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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792002/in-vitro-human-skin-permeation-of-benzene-in-gasoline-effects-of-concentration-multiple-dosing-and-skin-preparation
#1
H Frederick Frasch, Ana M Barbero
In vitro human skin benzene permeation was measured from gasoline formulations with benzene concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 10 vol% and from neat benzene. Steady-state fluxes (JSS), permeability coefficients (kp) and lag times (tlag) were calculated from infinite dose exposures. Permeation of benzene from small gasoline doses administered over a two-day period was also studied. The thermodynamic activity of benzene in gasoline at 30 °C was determined and the solution is near-ideal over the range from 0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766560/radiofrequency-electromagnetic-field-exposure-in-everyday-microenvironments-in-europe-a-systematic-literature-review
#2
Sanjay Sagar, Stefan Dongus, Anna Schoeni, Katharina Roser, Marloes Eeftens, Benjamin Struchen, Milena Foerster, Noëmi Meier, Seid Adem, Martin Röösli
The impact of the introduction and advancement in communication technology in recent years on exposure level of the population is largely unknown. The main aim of this study is to systematically review literature on the distribution of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in the everyday environment in Europe and summarize key characteristics of various types of RF-EMF studies conducted in the European countries. We systematically searched the ISI Web of Science for relevant literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 April 2015, which assessed RF-EMF exposure levels by any of the methods: spot measurements, personal measurement with trained researchers and personal measurement with volunteers...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745305/preparation-and-performance-features-of-wristband-samplers-and-considerations-for-chemical-exposure-assessment
#3
Kim A Anderson, Gary L Points, Carey E Donald, Holly M Dixon, Richard P Scott, Glenn Wilson, Lane G Tidwell, Peter D Hoffman, Julie B Herbstman, Steven G O'Connell
Wristbands are increasingly used for assessing personal chemical exposures. Unlike some exposure assessment tools, guidelines for wristbands, such as preparation, applicable chemicals, and transport and storage logistics, are lacking. We tested the wristband's capacity to capture and retain 148 chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). The chemicals span a wide range of physical-chemical properties, with log octanol-air partitioning coefficients from 2...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745304/multi-class-chemical-exposure-in-rural-peru-using-silicone-wristbands
#4
Alan J Bergmann, Paula E North, Luis Vasquez, Hernan Bello, Maria Del Carmen Gastañaga Ruiz, Kim A Anderson
Exposure monitoring with personal silicone wristband samplers was demonstrated in Peru in four agriculture and urban communities where logistic and practical constraints hinder use of more traditional approaches. Wristbands and associated methods enabled quantitation of 63 pesticides and screening for 1397 chemicals including environmental contaminants and personal care products. Sixty-eight wristbands were worn for approximately one month by volunteers from four communities of Alto Mayo, Peru. We identified 106 chemicals from eight chemical classes among all wristbands...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677675/probabilistic-dietary-risk-assessment-of-pesticide-residues-in-foods-for-the-german-population-based-on-food-monitoring-data-from-2009-to-2014
#5
Christian Sieke, Britta Michalski, Thomas Kuhl
Dietary risks for the German population owing to pesticide residues in foods were assessed based on food monitoring data, consumption surveys for children and adults and compound specific toxicological reference values or general thresholds of toxicological concern. A tiered probabilistic modelling was conducted to screen 700 pesticides for significant long- and short-term dietary exposures. Especially for the short-term dietary exposure, the probabilistic methodology used allows simultaneous consideration of the complete daily consumption, whereas most regulatory bodies still rely on single commodity approaches...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612838/drinking-water-consumption-patterns-among-adults-sms-as-a-novel-tool-for-collection-of-repeated-self-reported-water-consumption
#6
Melle Säve-Söderbergh, Jonas Toljander, Irene Mattisson, Agneta Åkesson, Magnus Simonsson
Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, web questionnaire) and a novel method (Short Message Service, SMS questionnaires) in a population from an average sized Swedish municipality...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561036/review-of-techniques-and-studies-characterizing-the-release-of-carbon-nanotubes-from-nanocomposites-implications-for-exposure-and-human-health-risk-assessment
#7
REVIEW
Michael Kovochich, Cha-Chen David Fung, Raghavendhran Avanasi, Amy K Madl
Composites made with engineered nanomaterials (nanocomposites) have a wide range of applications, from use in basic consumer goods to critical national defense technologies. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a popular addition in nanocomposites because of their enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. Concerns have been raised, though, regarding potential exposure and health risks from nanocomposites containing CNTs because of comparisons to other high aspect ratio fibers. Assessing the factors affecting CNT release from composites is therefore paramount for understanding potential exposure scenarios that may occur during product handling and manipulation...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272399/maternal-and-paternal-occupational-exposures-and-hepatoblastoma-results-from-the-hope-study-through-the-children-s-oncology-group
