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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612838/drinking-water-consumption-patterns-among-adults-sms-as-a-novel-tool-for-collection-of-repeated-self-reported-water-consumption
#1
Melle Säve-Söderbergh, Jonas Toljander, Irene Mattisson, Agneta Åkesson, Magnus Simonsson
Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, web questionnaire) and a novel method (Short Message Service, SMS questionnaires) in a population from an average sized Swedish municipality...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561036/review-of-techniques-and-studies-characterizing-the-release-of-carbon-nanotubes-from-nanocomposites-implications-for-exposure-and-human-health-risk-assessment
#2
REVIEW
Michael Kovochich, Cha-Chen David Fung, Raghavendhran Avanasi, Amy K Madl
Composites made with engineered nanomaterials (nanocomposites) have a wide range of applications, from use in basic consumer goods to critical national defense technologies. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a popular addition in nanocomposites because of their enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. Concerns have been raised, though, regarding potential exposure and health risks from nanocomposites containing CNTs because of comparisons to other high aspect ratio fibers. Assessing the factors affecting CNT release from composites is therefore paramount for understanding potential exposure scenarios that may occur during product handling and manipulation...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513604/exploring-the-statistical-uncertainty-in-acceptable-exposure-limit-values-for-hexavalent-chromium-exposure
#3
Göran Kauermann, Heiko Becher, Verena Maier
Exposure limit values give the exposure level at which an accepted (or acceptable) number of additional work related diseases are expected. The values are derived from dose-response curves and carry a large amount of uncertainty. In this paper we aim to quantify some of this uncertainty with statistical means. We explore the limit value issued by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) for occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium, CR(VI). We investigate how the dose-response model and statistical estimation variability influences the data-based fixation of exposure limit values...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401896/lead-exposure-ige-and-the-risk-of-asthma-in-children
#4
I-Jen Wang, Wilfried J J Karmaus, Chen-Chang Yang
Lead (Pb) has adverse effects on our nervous system and renal systems. Young children are more vulnerable to Pb exposure. However, the role of low-level Pb exposure in the immune system and allergic diseases in children is not well established. The aims of this study are to investigate the associations between Pb exposure and allergic diseases; between Pb and immunoglobulin E (IgE) as an intervening variable; and gender-based differences. We used multistage stratified random sampling to recruit kindergarten children nationwide in Taiwan...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352117/berkson-error-adjustment-and-other-exposure-surrogates-in-occupational-case-control-studies-with-application-to-the-canadian-interocc-study
#5
Tamer Oraby, Siva Sivaganesan, Joseph D Bowman, Laurel Kincl, Lesley Richardson, Mary McBride, Jack Siemiatycki, Elisabeth Cardis, Daniel Krewski
Many epidemiological studies assessing the relationship between exposure and disease are carried out without data on individual exposures. When this barrier is encountered in occupational studies, the subject exposures are often evaluated with a job-exposure matrix (JEM), which consists of mean exposure for occupational categories measured on a comparable group of workers. One of the objectives of the seven-country case-control study of occupational exposure and brain cancer risk, INTEROCC, was to investigate the relationship of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in different frequency ranges and brain cancer risk...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272399/maternal-and-paternal-occupational-exposures-and-hepatoblastoma-results-from-the-hope-study-through-the-children-s-oncology-group
#6
Amanda E Janitz, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Gail E Tomlinson, Mark Krailo, Michaela Richardson, Logan Spector
Little is known about the etiology of hepatoblastoma. We aimed to confirm the results of a previous study evaluating the association between parental occupational exposures and hepatoblastoma. In our case-control study, we identified cases (n=383) from the Children's Oncology Group and controls from birth certificates (n=387), which were frequency matched to cases on year and region of birth, sex, and birth weight. Occupational exposure in the year before and during the index pregnancy was collected through maternal interview and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145400/molecular-detection-of-m-tuberculosis-and-m-bovis-and-hematological-and-biochemical-analyses-in-agricultural-sprayers-exposed-to-pesticides-a-cross-sectional-study-in-punjab-pakistan-during-2014-2016
#7
Saffora Riaz, Farkhanda Manzoor, Nasir Mahmood, Saman Shahid
We determined the correlation between a pesticide exposure, physical health and susceptibility toward tuberculosis along with hematological indices and liver enzymes' alterations in sprayers exposed to pesticides. Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis was detected by targeting histone-like protein (hupB) gene. The WBC (white blood cells) and RBC (red blood cells) levels of male sprayers and non-sprayers were significantly different (P<0.05). In female spray workers, the WBC and neutrophils levels were significantly different as compared with non-sprayers...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120833/residential-proximity-to-abandoned-uranium-mines-and-serum-inflammatory-potential-in-chronically-exposed-navajo-communities
#8
Molly E Harmon, Johnnye Lewis, Curtis Miller, Joseph Hoover, Abdul-Mehdi S Ali, Chris Shuey, Miranda Cajero, Selita Lucas, Katherine Zychowski, Bernadette Pacheco, Esther Erdei, Sandy Ramone, Teddy Nez, Melissa Gonzales, Matthew J Campen
