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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176762/systemic-serum-amyloid-a-as-a-biomarker-for-exposure-to-zinc-and-or-copper-containing-metal-fumes
#1
R Baumann, M Gube, A Markert, S Davatgarbenam, V Kossack, B Gerhards, T Kraus, P Brand
Zinc- and copper-containing welding fumes increase systemic C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the biomarkers serum amyloid A (SAA) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in this regard. Fifteen male subjects were exposed under controlled conditions to welding fumes containing either zinc, or copper, or copper and zinc for 6 h. Plasma samples were collected before, 6 and 24 h after start of exposure and biomarkers therein were measured by electrochemiluminescent assay...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176761/summertime-extreme-heat-events-and-increased-risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-hospitalizations
#2
Jared A Fisher, Chengsheng Jiang, Sutyajeet I Soneja, Clifford Mitchell, Robin C Puett, Amir Sapkota
Few studies have examined the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or demonstrated which populations are most vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat. We defined extreme heat events as days when the daily maximum temperature (TMAX) exceeded the location- and calendar day-specific 95th percentile of the distribution of daily TMAX during the 30-year baseline period (1960-1989). We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to analyze the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of hospitalization for AMI in the summer months (June-August) with 0, 1, or 2 lag days...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145400/molecular-detection-of-m-tuberculosis-and-m-bovis-and-hematological-and-biochemical-analyses-in-agricultural-sprayers-exposed-to-pesticides-a-cross-sectional-study-in-punjab-pakistan-during-2014-2016
#3
Saffora Riaz, Farkhanda Manzoor, Nasir Mahmood, Saman Shahid
We determined the correlation between a pesticide exposure, physical health and susceptibility toward tuberculosis along with hematological indices and liver enzymes' alterations in sprayers exposed to pesticides. Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis was detected by targeting histone-like protein (hupB) gene. The WBC (white blood cells) and RBC (red blood cells) levels of male sprayers and non-sprayers were significantly different (P<0.05). In female spray workers, the WBC and neutrophils levels were significantly different as compared with non-sprayers...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120835/associations-among-personal-care-product-use-patterns-and-exogenous-hormone-use-in-the-niehs-sister-study
#4
Kyla W Taylor, Donna D Baird, Amy H Herring, Lawrence S Engel, Hazel B Nichols, Dale P Sandler, Melissa A Troester
It is hypothesized that certain chemicals in personal care products may alter the risk of adverse health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to use a data-centered approach to classify complex patterns of exposure to personal care products and to understand how these patterns vary according to use of exogenous hormone exposures, oral contraceptives (OCs) and post-menopausal hormone therapy (HT). The NIEHS Sister Study is a prospective cohort study of 50,884 US women. Limiting the sample to non-Hispanic blacks and whites (N=47,019), latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify groups of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use based on responses to 48 survey questions...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120834/biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-electroplating-workers-exposed-to-hexavalent-chromium
#5
Chih-Hong Pan, Hueiwang Anna Jeng, Ching-Huang Lai
This study evaluates levels of biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in 105 male workers at 16 electroplating companies who had been exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The study participants were 230 non-smoking male workers, comprising 105 electroplating workers who had been exposed to chromium and 125 control subjects who performed office tasks. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, hair samples, fingernail samples and questionnaires were used to quantify exposure to Cr(VI), oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and environmental pollutants...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120833/residential-proximity-to-abandoned-uranium-mines-and-serum-inflammatory-potential-in-chronically-exposed-navajo-communities
#6
Molly E Harmon, Johnnye Lewis, Curtis Miller, Joseph Hoover, Abdul-Mehdi S Ali, Chris Shuey, Miranda Cajero, Selita Lucas, Katherine Zychowski, Bernadette Pacheco, Esther Erdei, Sandy Ramone, Teddy Nez, Melissa Gonzales, Matthew J Campen
Members of the Navajo Nation, who possess a high prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, reside near hundreds of local abandoned uranium mines (AUM), which contribute uranium, arsenic and other metals to the soil, water and air. We recently reported that hypertension is associated with mine waste exposures in this population. Inflammation is a major player in the development of numerous vascular ailments. Our previous work establishing that specific transcriptional responses of cultured endothelial cells treated with human serum can reveal relative circulating inflammatory potential in a manner responsive to pollutant exposures, providing a model to assess responses associated with exposure to these waste materials in this population...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120832/mouthing-activity-data-for-children-age-3-to-6-years-old-and-fraction-of-hand-area-mouthed-for-children-age-6-years-old-in-taiwan
