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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342366/evaluation-of-the-get-active-questionnaire-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#1
Andrea F M Petrella, Dawn P Gill, Robert J Petrella
BACKGROUND: Physical activity screening prior to starting a physical activity program is important to identify if there are any underlying health conditions. However, many older adults do not complete such assessments prior to beginning their physical activity program. This project compared the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's newly developed Get Active Questionnaire (GAQ) to a standardized exercise stress test in terms of screening out versus screening in false positive GAQ tests...
January 17, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342364/influence-of-knee-joint-position-and-sex-on-vastus-medialis-regional-architecture
#2
Alessio Gallina, Jacqueline N Render, Jacquelyne Santos, Hershal Shah, Dayna Taylor, Travis Tomlin, S Jayne Garland
Ultrasound imaging was used to investigate vastus medialis architecture in 10 males and 10 females at different knee angles. Increase in muscle thickness occurs predominantly when the knee angle is changed from 0° (full extension) and 45° (p<0.05); increases in VM pennation angle can be predominantly observed between 45° and 90° (p<0.05). Sex differences in the VM architecture can be observed in the distal (p<0.01), but not in the proximal region of the muscle (p>0.11).
January 17, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334615/hemodynamic-and-metabolic-responses-to-self-paced-and-ramp-graded-exercise-testing-protocols
#3
Nicholas M Beltz, Fabiano Amorim, Ann L Gibson, Jeffrey M Janot, Len Kravitz, Christine M Mermier, Nathan Cole, Terence A Moriarty, Tony P Nunez, Sam Trigg, Lance Dalleck
PURPOSE: Recent examinations have shown lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during traditional ramp (RAMP) compared to self-paced (SPV) graded exercise testing (GXT) attributed to differences in cardiac ouput. The current study examined the differences in hemodyamic and metabolic responses between RAMP and SPV during treadmill exercise. METHODS: Sixteen recreationally trained men (23.7±3.0 yrs) completed two separate treadmill GXT protocols. SPV consisted of five 2-min stages (10 min total) of increasing speed clamped by the Borg RPE6-20 scale...
January 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334614/perceptions-of-exercise-screening-among-older-adults
#4
Liza Stathokostas, Andrea F M Petrella, Wendy Blunt, Robert J Petrella
BACKGROUND: Pre-physical activity screening is important for older adults' participating in physical activity. Unfortunately, many older adults face barriers to exercise participation and thus, may not complete proper physical activity screening. The purpose of this project was to conduct a thematic analysis of perceptions and experiences of community-dwelling older adults regarding pre-physical activity screening (i.e., Get Active Questionnaire (GAQ) and a standardized exercise stress test)...
January 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324186/impact-of-sodium-citrate-ingestion-during-recovery-after-dehydrating-exercise-on-rehydration-and-subsequent-40-km-cycling-time-trial-performance-in-the-heat
#5
Silva Suvi, Martin Mooses, Saima Timpmann, Luule Medijainen, Daria Narõškina, Eve Unt, Vahur Ööpik
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sodium citrate (CIT) ingestion (600 mg·kg<sup>‒1</sup>) during recovery from dehydrating cycling exercise (DE) on subsequent 40-km cycling performance in a warm environment (32 °C). Twenty male non-heat-acclimated endurance athletes exercised in the heat until 4% body mass (BM) loss occurred. After 16 h recovery with consumption of water ad libitum and prescribed diet (evening meal 20 kcal·kg<sup>‒1</sup>, breakfast 12 kcal·kg<sup>‒1</sup>) supplemented in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner with CIT or placebo (PLC), they performed 40-km time-trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer in a warm environment...
January 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316409/exercise-is-medicine-canada-physical-activity-counselling-and-exercise-prescription-training-improves-counselling-prescription-and-referral-practices-among-physicians-across-canada
#6
Jonathon R Fowles, Myles W O'Brien, Kara Solmundson, Paul I Oh, Christopher A Shields
Exercise is Medicine Canada (EIMC) is an initiative that promotes physical activity (PA) counselling and exercise prescription within health care. The purpose of this study was to compare physicians' perceptions and practices around PA counselling and exercise prescription following EIMC training. Physicians (n=46) from 7 different provinces completed questionnaires initially and three-months following an EIMC workshop. Three-months post-intervention, physicians reported greater confidence compared to baseline, for providing physical activity and exercise (PAE) information to patients (79% vs 55%; p<0...
January 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316406/postexercise-whole-body-sweating-increases-during-muscle-metaboreceptor-activation-in-young-men
#7
Brian J Friesen, Martin P Poirier, Dallon T Lamarche, Andrew W D'Souza, Jung-Hyun Kim, Sean R Notley, Glen P Kenny
We assessed the effect of metaboreceptor activation on whole-body evaporative heat loss (WB-EHL) in twelve men (24±4 years) in the early-to-late-stages of a 60-min exercise recovery in the heat. Metaboreceptor activation induced by 1-min isometric-handgrip (IHG) exercise followed by 5-min forearm ischemia to trap metabolites increased WB-EHL by 25-31% and 26-34% during the ischemic period relative to IHG-Only and Control (natural recovery only) respectively throughout recovery. We show that metaboreceptor activation enhances WB-EHL in recovery...
