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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910538/muscular-contraction-frequency-does-not-affect-plasma-homocysteine-concentration-in-response-to-energy-expenditure-and-intensity-matched-acute-exercise-in-sedentary-males
#1
Natalia Úbeda, Brian P Carson, Ángela García-González, Antonio Aguilar-Ros, Ángel Enrique Díaz-Martínez, Rafael Venta, Nicolás Terrados, Donal J O Gorman, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez
Acute exercise seems to increase total plasma homocysteine (tHcy). That is related to cardiovascular risk, therefore it is important to understand the determinants of its response to all types of exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cycling at two different rates of muscle contraction on the complete tHcy kinetics. Eight young sedentary males were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal) acute exercise trials at 50% VO2peak on separate occasions at 50 or 80 revolutions per minute (rpm)...
September 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903011/inter-individual-responses-to-sprint-interval-training-a-pilot-study-investigating-interactions-with-the-sirtuin-system
#2
Stuart R Gray, Tom P Aird, Andrew J Farquharson, Graham W Horgan, Emily Fisher, John Wilson, Gareth E Hopkins, Bradley Anderson, Syed A Ahmad, Stuart R Davis, Janice E Drew
Sprint intensity interval training (SIT) is reported to improve blood glucose control and may be a useful public health tool. The sirtuins and associated genes are emerging as key players in blood glucose control. This study investigated the interplay between the sirtuin/NAD system and individual variation in insulin sensitivity responses after SIT in young healthy individuals. Before and after 4 weeks of SIT body mass and fat percentage were measured and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) performed in 20 young healthy participants (7 females)...
September 13, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892646/protective-effects-of-mentha-spicata-against-nicotine-induced-toxicity-in-liver-and-erythrocytes-of-wistar-rats
#3
Anouar Ben Saad, Ilhem Rjeibi, Hichem Alimi, Sana Ncib, Talel Bouhamda, Nacim Zouari
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Mentha spicata supplementation against nicotine-induced oxidative damage in the liver and erythrocytes of wistar rats. Bioactive substances were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Animals were divided into four groups of six rats each: a normal control group, a nicotine-treated group (1 mg/kg), a group receiving M. spicata extract (100 mg/kg), and a group receiving both M. spicata extract (100 mg/kg) and nicotine (1 mg/kg)...
September 11, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881147/cardiorespiratory-demand-of-acute-voluntary-cycling-with-functional-electrical-stimulation-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-with-severe-mobility-impairment
#4
Thomas Edwards, Robert W Motl, Lara A Pilutti
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is one strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in multiple sclerosis (MS), however, few modalities are accessible for those with severe mobility impairment. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling is one adapted exercise modality with the potential for improving CRF in people with severe MS. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the cardiorespiratory response of acute voluntary cycling with FES in people with MS with severe mobility impairment, and to compare this response to passive leg cycling...
September 7, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873321/separate-and-combined-effects-of-time-of-day-and-verbal-instruction-on-knee-extensor-neuromuscular-adjustments
#5
Hamdi Jaafar, Olivier Girard, Hanene Lajili
We examined time of day and verbal instruction separate and combined effects on knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments, with special reference to rapid muscle force production capacity. Ten healthy male participants performed four experimental trials in counterbalanced order: morning-"hard-and-fast" instruction, evening-"hard-and-fast" instruction, morning-"fast" instruction and evening-"fast" instruction. During each experimental trial, neuromuscular performance was assessed from the completion of six maximal isometric voluntary contractions (rest = 2 minutes) of the knee extensors with concomitant quadriceps surface EMG recordings...
September 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873320/influence-of-rhodiola-rosea-on-the-heat-acclimation-process-in-young-healthy-men
#6
Saima Timpmann, Anthony C Hackney, Maria Tamm, Kairi Kreegipuu, Eve Unt, Vahur Ööpik
The adaptogen <i>Rhodiola rosea</i> (RR) may mitigate stress responses and have beneficial effects on endurance capacity (EC) and mental performance. Heat acclimation (HA) improves EC in the heat, but the potential impact of RR on the HA process is unknown. Therefore, our intent was to determine would RR impact positively on the efficacy of the HA process. Twenty male subjects (age 22.5 ± 3.0 years) completed two EC tests involving walking (6 km·h <sup>-1</sup>) until volitional exhaustion in a climate chamber (air temperature, 42°C; relative humidity, 18%) before (H1) and after (H2) an 8-day HA period...
September 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854337/exercise-training-with-concomitant-nos-inhibition-improved-anxiogenic-behavior-spatial-cognition-and-bdnf-p70s6-kinase-activation-in-twenty-month-old-rats
#7
Mojtaba Salehpour, Fariba Khodagholi, Arman Zeinaddini Meymand, Maryam Nourshahi, Ghorbangol Ashabi
This study aimed to investigate the role of exercise and NO synthase inhibition on memory, anxiety and protein levels of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and P70S6 kinase (P70S6K). Twenty-month-old rats were divided into six groups: control group, two groups treated by L-Nitro-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) (25 and 100mg/kg) for sixty-three days, two groups treated with L-NAME (25 and 100mg/kg) for sixty-three days plus two months exercise and one group treated with exercise. Behavioral tests measured to indicate the anxiolytic and memory improvement role of exercise and NOS inhibition...
