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Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299719/the-non-coding-transcriptome-of-prostate-cancer-implications-for-clinical-practice
#1
REVIEW
Irene V Bijnsdorp, Martin E van Royen, Gerald W Verhaegh, Elena S Martens-Uzunova
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Despite extensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa initiation and progression remain unclear, and there is increasing need of better biomarkers that can distinguish indolent from aggressive and life-threatening disease. With the advent of advanced genomic technologies in the last decade, it became apparent that the human genome encodes tens of thousands non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with yet to be discovered function...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290094/evaluating-the-calling-performance-of-a-rare-disease-ngs-panel-for-single-nucleotide-and-copy-number-variants
#2
P Cacheiro, A Ordóñez-Ugalde, B Quintáns, S Piñeiro-Hermida, J Amigo, M García-Murias, S I Pascual-Pascual, F Grandas, J Arpa, A Carracedo, M J Sobrido
INTRODUCTION: Variant detection protocols for clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) need application-specific optimization. Our aim was to analyze the performance of single nucleotide variant (SNV) and copy number (CNV) detection programs on an NGS panel for a rare disease. METHODS: Thirty genes were sequenced in 83 patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia. The variant calls obtained with LifeScope, GATK UnifiedGenotyper and GATK HaplotypeCaller were compared with Sanger sequencing...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271451/the-utility-of-biomarkers-in-osteoporosis-management
#3
REVIEW
Patrick Garnero
The measurement of bone turnover markers is useful for the clinical investigation of patients with osteoporosis. Among the available biochemical markers, the measurements of serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) and the crosslinked C-terminal telopeptide (serum CTX) have been recommended as reference markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively. The important sources of preanalytical and analytical variability have been identified for both markers, and precise measurement can now be obtained...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266003/erratum-to-high-resolution-melting-analysis-is-very-useful-to-identify%C3%A2-brca1%C3%A2-c-4964_4982del19-rs80359876-founder-calabrian-pathogenic-variant-on-peripheral-blood-and-buccal-swab-dna
#4
Angelo Minucci, Maria De Bonis, Elisa De Paolis, Leonarda Gentile, Concetta Santonocito, Paola Concolino, Flavio Mignone, Ettore Capoluongo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247183/the-challenges-of-precision-medicine-in-copd
#5
Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Paola Rogliani, Maria Gabriella Matera
Pheno-/endotyping chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is really important because it provides patients with precise and personalized medicine. The central concept of precision medicine is to take individual variability into account when making management decisions. Precision medicine should ensure that patients get the right treatment at the right dose at the right time, with minimum harmful consequences and maximum efficacy. Ideally, we should search for genetic and molecular biomarker-based profiles...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247182/impact-of-availability-of-companion-diagnostics-on-the-clinical-development-of-anticancer-drugs
#6
Ariadna Tibau, Laura Díez-González, Beatriz Navarro, Eva M Galán-Moya, Arnoud J Templeton, Bostjan Seruga, Atanasio Pandiella, Eitan Amir, Alberto Ocana
BACKGROUND: Companion diagnostics permit the selection of patients likely to respond to targeted anticancer drugs; however, it is unclear if the drug development process differs between drugs developed with or without companion diagnostics. Identification of differences in study design could help future clinical development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Anticancer drugs approved for use in solid tumors between 28 September 2000 and 4 January 2014 were identified using a search of the US FDA website...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247181/detection-of-pik3ca-mutations-in-plasma-dna-of-colorectal-cancer-patients-by-an-ultra-sensitive-pna-mediated-pcr
#7
Qian Zeng, Li Xie, Na Zhou, Min Liu, Xianrang Song
BACKGROUND: Mutant Phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) has been shown to be associated with the occurrence, development and prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its detection has been limited because of complicated procedures and the low sensitivity of the present approaches. METHODS: We established an ultra-sensitive peptide nucleic acid-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PNA-PCR) assay to detect PIK3CA gene mutation in exon 9 and exon 20 with cell-free DNA (cfDNA)...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229366/mining-cancer-transcriptomes-bioinformatic-tools-and-the-remaining-challenges
#8
Thomas Milan, Brian T Wilhelm
The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has had a profound impact on the field of cancer genomics. With the enormous quantities of data being generated from tumor samples, researchers have had to rapidly adapt tools or develop new ones to analyse the raw data to maximize its value. While much of this effort has been focused on improving specific algorithms to get faster and more precise results, the accessibility of the final data for the research community remains a significant problem. Large amounts of data exist but are not easily available to researchers who lack the resources and experience to download and reanalyze them...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213806/clinical-ugt1a1-genetic-analysis-in-pediatric-patients-experience-of-a-reference-laboratory
