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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

Helen M Goeden, Christopher W Greene, James A Jacobus
Minnesota has been grappling with extensive per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) groundwater contamination since 2002, in a major metropolitan setting. As toxicological information has accumulated for these substances, the public health community has become increasingly aware of critically sensitive populations. The accumulation of some PFAS in women of childbearing age, and the placental and breastmilk transfer to their offspring, require new risk assessment methods to protect public health. The traditional water guidance paradigm is inadequate to address maternal-to-infant transfer of accumulated levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in particular...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
K L Subhavana, Asif Qureshi, Arpita Roy
India is a major emitter of mercury to the environment, mainly due to emissions from coal-fired power plants. Consumption of fish and rice, two important pathways for human exposure to mercury, is particularly high in South India. Here, we report concentrations of total mercury in hair (THghair ) in 668 participants from South India. Three cities were covered: (i) a city on the east coast with four active coal-fired thermal power plants (Nellore), (ii) a city on the west coast with no major mercury source (Vasco da Gama), and (iii) a metropolitan city in the interior with no major mercury source (Hyderabad)...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Alissa Cordner, Vanessa Y De La Rosa, Laurel A Schaider, Ruthann A Rudel, Lauren Richter, Phil Brown
Communities across the U.S. are discovering drinking water contaminated by perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and determining appropriate actions. There are currently no federal PFAS drinking water standards despite widespread drinking water contamination, ubiquitous population-level exposure, and toxicological and epidemiological evidence of adverse health effects. Absent federal PFAS standards, multiple U.S. states have developed their own health-based water guideline levels to guide decisions about contaminated site cleanup and drinking water surveillance and treatment...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Katherine E Boronow, Julia Green Brody, Laurel A Schaider, Graham F Peaslee, Laurie Havas, Barbara A Cohn
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in a wide range of consumer products for their water- and grease-resistant properties, but few studies have explored this exposure route. We used multiple regression to investigate associations between six self-reported behaviors hypothesized to influence PFAS exposure and serum concentrations of six PFAS chemicals in 178 middle-aged women enrolled in the Child Health and Development Studies, about half of whom are African American. Blood samples were collected in 2010-2013, and participants were interviewed about behavior in 2015-2016...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Marja E J Pronk, Marjolijn Woutersen, Joke M M Herremans
The presence of carcinogenic substances in rubber granulate made from old car tyres raised concerns that the use of this granulate as infill on synthetic turf pitches may cause leukaemia and lymphoma in young football players and goalkeepers. Limitations in a number of prior studies on the topic casted doubts on their conclusion that it was safe to play sports on such pitches. Rubber granulate samples from 100 Dutch synthetic turf pitches were analysed for 45 (all samples) or 79 substances (a subset). A subset of samples was additionally analysed for migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates and metals into sweat and the gastrointestinal tract, and for evaporation of volatile substances into air...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Antonio J Signes-Pastor, Maryse F Bouchard, Emily Baker, Brian P Jackson, Margaret R Karagas
Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient; however, overexposure can be neurotoxic. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to Mn from drinking water could be neurotoxic; however, research is hampered by the lack of consensus on a reliable biomarker of Mn exposure. Naturally high concentrations of Mn can occur in groundwater, particularly for private, unregulated water systems. This study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to Mn from drinking water with a relatively low Mn content (median of 2...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Emily J Werder, Dale P Sandler, David B Richardson, Michael E Emch, Richard K Kwok, Lawrence S Engel
BACKGROUND: In a previous study of exposure to oil-related chemicals in Gulf coast residents, we measured blood levels of volatile organic compounds. Levels of styrene were substantially elevated compared to a nationally representative sample. We sought to identify factors contributing to these levels, given the opportunities for styrene exposure in this community. METHODS: We measured blood styrene levels in 667 Gulf coast residents and compared participants' levels of blood styrene to a nationally representative sample...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Keith R Spangler, Kate R Weinberger, Gregory A Wellenius
