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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

Jeanette M Reyes, Heidi F Hubbard, Matthew A Stiegel, Joachim D Pleil, Marc L Serre
Currently in the United States there are no regulatory standards for ambient concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of organic compounds with known carcinogenic species. As such, monitoring data are not routinely collected resulting in limited exposure mapping and epidemiologic studies. This work develops the log-mass fraction (LMF) Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) geostatistical prediction method used to predict the concentration of nine particle-bound PAHs across the US state of North Carolina...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kimberly P Berger, Katherine R Kogut, Asa Bradman, Jianwen She, Qi Gavin, Rana Zahedi, Kimberly L Parra, Kim G Harley
Use of personal care products, such as makeup, soaps, and sunscreen, may expose adolescent girls to potential endocrine disruptors, including phthalates, parabens, and other phenols. We evaluated the relationship between recent self-reported personal care product use and concentrations for urinary metabolites of phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) in 100 Latina adolescents. Girls who reported using makeup every day vs. rarely/never had higher urinary concentrations of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (102...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Bernard D Goldstein
Sutton's Law urges the medical practitioner to utilize the test that goes directly to the problem. When applied to exposure science, Sutton's Law would argue that the major emphasis should be on techniques that directly measure exposure in or close to the human, animal or ecosystem receptors of concern. Exposure science largely and appropriately violates Sutton's Law by estimating exposure based on information on emissions or measurements obtained at a distance from the receptors of concern. I suggest four criteria to help determine whether Sutton's law should be violated for an innovative technology, and explore these criteria in relation to potential human exposure resulting from unconventional gas drilling (UGD): (1) The technological processes possibly leading to release of the chemical or physical agents of concern are reasonably understood; (2) the agents of concern are known; (3) the source and geographical location of the releases can be reasonably identified; and (4) there is information about the likely temporal pattern of the releases and resulting pollutant levels in relation to the temporal patterns of receptor susceptibility...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jenna R Krall, Chandresh N Ladva, Armistead G Russell, Rachel Golan, Xing Peng, Guoliang Shi, Roby Greenwald, Amit U Raysoni, Lance A Waller, Jeremy A Sarnat
Concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants are frequently higher within commuting vehicles than in ambient air. Pollutants found within vehicles may include those generated by tailpipe exhaust, brake wear, and road dust sources, as well as pollutants from in-cabin sources. Source-specific pollution, compared to total pollution, may represent regulation targets that can better protect human health. We estimated source-specific pollution exposures and corresponding pulmonary response in a panel study of commuters...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Tye E Arbuckle, Chun Lei Liang, Mandy Fisher, Nicolas J Caron, William D Fraser
Given that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke can lead to increased risks of adverse health effects, having valid measures of exposure is important. In a Canadian cohort (n = 2000), maternal and infant biospecimens were analysed for cotinine. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported active smoking status were estimated. Regression modelling was used to identify potential predictors of maternal and infant plasma cotinine in non-smoking women. During the first trimester, 60.6% of the women reported never smoking, 27...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Emily J Werder, Kaitlyn B Gam, Lawrence S Engel, Richard K Kwok, Christine C Ekenga, Matthew D Curry, David M Chambers, Aaron Blair, Aubrey K Miller, Linda S Birnbaum, Dale P Sandler
To address concerns among Gulf Coast residents about ongoing exposures to volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m-xylene/p-xylene (BTEX), we characterized current blood levels and identified predictors of BTEX among Gulf state residents. We collected questionnaire data on recent exposures and measured blood BTEX levels in a convenience sample of 718 Gulf residents. Because BTEX is rapidly cleared from the body, blood levels represent recent exposures in the past 24 h...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jon R Sobus, John F Wambaugh, Kristin K Isaacs, Antony J Williams, Andrew D McEachran, Ann M Richard, Christopher M Grulke, Elin M Ulrich, Julia E Rager, Mark J Strynar, Seth R Newton
Tens-of-thousands of chemicals are registered in the U.S. for use in countless processes and products. Recent evidence suggests that many of these chemicals are measureable in environmental and/or biological systems, indicating the potential for widespread exposures. Traditional public health research tools, including in vivo studies and targeted analytical chemistry methods, have been unable to meet the needs of screening programs designed to evaluate chemical safety. As such, new tools have been developed to enable rapid assessment of potentially harmful chemical exposures and their attendant biological responses...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Rui Chen, Angela Aherrera, Chineye Isichei, Pablo Olmedo, Stephanie Jarmul, Joanna E Cohen, Ana Navas-Acien, Ana M Rule
E-cigarette (vaping) conventions are public events promoting electronic cigarettes, in which indoor use of e-cigarettes is allowed. The large concentration of people using e-cigarettes and poor air ventilation can result in indoor air pollution. In order to estimate this worst-case exposure to e-cigarettes, we evaluated indoor air quality in a vaping convention in Maryland (MD), USA. Real-time concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) and real-time total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), CO2 and NO2 concentrations were measured...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Alexandra E Larsen, Brian J Reich, Mark Ruminski, Ana G Rappold
Increases in the severity and frequency of large fires necessitate improved understanding of the influence of smoke on air quality and public health. The objective of this study is to estimate the effect of smoke from fires across the continental U.S. on regional air quality over an extended period of time. We use 2006-2013 data on ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 constituents from environmental monitoring sites to characterize regional air quality and satellite imagery data to identify plumes...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jonathan Côté, Michèle Bouchard
A toxicokinetic model has been optimized to describe the time profiles of common biomarkers of exposure to permethrin and cypermethrin: trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (trans-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). The model then served to reproduce urinary time courses in exposed agricultural workers and predict corresponding absorbed doses. It allowed for the prediction of the main routes of exposure in workers during the study period. Modeling showed that simulating exposure mostly by the oral route, during the 3-day biomonitoring period, provided best-fits to the urinary time courses of most workers...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Yi-Xin Wang, An Pan, Wei Feng, Chong Liu, Li-Li Huang, Song-Hua Ai, Qiang Zeng, Wen-Qing Lu
