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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412430/exercise-induced-arterial-hypoxemia-some-answers-more-questions
#1
Paolo B Dominelli, Andrew William Sheel
Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) is characterized by the decrease in arterial oxygen tension and oxyhemoglobin saturation during dynamic aerobic exercise. Since the time of the initial observations, our knowledge and understanding of EIAH has grown, but many unknowns remain. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings, highlight areas of disagreement and identify where information is lacking. Specifically, this review will place emphasis on: i) the occurrence of EIAH during submaximal exercise, ii) whether there are sex-differences in the development and severity of EIAH, iii) unresolved questions and future directions...
November 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398915/the-effect-of-the-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-the-i-in-vitro-i-activity-of-bovine-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase
#2
Gary William Boyd, Marion Drew, Shannon Ward, Marianne Baird, Christopher Connaboy, Scott Murray Graham
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used as nutritional support for patients with a range of conditions including liver cirrhosis and in-born errors of amino acid metabolism, and are commonly used "sports"/exercise supplements. The effects of the BCAA on the <i>in-vitro</i> activity of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (EC. 3.1.3.1) were studied. All three BCAA were found to be uncompetitive inhibitors of the enzyme with L-leucine being the most potent (Ki' = 24.9mM) and L-valine, the least potent (Ki' = 37mM)...
November 6, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398900/electromyostimulation-with-blood-flow-restriction-enhances-activation-of-mtor-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-rat-gastrocnemius-muscles
#3
Toshiharu Natsume, Toshinori Yoshihara, Hisashi Naito
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) induces muscle hypertrophy. However, cellular mechanisms underlying the muscle hypertrophy induced by NMES combined with BFR remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that NMES combined with BFR would enhance the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Age-matched male Wistar rats (6 months old, n=7 per group) were assigned randomly into control, BFR alone (BFR), NMES alone (NMES) and NMES combined with BFR (NMES/BFR) groups...
November 6, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365907/acute-long-distance-trail-running-increases-serum-il-6-il-15-and-hsp72-levels
#4
Melda Pelin Yargic, Seyma Torgutalp, Senay Akin, Naila Babayeva, Murat Torgutalp, Ali Haydar Demirel
IL-6, Hsp72, and IL-15 are molecules that have significant metabolic effects on glucose and fat metabolisms and cell's stress response. The aim of this study is to determine their serum levels after a long-distance trail run. Serum IL-15 levels after such endurance events have not been investigated yet. Blood samples were collected from 37 athletes (11 female, 26 male) before and after a 35-km trail run, with a total climb of 940m. Serum was obtained from the samples and IL-6, IL-15 and Hsp72 levels were measured from serum by sandwich ELISA method...
October 26, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30354265/ethnic-differences-in-fat-and-muscle-mass-and-their-implication-for-interpretation-of-bioelectrical-impedance-vector-analysis
#5
Björn Jensen, Takashi Moritoyo, Martha Kaufer-Horwitz, Svein Peine, Kristina Norman, Michael Maisch, Aya Matsumoto, Yuka Masui, Antonio Velázquez-González, Jannet Domínguez-García, Elizabeth Fonz-Enríquez, Saori G Salgado-Moctezuma, Anja Bosy-Westphal
According to the WHO Expert Consultation, current BMI cut-offs should be retained as an international classification. There are, however, ethnic differences in BMI associated health risks that may be due to differences in body fat or skeletal muscle mass and also impact the interpretation of phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Therefore the aim of this study was to compare body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis between 1048 German, 1026 Mexican and 995 Japanese adults with a wide range of age and BMI (18-78years, BMI 13...
October 24, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352170/a-moderately-elevated-soy-protein-diet-mitigates-inflammatory-changes-in-gut-and-in-bone-turnover-during-chronic-tnbs-induced-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Corinne E Metzger, S Anand Narayanan, David C Zawieja, Susan M Bloomfield
Inflammatory bowel disease is a condition that leads to gut pathologies, such as abnormal lymphatic architecture, as well as systemic comorbidities such as bone loss. Furthermore, current therapies are limited to low efficacy and incur side-effects. Dietary interventions are minimally explored, but may provide a holistic treatment to improve gut outcomes and comorbidities. Indeed, plant-based soy protein has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. Here we tested the impact of a moderately elevated soy protein diet in a chronic, TNBS-induced colitis model on gut and bone inflammatory-mediated pathophysiological adaptations...
October 23, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345803/small-intestine-barrier-function-failure-induces-systemic-inflammation-in-monosodium-glutamate-induced-chronically-obese-mice
#7
Kazuhiko Nakadate, Tomoya Hirakawa, Sawako Tanaka-Nakadate
Chronic obesity has increased worldwide, in conjunction with Type 2 diabetes. Chronic obesity causes systemic inflammation that may result in functional deterioration of the gastrointestinal barrier. However, gastrointestinal conditions associated with chronic obesity have not been comprehensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate morphological changes in small intestine barrier structures during chronic obesity. A mouse model of chronic obesity induced by monosodium glutamate treatment was established...
