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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775547/acute-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-does-not-attenuate-oxidative-stress-or-the-hemodynamic-response-during-submaximal-exercise-in-hypobaric-hypoxia
#1
Colin R Carriker, Paige Rombach, Brooke M Stevens, Roger A Vaughan, Ann L Gibson
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in oxidative stress, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) while exercising in hypobaric hypoxia following acute dietary nitrate supplementation. METHODS: Nine well-trained (60.8±7.8 ml/kg/min) males (29±7 years) visited the lab on 3 occasions, each separated by 1 week. Visit 1 included a maximal aerobic cycling test (VO2max) and 5 five-minute increasing intensity exercise bouts in a normobaric environment (1600m)...
May 18, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775542/exercise-and-circulating-bdnf-mechanisms-of-release-and-implications-for-the-design-of-exercise-interventions
#2
Jeremy James Walsh, Michael E Tschakovsky
Engagement in regular bouts of exercise confers numerous positive effects on brain health across the lifespan. Acute bouts of exercise transiently improve cognitive function, while long-term exercise training stimulates brain plasticity, improves brain function, and helps to stave off neurological disease. The action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a candidate mechanism underlying these exercise-induced benefits and is the subject of considerable attention in the exercise-brain health literature...
May 18, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758169/nutritional-recovery-from-low-protein-diet-during-pregnancy-does-not-restore-the-kinetics-of-insulin-secretion-and-ca2-or-alterations-in-the-camp-pka-and-plc-pkc-pathways-in-islets-from-adult-rats
#3
Leonardo Marin, Hellen Barbosa Farias Silva, Gabriela Damin, Leticia Martins Ignacio-Souza, Silvia Regina de Lima Reis, Camila Aparecida Machado de Oliveira, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Marise A Reis, Marcia Queiroz Latorraca, Fabiano Ferreira, Vanessa Cristina Arantes
We investigated the insulin release induced by glucose, the Ca2+ oscillatory pattern and the cAMP/PKA and PLC/PKC pathways in islets from adult rats that were reared under diets with 17% protein (C) or 6% protein (LP) during gestation, suckling and after weaning and in rats receiving diets with 6% protein during gestation, followed by a 17% protein diet after birth (R). Glucose-induced first-phase insulin secretion was reduced in LP and R islets, and the second phase was partially restored in the R group. Glucose stimulation did not modify [Ca2+]i, but it reduced the [Ca2+] oscillatory frequency in the R group compared to the C group...
May 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746789/effect-of-carbohydrate-restriction-induced-weight-loss-on-aortic-pulse-wave-velocity-in-overweight-men-and-women
#4
Majid M Syed-Abdul, Qiong Hu, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Jaume Padilla, Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Colette Heimowitz, Elizabeth J Parks
Increased aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and past data have shown that low-fat and low-energy diets, fed for 8-24 wks lower PWV. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a reduction in PWV would be achieved by dietary carbohydrate (CHO) restriction, shown to bring about weight loss over a shorter timeframe. Men [n=10, age: 41.8 ± 3.2 y, BMI: 34.2 ± 1.0 kg/m2 (mean±SE)] and women (n=10, age: 38...
May 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742356/schisandrin-b-alleviates-acute-oxidative-stress-via-modulating-nrf2-keap1-mediated-antioxidant-pathway
#5
Wu Ying, Zheng-Cai Li, Yao Li-Qing, Li Mai, Tang Mei
Schisandrin B (Sch B), one of Fructus Schisandrae's main effective components, protects neurons from oxidative stress in the central nervous system. Here we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Sch B in the acute oxidative stress damage and attempted to define the possible mechanisms. From the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT), we found that forcing swimming, an acute stressor, significantly induced anxiety-like behavior which was alleviated by Sch B (p.o.) treatment. In addition, the Sch B treatment suppressed toxicity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important factor for neuron damage...
May 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738271/plasma-pentraxin-3-and-glucose-kinetics-to-acute-high-intensity-interval-exercise-versus-continuous-moderate-intensity-exercise-in-healthy-men
#6
Aaron L Slusher, Michael Whitehurst, Arun Maharaj, Katelyn M Dodge, Brandon G Fico, J Thomas Mock, Chun-Jung Huang
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is mainly synthesized and released by neutrophils to help regulate innate immunity. While plasma PTX3 concentrations are associated with improved glucose metabolism and overall metabolic health, evidence has shown that significant elevations in plasma glucose downregulates circulating levels of PTX3. To examine whether or not this relationship would be altered in response to exercise, this study investigated the kinetics of the plasma glucose and PTX3 response following high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE)...
