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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

Christopher D Zevitas, John D Spengler, Byron Jones, Eileen McNeely, Brent Coull, Xiaodong Cao, Sin Ming Loo, Anna-Kate Hard, Joseph G Allen
OBJECTIVE: To measure sound levels in the aircraft cabin during different phases of flight. METHODS: Sound level was measured on 200 flights, representing six aircraft groups using continuous monitors. A linear mixed-effects model with random intercept was used to test for significant differences in mean sound level by aircraft model and across each flight phase as well as by flight phase, airplane type, measurement location and proximity to engine noise. RESULTS: Mean sound levels across all flight phases and aircraft groups ranged from 37...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Michelle L Bell, Geetanjoli Banerjee, Gavin Pereira
Health studies on spatially-varying exposures (e.g., air pollution) during pregnancy often estimate exposure using residence at birth, disregarding residential mobility. We investigated moving patterns in pregnant women (n = 10,116) in linked cohorts focused on Connecticut and Massachusetts, U.S., 1988-2008. Moving patterns were assessed by race/ethnicity, age, marital status, education, working status, population density, parity, income, and season of birth. In this population, 11.6% of women moved during pregnancy...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Elizabeth W Spalt, Tyler P Nicholas, Cynthia L Curl, Mark E Davey, Gregory L Burke, Karol E Watson, Sverre Vedal, Joel D Kaufman
Exposure estimates that do not account for time in-transit may underestimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution, but exact contributions have not been studied directly. We conducted a 2-week monitoring, including novel in-vehicle sampling, in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution cohort in two cities. Participants spent the majority of their time indoors and only 4.4% of their time (63 min/day) in-vehicle, on average. The mean ambient-source NO2 concentration was 5...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Xiao Zhang, Xiaohui Xu, Yan Zhong, Melinda C Power, Brandie D Taylor, Genny Carrillo
Arsenic is a prevalent environmental contaminant, and its folate-dependent methylation is important for detoxification in the body. In this study, we investigated the association between serum folate levels and methylation using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2003-2012) (N = 11,016). Multivariate linear regression and penalized spline regression models were used to examine the association and possible upper limit of folate level regarding its impact on methylation in children (≤18 years) and adults (>18 years), respectively...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Huan Shu, Bo Ag Jönsson, Chris Gennings, Åke Svensson, Eewa Nånberg, Christian H Lindh, Malin Knutz, Tim K Takaro, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag
BACKGROUND: The general population is exposed to phthalates, a group of chemicals with strong evidence for endocrine disrupting properties, commonly used in a large number of consumer products. Based on published research and evidence compiled by environmental agencies, certain phthalate applications and products have become restricted, leading to an increasing number of "new generation compounds" coming onto the market during recent years replacing older phthalates. Some examples of such newer compounds are di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), and most recently di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Yu-Fang Huang, Chih-Chun Jean Huang, Chensheng Alex Lu, Mei-Lien Chen, Saou-Hsing Liou, Su-Yin Chiang, Kuen-Yuh Wu
Acrylamide (AA), a probable human carcinogen, is a widely-used industrial chemical but is also present in tobacco smoke and carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperatures. AA is metabolized to glycidamide (GA) to cause the formation of DNA adducts. N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl) guanine (N7-GAG), the most abundant DNA adduct induced by GA, was recently detected in urine of smokers and non-smokers. In this study, we assessed the variability of AA exposure and biomarkers of AA exposure in urine samples repeatedly collected from AA-exposed workers and explored the half-life of N7-GAG...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
MacNaughton P, Cao X, Buonocore J, Cedeno-Laurent J, Spengler J, Bernstein A, Allen J
Buildings consume nearly 40% of primary energy production globally. Certified green buildings substantially reduce energy consumption on a per square foot basis and they also focus on indoor environmental quality. However, the co-benefits to health through reductions in energy and concomitant reductions in air pollution have not been examined.We calculated year by year LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification rates in six countries (the United States, China, India, Brazil, Germany, and Turkey) and then used data from the Green Building Information Gateway (GBIG) to estimate energy savings in each country each year...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Andrew Larkin, Perry Hystad