#7
Ming-Chien Tsou, Halûk Özkaynak, Paloma Beamer, Winston Dang, Hsing-Cheng Hsi, Chuen-Bin Jiang, Ling-Chu Chien
Non-dietary ingestion is an important exposure pathway for children owing to their frequent hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth activities involving soil and dust contacts. We used videotaping and the computer-based translating methods to quantify the mouthing activity information for 24 children ages 3 to <6 years old living in Taiwan. We also reviewed the entire mouthing activity data collected during the project to determine the lesser studied information on hand surface areas mouthed by children ages <6 years old...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120831/integrating-data-from-multiple-time-location-measurement-methods-for-use-in-exposure-assessment-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-and-air-pollution-mesa-air
#8
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Elizabeth W Spalt, Cynthia L Curl, Mark E Davey, Sverre Vedal, Gregory L Burke, Joel D Kaufman
Tools to assess time-location patterns related to environmental exposures have expanded from reliance on time-location diaries (TLDs) and questionnaires to use of geospatial location devices such as data-logging Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution obtained typical time-location patterns via questionnaire for 6424 adults in six US cities. At a later time (mean 4.6 years after questionnaire), a subset (n=128) participated in high-resolution data collection for specific 2-week periods resulting in concurrent GPS and detailed TLD data, which were aggregated to estimate time spent in various microenvironments...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120830/characterizing-the-impact-of-projected-changes-in-climate-and-air-quality-on-human-exposures-to-ozone
#9
Kathie L Dionisio, Christopher G Nolte, Tanya L Spero, Stephen Graham, Nina Caraway, Kristen M Foley, Kristin K Isaacs
The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O3) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098161/modelling-of-occupational-exposure-to-inhalable-nickel-compounds
#10
Benjamin Kendzia, Beate Pesch, Dorothea Koppisch, Rainer Van Gelder, Katrin Pitzke, Wolfgang Zschiesche, Thomas Behrens, Tobias Weiss, Jack Siemiatycki, Jerome Lavoué, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Roger Stamm, Thomas Brüning
The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m(3). We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000687/long-term-recall-accuracy-for-mobile-phone-calls-in-young-japanese-people-a-follow-up-validation-study-using-software-modified-phones
#11
Kosuke Kiyohara, Kanako Wake, Soichi Watanabe, Takuji Arima, Yasuto Sato, Noriko Kojimahara, Masao Taki, Elisabeth Cardis, Naohito Yamaguchi
This study examined changes in recall accuracy for mobile phone calls over a long period. Japanese students' actual call statuses were monitored for 1 month using software-modified phones (SMPs). Three face-to-face interviews were conducted to obtain information regarding self-reported call status during the monitoring period: first interview: immediately after the monitoring period; second interview: after 10-12 months; third interview: after 48-55 months. Using the SMP records as the "gold standard", phone call recall accuracy was assessed for each interview...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000686/an-accurate-filter-loading-correction-is-essential-for-assessing-personal-exposure-to-black-carbon-using-an-aethalometer
#12
Nicholas Good, Anna Mölter, Jennifer L Peel, John Volckens
The AE51 micro-Aethalometer (microAeth) is a popular and useful tool for assessing personal exposure to particulate black carbon (BC). However, few users of the AE51 are aware that its measurements are biased low (by up to 70%) due to the accumulation of BC on the filter substrate over time; previous studies of personal black carbon exposure are likely to have suffered from this bias. Although methods to correct for bias in micro-Aethalometer measurements of particulate black carbon have been proposed, these methods have not been verified in the context of personal exposure assessment...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000685/update-on-dietary-intake-of-perchlorate-and-iodine-from-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-s-total-diet-study-2008-2012
#13
Eileen Abt, Judith Spungen, Régis Pouillot, Margaret Gamalo-Siebers, Mark Wirtz
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS) monitors the US food supply for pesticide residues, industrial chemicals, radionuclides, nutrients, and toxic elements. Perchlorate and iodine intakes based on concentrations in TDS samples collected between 2008 and 2012 were estimated in order to update an earlier TDS dietary assessment. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket and missile fuel, is formed naturally in the atmosphere, and occurs naturally in some soils. Because of perchlorate's presence in soil, and in irrigation, processing, and source water, it is widely found in food...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000684/levels-and-determinants-of-tree-pollen-in-new-york-city
#14
Kate R Weinberger, Patrick L Kinney, Guy S Robinson, Daniel Sheehan, Iyad Kheirbek, Thomas D Matte, Gina S Lovasi
