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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513604/exploring-the-statistical-uncertainty-in-acceptable-exposure-limit-values-for-hexavalent-chromium-exposure
#1
Göran Kauermann, Heiko Becher, Verena Maier
Exposure limit values give the exposure level at which an accepted (or acceptable) number of additional work related diseases are expected. The values are derived from dose-response curves and carry a large amount of uncertainty. In this paper we aim to quantify some of this uncertainty with statistical means. We explore the limit value issued by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) for occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium, CR(VI). We investigate how the dose-response model and statistical estimation variability influences the data-based fixation of exposure limit values...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401896/lead-exposure-ige-and-the-risk-of-asthma-in-children
#2
I-Jen Wang, Wilfried J J Karmaus, Chen-Chang Yang
Lead (Pb) has adverse effects on our nervous system and renal systems. Young children are more vulnerable to Pb exposure. However, the role of low-level Pb exposure in the immune system and allergic diseases in children is not well established. The aims of this study are to investigate the associations between Pb exposure and allergic diseases; between Pb and immunoglobulin E (IgE) as an intervening variable; and gender-based differences. We used multistage stratified random sampling to recruit kindergarten children nationwide in Taiwan...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352117/berkson-error-adjustment-and-other-exposure-surrogates-in-occupational-case-control-studies-with-application-to-the-canadian-interocc-study
#3
Tamer Oraby, Siva Sivaganesan, Joseph D Bowman, Laurel Kincl, Lesley Richardson, Mary McBride, Jack Siemiatycki, Elisabeth Cardis, Daniel Krewski
Many epidemiological studies assessing the relationship between exposure and disease are carried out without data on individual exposures. When this barrier is encountered in occupational studies, the subject exposures are often evaluated with a job-exposure matrix (JEM), which consists of mean exposure for occupational categories measured on a comparable group of workers. One of the objectives of the seven-country case-control study of occupational exposure and brain cancer risk, INTEROCC, was to investigate the relationship of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in different frequency ranges and brain cancer risk...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327632/assessment-of-residential-environmental-exposure-to-pesticides-from-agricultural-fields-in-the-netherlands
#4
Maartje Brouwer, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen, Jan Duyzer, Henk Kramer, Gerard Hazeu, Geert de Snoo, Anke Huss
We developed a spatio-temporal model for the Netherlands to estimate environmental exposure to individual agricultural pesticides at the residential address for application in a national case-control study on Parkinson's disease (PD). Data on agricultural land use and pesticide use were combined to estimate environmental exposure to pesticides for the period 1961 onwards. Distance categories of 0-50 m, >50-100 m, >100-500 m and >500-1000 m around residences were considered. For illustration purposes, exposure was estimated for the control population (n=607) in the PD case-control study...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272399/maternal-and-paternal-occupational-exposures-and-hepatoblastoma-results-from-the-hope-study-through-the-children-s-oncology-group
#5
Amanda E Janitz, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Gail E Tomlinson, Mark Krailo, Michaela Richardson, Logan Spector
Little is known about the etiology of hepatoblastoma. We aimed to confirm the results of a previous study evaluating the association between parental occupational exposures and hepatoblastoma. In our case-control study, we identified cases (n=383) from the Children's Oncology Group and controls from birth certificates (n=387), which were frequency matched to cases on year and region of birth, sex, and birth weight. Occupational exposure in the year before and during the index pregnancy was collected through maternal interview and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176761/summertime-extreme-heat-events-and-increased-risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-hospitalizations
#6
Jared A Fisher, Chengsheng Jiang, Sutyajeet I Soneja, Clifford Mitchell, Robin C Puett, Amir Sapkota
Few studies have examined the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or demonstrated which populations are most vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat. We defined extreme heat events as days when the daily maximum temperature (TMAX) exceeded the location- and calendar day-specific 95th percentile of the distribution of daily TMAX during the 30-year baseline period (1960-1989). We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to analyze the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of hospitalization for AMI in the summer months (June-August) with 0, 1, or 2 lag days...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120830/characterizing-the-impact-of-projected-changes-in-climate-and-air-quality-on-human-exposures-to-ozone
#7
Kathie L Dionisio, Christopher G Nolte, Tanya L Spero, Stephen Graham, Nina Caraway, Kristen M Foley, Kristin K Isaacs
The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O3) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966668/predictors-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-and-internal-dose-in-inner-city-baltimore-children
#8