Urban green space, or natural environments, are associated with multiple physical and mental health outcomes. Several proposed pathways of action for these benefits (e.g., stress reduction and attention restoration) require visual perception of green space; however, existing green space exposure measures commonly used in epidemiological studies do not capture street-scale exposures. We downloaded 254 Google Street View (GSV) panorama images from Portland, Oregon and calculated percent of green in each image, called Green View Index (GVI)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jeanette M Reyes, Heidi F Hubbard, Matthew A Stiegel, Joachim D Pleil, Marc L Serre
Currently in the United States there are no regulatory standards for ambient concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of organic compounds with known carcinogenic species. As such, monitoring data are not routinely collected resulting in limited exposure mapping and epidemiologic studies. This work develops the log-mass fraction (LMF) Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) geostatistical prediction method used to predict the concentration of nine particle-bound PAHs across the US state of North Carolina...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kimberly P Berger, Katherine R Kogut, Asa Bradman, Jianwen She, Qi Gavin, Rana Zahedi, Kimberly L Parra, Kim G Harley
Use of personal care products, such as makeup, soaps, and sunscreen, may expose adolescent girls to potential endocrine disruptors, including phthalates, parabens, and other phenols. We evaluated the relationship between recent self-reported personal care product use and concentrations for urinary metabolites of phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) in 100 Latina adolescents. Girls who reported using makeup every day vs. rarely/never had higher urinary concentrations of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (102...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Bernard D Goldstein
Sutton's Law urges the medical practitioner to utilize the test that goes directly to the problem. When applied to exposure science, Sutton's Law would argue that the major emphasis should be on techniques that directly measure exposure in or close to the human, animal or ecosystem receptors of concern. Exposure science largely and appropriately violates Sutton's Law by estimating exposure based on information on emissions or measurements obtained at a distance from the receptors of concern. I suggest four criteria to help determine whether Sutton's law should be violated for an innovative technology, and explore these criteria in relation to potential human exposure resulting from unconventional gas drilling (UGD): (1) The technological processes possibly leading to release of the chemical or physical agents of concern are reasonably understood; (2) the agents of concern are known; (3) the source and geographical location of the releases can be reasonably identified; and (4) there is information about the likely temporal pattern of the releases and resulting pollutant levels in relation to the temporal patterns of receptor susceptibility...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jenna R Krall, Chandresh N Ladva, Armistead G Russell, Rachel Golan, Xing Peng, Guoliang Shi, Roby Greenwald, Amit U Raysoni, Lance A Waller, Jeremy A Sarnat
Concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants are frequently higher within commuting vehicles than in ambient air. Pollutants found within vehicles may include those generated by tailpipe exhaust, brake wear, and road dust sources, as well as pollutants from in-cabin sources. Source-specific pollution, compared to total pollution, may represent regulation targets that can better protect human health. We estimated source-specific pollution exposures and corresponding pulmonary response in a panel study of commuters...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Tye E Arbuckle, Chun Lei Liang, Mandy Fisher, Nicolas J Caron, William D Fraser
Given that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke can lead to increased risks of adverse health effects, having valid measures of exposure is important. In a Canadian cohort (n = 2000), maternal and infant biospecimens were analysed for cotinine. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported active smoking status were estimated. Regression modelling was used to identify potential predictors of maternal and infant plasma cotinine in non-smoking women. During the first trimester, 60.6% of the women reported never smoking, 27...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Emily J Werder, Kaitlyn B Gam, Lawrence S Engel, Richard K Kwok, Christine C Ekenga, Matthew D Curry, David M Chambers, Aaron Blair, Aubrey K Miller, Linda S Birnbaum, Dale P Sandler