#9
Ann M Moyer, Jennifer M Skierka, Katrina E Kotzer, Michelle L Kluge, John L Black, Linnea M Baudhuin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia can be severe or prolonged and warrant exploration into the underlying etiology, which may include genetic assessment of UGT1A1 for inherited disorders (i.e. Crigler-Najjar syndrome or Gilbert syndrome). METHODS: In our reference laboratory, we performed UGT1A1 gene sequencing analysis on 346 pediatric patients referred for a clinical indication of hyperbilirubinemia. RESULTS: Males (n = 241) had significantly higher mean total bilirubin concentration compared to females (n = 105) (9...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197949/the-impact-of-next-generation-sequencing-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-paediatric-patients
#10
REVIEW
Davide Mei, Elena Parrini, Carla Marini, Renzo Guerrini
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has contributed to the identification of many monogenic epilepsy syndromes and is favouring earlier and more accurate diagnosis in a subset of paediatric patients with epilepsy. The cumulative information emerging from NGS studies is rapidly changing our comprehension of the relations between early-onset severe epilepsy and the associated neurological impairment, progressively delineating specific entities previously gathered under the umbrella definition of epileptic encephalopathies, thereby influencing treatment choices and limiting the most aggressive drug regimens only to those conditions that are likely to actually benefit from them...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164252/snap-tag-technology-a-promising-tool-for-ex-vivo-immunophenotyping
#11
Swati Choudhary, Stefan Barth, Rama S Verma
BACKGROUND: SNAP-tag, a self-labeling protein tag, is commonly used for in vitro and in vivo analysis of bound target proteins. We report the first evidence that SNAP-tag could be used for ex vivo detection of enriched biological markers. METHODS: Proof of concept was established for target c-kit receptor, a pathological and diagnostic marker for a variety of cancers. SNAP-tag conjugates with stem-cell factor (SCF) fusion proteins were designed and their binding and specificity was validated in vitro using flow cytometry and immunostaining...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161869/high-resolution-melting-analysis-is-very-useful-to-identify-breast-cancer-type-1-susceptibility-protein-brca1-c-4964_4982del19-rs80359876-founder-calabrian-pathogenic-variant-on-peripheral-blood-and-buccal-swab-dna
#12
Angelo Minucci, Maria De Bonis, Elisa De Paolis, Leonarda Gentile, Concetta Santonocito, Paola Concolino, Flavio Mignone, Ettore Capoluongo
INTRODUCTION: Detection of pathogenic variants in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer-related breast cancer type 1 and type 2 susceptibility proteins (BRCA1/2) genes is an effective strategy in cancer prevention and treatment. Some ethnic and geographical regions show different BRCA1/2 mutation spectrum and prevalence. In Italy, elucidation of founder effect in BRCA1/2 genes can have an impact on the management of hereditary cancer families on a healthcare system level, making genetic testing more affordable and cost effective in certain regions...
February 4, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160193/correlation-between-tumor-mesothelin-expression-and-serum-mesothelin-in-patients-with-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-a-potential-noninvasive-biomarker-for-mesothelin-targeted-therapy
#13
Tatsuya Hanaoka, Kosei Hasegawa, Tomomi Kato, Sho Sato, Akira Kurosaki, Akiko Miyara, Shoji Nagao, Hiroyuki Seki, Masanori Yasuda, Keiichi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: The cell surface glycoprotein mesothelin is highly expressed in several malignant diseases. Normal mesothelin expression is limited to mesothelial cells lining the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium, making it a biomarker and an attractive target for cancer therapy. METHODS: We investigated tumor mesothelin expression and serum mesothelin levels in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer or borderline tumors. In total, 161 patients selected from a previous prospective study were analyzed for tumor mesothelin expression using immunohistochemistry and serum mesothelin expression using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130758/hla-c-06-02-does-not-predispose-to-clinical-response-following-long-term-adalimumab-treatment-in-psoriatic-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Marina Talamonti, Marco Galluzzo, Arianna Zangrilli, Marina Papoutsaki, Colin Gerard Egan, Mauro Bavetta, Sara Tambone, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Luca Bianchi
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of predisposition to psoriasis is recognised; however, the response to psoriasis treatment in patients with different genetic predisposition is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the presence of the HLA-C*06:02 polymorphism in psoriatic patients treated with adalimumab. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of 122 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis treated with adalimumab for 3 years...
