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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

C Backes, A Religi, L Moccozet, F Behar-Cohen, L Vuilleumier, J L Bulliard, D Vernez
The aim of this study was to assess solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses received by the eyes in different exposure situations, and to predict the sun protection effectiveness provided by various styles of sunglasses at facial, periorbital, and ocular skin zones including the cornea and accounting for different head positions. A 3D numeric model was optimized to predict direct, diffuse and reflected erythemally weighted UVR doses received at various skin zones. Precisely defined facial, periorbital, and ocular skin zones, sunglasses (goggles, medium-, and large-sized sunglasses) and three head positions were modeled to simulate daily (08:00-17:00) and midday (12:00-14:00) UVR doses...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
John W Cherrie, Shuohui Wang, William Mueller, Charlotte Wendelboe-Nelson, Miranda Loh
The effectiveness of respiratory protection is dependent on many factors, including the duration and times during the day when it is worn. To date, these factors could only be assessed by direct observation of the respirator user. We describe the novel use of a data-logging temperature and humidity sensor (iButton Hygrochron) located inside a facemask to quantify respirator wear-time through supervised experiments (Phase 1) and an unsupervised wearing trial (Phase 2). Additionally, in Phase 1 the in-mask temperature was compared with measurements of exhaled breath temperature...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Nicole C Deziel, Laura E Beane Freeman, Jane A Hoppin, Kent Thomas, Catherine C Lerro, Rena R Jones, Cynthia J Hines, Aaron Blair, Barry I Graubard, Jay H Lubin, Dale P Sandler, Honglei Chen, Gabriella Andreotti, Michael C Alavanja, Melissa C Friesen
Residents of agricultural areas experience pesticide exposures from sources other than direct agricultural work. We developed a quantitative, active ingredient-specific algorithm for cumulative (adult, married lifetime) non-occupational pesticide exposure intensity for spouses of farmers who applied pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). The algorithm addressed three exposure pathways: take-home, agricultural drift, and residential pesticide use. Pathway-specific equations combined (i) weights derived from previous meta-analyses of published pesticide exposure data and (ii) information from the questionnaire on frequency and duration of pesticide use by applicators, home proximity to treated fields, residential pesticide usage (e...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Razia Z Zariff, Lucinda Pumpa, David L Simon, Carolyn Lewis
The South Australian regional city of Port Pirie has a long history of environmental lead contamination caused by smelting operations that have resulted in elevated blood lead levels in local children. This study examines the potential exposure of children to lead as a result of consuming eggs produced by domestic chickens kept in a lead-contaminated environment. Lead concentrations were measured in eggs, chicken enclosure soil, chicken feed and forage vegetation collected from a domestic site in Port Pirie...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lindsey Butler, Chris Gennings, Marco Peli, Laura Borgese, Donatella Placidi, Neil Zimmerman, Hsiao-Hsien L Hsu, Brent A Coull, Robert O Wright, Donald R Smith, Roberto G Lucchini, Birgit Claus Henn
Residential proximity to ferroalloy production has been associated with increased manganese exposure, which can adversely affect health, particularly among children. Little is known, however, about which environmental samples contribute most to internal levels of manganese and other ferroalloy metals. We aimed to characterize sources of exposure to metals and evaluate the ability of internal biomarkers to reflect exposures from environmental media. In 717 Italian adolescents residing near ferromanganese industry, we examined associations between manganese, lead, chromium, and copper in environmental samples (airborne particles, surface soil, indoor/outdoor house dust) and biological samples (blood, hair, nails, saliva, urine)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Aron Jazcilevich, Juan de la Cruz Zavala, Ayda Marcela Erazo Arcos, Isao Kanda, Irma Rosas
The objective of this work is to study the immediate transport flows of PM2.5 diesel exhaust emissions on a city sidewalk. Under calm conditions largest direct exhaust PM2.5 diesel concentrations tend to accumulate at two preferred heights: higher ones at 200-225 cm due to truck and buses aerodynamics, and lower ones at 130-160 cm due to light vehicles. Obtained flows indicate that exhaust emissions are transported to these heights via vortices generated by vehicular traffic. The lower height vortices transporting PM2...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lisa K Baxter, Kathie Dionisio, Prachi Pradeep, Kristen Rappazzo, Lucas Neas
Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies of short-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposures and mortality have observed heterogeneity in risk estimates between cities. Factors affecting exposures, such as pollutant infiltration, which are not captured by central-site monitoring data, can differ between communities potentially explaining some of this heterogeneity. This analysis evaluates exposure factors as potential determinants of the heterogeneity in 312 core-based statistical areas (CBSA)-specific associations between PM2...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Rena R Jones, Trang VoPham, Boitumelo Sevilla, Matthew Airola, Abigail Flory, Nicole C Deziel, John R Nuckols, Anjoeka Pronk, Francine Laden, Mary H Ward
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from industrial sources contaminate the surrounding environment. Proximity-based exposure surrogates assume accuracy in the location of PCDD/F sources, but locations are not often verified. We manually reviewed locations (i.e., smokestack geo-coordinates) in a historical database of 4478 PCDD/F-emitting facilities in 2009 and 2016. Given potential changes in imagery and other resources over this period, we re-reviewed a random sample of 5% of facilities (n = 240) in 2016...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Seulkee Heo, Michelle L Bell
Heat wave warning systems and related research define heat waves using various indices and there exists no standard definition for a heat wave. Despite various weather forecast services for heat stress in South Korea, it is unclear how different thermal indices affect the designation of heat waves and health effect estimates. We aimed to analyze trends of heat wave characteristics and mortality associations using various criteria for the warm season (June-September) in 2011-5 for the most populated two cities in South Korea, Seoul and Busan...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Benjamin D Blair, Stephen Brindley, John Hughes, Eero Dinkeloo, Lisa M McKenzie, John L Adgate
Environmental noise from sources such as traffic, airports, and oil and gas (O&G) operations is associated with nuisance and health concerns. Smartphones with external microphones have been recommended for environmental noise monitoring and may be useful tools for citizen science, but are not validated against reference methods. We evaluated laboratory performance of three smartphone/application (app) configurations recommended for environmental noise measurement. Two smartphone/app configurations were also compared to a reference sampler, a type 1 sound level meter (SLM) at ten outdoor sites with traffic, airport, and O&G noise...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
John H Scofield, Jakob Cornell
MacNaughton et al. recently published an article entitled, "Energy savings, emissions reductions, and health co-benefits of the green building movement" in which they claim to calculate the environmental co-benefits associated with the (assumed) reduced energy use of green buildings. They consider only LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) commercial buildings and make two fundamental assumptions: (1) that each LEED building, year after year, achieves the energy savings projected by its design team, and (2) that the fuel mix of LEED buildings is the same as the average mix for other buildings in the same geographic region...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Hifza Rasheed, Paul Kay, Rebecca Slack, Yun Yun Gong
Arsenic intake from household drinking/cooking water and food may represent a significant exposure pathway to induce cancer and non-cancer health effects. This study is based on the human biomonitoring of 395 volunteers from 223 households with private water sources located in rural Punjab, Pakistan. This work has shown the relative contribution of water and staple food to arsenic intake and accumulation by multiple biological matrix measurements of inorganic and organic arsenic species, while accounting for potential confounders such as age, gender, occupation, and exposure duration of the study population...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jesse J Plascak, William C Griffith, Tomomi Workman, Marissa N Smith, Eric Vigoren, Elaine M Faustman, Beti Thompson
Reducing residential pesticide exposure requires identification of exposure pathways. Compared to the agriculture worker 'take-home' and residential use pathways, evidence of the 'drift' pathway to pesticide exposure has been inconsistent. Questionnaire data from individuals (n = 99) and dust samples (n = 418) from households across three growing seasons in 2011 were from the For Healthy Kids! STUDY: Summed dimethyl organophosphate pesticide (OP) (Azinphos-Methyl, Phosmet, and Malathion) concentrations were quantified from house dust samples...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
William W Nazaroff