#8
Amanda E Janitz, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Gail E Tomlinson, Mark Krailo, Michaela Richardson, Logan Spector
Little is known about the etiology of hepatoblastoma. We aimed to confirm the results of a previous study evaluating the association between parental occupational exposures and hepatoblastoma. In our case-control study, we identified cases (n=383) from the Children's Oncology Group and controls from birth certificates (n=387), which were frequency matched to cases on year and region of birth, sex, and birth weight. Occupational exposure in the year before and during the index pregnancy was collected through maternal interview and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145400/molecular-detection-of-m-tuberculosis-and-m-bovis-and-hematological-and-biochemical-analyses-in-agricultural-sprayers-exposed-to-pesticides-a-cross-sectional-study-in-punjab-pakistan-during-2014-2016
#9
Saffora Riaz, Farkhanda Manzoor, Nasir Mahmood, Saman Shahid
We determined the correlation between a pesticide exposure, physical health and susceptibility toward tuberculosis along with hematological indices and liver enzymes' alterations in sprayers exposed to pesticides. Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis was detected by targeting histone-like protein (hupB) gene. The WBC (white blood cells) and RBC (red blood cells) levels of male sprayers and non-sprayers were significantly different (P<0.05). In female spray workers, the WBC and neutrophils levels were significantly different as compared with non-sprayers...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120833/residential-proximity-to-abandoned-uranium-mines-and-serum-inflammatory-potential-in-chronically-exposed-navajo-communities
#10
Molly E Harmon, Johnnye Lewis, Curtis Miller, Joseph Hoover, Abdul-Mehdi S Ali, Chris Shuey, Miranda Cajero, Selita Lucas, Katherine Zychowski, Bernadette Pacheco, Esther Erdei, Sandy Ramone, Teddy Nez, Melissa Gonzales, Matthew J Campen
Members of the Navajo Nation, who possess a high prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, reside near hundreds of local abandoned uranium mines (AUM), which contribute uranium, arsenic and other metals to the soil, water and air. We recently reported that hypertension is associated with mine waste exposures in this population. Inflammation is a major player in the development of numerous vascular ailments. Our previous work establishing that specific transcriptional responses of cultured endothelial cells treated with human serum can reveal relative circulating inflammatory potential in a manner responsive to pollutant exposures, providing a model to assess responses associated with exposure to these waste materials in this population...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098161/modelling-of-occupational-exposure-to-inhalable-nickel-compounds
#11
Benjamin Kendzia, Beate Pesch, Dorothea Koppisch, Rainer Van Gelder, Katrin Pitzke, Wolfgang Zschiesche, Thomas Behrens, Tobias Weiss, Jack Siemiatycki, Jerome Lavoué, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Roger Stamm, Thomas Brüning
The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m(3). We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000686/an-accurate-filter-loading-correction-is-essential-for-assessing-personal-exposure-to-black-carbon-using-an-aethalometer
#12
Nicholas Good, Anna Mölter, Jennifer L Peel, John Volckens
The AE51 micro-Aethalometer (microAeth) is a popular and useful tool for assessing personal exposure to particulate black carbon (BC). However, few users of the AE51 are aware that its measurements are biased low (by up to 70%) due to the accumulation of BC on the filter substrate over time; previous studies of personal black carbon exposure are likely to have suffered from this bias. Although methods to correct for bias in micro-Aethalometer measurements of particulate black carbon have been proposed, these methods have not been verified in the context of personal exposure assessment...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966665/estimation-of-personal-exposure-to-asbestos-of-brake-repair-workers
#13
María Fernanda Cely-García, Frank C Curriero, Mauricio Sánchez-Silva, Patrick N Breysse, Margarita Giraldo, Lorena Méndez, Carlos Torres-Duque, Mauricio Durán, Mauricio González-García, Patricia Parada, Juan Pablo Ramos-Bonilla
Exposure assessments are key tools to conduct epidemiological studies. Since 2010, 28 riveters from 18 brake repair shops with different characteristics and workloads were sampled for asbestos exposure in Bogotá, Colombia. Short-term personal samples collected during manipulation activities of brake products, and personal samples collected during non-manipulation activities were used to calculate 103 8-h TWA PCM-equivalent personal asbestos concentrations. The aims of this study are to identify exposure determinant variables associated with the 8-h TWA personal asbestos concentrations among brake mechanics, and propose different models to estimate potential asbestos exposure of brake mechanics in an 8-h work-shift...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827378/development-of-a-source-exposure-matrix-for-occupational-exposure-assessment-of-electromagnetic-fields-in-the-interocc-study
#14
Javier Vila, Joseph D Bowman, Jordi Figuerola, David Moriña, Laurel Kincl, Lesley Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis
