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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

Judith A Groner, Ana M Rule, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Joseph M Collaco, Angela Moss, Susanne E Tanski, Robert McMillen, Regina M Whitmore, Jonathan D Klein, Jonathan P Winickoff, Karen Wilson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between screening questions for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and biomarker results using hair nicotine levels. Our ultimate goal was to develop sensitive and valid screening tools in pediatric clinical settings for SHS exposure. METHODS: Investigators developed a core set of questions regarding exposure. Data from two separate ongoing studies of well children and those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were used to assess the concordance between responses and hair nicotine levels...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Elizabeth A Gibson, Heather M Stapleton, Lehyla Calero, Darrell Holmes, Kimberly Burke, Rodney Martinez, Boris Cortes, Amy Nematollahi, David Evans, Julie B Herbstman
BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been largely replaced by organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and alternative brominated flame retardants (Alt-BFRs) to meet flammability requirements. Humans are ubiquitously exposed to some variety of flame retardants through contact with consumer products directly or through household dust. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of house cleaning and hand washing practices to reduce exposure to flame retardants, we measured concentrations in dermal hand wipes and urinary metabolites before and after assignment to two consecutive interventions...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Vaughn Barry, Mitchel Klein, Andrea Winquist, Howard H Chang, James A Mulholland, Evelyn O Talbott, Judith R Rager, Paige E Tolbert, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat
Although short-term exposure to ambient ozone (O3 ) can cause poor respiratory health outcomes, the shape of the concentration-response (C-R) between O3 and respiratory morbidity has not been widely investigated. We estimated the effect of daily O3 on emergency department (ED) visits for selected respiratory outcomes in 5 US cities under various model assumptions and assessed model fit. Population-weighted average 8-h maximum O3 concentrations were estimated in each city. Individual-level data on ED visits were obtained from hospitals or hospital associations...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jelle Vlaanderen, Lützen Portengen, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Adam Szpiro, Ulrike Gehring, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek, Roel Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Land use regression (LUR) models are commonly used in environmental epidemiology to assign spatially resolved estimates of air pollution to study participants. In this setting, estimated LUR model parameters are assumed to be transportable to a main study (the ''transportability assumption''). We provide an empirical illustration of how violation of this assumption can affect exposure predictions and bias health-effect estimates. METHODS: We based our simulation on two existing LUR models, one for nitrogen dioxide, the other for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Susan MacPherson, Tye E Arbuckle, Mandy Fisher
One way of assessing a population's exposure to environmental chemicals is by measuring urinary biomarker concentrations, which can vary depending on the hydration status of the individual. The physiological changes that occur during pregnancy can impact the hydration adjustment approaches, such as calculating the individual's urinary flow rate (UFR), or adjusting concentrations using specific gravity (SG) or creatinine. A total of 1260 serial spot urine samples were collected from 80 women, averaging 32.4 years of age, throughout and shortly after pregnancy...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Julia L Marks, John C Kissel, Jeffry H Shirai, Richard Fenske, Cara A M Bondi
Consumer fabrics may be impregnated or contaminated with chemicals capable of penetrating the skin. Some retail-sourced clothing is known to contain high levels of synthetic chemical additives. Biomonitoring studies have demonstrated that exposure to chemically laden clothing can cause an appreciable rise in urinary metabolite concentrations. Yet the fabric-to-skin-to-blood pathway remains poorly quantified. This study uses an in vitro dermal exposure model to measure the rate at which 7-hydroxycoumarin-a nonvolatile, low molecular weight optical brightening agent-migrates out of fabric and into and through the skin...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Miranda R Jones, Maria Tellez-Plaza, Dhananjay Vaidya, Maria Grau-Perez, Wendy S Post, Joel D Kaufman, Eliseo Guallar, Kevin A Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Keeve E Nachman, Tiffany R Sanchez, Ana Navas-Acien