May 8, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738268/low-food-intake-in-hospital-patient-institutional-and-clinical-factors
#7
Lori J Curtis, Renata Valaitis, Celia V Laur, Tara McNicholl, Roseann Nasser, Heather H Keller
In-hospital malnutrition and inadequate food intake have been associated with negative outcomes (e.g., prolonged length of stay, readmission, mortality, and increased hospital costs). Studies examining factors associated with low food intake in hospital, commonly defined as consuming ≤50% of meals, have produced mixed results. We examined the correlates of food intake including patient socioeconomic, demographic, and health characteristics, institutional factors, and common clinical strategies in 1129 medical patients from five Canadian hospitals...
May 8, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733701/the-impact-of-sedentary-and-physical-activity-behaviour-on-frailty-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#8
Dustin Scott Kehler
Physical activity and sedentary behaviours are associated with frailty. However, it is unknown if different accumulation patterns of these behaviours are linked with frailty. Four studies were conducted: the first 3 determined if bouts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and patterns of sedentary behaviours were associated with frailty (study 1), and if sex (study 2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) status (study 3) affected these associations. Study 4 systematically reviewed the evidence to determine if preoperative physical activity and sedentary behaviours were linked to postcardiac surgical outcomes...
May 7, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733694/contribution-of-central-and-peripheral-adaptations-to-changes-in-vo-sub-2-sub-max-following-four-weeks-of-sprint-interval-training
#9
James P Raleigh, Matthew D Giles, Hashim Islam, Matthew William Nelms, Robert F Bentley, Joshua H Jones, J Alberto Neder, Kristen Boonstra, Joe Quadrilatero, Craig A Simpson, Michael E Tschakovsky, Brendon J Gurd
The current study examined the contribution of central and peripheral adaptations to changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO<sub>2</sub>max) following sprint interval training (SIT). Twenty-three males completed four weekly SIT sessions (8 x 20 second cycling bouts at ~170% of work rate at VO<sub>2</sub>max, 10 second recovery) for four weeks. Following completion of training, the relationship between changes in VO<sub>2</sub>max and changes in central (cardiac output) and peripheral (a-vO<sub>2</sub>diff, muscle capillary density, oxidative capacity, fibre-type distribution) adaptations was determined in all participants using correlation analysis...
May 7, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726717/anti-oxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-of-zinc-supplementation-in-experimental-induced-diabetic-rat-testes
#10
Neven M Aziz, Maha Yehia Kamel, Manar Mohamed, Sabreen Ahmed
AIM: One of the major obstacles that male diabetics may confront is sub-infertility and infertility. Thus the present study aims at investigating the role of co-administration of metformin and zinc (Zn) on the testes of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group; Diabetic non treated group; Diabetic + Metformin group, in which diabetic rats were treated by metformin 250 mg/kg orally once daily for 4 weeks; Diabetic + Metformin+ Zn group, in which diabetic rats treated for 4 weeks by metformin in combination with Zn 10mg/kg, orally once daily...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726706/-i-hibiscus-sabdariffa-i-roselle-polyphenol-rich-extract-averts-cardiac-functional-and-structural-abnormalities-in-type-1-diabetic-rats
#11
Nur Liyana Mohammed Yusof, Satirah Zainalabidin, Norsyahida Mohd Fauzi, Siti Balkis Budin
Diabetes mellitus is often associated with cardiac functional and structural alteration, an initial event leading to cardiovascular complications. <i>Hibiscus sabdariffa</i> or roselle has been widely proven as an antioxidant and recently has incited research interest for its potential in treating cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the cardioprotective effects of <i>H. sabdariffa </i>(roselle) polyphenol-rich extract (HPE) in type-1 induced diabetic rats...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726700/acute-exercise-induced-bdnf-trkb-signaling-is-intact-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-obese-glucose-intolerant-male-mice
#12
Bradley J Baranowski, Rebecca E K MacPherson
Obesity and glucose intolerance have been directly implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. It is thought that diet induced obesity causes a reduction in neuronal plasticity through a reduction in the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Previous work has demonstrated that acute exercise in healthy lean animals increases BDNF-TrkB signaling in the brain. However, if this effect is intact in a state of obesity remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a single bout of exercise on BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus from obese glucose intolerant mice...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726698/on-the-use-of-wearable-physiological-monitors-to-assess-heat-strain-during-occupational-heat-stress
#13
Sean R Notley, Andreas D Flouris, Glen P Kenny
Workers in many industries are required to perform arduous work in high heat stress conditions, which can lead to rapid increases in body temperature that elevate the risk of heat-related illness or even death. Traditionally, effort to mitigate work-related heat injury has been directed to the assessment of environmental heat stress (e.g., wet-bulb globe temperature), rather than the associated physiological strain responses (e.g., heart rate, skin and core temperatures). However, since a workers physiological response to a given heat stress is modified independently by inter-individual factors (e...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726694/the-role-of-the-nervous-system-in-neuromuscular-fatigue-induced-by-ultra-endurance-exercise