Arsenic, cadmium and lead are well-known toxic metals, and there are substantial studies on variability of these metals in urine to optimize design of exposure assessment. For urinary levels of other nonessential metals such as aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W) and uranium (U), however, their within-individual and between-individual variability are unclear. Therefore, we collected 529 samples from 11 healthy adult men on 8 days during a 3-month period. We measured urinary metals and creatinine (Cr) levels, assessed the reproducibility using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and performed sensitivity and specificity analyses to assess how well 1, 2 or 3 specimens could classify exposure...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Linyan Li, John D Spengler, Shi-Jie Cao, Gary Adamkiewicz
Rapid urbanization in developing countries, with significant rural-to-urban and between-urban areas migration, presents a natural epidemiological model to better understand population-level trends in asthma and allergy prevalance without confounding by genetic factors. This cross-sectional study, conducted November 2014 to January 2015 in Suzhou, China, investigated differences in asthma and allergic symptoms between domestic migrant residents and long-term residents and their children. Using multivariate logistic regression, the odds ratios for children in migrant families compared to those in long-term resident families in Suzhou for doctor-diagnosed asthma, pneumonia, rhinitis, and eczema were 0...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Mariam S Girguis, Matthew J Strickland, Xuefei Hu, Yang Liu, Howard H Chang, Itai Kloog, Candice Belanoff, Scott M Bartell, Verónica M Vieira
Our aim is to estimate associations between acute increases in particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) concentrations and risk of infant bronchiolitis and otitis media among Massachusetts births born 2001 through 2008.Our case-crossover study included 20,017 infant bronchiolitis and 42,336 otitis media clinical encounter visits. PM2.5 was modeled using satellite, remote sensing, meteorological and land use data. We applied conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) per 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Sundeep Santosh Salvi, Ajay Ojha, Behzad Khafaie, Sharad Damodar Gore, Chittaranjan Sakerlal Yajnik
There is growing evidence that air pollution is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, information related to whether particulate matter (PM) contributing to worsened metabolic control in T2DM patients is inconsistent. We examined the association of PM10 exposure with glucose-function parameters in young-onset T2DM patients. We investigated the association between a year ambient concentration of PM10 at residential places, using AERMOD dispersion model, with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 2 h post meal plasma glucose (2hPG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-β) and disposition index (DI) in 1213 diabetic patients from the Wellcome Trust Genetic study at the Diabetes Unit, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jennifer Przybyla, Molly Kile, Ellen Smit
Biomonitoring studies have shown that humans are exposed to numerous environmental chemicals. Previous work provides limited insights into the dynamic relationship between different chemicals within a population. The objective of this study is to develop an analytical method identifying exposure profiles of seven common environmental chemicals and determine how exposure profiles differ by sociodemographic groups and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012 cycle year. We used recursive partition mixture modeling (RPMM) to define classes of the population with similar exposure profiles of lead, cadmium, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, and benzophenone-3 in individuals aged ≥6 years...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Benjamin F Arnold, Elizabeth A Sams, Alfred P Dufour, John M Colford, Steven B Weisberg, Kenneth C Schiff, Timothy J Wade
Swimming and recreating in lakes, oceans, and rivers is common, yet the literature suggests children may be at greater risk of illness following such exposures. These effects might be due to differences in immunity or differing behavioral factors such as poorer hygiene, longer exposures to, and greater ingestion of potentially contaminated water and sand. We pooled data from 12 prospective cohorts (n=68,685) to examine exposures to potentially contaminated media such as beach water and sand among children compared with adults, and conducted a simulation using self-reported time spent in the water and volume of water swallowed per minute by age to estimate the total volume of water swallowed per swimming event by age category...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kristin K Isaacs, Katherine A Phillips, Derya Biryol, Kathie L Dionisio, Paul S Price
Assessing human exposures to chemicals in consumer products requires composition information. However, comprehensive composition data for products in commerce are not generally available. Many consumer products have reported ingredient lists that are constructed using specific guidelines. A probabilistic model was developed to estimate quantitative weight fraction (WF) values that are consistent with the rank of an ingredient in the list, the number of reported ingredients, and labeling rules. The model provides the mean, median, and 95% upper and lower confidence limit WFs for ingredients of any rank in lists of any length...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Elaine A Cohen Hubal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Hongtai Huang, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, Timothy M Barzyk
Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quantify associations between environmental and social stressors. Socio-demographic variables were generated based on U.S. Census tract-level income, race/ethnicity population percentage, education level, and age information from the 2010-2014, 5-Year Summary files in the American Community Survey (ACS) database, and chemical variables were generated by utilizing the 2011 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) census tract-level air pollutant exposure concentration data...
November 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kim A Anderson, Gary L Points, Carey E Donald, Holly M Dixon, Richard P Scott, Glenn Wilson, Lane G Tidwell, Peter D Hoffman, Julie B Herbstman, Steven G O'Connell
Wristbands are increasingly used for assessing personal chemical exposures. Unlike some exposure assessment tools, guidelines for wristbands, such as preparation, applicable chemicals, and transport and storage logistics, are lacking. We tested the wristband's capacity to capture and retain 148 chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). The chemicals span a wide range of physical-chemical properties, with log octanol-air partitioning coefficients from 2...
November 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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