To address concerns among Gulf Coast residents about ongoing exposures to volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m-xylene/p-xylene (BTEX), we characterized current blood levels and identified predictors of BTEX among Gulf state residents. We collected questionnaire data on recent exposures and measured blood BTEX levels in a convenience sample of 718 Gulf residents. Because BTEX is rapidly cleared from the body, blood levels represent recent exposures in the past 24 h...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jon R Sobus, John F Wambaugh, Kristin K Isaacs, Antony J Williams, Andrew D McEachran, Ann M Richard, Christopher M Grulke, Elin M Ulrich, Julia E Rager, Mark J Strynar, Seth R Newton
Tens-of-thousands of chemicals are registered in the U.S. for use in countless processes and products. Recent evidence suggests that many of these chemicals are measureable in environmental and/or biological systems, indicating the potential for widespread exposures. Traditional public health research tools, including in vivo studies and targeted analytical chemistry methods, have been unable to meet the needs of screening programs designed to evaluate chemical safety. As such, new tools have been developed to enable rapid assessment of potentially harmful chemical exposures and their attendant biological responses...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Rui Chen, Angela Aherrera, Chineye Isichei, Pablo Olmedo, Stephanie Jarmul, Joanna E Cohen, Ana Navas-Acien, Ana M Rule
E-cigarette (vaping) conventions are public events promoting electronic cigarettes, in which indoor use of e-cigarettes is allowed. The large concentration of people using e-cigarettes and poor air ventilation can result in indoor air pollution. In order to estimate this worst-case exposure to e-cigarettes, we evaluated indoor air quality in a vaping convention in Maryland (MD), USA. Real-time concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 ) and real-time total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), CO2 and NO2 concentrations were measured...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Alexandra E Larsen, Brian J Reich, Mark Ruminski, Ana G Rappold
Increases in the severity and frequency of large fires necessitate improved understanding of the influence of smoke on air quality and public health. The objective of this study is to estimate the effect of smoke from fires across the continental U.S. on regional air quality over an extended period of time. We use 2006-2013 data on ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 constituents from environmental monitoring sites to characterize regional air quality and satellite imagery data to identify plumes...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jonathan Côté, Michèle Bouchard
A toxicokinetic model has been optimized to describe the time profiles of common biomarkers of exposure to permethrin and cypermethrin: trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (trans-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). The model then served to reproduce urinary time courses in exposed agricultural workers and predict corresponding absorbed doses. It allowed for the prediction of the main routes of exposure in workers during the study period. Modeling showed that simulating exposure mostly by the oral route, during the 3-day biomonitoring period, provided best-fits to the urinary time courses of most workers...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Yi-Xin Wang, An Pan, Wei Feng, Chong Liu, Li-Li Huang, Song-Hua Ai, Qiang Zeng, Wen-Qing Lu
Arsenic, cadmium and lead are well-known toxic metals, and there are substantial studies on variability of these metals in urine to optimize design of exposure assessment. For urinary levels of other nonessential metals such as aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W) and uranium (U), however, their within-individual and between-individual variability are unclear. Therefore, we collected 529 samples from 11 healthy adult men on 8 days during a 3-month period. We measured urinary metals and creatinine (Cr) levels, assessed the reproducibility using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and performed sensitivity and specificity analyses to assess how well 1, 2 or 3 specimens could classify exposure...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Linyan Li, John D Spengler, Shi-Jie Cao, Gary Adamkiewicz
Rapid urbanization in developing countries, with significant rural-to-urban and between-urban areas migration, presents a natural epidemiological model to better understand population-level trends in asthma and allergy prevalance without confounding by genetic factors. This cross-sectional study, conducted November 2014 to January 2015 in Suzhou, China, investigated differences in asthma and allergic symptoms between domestic migrant residents and long-term residents and their children. Using multivariate logistic regression, the odds ratios for children in migrant families compared to those in long-term resident families in Suzhou for doctor-diagnosed asthma, pneumonia, rhinitis, and eczema were 0...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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