January 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316405/magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin-d-co-supplementation-improves-glycemic-control-and-markers-of-cardio-metabolic-risk-in-gestational-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
Maryam Karamali, Shahla Bahramimoghadam, Fateme Sharifzadeh, Zatollah Asemi
To the best our knowledge, data on the effects of magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D co-supplementation on glycemic control and markers of cardio-metabolic risk in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are scarce. The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D co-supplementation on glycemic control and markers of cardio-metabolic risk of GDM patients. Sixty patients with GDM, aged 18-40 years old were randomised into two groups to intake either magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D co-supplements or placebo (n=30 each group) for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
January 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314862/exploring-the-utility-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-as-a-population-health-surveillance-indicator-for-children-and-youth-an-international-analysis-of-results-from-the-20-m-shuttle-run-test
#9
Justin J Lang
Emerging evidence has demonstrated the strong link between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple aspects of health (i.e., physiological, physical, psychosocial, cognitive), independent of physical activity, among school-aged children and youth. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a trait that does not vary substantially from day-to-day, and provides an indication of recent physical activity levels, making it an important possible indicator of population health. Thus, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured using the 20-m shuttle run test, as a broad, holistic health indicator for population health surveillance among children and youth...
January 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272631/effect-of-p2-receptor-blockade-on-cutaneous-vasodilation-during-rest-and-exercise-in-the-heat-in-young-men
#10
Naoto Fujii, Robert D Meade, Jeffrey C Louie, Akbari Pegah, Pierre Boulay, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
We assessed the role of purinergic P2 receptors in the regulation of cutaneous vasodilation in young adults at rest and during intermittent moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (35°C). P2 receptor blockade augmented resting cutaneous vasodilation but had no influence during and following exercise. This increase was partly diminished by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. These results suggest a functional role of P2 receptors in the regulation of cutaneous vascular tone during ambient heat exposure at rest...
December 22, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272606/postprandial-walking-reduces-glucose-levels-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Dawn P Coe, Scott A Conger, Jo M Kendrick, Bobby C Howard, Dixie L Thompson, David R Bassett, Jennifer D White
The purpose of this study is to investigate blood glucose changes, as measured by a continuous glucose monitoring system, that occur in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) following an acute bout of moderate-intensity walking after consuming a high carbohydrate/low fat meal. This study found that moderate-intensity walking induced greater postprandial glucose control compared to sedentary activity and it appears that moderate-intensity activity may be used to reduce postprandial glucose levels in women with GDM...
December 22, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268031/modified-sprint-interval-training-protocols-physiological-and-psychological-responses-to-four-weeks-of-training
#12
Greg L McKie, Hashim Islam, Logan K Townsend, Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Mark Eys, Tom J Hazell
Sprint interval training (SIT) protocols involving brief (≤15 s) work bouts improve aerobic and anaerobic performance, highlighting peak speed generation as a potentially important adaptive stimulus. To determine the physiological and psychological effects of reducing the SIT work bout duration, while maintaining total exercise and recovery time, forty-three healthy males (n=27) and females (n=16) trained for four weeks (three times/week) using one of the following running SIT protocols: 1) 30:240 (n=11; 4-6 x 30 s bouts, 4 min rest); 2) 15:120 (n=11; 8-12 x 15 s bouts, 2 min rest); 3) 5:40 (n=12; 24-36 x 5 s bouts, 40 s rest); or 4) served as a non-exercising control (CTRL, n=9)...
December 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262273/dietary-supplementation-with-allium-hirtifolium-and-or-astragalus-hamosus-improved-%C3%A2-memory-and-reduced-neuro-inflammation-in-the-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Zahra Bahaeddin, Asal Yans, Fariba Khodagholi, Shamim Sahranavard
Allium hirtifolium Boiss and Astragalus hamosus L. are mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine ‎documentation as therapy for a kind of dementia with the features and symptoms similar to those ‎of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of these herbs on neuro-‎inflammation and memory have been evaluated as new therapies in amyloid beta (Aβ) induced ‎memory impairment model. Separate groups of rats were fed with A. hirtifolium or A. hamosus ‎extract (both 100 mg/kg/day) started one week before stereotaxic surgery to 24 hours before ‎behavioral ‎testing (totally, for 16 successive days)...
