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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

Amanda E Janitz, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Gail E Tomlinson, Mark Krailo, Michaela Richardson, Logan Spector
Little is known about the etiology of hepatoblastoma. We aimed to confirm the results of a previous study evaluating the association between parental occupational exposures and hepatoblastoma. In our case-control study, we identified cases (n=383) from the Children's Oncology Group and controls from birth certificates (n=387), which were frequency matched to cases on year and region of birth, sex, and birth weight. Occupational exposure in the year before and during the index pregnancy was collected through maternal interview and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
R Baumann, M Gube, A Markert, S Davatgarbenam, V Kossack, B Gerhards, T Kraus, P Brand
Zinc- and copper-containing welding fumes increase systemic C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the biomarkers serum amyloid A (SAA) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in this regard. Fifteen male subjects were exposed under controlled conditions to welding fumes containing either zinc, or copper, or copper and zinc for 6 h. Plasma samples were collected before, 6 and 24 h after start of exposure and biomarkers therein were measured by electrochemiluminescent assay...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jared A Fisher, Chengsheng Jiang, Sutyajeet I Soneja, Clifford Mitchell, Robin C Puett, Amir Sapkota
Few studies have examined the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or demonstrated which populations are most vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat. We defined extreme heat events as days when the daily maximum temperature (TMAX) exceeded the location- and calendar day-specific 95th percentile of the distribution of daily TMAX during the 30-year baseline period (1960-1989). We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to analyze the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of hospitalization for AMI in the summer months (June-August) with 0, 1, or 2 lag days...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Saffora Riaz, Farkhanda Manzoor, Nasir Mahmood, Saman Shahid
We determined the correlation between a pesticide exposure, physical health and susceptibility toward tuberculosis along with hematological indices and liver enzymes' alterations in sprayers exposed to pesticides. Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis was detected by targeting histone-like protein (hupB) gene. The WBC (white blood cells) and RBC (red blood cells) levels of male sprayers and non-sprayers were significantly different (P<0.05). In female spray workers, the WBC and neutrophils levels were significantly different as compared with non-sprayers...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kyla W Taylor, Donna D Baird, Amy H Herring, Lawrence S Engel, Hazel B Nichols, Dale P Sandler, Melissa A Troester
It is hypothesized that certain chemicals in personal care products may alter the risk of adverse health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to use a data-centered approach to classify complex patterns of exposure to personal care products and to understand how these patterns vary according to use of exogenous hormone exposures, oral contraceptives (OCs) and post-menopausal hormone therapy (HT). The NIEHS Sister Study is a prospective cohort study of 50,884 US women. Limiting the sample to non-Hispanic blacks and whites (N=47,019), latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify groups of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use based on responses to 48 survey questions...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Chih-Hong Pan, Hueiwang Anna Jeng, Ching-Huang Lai
This study evaluates levels of biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in 105 male workers at 16 electroplating companies who had been exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The study participants were 230 non-smoking male workers, comprising 105 electroplating workers who had been exposed to chromium and 125 control subjects who performed office tasks. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, hair samples, fingernail samples and questionnaires were used to quantify exposure to Cr(VI), oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and environmental pollutants...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Molly E Harmon, Johnnye Lewis, Curtis Miller, Joseph Hoover, Abdul-Mehdi S Ali, Chris Shuey, Miranda Cajero, Selita Lucas, Katherine Zychowski, Bernadette Pacheco, Esther Erdei, Sandy Ramone, Teddy Nez, Melissa Gonzales, Matthew J Campen
Members of the Navajo Nation, who possess a high prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, reside near hundreds of local abandoned uranium mines (AUM), which contribute uranium, arsenic and other metals to the soil, water and air. We recently reported that hypertension is associated with mine waste exposures in this population. Inflammation is a major player in the development of numerous vascular ailments. Our previous work establishing that specific transcriptional responses of cultured endothelial cells treated with human serum can reveal relative circulating inflammatory potential in a manner responsive to pollutant exposures, providing a model to assess responses associated with exposure to these waste materials in this population...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Ming-Chien Tsou, Halûk Özkaynak, Paloma Beamer, Winston Dang, Hsing-Cheng Hsi, Chuen-Bin Jiang, Ling-Chu Chien
Non-dietary ingestion is an important exposure pathway for children owing to their frequent hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth activities involving soil and dust contacts. We used videotaping and the computer-based translating methods to quantify the mouthing activity information for 24 children ages 3 to <6 years old living in Taiwan. We also reviewed the entire mouthing activity data collected during the project to determine the lesser studied information on hand surface areas mouthed by children ages <6 years old...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Elizabeth W Spalt, Cynthia L Curl, Mark E Davey, Sverre Vedal, Gregory L Burke, Joel D Kaufman
Tools to assess time-location patterns related to environmental exposures have expanded from reliance on time-location diaries (TLDs) and questionnaires to use of geospatial location devices such as data-logging Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution obtained typical time-location patterns via questionnaire for 6424 adults in six US cities. At a later time (mean 4.6 years after questionnaire), a subset (n=128) participated in high-resolution data collection for specific 2-week periods resulting in concurrent GPS and detailed TLD data, which were aggregated to estimate time spent in various microenvironments...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kathie L Dionisio, Christopher G Nolte, Tanya L Spero, Stephen Graham, Nina Caraway, Kristen M Foley, Kristin K Isaacs
The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O3) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Benjamin Kendzia, Beate Pesch, Dorothea Koppisch, Rainer Van Gelder, Katrin Pitzke, Wolfgang Zschiesche, Thomas Behrens, Tobias Weiss, Jack Siemiatycki, Jerome Lavoué, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Roger Stamm, Thomas Brüning
The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m(3). We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kristin A Evans, Philip K Hopke, Mark J Utell, Cathleen Kane, Sally W Thurston, Frederick S Ling, David Chalupa, David Q Rich
We previously observed increased odds of ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) associated with increased ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the previous hour. However, data are lacking on the effects of specific PM sources. Using data from 362 patients, a case-crossover design, and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of STEMI associated with increased Delta-C (wood smoke), black carbon (BC; traffic), PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants in the previous 1-72 h. We did not observe increased odds of STEMIs associated with increased Delta-C or BC...