August 30, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841397/changes-in-hdl-c-concentrations-after-16-weeks-of-combined-training-in-postmenopausal-women-characteristics-of-positive-and-negative-responders
#8
Tiego A Diniz, Fabrício E Rossi, Ana Claudia Souza Fortaleza, Lucas Melo Neves, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro, Camila Buonani, Fábio S Lira, Eduardo Z Campos, Wagner Luiz do Prado, Ismael Forte Freitas
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the individual characteristics of body composition and metabolic profile that could explain interindividual variation in HDL-c concentrations in response to 16-weeks of combined strength plus aerobic (combined) training in postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants were divided into tertiles based on percentage of changes in HDL-c concentrations after combined training. Only women in the upper tertile (positive responders [PR]: Δ >10...
August 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841395/kolaviron-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-stomach-of-rats
#9
Olugbenga Adeola Odukanmi, Adeola Temitope Salami, Onaara Peter Ashaolu, Adeoti Gbemisola Adegoke, Samuel Babafemi Olaleye
Kolaviron (KV), an active complex of at least three compounds in Garcinia kola seed known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity was investigated for its gastro-protective effect in the stomach of rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion-induced gastric ulceration. Male adult Wistar rats (180 - 210 g) were used, randomized into six groups (n = 15) as follows; 1: control, 2: ulcerated untreated (UU), 3: KV alone (KVA), 4: KV + ulcer (KVU), 5: Ulcer + KV (UKV) and 6: Ulcer + omeprazole (20 mg/kg) (UOme)...
August 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750177/increasing-age-is-a-major-risk-factor-for-susceptibility-to-heat-stress-during-physical-activity
#10
Ryan McGinn, Martin P Poirier, Jeffrey C Louie, Ronald J Sigal, Pierre Boulay, Andreas D Flouris, Glen P Kenny
We evaluated the extent to which age, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat can independently determine whole-body heat loss (WBHL) in 87 otherwise healthy adults. We show that increasing age is a major predictor for decreasing WBHL in otherwise healthy adults (aged 20-70 years), accounting for 40% of the variation in the largest study to date. While greater body fat also had a minor detrimental impact on WBHL, there was no significant role for cardiorespiratory fitness.
August 24, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834687/weight-loss-enhances-hepatic-antioxidant-status-in-a-nafld-model-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#11
Iara Karise Santos Mendes, Cristiane Matsuura, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Julio Beltrame Daleprane, Marcela Anjos Martins, Wanda Vianna Mury, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha Brunini
PURPOSE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether a diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and to reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow, 10% energy from fat, 16 wk); HF (high fat diet, 50% energy from fat, 16 wk); SC-HF (SC 8 wk followed by HF 8 wk); and HF-SC (HF 8 wk followed by SC 8 wk)...
August 23, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831845/examining-school-day-dietary-intakes-among-canadian-children
#12
Claire N Tugault-Lafleur, Jennifer L Black, Susan I Barr
Understanding how dietary intakes vary over the course of the school day can help inform targeted school-based interventions, but little is known about the distribution or determinants of school-day dietary intakes in Canada. This study examined differences between school-hour and non-school-hour dietary intakes and assessed demographic and socioeconomic correlates of school-hour diet quality among Canadian children. Nationally representative data from the Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed using 24-h dietary recalls falling on school days in 2004 (n = 4827)...
August 23, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829923/high-intake-of-dairy-during-energy-restriction-does-not-affect-energy-balance-or-the-intestinal-microflora-compared-to-low-dairy-intake-in-overweight-individuals-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Line Quist Bendtsen, Trine Blædel, Jacob Bak Holm, Janne Kunchel Lorenzen, Alicja Budek Mark, Pia Kiilerich, Karsten Kristiansen, Arne Astrup, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen
During weight loss, dairy calcium is proposed to accelerate weight and fat mass loss through increased fecal fat excretion. The primary objective was to investigate if a high-dairy energy-restricted diet is superior to low-dairy in terms of changes in body weight, body composition and fecal fat excretion over 24 weeks. Secondary objectives included fecal energy and calcium excretion, resting energy expenditure, blood pressure, lipid metabolism and gut microbiota. In a randomized, parallel-arm intervention study 11 men and 69 women (BMI 30...