December 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262272/effects-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-and-caffeine-on-high-intensity-interval-running-in-a-fed-state
#14
Simon Devenney, Shane Mangan, Marcus Shortall, Kieran Collins
The current study aims to identify if mouth rinsing with a 6% carbohydrate solution (CMR) and mouth rinsing and ingestion of caffeine (CMR+CAFF) can affect exercise performance during steady state (SS) running and high intensity intervals (HIT) in comparison to a 0% control solution (PLA), when in a fed state. Eight recreationally trained males completed three trials (CMR, CMR + CAFF, and PLA) of 45-min SS run and a HIT protocol (90% peak treadmill velocity) until fatigue in a double blinded, repeated measures study...
December 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262266/effect-of-a-short-term-physical-activity-intervention-on-liver-fat-content-in-obese-children
#15
Dong-Woo Kang, Ji-Hye Park, Mi Kyung Lee, YoonMyung Kim, In Deok Kong, Choon Hee Chung, Young Hee Lee, Justin Y Jeon
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease and can present with advanced fibrosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a 7-day intense physical activity intervention on liver fat content in children with obesity. Fifty-seven obese children (Mean BMI: 26.5±3.2 kg/m2; Mean age: 12.0±0.8 y) participated in a 7-day physical activity program. All participants were housed together and their food intake and energy expenditure were strictly controlled...
December 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253352/resistance-training-induced-decrease-in-central-arterial-compliance-is-associated-with-decreased-subendocardial-viability-ratio-in-healthy-young-men
#16
Kaname Tagawa, Youngju Choi, Song-Gyu Ra, Toru Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Kumagai, Seiji Maeda
High-intensity resistance training decreases central arterial compliance (CAC). Subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) is a useful tool that reflects the balance between coronary perfusion and left ventricular afterload. Animal studies have demonstrated that decreased CAC is associated with SEVR deterioration. Therefore, resistance training-induced decrease in CAC may be associated with changes in SEVR. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between SEVR and CAC using both cross-sectional and longitudinal (i...
December 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253351/short-time-effect-of-a-single-session-of-intense-whole-body-electromyostimulation-on-energy-expenditure-a-contribution-to-fat-reduction
#17
Marc Teschler, Alfred Wassermann, Anja Weissenfels, Michael Fröhlich, Matthias Kohl, Michael Bebenek, Simon von Stengel, Wolfgang Kemmler
To determine the underlying mechanisms after one session of (intense) whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR), 16 subjects followed a standardized protocol of indirect calorimetry for up to 72h in 12h intervals. The single session significantly increased RMR about 25±10% (p<0.001) and TEE for about 9.5±1%, a net effect of ~460±50 kcal (WB-EMS vs. CG).
December 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244956/effects-of-carbohydrate-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-beverage-ingestion-during-acute-upper-body-resistance-exercise-on-performance-and-post-exercise-hormone-response
#18
JohnEric W Smith, Ben M Krings, Brandon D Shepherd, Hunter S Waldman, Steven A Basham, Matthew J McAllister
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the individual and combined effects of ingesting carbohydrates (CHO) and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) during high volume upper-body resistance exercise (RE) on markers of catabolism and performance. Thirteen resistance trained males completed four experimental trials with supplementation ingesting beverages containing CHO, BCAA, CHO+BCAA, or placebo (PLA) in a randomized, double-blind design. The beverages were ingested in 118 mL servings six times during a ~60 min RE session consisting of bench press, bent-over row, incline press, and close-grip row...
December 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241018/older-women-exhibit-greater-airway-8-isoprostane-responses-to-strenuous-exercise-compared-to-older-men-and-younger-controls
#19
Stephanie P Kurti, Sam R Emerson, Joshua R Smith, Sara K Rosenkranz, Samantha A Alexander, Garrett M Lovoy, Craig A Harms
INTRODUCTION: Development of late-onset respiratory diseases is associated with elevated 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, in the airways. However, sex differences exist in development of these diseases. Using an exhaustive exercise bout as a physiological stressor may elucidate whether there is a sex difference with aging in pre- to post-exercise airway 8-isoprostane generation. PURPOSE: To determine whether older women exhibit a greater airway 8-isoprostane response to exhaustive exercise compared to older men and younger controls...
December 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232523/exercise-training-differentially-alters-axial-and-appendicular-marrow-cellularity-in-old-mice
#20
Jeff Baker, Joshua P Nederveen, George Ibrahim, Victoria Ivankovic, Sophie Joanisse, Gianni Parise
Aging gradually renders bone marrow hematopoietically inactive. Endurance exercise reverses this phenotype in young mice. Here, we determine the effects in aged mice. Twenty-two month old mice (n=6) underwent a progressive exercise training protocol. In appendicular bones, marrow cellularity increased by 51% (p<0.05) and marrow CFU, CFU-GM, and CAFC increased by 12%, 71%, and 86%, respectively (p<0.05). Vertebral cellularity remained unchanged. The mechanical forces associated with treadmill exercise training may be responsible for these observations...
December 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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