempol), a free radical scavenger, has been shown to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. We hypothesized that brain infusion of tempol would reduce oxidative stress, and thus would reduce food intake and body weight and improve body composition in rats with age-related obesity and known elevated oxidative stress. Furthermore, we predicted an associated increase in markers of leptin signalling, including the silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1)/5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002685/effects-of-blood-flow-restriction-on-biomarkers-of-myogenesis-in-response-to-resistance-exercise
#15
Andrew S Layne, Kelly Larkin-Kaiser, R Gavin MacNeil, Marvin Dirain, Bhanuprasad Sandesara, Todd M Manini, Thomas W Buford
We investigated the acute myogenic response to resistance exercise with and without blood-flow restriction (BFR). Six men and women (age, 22 ± 1 years) performed unilateral knee extensions at 40% of 1-repetition maximum with or without (CNTRL) BFR applied via pressure cuff inflated to 220 mm Hg. Muscle biopsies were collected at 4 h and 24 h postexercise. Addition of BFR increased myoD and c-Met messenger RNA expression relative to CNTRL. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor protein was significantly higher following CNTRL...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002684/effects-of-caffeine-on-endurance-capacity-and-psychological-state-in-young-females-and-males-exercising-in-the-heat
#16
Silva Suvi, Saima Timpmann, Maria Tamm, Martin Aedma, Kairi Kreegipuu, Vahur Ööpik
Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg(-1)) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997218/inhibition-of-the-gut-enzyme-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-may-explain-how-aspartame-promotes-glucose-intolerance-and-obesity-in-mice
#17
Sarah S Gul, A Rebecca L Hamilton, Alexander R Munoz, Tanit Phupitakphol, Wei Liu, Sanjiv K Hyoju, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Sara Morrison, Dong Hu, Weifeng Zhang, Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Haizhong Huo, Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Richard A Hodin
Diet soda consumption has not been associated with tangible weight loss. Aspartame (ASP) commonly substitutes sugar and one of its breakdown products is phenylalanine (PHE), a known inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut enzyme shown to prevent metabolic syndrome in mice. We hypothesized that ASP consumption might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome based on PHE's inhibition of endogenous IAP. The design of the study was such that for the in vitro model, IAP was added to diet and regular soda, and IAP activity was measured...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959642/using-exercise-training-to-understand-control-of-skeletal-muscle-metabolism
#18
Martin J Gibala
Bengt Saltin believed that exercise was the unsurpassed tool to study human integrative physiology. He demonstrated this over the course of his career by employing physical training as a model to advance our understanding of skeletal muscle metabolic control and the impact of physical activity on performance and health. Bengt was also a pioneer in advocating the concept of exercise is medicine. His scientific curiosity was perhaps exceeded only by his generosity.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959641/dietary-intake-and-prospective-changes-in-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-children-and-youth
#19
Solmaz Setayeshgar, John Paul Ekwaru, Katerina Maximova, Sumit R Majumdar, Kate E Storey, Jonathan McGavock, Paul J Veugelers
Only few studies examined the effect of diet on prospective changes in cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors in children and youth despite its importance for understanding the role of diet early in life for cardiovascular disease in adulthood. To test the hypothesis that dietary intake is associated with prospective changes in CM risk factors, we analyzed longitudinal observations made over a period of 2 years among 448 students (aged 10-17 years) from 14 schools in Canada. We applied mixed effect regression to examine the associations of dietary intake at baseline with changes in body mass index, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and insulin sensitivity score between baseline and follow-up while adjusting for age, sex, and physical activity...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959640/bengt-saltin-and-exercise-physiology-a-perspective
#20
Michael J Joyner
This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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