October 21, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339765/zinc-supplementation-reduces-diet-induced-obesity-and-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-rats
#8
Rutiane Ullmann Thoen, Nathaniele Nebel Barter, Elizângela Schemitt, Silvia Bona, Sabrina Fernandes, Gabriela Coral, Norma Possa Marroni, Cristiane Tovo, Renata Padilha Guedes, Marilene Porawski
Rates of obesity have been growing at alarming rates, compromising the health of the world population. Thus, the search for interventions that address the metabolic repercussions of obesity are necessary. Here we evaluated the metabolic and antioxidant effects of zinc and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with high-fat/high-fructose diet (HFD) or standard diet (SD) for 19 weeks. From the 15th week until the end of the experiment, HFD and SD-fed rats received zinc (6mg/kg) or BCAA (750mg/kg) supplementation...
October 19, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336069/the-hexoskin%C3%A2-physiological-monitoring-shirt-does-not-impair-whole-body-heat-loss-during-exercise-in-hot-dry-conditions
#9
Andrew W D'Souza, Sean R Notley, Erin K Brown, Martin P Poirier, Glen P Kenny
Using direct calorimetry, we determined whether the Hexoskin® shirt, a wearable device for monitoring physiological strain, would compromise whole-body heat loss and exacerbate body heat storage during moderate-intensity activity in hot-dry conditions. The shirt did not impair heat dissipation and resulted in similar body heat storage when worn alone relative to a semi-nude condition (214 vs. 211 kJ) or when worn underneath a work uniform compared to a cotton undershirt (307 vs. 318 kJ).
October 18, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332549/high-intensity-interval-exercise-induces-greater-acute-changes-in-sleep-appetite-related-hormones-and-free-living-energy-intake-compared-to-moderate-intensity-continuous-exercise
#10
Penelope S Larsen, Frank Marino, Kerri Melehan, Kym J Guelfi, Rob Duffield, Melissa Skein
Compare the effect of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous exercise on sleep characteristics, appetite-related hormones and eating behaviour. 11 overweight, inactive men completed two consecutive nights of sleep assessments to determine baseline (BASE) sleep stages and arousals recorded by polysomnography (PSG). On separate afternoons (1400-1600h), participants completed a 30min exercise bout: 1) moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE; 60% V̇O2peak) or 2) high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 60s work at 100% V̇O2peak: 240s rest at 50% V̇O2peak), in a randomised order...
October 17, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321491/application-of-critical-intensity-model-during-slide-board-skating
#11
Tatiane Piucco, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas
Critical cadence (CC), critical power (CP) and the work above CP (W') were determined from linear and hyperbolic modelling during skating on a slide board, in thirteen well trained speed skaters. Three to four trials to exhaustion were used for the fitting. CC from linear was higher than hyperbolic model (56.0 ± 4.8 vs 55.0 ± 4.5 push-offs/min, p= 0.01). No differences were found for CP and W' parameters from the models analysed.
October 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321490/association-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-levels-with-dietary-habits-and-lifestyle-factors-in-schoolchildren
#12
Konstantinos D Tambalis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Glykeria Psarra, Labros S Sidossis
The study examined the association between cardiorespiratory fitness levels and lifestyle factors, in a representative sample of Greek schoolchildren. A health survey carried out in 2015 on 177 091 participants aged 8 to 17 years old. Dietary habits, sleeping hours, physical activity (PA), and sedentary activities were assessed through self-completed questionnaires. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was evaluated with the20m shuttle run test. Insufficient dietary habits were greater in boys and girls classified with low CRF than their peers with healthy CRF...
October 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321486/recovery-following-rugby-union-matches-effects-of-cold-water-immersion-on-markers-of-fatigue-and-damage
#13
Renan Felipe Hartmann Nunes, Rob Duffield, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Irineu Loturco, Franciane Bobinski, Daniel Fernandes Martins, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo
We investigated the effect of post-match cold-water immersion (CWI) on markers of muscle damage, neuromuscular fatigue and perceptual responses within 72 h after a Rugby match. Twenty-two professional male Rugby players were randomized into CWI (10°C/10min; n=11) or Control (CON:30min seated; n=11) groups. Activity profile from Global Positioning Satellite systems and post-match rating of perceived exertion were measured to determined match load. Biochemical (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), neuromuscular performance (squat and countermovement jump [SJ; CMJ], peak power output [PPO], rate of force development [RFD], stiffness, 10- and 30-m sprint time and perceptual markers (soreness, perceived recovery) were obtained at pre, post, 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h post-match...