Although defined more broadly, exposure science has mainly focused on exposures to environmental chemicals and related stressors, such as airborne particulate matter. There is an opportunity for exposure science to contribute more substantially to improving public health by devoting more attention to microorganisms as key stressors and agents in exposure. The discovery that pathogenic microbes cause disease in humans precipitated a revolution in public health science and disease prevention. With a continued global urgency to address spread of pathogenic microbes, contributions of microorganisms to both infectious and noninfectious processes merit more attention from the exposure science community...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Annemarie Stroustrup, Jennifer B Bragg, Stefanie A Busgang, Syam S Andra, Paul Curtin, Emily A Spear, Allan C Just, Manish Arora, Chris Gennings
In the United States each year, more than 300,000 infants are admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) where they are exposed to a chemical-intensive hospital environment during a developmentally vulnerable period. Although multiple studies have demonstrated elevated phthalate biomarkers in NICU patients, specific sources of NICU-based phthalate exposure have not been identified.In this study, premature newborns with birth weight <1500 g were recruited to participate in a prospective environmental health cohort during the NICU hospitalization...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Namdi Brandon, Kathie L Dionisio, Kristin Isaacs, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, Dustin Kapraun, R Woodrow Setzer, Paul S Price
Exposure to a chemical is a critical consideration in the assessment of risk, as it adds real-world context to toxicological information. Descriptions of where and how individuals spend their time are important for characterizing exposures to chemicals in consumer products and in indoor environments. Herein we create an agent-based model (ABM) that simulates longitudinal patterns in human behavior. By basing the ABM upon an artificial intelligence (AI) system, we create agents that mimic human decisions on performing behaviors relevant for determining exposures to chemicals and other stressors...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Daniel R S Middleton, Valerie A McCormack, Michael O Munishi, Diana Menya, Andrew L Marriott, Elliott M Hamilton, Amos O Mwasamwaja, Blandina T Mmbaga, David Samoei, Odipo Osano, Joachim Schüz, Michael J Watts
Element deficiencies and excesses play important roles in non-communicable disease aetiology. When investigating their roles in epidemiologic studies without prospective designs, reverse-causality limits the utility of transient biomarkers in cases. This study aimed to investigate whether surrogate participants may provide viable proxies by assessing concentration correlations within households. We obtained spot urine samples from 245 Tanzanian and Kenyan adults (including 101 household pairs) to investigate intra-household correlations of urinary elements (As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Sr, Tl, V and Zn) and concentrations (also available for: Bi, Ce, Sb, Sn and U) relative to external population-levels and health-based values...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Anna Rosofsky, Jonathan I Levy, Michael S Breen, Antonella Zanobetti, M Patricia Fabian
Individual housing characteristics can modify outdoor ambient air pollution infiltration through air exchange rate (AER). Time and labor-intensive methods needed to measure AER has hindered characterization of AER distributions across large geographic areas. Using publicly-available data and regression models associating AER with housing characteristics, we estimated AER for all Massachusetts residential parcels. We conducted an exposure disparities analysis, considering ambient PM2.5 concentrations and residential AERs...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Robin E Dodson, Vincent Bessonneau, Julia O Udesky, Marcia Nishioka, Martha McCauley, Ruthann A Rudel
Innovative exposure measurement methods are needed for large environmental health studies, particularly for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Active air sampling methods are costly to implement, but passive air sampling presents a viable method. To expand and improve the use of passive air samplers (PAS) for indoor SVOC monitoring, we designed a unique, compact sampler using commercially available polyurethane foam (PUF) disks housed within durable, easy-to-setup, low-profile enclosures. We evaluated the new design using co-located active air samplers (AAS) and analyzed for SVOCs...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
J D Berman, L Jin, M L Bell, F C Curriero
Sampling campaign design is a crucial aspect of air pollution exposure studies. Selection of both monitor numbers and locations is important for maximizing measured information, while minimizing bias and costs. We developed a two-stage geostatistical-based method using pilot NO2 samples from Lanzhou, China with the goal of improving sample design decision-making, including monitor numbers and spatial pattern. In the first step, we evaluate how additional monitors change prediction precision through minimized kriging variance...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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