Differences in residential location as well as race/ethnicity and dietary habits may result in differences in inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure. We investigated the association of exposure to iAs with race/ethnicity, geography, and dietary intake in a random sample of 310 White, Black, Hispanic, and Chinese adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from 6 US cities with inorganic and methylated arsenic (ΣAs) measured in urine. Dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. Chinese and Hispanic race/ethnicity was associated with 82% (95% CI: 46%, 126%) and 37% (95% CI: 10%, 70%) higher urine arsenic concentrations, respectively, compared to White participants...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Omer Harouvi, Eran Ben-Elia, Roni Factor, Kees de Hoogh, Itai Kloog
Noise pollution is a common phenomenon of the 21st century. Noise prediction models tend to estimate noise levels mainly from road traffic sources (such as cars, public transportation etc.). This paper describes the adoption of land use regression (LUR) modeling methodology to assess noise pollution in two periods of the day (rush hour and off-peak), in two major cities in Israel (Tel Aviv and Beer Sheva). For both rush hour and off-peak times, 20 min short term measurements were used to develop a LUR noise estimation model...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Klaus Schneider, Selina Recke, Eva Kaiser, Sebastian Götte, Henrike Berkefeld, Juliane Lässig, Thomas Rüdiger, Oliver Lindtner, Jan Oltmanns
Evaluating chemical exposures from consumer products is an essential part of chemical safety assessments under REACH and may also be important to demonstrate compliance with consumer product legislation. Modelling of consumer exposure needs input information on the substance (e.g. vapour pressure), the product(s) containing the substance (e.g. concentration) and on consumer behaviour (e.g. use frequency and amount of product used). This feasibility study in Germany investigated methods for conducting a consumer survey in order to identify and retrieve information on frequency, duration, use amounts and use conditions for six example product types (four mixtures, two articles): hand dishwashing liquid, cockpit spray, fillers, paints and lacquers, shoes made of rubber or plastic, and ball-pens/pencils...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Benjamin Roberts, Wenting Cheng, Bhramar Mukherjee, Richard L Neitzel
Job exposure matrices (JEMs) represent a useful and efficient approach for estimating occupational exposures. This study uses a large dataset of full-shift measurements and employs imputation strategies to develop noise exposure estimates for almost all broad level standard occupational classification (SOC) groups in the US. The JEM was constructed using 753,702 measurements from the government, private industry, and the published literature. Parametric Bayes imputation was used to take advantage of the hierarchical structure of the SOCs and the mean occupational noise exposures were estimated for all broad level SOCs, except those in major group 23-0000, for which no data were available...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Benjamin D Blair, Stephen Brindley, Eero Dinkeloo, Lisa M McKenzie, John L Adgate
Public concern about oil and gas (O&G) operations in residential areas is substantial. Noise from construction and drilling related to O&G operations may be greater than other phases of O&G operations; yet the impacts of audible and low-frequency noise during these operations are not extensively explored nor the effects on health well understood. This study documents the noise levels at a multi-well O&G well pad during construction and drilling in a residential area in Colorado. A-weighted (dBA) and C-weighted (dBC) noise measurements were collected at four locations during development over a 3-month period...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Hualiang Lin, Jun Tao, Haidong Kan, Zhengmin Qian, Ailan Chen, Yaodong Du, Tao Liu, Yonghui Zhang, Yongqing Qi, Jianjun Ye, Shuangming Li, Wanglin Li, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Xing Li, Katherine A Stamatakis, Xinyu Chen, Wenjun Ma
Limited evidence exists concerning the impact of particulate pollution on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We examined the effects of particulate pollution on emergency ambulance dispatches (EAD) for ARDS in Guangzhou, China. Daily air pollution concentrations for PM10 , PM2.5 , and PM1 , as well as PM2.5 chemical compositions, were available from a central air monitoring station. The association between incident ARDS and air pollution on the concurrent and previous 5 days was estimated by an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model controlling for meteorological factors, temporal trends, public holidays and day of the week...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Aaron J Specht, Marc Weisskopf, Linda H Nie