Epidemiologic analyses of the health effects of meteorological exposures typically rely on observations from the nearest weather station to assess exposure for geographically diverse populations. Gridded climate datasets (GCD) provide spatially resolved weather data that may offer improved exposure estimates, but have not been systematically validated for use in epidemiologic evaluations. As a validation, we linearly regressed daily weather estimates from two GCDs, PRISM and Daymet, to observations from a sample of weather stations across the conterminous United States and compared spatially resolved, population-weighted county average temperatures and heat indices from PRISM to single-pixel PRISM values at the weather stations to identify differences...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Douglas I Walker, Kevin J Lane, Ken Liu, Karan Uppal, Allison P Patton, John L Durant, Dean P Jones, Doug Brugge, Kurt D Pennell
Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants has been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes and mortality; however, the biochemical pathways linking exposure to disease are not known. To delineate biological response mechanisms associated with exposure to near-highway ultrafine particles (UFP), we used untargeted high-resolution metabolomics to profile plasma from 59 participants enrolled in the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) study. Metabolic variations associated with UFP exposure were assessed using a cross-sectional study design based upon low (mean 16,000 particles/cm3 ) and high (mean 24,000 particles/cm3 ) annual average UFP exposures...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Parham Azimi, Brent Stephens
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is associated with increased mortality. Although epidemiology studies typically use outdoor PM2.5 concentrations as surrogates for exposure, the majority of PM2.5 exposure in the US occurs in microenvironments other than outdoors. We develop a framework for estimating the total US mortality burden attributable to exposure to PM2.5 of both indoor and outdoor origin in the primary non-smoking microenvironments in which people spend most of their time. The framework utilizes an exposure-response function combined with adjusted mortality effect estimates that account for underlying exposures to PM2...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lesa Aylward, Giulia Vilone, Christina Cowan-Ellsberry, Jon A Arnot, John N Westgate, Cian O'Mahony, Sean M Hays
Exposure models provide critical information for risk assessment of personal care product ingredients, but there have been limited opportunities to compare exposure model predictions to observational exposure data. Urinary excretion data from a biomonitoring study in eight individuals were used to estimate minimum absorbed doses for triclosan and methyl-, ethyl-, and n-propyl- parabens (TCS, MP, EP, PP). Three screening exposure models (European Commission Scientific Commission on Consumer Safety [SCCS] algorithms, ConsExpo in deterministic mode, and RAIDAR-ICE) and two higher-tier probabilistic models (SHEDS-HT, and Creme Care & Cosmetics) were used to model participant exposures...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Deanna P Scher, James E Kelly, Carin A Huset, Kitrina M Barry, Virginia L Yingling
The Minnesota Department of Health measured levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in house dust at homes in communities impacted by PFAA-contaminated soil and drinking water to determine whether PFAAs in soil outside the home are associated with concentrations in dust. House dust samples from both interior living spaces and entryways to the yard were collected and analyzed separately based on the presumption that PFAAs in entryway dust may better reflect "track-in" of PFAAs into the home from contaminated soil or lawns irrigated with contaminated water...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
K R Miner, K J Kreutz, S Jain, S Campbell, A Liljedahl
Widespread distribution of atmospherically mobilized organochlorine pollutants (OCPs) has been documented throughout the Arctic. A fraction of these OCPs have become entrained in glacial ice, and during melting, they can be released into downstream reservoirs. Though this remobilization is known, an assessment of risk from glacial meltwater to collocated human communities in the Arctic, including Alaska, had not been accomplished. Here, we use a screening-level risk assessment model for glacial watersheds, based on US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology, which we apply to the glaciated Jarvis Creek watershed of interior Alaska...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Alexander C Wu, Joseph G Allen, Brent Coull, Chitra Amarasiriwardena, David Sparrow, Pantel Vokonas, Joel Schwartz, Marc G Weisskopf