Exposure to allergenic tree pollen is a risk factor for multiple allergic disease outcomes. Little is known about how tree pollen levels vary within cities and whether such variation affects the development or exacerbation of allergic disease. Accordingly, we collected integrated pollen samples at uniform height at 45 sites across New York City during the 2013 pollen season. We used these monitoring results in combination with adjacent land use data to develop a land use regression model for tree pollen. We evaluated four types of land use variables for inclusion in the model: tree canopy, distributed building height (a measure of building volume density), elevation, and distance to water...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000683/elemental-analysis-of-infant-airborne-particulate-exposures
#15
Chantel D Sloan, Frank X Weber, Rebecca K Bradshaw, Tyler J Philipp, W Bradford Barber, Vanessa L Palmer, Robert J Graul, Steven C Tuttle, Ryan T Chartier, James D Johnston
Air pollution is hypothesized to have negative impacts on infant pulmonary health because of infants' increased rates of respiration and ongoing lung development. The severity and type of impact may differ depending on elemental concentrations. We conducted a study of 21 infants <6 months old whose parents carried a small personal particulate monitoring device (RTI MicroPEM) and GPS unit with the infant for 7 days in January and February 2015. The study area was Utah County, UT, USA. Real-time particulate exposure levels, as well as optical density and elemental analysis of the particulate matter (PM), were compared with levels from an outdoor stationary monitor...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966670/pyrethroid-insecticides-and-their-environmental-degradates-in-repeated-duplicate-diet-solid-food-samples-of-50-adults
#16
Marsha K Morgan, Denise K MacMillan, Dan Zehr, Jon R Sobus
Previous research has reported concurrent levels of pyrethroid insecticides and their environmental degradates in foods. These data raise concerns about using these same pyrethroid degradates found in the diet as urinary biomarkers of exposures in humans. The primary objective was to quantify levels of selected pyrethroids and their environmental degradates in duplicate-diet solid food samples of 50 adults over a six-week monitoring period. The study was conducted at the US EPA's Human Studies Facility in North Carolina and at participants' residences in 2009-2011...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966669/asthma-diagnosis-in-a-child-and-cessation-of-smoking-in-the-child-s-home-the-piama-birth-cohort
#17
Alet H Wijga, Maarten Schipper, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard H Koppelman, Ulrike Gehring
Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n=3963), parents reported on smoking in their home and on asthma diagnosis in their child, annually from birth to 8 years. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the association between asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966668/predictors-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-and-internal-dose-in-inner-city-baltimore-children
#18
Kamau O Peters, D' Ann L Williams, Salahadin Abubaker, Jean Curtin-Brosnan, Meredith C McCormack, Roger Peng, Patrick N Breysse, Elizabeth C Matsui, Nadia N Hansel, Gregory B Diette, Paul T Strickland
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the by-products of incomplete combustion of organic materials, are commonly found on particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with the development of asthma and asthma exacerbation in urban populations. We examined time spent in the home and outdoors as predictors of exposures to airborne PAHs and measured urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG) as internal dose of PAHs in 118 children aged 5-12 years from Baltimore, MD. During weeklong periods (Saturday-Saturday) in each of four seasons: daily activities were assessed using questionnaires, indoor air nicotine and PM concentrations were monitored, and urine specimens were collected on Tuesday (day 3) and Saturday (day 7) for measurement of 1-OHPG...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966667/arsenic-levels-in-cutaneous-appendicular-organs-are-correlated-with-digitally-evaluated-hyperpigmented-skin-of-the-forehead-but-not-the-sole-in-bangladesh-residents
#19
Ichiro Yajima, Nazmul Ahsan, Anwarul Azim Akhand, Mm Aeorangajeb Al Hossain, Masafumi Yoshinaga, Nobutaka Ohgami, Machiko Iida, Reina Oshino, Mariko Naito, Kenji Wakai, Masashi Kato
There has been no report showing the effect of arsenic level on digitized skin pigmentation level, a typical diagnostic marker for arsenicosis. Correlations among history of drinking well water, arsenic levels in hair and toenails, and digitalized skin pigmentation levels (L*-value) in sunlight-exposed (forehead) and unexposed (sole) skin areas digitally evaluated by using a reflectance spectrophotometer were examined in 150 residents of Bangladesh. Univariate analysis showed that arsenic levels in hair and toenails of subjects with a history of drinking well water were 10...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966666/measurement-error-in-mobile-source-air-pollution-exposure-estimates-due-to-residential-mobility-during-pregnancy
#20
Audrey Flak Pennington, Matthew J Strickland, Mitchel Klein, Xinxin Zhai, Armistead G Russell, Craig Hansen, Lyndsey A Darrow
Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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