March 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lisa Weissenburger-Moser, Jane Meza, Fang Yu, Oyewale Shiyanbola, Debra J Romberger, Tricia D LeVan
Agricultural workers are at an increased risk of developing chronic respiratory disorders. Accurate estimation of long-term agricultural exposures based on questionnaires has been used to improve the validity of epidemiologic investigations and subsequent evaluation of the association between agricultural exposures and chronic diseases. Our aim was to use principal factor analysis (PFA) to distill exposure data into essential variables characterizing long-term agricultural exposures. This is a cross-sectional study of veterans between the ages of 40 and 80 years and who worked on a farm for ≥2 years...
March 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Samantha Lampert Naik, Michael Lewin, Rand Young, Steve M Dearwent, Robin Lee
Research on asbestos exposure in Libby, MT, has focused on occupational exposure in vermiculite mining and processing, but less attention has been paid to asbestos-related mortality among community members without vermiculite mining occupational history. Our study reports on asbestos-related mortality in Libby over 33 years (1979-2011) while controlling for occupational exposure. We calculated sex-specific 33-year standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for Libby residents who died from 1979 to 2011 with an asbestos-related cause of death...
March 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kate Hoffman, Thomas F Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Heather M Stapleton
Children have higher polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burdens than adults, which may be related to hand-to-mouth behavior. We investigate associations between children's behavior, including hand-to-mouth contacts, and markers of PBDE exposure. In addition, we investigate associations between characteristics of the home environment and exposure. Eighty-three children aged 12-36 months were recruited from North Carolina (2009-2010). Children provided blood and handwipes samples, which were analyzed for PBDEs...
March 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Erin E Silvestri, Cynthia Yund, Sarah Taft, Charlena Yoder Bowling, Daniel Chappie, Kevin Garrahan, Eletha Brady-Roberts, Harry Stone, Tonya L Nichols
In the event of an indoor release of an environmentally persistent microbial pathogen such as Bacillus anthracis, the potential for human exposure will be considered when remedial decisions are made. Microbial site characterization and clearance sampling data collected in the field might be used to estimate exposure. However, there are many challenges associated with estimating environmental concentrations of B. anthracis or other spore-forming organisms after such an event before being able to estimate exposure...
March 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Tamarra M James-Todd, John D Meeker, Tianyi Huang, Russ Hauser, Ellen W Seely, Kelly K Ferguson, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Thomas F McElrath
Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as poor infant/child health outcomes. In non-pregnant populations, phthalate metabolite concentrations vary by race/ethnicity. Few studies have documented racial/ethnic differences between phthalate metabolite concentrations at multiple time points across the full-course of pregnancy. The objective of the study was to characterize the change in phthalate metabolite concentrations by race/ethnicity across multiple pregnancy time points...
March 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Ander Wilson, Brian J Reich, Christopher G Nolte, Tanya L Spero, Bryan Hubbell, Ana G Rappold
We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quality from climate projections varying only biogenic emissions and holding anthropogenic emissions constant, thus attributing changes in ozone only to changes in climate and independent of changes in air pollutant emissions. We estimate non-linear, spatially varying, ozone-temperature risk surfaces for 94 US urban areas using observed data...
January 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Bijaya K Padhi, Atin Adhikari, Prakasini Satapathy, Alok K Patra, Dinesh Chandel, Pinaki Panigrahi
Recent studies have highlighted the presence of endotoxin in indoor air and its role in respiratory morbidities. Burning of household fuels including unprocessed wood and dried animal dung could be a major source of endotoxin in homes. We measured endotoxin levels in different size fractions of airborne particles (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1), and estimated the deposition of particle-bound endotoxin in the respiratory tract. The study was carried out in homes burning solid biomass fuel (n=35) and LPG (n=35). Sample filters were analyzed for endotoxin and organic carbon (OC) content...
January 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Elise G Elliott, Adrienne S Ettinger, Brian P Leaderer, Michael B Bracken, Nicole C Deziel
Hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater from unconventional oil and natural gas development contain hundreds of substances with the potential to contaminate drinking water. Challenges to conducting well-designed human exposure and health studies include limited information about likely etiologic agents. We systematically evaluated 1021 chemicals identified in hydraulic-fracturing fluids (n=925), wastewater (n=132), or both (n=36) for potential reproductive and developmental toxicity to triage those with potential for human health impact...
January 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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