Childhood lead exposure has been shown to have a significant effect on neurodevelopment. Many of the biokinetics involved with lead biomarkers in children still remain unknown. Two hundred fifty (157 in the exposed group and 93 controls) children were enrolled in our study and lead exposed children returned for multiple visits for measurement of blood and bone lead and chelation treatment. We demonstrated that the correlation between blood and bone lead increased with subsequent visits. We calculated the blood lead half-life for 50 patients, and found a significant (p-value < 0...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
M M Nyhan, I Kloog, R Britter, C Ratti, P Koutrakis
A critical question in environmental epidemiology is whether air pollution exposures of large populations can be refined using individual mobile-device-based mobility patterns. Cellular network data has become an essential tool for understanding the movements of human populations. As such, through inferring the daily home and work locations of 407,435 mobile phone users whose positions are determined, we assess exposure to PM2.5 . Spatiotemporal PM2.5 concentrations are predicted using an Aerosol Optical Depth- and Land Use Regression-combined model...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jessica L Elf, Aarti Kinikar, Sandhya Khadse, Vidya Mave, Nishi Suryavanshi, Nikhil Gupte, Vaishali Kulkarni, Sunita Patekar, Priyanka Raichur, Patrick N Breysse, Amita Gupta, Jonathan E Golub
INTRODUCTION: Household air pollution (HAP) is poorly characterized in low-income urban Indian communities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire assessing sources of HAP and 24 h household concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5 ) were collected in a sample of low-income homes in Pune, India. RESULTS: In 166 homes, the median 24 h average concentration of PM2.5 was 167 μg/m3 (IQR: 106-294). Although kerosene and wood use were highly prevalent (22% and 25% of homes, respectively), primarily as secondary fuel sources, high PM2...
June 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Gyeong-Hun Park, Chanhee Nam, Seungphil Hong, Byungcheol Park, Hakrim Kim, Taewon Lee, Kyubong Kim, Jong Hee Lee, Myung Hwa Kim
Despite daily exposure to chemicals in cosmetic products, there are few studies on the exposure levels to cosmetics particularly in Asians. We sought to investigate the usage pattern of cosmetics, including eye makeup products, fragrances, color makeups, and hair and nail care products, in Koreans. An online survey of 1,800 participants (908 males and 892 females, aged 15-59 years) from 5 Metropolitan cities (Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Daegu, and Busan) in Korea was conducted. For overall types of cosmetics, the proportion of users was 7...
May 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Scott M Bartell
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/jes.2012.2.
May 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Wenjing Li, Yang Cao, Runkui Li, Xinming Ma, Jieying Chen, Zhenglai Wu, Qun Xu
Owing to lack of data from multiple air quality monitoring stations, studies about spatial association between concentrations of ambient pollutants and mortality in China are rare. To investigate the spatial variation of association between concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) and cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, China, we collected data including daily deaths, concentrations of PM10 , NO2 and CO, and meteorological factors from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2010 in all 16 districts of Beijing...
May 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kristin K Isaacs, Katherine A Phillips, Derya Biryol, Kathie L Dionisio, Paul S Price
Assessing human exposures to chemicals in consumer products requires composition information. However, comprehensive composition data for products in commerce are not generally available. Many consumer products have reported ingredient lists that are constructed using specific guidelines. A probabilistic model was developed to estimate quantitative weight fraction (WF) values that are consistent with the rank of an ingredient in the list, the number of reported ingredients, and labeling rules. The model provides the mean, median, and 95% upper and lower confidence limit WFs for ingredients of any rank in lists of any length...
May 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Patricia A Stewart, Mark R Stenzel, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Sudipto Banerjee, Tran B Huynh, Caroline P Groth, Richard K Kwok, Aaron Blair, Lawrence S Engel, Dale P Sandler
The GuLF STUDY is a cohort study investigating the health of workers who responded to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The objective of this effort was to develop an ordinal job-exposure matrix (JEM) of airborne total hydrocarbons (THC), dispersants, and particulates to estimate study participants' exposures. Information was collected on participants' spill-related tasks. A JEM of exposure groups (EGs) was developed from tasks and THC air measurements taken during and after the spill using relevant exposure determinants...
May 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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