To estimate occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the INTEROCC study, a database of source-based measurements extracted from published and unpublished literature resources had been previously constructed. The aim of the current work was to summarize these measurements into a source-exposure matrix (SEM), accounting for their quality and relevance. A novel methodology for combining available measurements was developed, based on order statistics and log-normal distribution characteristics...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553992/seasonal-and-occupational-trends-of-five-organophosphate-pesticides-in-house-dust
#15
Marissa N Smith, Tomomi Workman, Katie M McDonald, Melinda A Vredevoogd, Eric M Vigoren, William C Griffith, Beti Thompson, Gloria D Coronado, Dana Barr, Elaine M Faustman
Since 1998, the University of Washington's Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research has followed a community-based participatory research strategy in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State to assess pesticide exposure among families of Hispanic farmworkers. As a part of this longitudinal study, house dust samples were collected from both farmworker and non-farmworker households, across three agricultural seasons (thinning, harvest and non-spray). The household dust samples were analyzed for five organophosphate pesticides: azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436696/harvesters-in-strawberry-fields-a-literature-review-of-pesticide-exposure-an-observation-of-their-work-activities-and-a-model-for-exposure-prediction
#16
Weiying Jiang, Bernie Hernandez, Donald Richmond, Nino Yanga
Strawberry harvesters hand-pick fruit that may result in pesticide exposure from hand foliar contact. This paper included a review of publications on harvester pesticide exposure, an observation of their work activities, and development of an alternative model for pesticide exposure prediction. Previous studies monitored the dermal pesticide exposure of strawberry harvesters and found most of the exposure (>70%) was on the hands. Exposure rates (ERs) were calculated as pesticide amount on the skin per hour worked, assuming foliar contact is proportional to daily work hours...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436695/use-of-plasma-exchange-or-double-filtration-plasmapheresis-to-reduce-body-burden-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-a-pilot-trial
#17
Monika Gube, Thomas Schettgen, Thomas Kraus, Christian Schikowsky, Andreas Heibges, Reinhard Klingel, Christian Hoffmann, Andreas Wiemeyer, Jewgeni Jacobson, André Esser
The aim of the study was to examine whether plasma exchange (PE) or selective double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) is able to reduce the internal Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden of highly exposed participants of the health effects in high-level exposure to PCB (HELPcB) cohort. HELPcB is a surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a German capacitor recycling company. After comparative evaluation of PE and DFPP in a phase I, DFPP was chosen as method for further treatment. In phase II, five participants underwent DFPP at weekly intervals for the duration of 12 weeks...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189256/exposures-to-nanoparticles-and-fibers-during-injection-molding-and-recycling-of-carbon-nanotube-reinforced-polycarbonate-composites
#18
Pongsit Boonruksa, Dhimiter Bello, Jinde Zhang, Jacqueline A Isaacs, Joey L Mead, Susan R Woskie
In this study, the characteristics of airborne particles generated during injection molding and grinding processes of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites (CNT-PC) were investigated. Particle number concentration, size distribution, and morphology of particles emitted from the processes were determined using real-time particle sizers and transmission electron microscopy. The air samples near the operator's breathing zone were collected on filters and analyzed using scanning electron microscope for particle morphology and respirable fiber count...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513604/exploring-the-statistical-uncertainty-in-acceptable-exposure-limit-values-for-hexavalent-chromium-exposure
#19
Göran Kauermann, Heiko Becher, Verena Maier
Exposure limit values give the exposure level at which an accepted (or acceptable) number of additional work related diseases are expected. The values are derived from dose-response curves and carry a large amount of uncertainty. In this paper we aim to quantify some of this uncertainty with statistical means. We explore the limit value issued by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) for occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium, CR(VI). We investigate how the dose-response model and statistical estimation variability influences the data-based fixation of exposure limit values...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176761/summertime-extreme-heat-events-and-increased-risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-hospitalizations
#20
Jared A Fisher, Chengsheng Jiang, Sutyajeet I Soneja, Clifford Mitchell, Robin C Puett, Amir Sapkota
Few studies have examined the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or demonstrated which populations are most vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat. We defined extreme heat events as days when the daily maximum temperature (TMAX) exceeded the location- and calendar day-specific 95th percentile of the distribution of daily TMAX during the 30-year baseline period (1960-1989). We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to analyze the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of hospitalization for AMI in the summer months (June-August) with 0, 1, or 2 lag days...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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