Kamau O Peters, D' Ann L Williams, Salahadin Abubaker, Jean Curtin-Brosnan, Meredith C McCormack, Roger Peng, Patrick N Breysse, Elizabeth C Matsui, Nadia N Hansel, Gregory B Diette, Paul T Strickland
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the by-products of incomplete combustion of organic materials, are commonly found on particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with the development of asthma and asthma exacerbation in urban populations. We examined time spent in the home and outdoors as predictors of exposures to airborne PAHs and measured urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG) as internal dose of PAHs in 118 children aged 5-12 years from Baltimore, MD. During weeklong periods (Saturday-Saturday) in each of four seasons: daily activities were assessed using questionnaires, indoor air nicotine and PM concentrations were monitored, and urine specimens were collected on Tuesday (day 3) and Saturday (day 7) for measurement of 1-OHPG...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966664/maternal-fetal-metabolomes-appear-to-mediate-the-impact-of-arsenic-exposure-on-birth-weight-a-pilot-study
#9
Yongyue Wei, Qianwen Shi, Zhaoxi Wang, Ruyang Zhang, Li Su, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Mahmuder Rahman, Feng Chen, David C Christiani
Arsenic exposure has been associated with low birth weight. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Alterations to metabolites may act as causal mediators of the effect of arsenic exposure on low birth weight. This pilot study aimed to explore the role of metabolites in mediating the association of arsenic exposure on infant birth weight. Study samples were selected from a well-established prospectively enrolled cohort in Bangladesh comprising 35 newborns and a subset of 20 matched mothers...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901016/relationships-between-arsenic-concentrations-in-drinking-water-and-lung-and-bladder-cancer-incidence-in-u-s-counties
#10
William M Mendez, Sorina Eftim, Jonathan Cohen, Isaac Warren, John Cowden, Janice S Lee, Reeder Sams
Increased risks of lung and bladder cancer have been observed in populations exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic. However, studies at lower exposures (i.e., less than 100 μg/l in water) have shown inconsistent results. We therefore conducted an ecological analysis of the association between historical drinking water arsenic concentrations and lung and bladder cancer incidence in U.S. counties. We used drinking water arsenic concentrations measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and state agencies in the 1980s and 1990s as proxies for historical exposures in counties where public groundwater systems and private wells are important sources of drinking water...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805624/hourly-peak-pm2-5-concentration-associated-with-increased-cardiovascular-mortality-in-guangzhou-china
#11
Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Lingchuan Guo, Xing Li, Yanjun Xu, Yonghui Zhang, Jen Jen Chang, Michael G Vaughn, Zhengmin Min Qian, Wenjun Ma
Hourly peak concentration may capture health effects of ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) better than daily averages. We examined the associations of hourly peak concentration of PM2.5 with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China. We obtained daily data on cardiovascular mortality and hourly PM2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou from 19 January 2013 through 30 June 2015. Generalized additive models were applied to evaluate the associations with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Significant associations were found between hourly peak concentrations of PM2...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649843/fine-particulate-air-pollution-and-premature-atrial-contractions-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-study
#12
Wesley T O'Neal, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jimmy T Efird, Suzanne E Judd, Virginia J Howard, George Howard, Leslie A McClure
Several reports have suggested that particulate matter (PM) exposure increases the risk for atrial arrhythmias. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies supporting this hypothesis are lacking. We examined the association of PM <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) concentration with premature atrial contractions (PACs) in 26,609 (mean age=65±9.4 years; 55% female; 41% black) participants from the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study. Estimates of short- (2 weeks) and long-term (1 year) PM2...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649842/a-novel-approach-for-measuring-residential-socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-health
#13
Jaime E Mirowsky, Robert B Devlin, David Diaz-Sanchez, Wayne Cascio, Shannon C Grabich, Carol Haynes, Colette Blach, Elizabeth R Hauser, Svati Shah, William Kraus, Kenneth Olden, Lucas Neas
Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used hierarchical clustering to aggregate 444 US Census block groups in Durham, Orange, and Wake Counties, NC, USA into six homogeneous clusters of similar characteristics based on 12 demographic factors. We assigned 2254 cardiac catheterization patients to these clusters based on residence at first catheterization...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553991/effects-of-prenatal-perfluoroalkyl-acid-exposure-on-cord-blood-igf2-h19-methylation-and-ponderal-index-the-hokkaido-study
#14
Sachiko Kobayashi, Kaoru Azumi, Houman Goudarzi, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Sachiko Itoh, Seiko Sasaki, Mayumi Ishizuka, Hiroyuki Nakazawa, Tamiko Ikeno, Reiko Kishi
Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) influences fetal growth and long-term health. However, whether PFAAs affect offspring DNA methylation patterns to influence health outcomes is yet to be evaluated. Here, we assessed effect of prenatal PFAA exposure on cord blood insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), H19, and long interspersed element 1 (LINE1) methylation and its associations with birth size. Mother-child pairs (N=177) from the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health were included in the study...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531371/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-cloth-facemasks-in-reducing-particulate-matter-exposure
#15
Kabindra M Shakya, Alyssa Noyes, Randa Kallin, Richard E Peltier
Inexpensive cloth masks are widely used in developing countries to protect from particulate pollution albeit limited data on their efficacy exists. This study examined the efficiency of four types of masks (three types of cloth masks and one type of surgical mask) commonly worn in the developing world. Five monodispersed aerosol sphere size (30, 100, and 500 nm, and 1 and 2.5 μm) and diluted whole diesel exhaust was used to assess facemask performance. Among the three cloth mask types, a cloth mask with an exhaust valve performed best with filtration efficiency of 80-90% for the measured polystyrene latex (PSL) particle sizes...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436697/in-vitro-skin-absorption-tests-of-three-types-of-parabens-using-a-franz-diffusion-cell
#16
Ji-Eun Seo, Sungkyoon Kim, Bae-Hwan Kim
The objective of this study was to evaluate the permeation of paraben derivatives - methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP) - in hairless mouse full skin and human cadaver epidermis using a Franz diffusion cell method, which is proposed as a reliable alternative method to an skin absorption test. Parabens, esterified hydroxybenzoic acid compounds, are widely used as preservatives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. The skin permeation rate showed dose dependency, and the hairless mouse full skin showed a higher flux value than human cadaver epidermis...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436693/association-of-air-pollution-sources-and-aldehydes-with-biomarkers-of-blood-coagulation-pulmonary-inflammation-and-systemic-oxidative-stress
#17
Brent Altemose, Mark G Robson, Howard M Kipen, Pamela Ohman Strickland, Qingyu Meng, Jicheng Gong, Wei Huang, Guangfa Wang, David Q Rich, Tong Zhu, Junfeng Zhang
Using data collected before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, this study examines associations between biomarkers of blood coagulation (vWF, sCD62P and sCD40L), pulmonary inflammation (EBC pH, EBC nitrite, and eNO), and systemic oxidative stress (urinary 8-OHdG) with sources of air pollution identified utilizing principal component analysis and with concentrations of three aldehydes of health concern. Associations between the biomarkers and the air pollution source types and aldehydes were examined using a linear mixed effects model, regressing through seven lag days and controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, gender, and day of week for the biomarker measurements...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301774/reductions-in-commuter-exposure-to-volatile-organic-compounds-in-mexico-city-due-to-the-environmental-program-proaire2002-2010
#18
Naohide Shinohara, Felipe Ángeles, Roberto Basaldud, Beatriz Cardenas, Shinji Wakamatsu
We investigated commuter exposure to volatile organic compounds in the metropolitan area of Mexico City in 2011 in private car, microbus, bus, metro, metrobus, and trolley bus. A similar survey was conducted in 2002 before initiation of the ProAire2002-2010 program aimed at reducing air pollution. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene were sampled while traveling during the morning rush hour in May 2011. Compared with the 2002 survey, in-vehicle concentrations were substantially lower in 2011, except for formaldehyde in microbuses (35% higher than in 2002)...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168395/temporal-variability-of-urinary-cadmium-in-spot-urine-samples-and-first-morning-voids
#19
Caterina Vacchi-Suzzi, Christina A Porucznik, Kyley J Cox, Yuan Zhao, Hongshik Ahn, James M Harrington, Keith E Levine, Bruce Demple, Carmen J Marsit, Adam Gonzalez, Benjamin Luft, Jaymie R Meliker
Cadmium is a carcinogenic heavy metal. Urinary levels of cadmium are considered to be an indicator of long-term body burden, as cadmium accumulates in the kidneys and has a half-life of at least 10 years. However, the temporal stability of the biomarker in urine samples from a non-occupationally exposed population has not been rigorously established. We used repeated measurements of urinary cadmium (U-Cd) in spot urine samples and first morning voids from two separate cohorts, to assess the temporal stability of the samples...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168394/comparison-of-particulate-matter-exposure-estimates-in-young-children-from-personal-sampling-equipment-and-a-robotic-sampler
#20
Jessica A Sagona, Stuart L Shalat, Zuocheng Wang, Maya Ramagopal, Kathleen Black, Marta Hernandez, Gediminas Mainelis
Accurate characterization of particulate matter (PM) exposure in young children is difficult, because personal samplers are often too heavy, bulky or impractical to be used. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler was developed to help address this problem. In this study, we measured inhalable PM exposures in 2-year-olds via a lightweight personal sampler worn in a small backpack and evaluated the use of a robotic sampler with an identical sampling train for estimating PM exposure in this age group...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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