October 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312545/relationship-between-rice-consumption-and-body-weight-gain-in-japanese-workers-white-versus-brown-rice-multigrain-rice
#14
Kimi Sawada, Yukari Takemi, Nobuko Murayama, Hiromi Ishida
Increasing obesity rates have driven research into dietary support for body weight control, but previous studies have only assessed changes in body weight of ± 3 kg. We investigated the relationships between white or brown/multigrain rice consumption and one-year body weight gain ≥ 3 kg in Japanese factory workers (n = 437). Routine medical check-up data from a one-year nutrition and lifestyle cohort study were analysed. Participants were divided into white rice and brown/multigrain rice consumption groups and further classified by tertile of rice consumption...
October 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308126/changes-in-arterial-stiffness-after-eccentric-versus-concentric-cycling
#15
Takanobu Okamoto, Ryota Kobayashi, Yuto Hashimoto, Kazunori Nosaka
This study compared changes in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) after concentric (CON) versus eccentric cycling (ECC). It was hypothesized that baPWV would increase after the first ECC bout (ECC1) because of muscle damage, but not after the second ECC bout (ECC2), and would decrease after CON. Fifteen young (20-30 y) men performed two bouts of 30-min ECC (ECC1 and ECC2) at 60% of maximal CON power output and two bouts of 30-min CON at the same intensity as that of ECC (CON1), and at the same oxygen consumption as that of ECC (CON2) every two weeks...
October 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308125/modulatory-effects-of-viola-odorata-flower-and-leaf-extracts-upon-oxidative-stress-related-damage-in-an-experimental-model-of-ethanol-induced-hepatotoxicity
#16
Emran Habibi, Milad Arab-Nozari, Pedram Elahi, Maryam Ghasemi, Fatemeh Shaki
Ethanol is the most widely abused drug in the world in which long term use of ethanol induces oxidative stress in the liver tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of V. odorata against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rat. Animals were divided into nine groups as follows: control (normal saline), ethanol (10 mg/kg, ip), ethanol with three doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) of ethyl acetate flower and leaf extracts and positive control (vitamin E 80mg/kg) were gavaged 30 min before ethanol injection for 28 days...
October 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307315/retraction-modulatory-effects-of-rosemary-leaves-aqueous-extraction-against-oxidative-stress-and-related-damages-in-experimental-model-of-ccl4-induced-cardiac-toxicity-in-mice
#17
Houda Hamed, Khaled Bellassoued, Noura Brahmi, Ahmed Gargouri, Zied Ghannoudi, Abdelfattah El Feki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304638/aerobic-training-reduces-immune-cell-recruitment-and-cytokine-levels-in-adipose-tissue-in-obese-mice
#18
Débora Romualdo Lacerda, Michele Macedo Moraes, Albená Nunes-Silva, Katiá Anunciação Costa, Débora Fernandes Rodrigues, Josiana Lopes Sabino, Letícia Maria de Souza Cordeiro, Vanessa Pinho, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Samuel Penna Wanner, Danusa Dias Soares, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira
Obesity is associated with an energy imbalance that results from excessive energy intake, low diet quality and a sedentary lifestyle. In this regard, the increased consumption of a high-refined carbohydrate diet (HC) is strongly related to higher adiposity and low-grade inflammation. Aerobic training is a well-known non-pharmacological intervention to treat obesity and metabolic disturbances. However, the mechanisms through which aerobic training ameliorates the low-grade inflammation induced by the HC diet need to be further investigated...
October 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286303/the-effect-of-multiple-micronutrient-fortified-milk-consumption-on-vitamin-d-status-among-school-age-children-in-rural-region-of-morocco
#19
Kaoutar Benjeddou, Latifa Qandoussi, Bouchra Mekkaoui, Baha Rabi, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Fatiha Raji, Naima Saeid, Hakim Belghiti, Khalid Elkari, Hassan Aguenaou
Vitamin D deficiency is a health problem in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of multivitamin fortified milk consumption on vitamin D status among children living in the mountainous region of Morocco. 7 to 9 years old children (n=239; 49% of girls vs 51% of boys) have participated in a double blind longitudinal study, where they were divided in two groups: a fortified group who received daily 200 mL of fortified Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) milk enriched with 3μg of vitamin D3 and a non-fortified group who received 200 mL of non-fortified UHT milk with a natural abundance of vitamin D3 (about 1...
October 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286302/anthropometric-measures-associated-with-fat-mass-estimation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv
#20
Carlos A S Alves, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Michele Caroline de Souza, Diego Augusto Santos Silva
To verify the association between anthropometric indicators and body fat percentage (F %) estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 62 children and adolescents with HIV (8 to 15 years). F % was estimated by DXA and ADP. Anthropometric indicators were skinfolds (abdominal, triceps, subscapular, calf); perimeter relaxed arm (PRA), waist circumference (WC), perimeter neck (PN); body mass index (BMI); waist-to-height ratio (WHR); conicity index and body adiposity index...
October 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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