January 28, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130757/microrna-29-a-crucial-player-in-fibrotic-disease
#15
REVIEW
Zhenjun Deng, Yongjing He, Xujuan Yang, Hang Shi, Ao Shi, Lechun Lu, Li He
Fibrosis is a common pathological state characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components, but the pathogenesis of the disease is still not clear. Previous studies have shown that microRNA-29 (miR-29) can play pivotal roles in the regulation of a variety of organ fibrosis, including cardiac fibrosis, hepatic fibrosis, lung fibrosis, systemic sclerosis, and keloid. In this review, we outline the structure, expression, and regulation of miR-29 as well as its role in fibrotic diseases...
January 28, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130756/comparison-of-five-different-assays-for-the-detection-of-braf-mutations-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues-of-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma
#16
Claire Franczak, Julia Salleron, Cindy Dubois, Pierre Filhine-Trésarrieu, Agnès Leroux, Jean-Louis Merlin, Alexandre Harlé
BACKGROUND: Metastatic or unresectable melanoma is a serious and deadly disease. Anti-BRAF and immunotherapy improved overall survival in patients with metastatic disease. Thus, BRAF genotyping is important to choose the right therapy. METHODS: In our study, we assessed and compared BRAF mutations in 59 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples of patients with metastatic melanoma with next-generation sequencing (NGS), Cobas(®) 4800 BRAF V600 mutation test CE-IVD commercial kit, high-resolution melting PCR (HRM), multiplex real-time allele specific amplification (multiplexed RT-ASA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
January 27, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120299/analysis-of-rs8067378-polymorphism-in-the-risk-of-uterine-cervical-cancer-from-a-polish-population-and-its-impact-on-gasdermin-b-expression
#17
Anna Lutkowska, Andrzej Roszak, Margarita Lianeri, Anna Sowińska, Emianka Sotiri, Pawel P Jagodziński
OBJECTIVE: We studied the role of the NC_000017.10:g.38051348A>G (rs8067378) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located 9.5 kb downstream of gasdermin B (GSDMB), in the development and progression of cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). METHODS: Using high-resolution melting curve analysis, we genotyped this SNP in patients with cervical SCC (n = 486) and controls (n = 511) from the Polish Caucasian population. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for the effect of confounders such as age, parity, oral contraceptive use, tobacco smoking, and menopausal status...
January 25, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101802/cold-pcr-technologies-in-the-area-of-personalized-medicine-methodology-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
Florence Mauger, Alexandre How-Kit, Jörg Tost
Somatic mutations bear great promise for use as biomarkers for personalized medicine, but are often present only in low abundance in biological material and are therefore difficult to detect. Many assays for mutation analysis in cancer-related genes (hotspots) have been developed to improve diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of drug resistance, and monitoring of the response to treatment. Two major approaches have been developed: mutation-specific amplification methods and methods that enrich and detect mutations without prior knowledge on the exact location and identity of the mutation...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044257/targeted-therapy-for-severe-asthma-identifying-the-right-patients
#19
Kathy Low, Philip G Bardin
Asthma affects over 300 million people worldwide. Most asthmatics are well controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonists; however, a proportion of patients are unresponsive and attain limited disease control. This group represents a considerable healthcare and financial burden, particularly patients who experience frequent exacerbations and require hospital admission. Development of new biological agents and disease biomarkers has provided novel avenues for treatment. These treatments have been highly successful, reducing exacerbations and yielding modest improvements in quality of life and lung function...
January 2, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039578/the-importance-of-standardization-on-analyzing-circulating-rna
#20
REVIEW
Inyoul Lee, David Baxter, Min Young Lee, Kelsey Scherler, Kai Wang
Circulating RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs), have recently emerged as non-invasive disease biomarkers. Despite enthusiasm and numerous reports on disease-associated circulating miRNAs, currently there is no circulating miRNA-based diagnostic in use. In addition, there are many contradictory reports on the concentration changes of specific miRNA in circulation. Here we review the impact of various technical and non-technical factors related to circulating miRNA measurement and elucidate the importance of having a general guideline for sample preparation and concentration measurement in studying circulating RNA...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
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