#14
Guillaume Y Millet, Vincent Martin, John Temesi
Ultra-endurance events are not a recent development but they have only become very popular in the last two decades, particularly ultra-marathons run on trails. The present paper reviews the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in neuromuscular fatigue induced by ultra-endurance exercise. Large decreases in voluntary activation are systematically found in ultra-endurance running but are attenuated in ultra-endurance cycling for comparable intensity and duration. This indirectly suggests that afferent feedback, rather than neurobiological changes within the CNS, is determinant in the amount of central fatigue produced...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726691/chronic-health-disparities-among-refugee-and-immigrant-children-in-canada
#15
Ginny Lane, Marwa Farag, Judy White, Christine Nisbet, Hassan Vatanparast
There are knowledge gaps related to understanding the development of chronic disease risks in children, especially with regards to risk differentials experienced by immigrants and refugees. The Healthy Immigrant Children study employed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study design to characterize the health and nutritional status of 300 immigrant and refugee children aged 3-13 who had been in Canada for less than five years. We collected quantitative data on socio-economic status, food security, physical activity, diet, bone and body composition, and anthropometric measurements...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717900/the-effect-of-brief-intermittent-stair-climbing-on-glycemic-control-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#16
F Elizabeth Godkin, Elizabeth M Jenkins, Jonathan P Little, Zafreen Nazarali, Michael E Percival, Martin J Gibala
We examined the effect of brief intermittent stair climbing exercise on glycemic control using continuous glucose monitoring in people with T2D (n=7; 5m 2f; 21-70 y). The protocol involved three, 60-s bouts of vigorously ascending and slowly descending a flight of stairs. Mean 24-h blood glucose was unchanged after an acute session (p=0.43) and following 18 sessions over 6 wk (p=0.13). The protocol was well tolerated by participants but seemingly insufficient to alter glycemic control.
May 2, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717885/time-restricted-feeding-of-a-high-fat-diet-in-c57bl-6-male-mice-reduces-adiposity-but-does-not-protect-against-increased-systemic-inflammation
#17
Laura B Delahaye, Richard J Bloomer, Matthew B Butawan, Jacqueline M Wyman, Jessica L Hill, Harold W Lee, Andrew C Liu, Liam McAllan, Joan C Han, Marie van der Merwe
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) limits duration of food availability without altering diet composition and can combat obesity in humans and mice. For this study we evaluated the effect of timing of food access during a TRF protocol on weight gain, adiposity and inflammation. Young C57BL/6 male mice were placed on a 45% high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Food access was unrestricted (HF) or restricted to 6 hours per day, either for the first half (HF-early) or the second half (HF-late) of the active phase to resemble a window of time for food consumption early <u><i></u>vs<u></i></u> late in the day in a human population...
May 2, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707959/acute-changes-in-muscle-thickness-and-pennation-angle-in-response-to-work-matched-concentric-and-eccentric-isokinetic-exercise
#18
Amilton Vieira, Anthony J Blazevich, Nuno Frade de Sousa, Rodrigo Celes, Savio Alex, James J Tufano, Martim Bottaro
Acute changes in muscle architecture influenced by muscle swelling might be associated with chronic adaptations to resistance exercise, including skeletal muscle growth. Concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) muscle actions both play a role in hypertrophic processes, but the influence of each on acute indices of muscle swelling [i.e. muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle PA)] remain relatively unknown. Therefore, this study compared the acute changes in MT and PA in response to work-matched CON versus ECC isokinetic exercise...
April 30, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701486/can-an-automated-sleep-detection-algorithm-for-waist-worn-accelerometry-replace-sleep-logs
#19
Tiago V Barreira, Jessica G Redmond, Tom D Brutsaert, John M Schuna, Emily F Mire, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Catrine Tudor-Locke
The purpose of this study was to test whether estimates of bedtime, wake time, and sleep period time (SPT) were comparable between an automated algorithm (ALG) applied to waist-worn accelerometry data and a sleep log (LOG), in an adult sample. A total of 104 participants were asked to log evening bedtime and morning wake time and wear an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer at their waist 24 h/days for 7 consecutive days. Mean difference (MD) and mean absolute difference (MAD) were computed. Pearson correlations and dependent sample t-tests were used to compare LOG-based and ALG-based sleep variables...
April 27, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701483/on-task-considerations-and-future-directions-for-studies-of-corticospinal-excitability-in-exercise-neuroscience-and-related-disciplines
#20
Jayne M Kalmar
Over the last few decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as a conventional laboratory technique in human neurophysiological research. Exercise neuroscientists have used TMS to study central nervous system contributions to fatigue, training, and performance in health, injury, and disease. In such studies, corticospinal excitability is often assessed at rest or during simple isometric tasks with the implication that the results may be extrapolated to more functional and complex movement outside of the laboratory...
April 27, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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