BACKGROUND: Scientists use biomarkers to evaluate metal exposures. One biomarker, toenails, is easily obtained and minimally invasive, but less commonly used as a biomarker of exposure. Their utility will depend on understanding characteristics of their variation in a population over time. The objective of our study is to describe the correlation of toenail metal levels many years apart among participants in the VA Normative Aging Study (NAS). METHODS: Toenail clippings from 825 participants of the NAS from year 1992 to 2014 were analyzed for lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), and Mercury (Hg)...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Judith M Graber, Cora Alexander, Robert J Laumbach, Kathleen Black, Pamela Ohman Strickland, Panos G Georgopoulos, Elizabeth G Marshall, Derek G Shendell, Donald Alderson, Zhongyuan Mi, Michael Mascari, Clifford P Weisel
INTRODUCTION: Per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were detected in the community water supply of Paulsboro New Jersey in 2009. METHODS: A cross-sectional study enrolled 192 claimants from a class-action lawsuit, not affiliated with this study, who had been awarded a blood test for 13 PFAS. Study participants provided their blood test results and completed a survey about demographics; 105 participants also completed a health survey...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jamie C DeWitt, Sarah J Blossom, Laurel A Schaider
In this perspective, we evaluate key and emerging epidemiological and toxicological data concerning immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and seek to reconcile conflicting conclusions from two reviews published in 2016. We summarize ways that immunosuppression and immunoenhancement are defined and explain how specific outcomes are used to evaluate immunotoxicity in humans and experimental animals. We observe that different approaches to defining immunotoxicological outcomes, particularly those that do not produce clinical disease, may lead to different conclusions from epidemiological and toxicological studies...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Elsie M Sunderland, Xindi C Hu, Clifton Dassuncao, Andrea K Tokranov, Charlotte C Wagner, Joseph G Allen
Here, we review present understanding of sources and trends in human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and epidemiologic evidence for impacts on cancer, immune function, metabolic outcomes, and neurodevelopment. More than 4000 PFASs have been manufactured by humans and hundreds have been detected in environmental samples. Direct exposures due to use in products can be quickly phased out by shifts in chemical production but exposures driven by PFAS accumulation in the ocean and marine food chains and contamination of groundwater persist over long timescales...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Ryan Michael, Cassandra R O'Lenick, Andrew Monaghan, Olga Wilhelmi, Christine Wiedinmyer, Mary Hayden, Mark Estes
Mitigation of adverse effects of air pollution requires understanding underlying exposures, such as ambient ozone concentrations. Geostatistical approaches were employed to analyze temporal trends and estimate spatial patterns of summertime ozone concentrations for Houston, Texas, based on hourly ozone observations obtained from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. We systematically assess the accuracy of several spatial interpolation methods, comparing inverse distance weighting, simple kriging, ordinary kriging, and universal kriging methods utilizing the hourly ozone observations and meteorological measurements from monitoring sites...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Magali N Blanco, Richard A Fenske, Edward J Kasner, Michael G Yost, Edmund Seto, Elena Austin
In Washington State, a majority of reported pesticide-related illnesses and application-related complaints involve drift. We employed real-time particle monitors (Dylos) during a series of experimental spray events investigating drift. Sections of an orchard block were randomly sprayed by an axial fan airblast sprayer, while monitors sampled particulate matter above and below the canopy at various downwind locations. We found elevated particle mass concentrations (PMC) at all distances (16-74 m). The 75th percentile PMC while spraying was significantly greater than the control periods by 107 (95% CI 94-121) μg/m3 , after adjusting for sampler height and wind speed...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Anne M Weaver, Yi Wang, Gregory A Wellenius, Bessie Young, Luke D Boyle, DeMarc A Hickson, Clarissa J Diamantidis
Renal dysfunction is prevalent in the US among African Americans. Air pollution is associated with renal dysfunction in mostly white American populations, but has not been studied among African Americans. We evaluated cross-sectional associations between 1-year and 3-year fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and ozone (O3 ) concentrations, and renal function among 5090 African American participants in the Jackson Heart Study. We used mixed-effect linear regression to estimate associations between 1-year and 3-year PM2...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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