August 22, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829918/ipsilateral-corticomotor-responses-are-confined-to-the-homologous-muscle-following-cross-education-of-muscular-strength
#14
Joel Mason, Ashlyn K Frazer, Deanna M Horvath, Alan J Pearce, Janne Avela, Glyn Howatson, Dawson J Kidgell
Cross-education of strength occurs when strength-training one limb increases the strength of the untrained limb and is restricted to the untrained homologous muscle. Cortical circuits located ipsilateral to the trained limb might be involved. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the corticomotor responses from the untrained homologous (biceps brachii) and non-homologous (flexor carpi radialis) muscle following strength-training of the right elbow flexors. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the untrained left biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis during a submaximal contraction from 20 individuals (10 women, 10 men, aged 18-35 years; training group; n = 10 and control group; n = 10) before and after 3-weeks of strength-training the right biceps brachii at 80% of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM)...
August 22, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825967/dietary-acid-load-and-renal-function-have-varying-effects-on-blood-acid-base-status-and-exercise-performance-across-age-and-gender
#15
Enni-Maria Hietavala, Jeffrey R Stout, Lynda A Frassetto, Risto Puurtinen, Hannu Pitkänen, Harri Selänne, Harri Suominen, Antti A Mero
PURPOSE: Diet composition influences acid-base status of the body. This may become more relevant as renal functional capacity declines with aging. We examined the effects of low (LD) versus high dietary acid load (HD) on blood acid-base status and exercise performance. METHODS: Participants included 22 adolescents (AD), 33 young adults (YA) and 33 elderly (EL), who followed a 7-day LD and HD in a randomized order. At the end of both diet periods the subjects performed a cycle ergometer test (3x10 min at 35%, 55%, 75%, and (except EL) until exhaustion at 100% of VO2max)...
August 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825965/effects-of-intermitent-fasting-and-chronic-swimming-exercise-on-body-composition-and-lipid-metabolism
#16
Ruan Carlos Macêdo Moraes, Guilherme Vannucchi Portari, Alex Soares Marreiros Ferraz, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira Silva, Moacir Marocolo
Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP), has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty weeks old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 hours with water ad libitum and assigned to four different groups: control group (CON; ad libitum feeding and sedentary); exercise group (EX; ad libitum feeding and endurance training); intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary); intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training)...
August 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820950/combined-aerobic-and-resistance-exercise-training-for-improving-reproductive-function-in-infertile-men-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Behzad Hajizadeh Maleki, Bakhtyar Tartibian
This randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of 24 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on seminal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress as well as markers of male reproductive function and reproductive performance in infertile patients. Of a total of 1296 infertile patients (aged 25-40 years) who were screened, 556 were randomly assigned to exercise (EX, n = 278) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 278) groups. Semen samples were taken before, 12 and 24 weeks as well as 7 and 30 days post intervention...
August 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813611/intrauterine-growth-restricted-yucatan-miniature-pigs-experience-early-catch-up-growth-leading-to-greater-adiposity-and-impaired-lipid-metabolism-as-young-adults
#18
Semone B Myrie, Leslie L McKnight, J Christopher King, John J McGuire, Bruce N Van Vliet, Sukhinder K Cheema, Robert F Bertolo
Early nutrition has critical influences on cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. The study objectives were to evaluate the impact of low birth weight on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism and endothelium function in Yucatan miniature pigs. Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets (n = 6, 3 d old, 0.73 ± 0.04 kg) were paired with normal weight (NW) same-sex littermates (n = 6, 1.11 ± 0.05 kg) and fed milk replacer ad libitum for 4 wk. Thereafter, all pigs were fed a standard diet ad libitum for 5 h/d with growth, intakes and blood samples collected for 8 mo...
August 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806535/interactions-between-genetic-polymorphisms-of-glucose-metabolizing-genes-and-smoking-and-alcohol-consumption-in-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Kaiping Gao, Yongcheng Ren, Jinjin Wang, Zichen Liu, Jianna Li, Linlin Li, Bingyuan Wang, Hong Li, Yaxi Wang, Yunkai Cao, Kinji Ohno, Rihong Zhai, Zhen Liang
The impact of gene-environment interaction on diabetes remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate whether interaction between glucose metabolizing genes and lifestyle factors are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS- Interactions between genotypes of 4 glucose metabolizing genes (MTNR1B, KCNQ1, KLF14, and GCKR) and lifestyle factors were estimated in 722 T2DM patients and 759 controls, using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS- No significant associations with T2DM were detected for the SNPs of MTNR1B, KLF14 and GCKR...
August 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806532/the-impact-of-an-acute-oral-phosphate-load-on-endothelium-dependent-and-independent-brachial-artery-vasodilation-in-healthy-males
#20
Brendan M Levac, Michael A Adams, Kyra E Pyke
Serum phosphate levels are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population and endothelial dysfunction may be mechanistically involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute phosphate supplementation on endothelial-dependent (Flow mediated dilation (FMD)) and -independent (Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)) vasodilation in young, healthy males. 17 healthy male participants (23±3 years old) were exposed to an oral load of phosphate (PHOS; (liquid supplement containing 1200 mg of phosphorous) and placebo (PLAC) over two experimental days...
August 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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