Members of the Navajo Nation, who possess a high prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, reside near hundreds of local abandoned uranium mines (AUM), which contribute uranium, arsenic and other metals to the soil, water and air. We recently reported that hypertension is associated with mine waste exposures in this population. Inflammation is a major player in the development of numerous vascular ailments. Our previous work establishing that specific transcriptional responses of cultured endothelial cells treated with human serum can reveal relative circulating inflammatory potential in a manner responsive to pollutant exposures, providing a model to assess responses associated with exposure to these waste materials in this population...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098161/modelling-of-occupational-exposure-to-inhalable-nickel-compounds
#9
Benjamin Kendzia, Beate Pesch, Dorothea Koppisch, Rainer Van Gelder, Katrin Pitzke, Wolfgang Zschiesche, Thomas Behrens, Tobias Weiss, Jack Siemiatycki, Jerome Lavoué, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Roger Stamm, Thomas Brüning
The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m(3). We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000686/an-accurate-filter-loading-correction-is-essential-for-assessing-personal-exposure-to-black-carbon-using-an-aethalometer
#10
Nicholas Good, Anna Mölter, Jennifer L Peel, John Volckens
The AE51 micro-Aethalometer (microAeth) is a popular and useful tool for assessing personal exposure to particulate black carbon (BC). However, few users of the AE51 are aware that its measurements are biased low (by up to 70%) due to the accumulation of BC on the filter substrate over time; previous studies of personal black carbon exposure are likely to have suffered from this bias. Although methods to correct for bias in micro-Aethalometer measurements of particulate black carbon have been proposed, these methods have not been verified in the context of personal exposure assessment...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966665/estimation-of-personal-exposure-to-asbestos-of-brake-repair-workers
#11
María Fernanda Cely-García, Frank C Curriero, Mauricio Sánchez-Silva, Patrick N Breysse, Margarita Giraldo, Lorena Méndez, Carlos Torres-Duque, Mauricio Durán, Mauricio González-García, Patricia Parada, Juan Pablo Ramos-Bonilla
Exposure assessments are key tools to conduct epidemiological studies. Since 2010, 28 riveters from 18 brake repair shops with different characteristics and workloads were sampled for asbestos exposure in Bogotá, Colombia. Short-term personal samples collected during manipulation activities of brake products, and personal samples collected during non-manipulation activities were used to calculate 103 8-h TWA PCM-equivalent personal asbestos concentrations. The aims of this study are to identify exposure determinant variables associated with the 8-h TWA personal asbestos concentrations among brake mechanics, and propose different models to estimate potential asbestos exposure of brake mechanics in an 8-h work-shift...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827378/development-of-a-source-exposure-matrix-for-occupational-exposure-assessment-of-electromagnetic-fields-in-the-interocc-study
#12
Javier Vila, Joseph D Bowman, Jordi Figuerola, David Moriña, Laurel Kincl, Lesley Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis
To estimate occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the INTEROCC study, a database of source-based measurements extracted from published and unpublished literature resources had been previously constructed. The aim of the current work was to summarize these measurements into a source-exposure matrix (SEM), accounting for their quality and relevance. A novel methodology for combining available measurements was developed, based on order statistics and log-normal distribution characteristics...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553992/seasonal-and-occupational-trends-of-five-organophosphate-pesticides-in-house-dust
#13
Marissa N Smith, Tomomi Workman, Katie M McDonald, Melinda A Vredevoogd, Eric M Vigoren, William C Griffith, Beti Thompson, Gloria D Coronado, Dana Barr, Elaine M Faustman
Since 1998, the University of Washington's Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research has followed a community-based participatory research strategy in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State to assess pesticide exposure among families of Hispanic farmworkers. As a part of this longitudinal study, house dust samples were collected from both farmworker and non-farmworker households, across three agricultural seasons (thinning, harvest and non-spray). The household dust samples were analyzed for five organophosphate pesticides: azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436696/harvesters-in-strawberry-fields-a-literature-review-of-pesticide-exposure-an-observation-of-their-work-activities-and-a-model-for-exposure-prediction
#14
Weiying Jiang, Bernie Hernandez, Donald Richmond, Nino Yanga
Strawberry harvesters hand-pick fruit that may result in pesticide exposure from hand foliar contact. This paper included a review of publications on harvester pesticide exposure, an observation of their work activities, and development of an alternative model for pesticide exposure prediction. Previous studies monitored the dermal pesticide exposure of strawberry harvesters and found most of the exposure (>70%) was on the hands. Exposure rates (ERs) were calculated as pesticide amount on the skin per hour worked, assuming foliar contact is proportional to daily work hours...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436695/use-of-plasma-exchange-or-double-filtration-plasmapheresis-to-reduce-body-burden-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-a-pilot-trial
#15
Monika Gube, Thomas Schettgen, Thomas Kraus, Christian Schikowsky, Andreas Heibges, Reinhard Klingel, Christian Hoffmann, Andreas Wiemeyer, Jewgeni Jacobson, André Esser
The aim of the study was to examine whether plasma exchange (PE) or selective double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) is able to reduce the internal Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden of highly exposed participants of the health effects in high-level exposure to PCB (HELPcB) cohort. HELPcB is a surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a German capacitor recycling company. After comparative evaluation of PE and DFPP in a phase I, DFPP was chosen as method for further treatment. In phase II, five participants underwent DFPP at weekly intervals for the duration of 12 weeks...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189256/exposures-to-nanoparticles-and-fibers-during-injection-molding-and-recycling-of-carbon-nanotube-reinforced-polycarbonate-composites
#16
Pongsit Boonruksa, Dhimiter Bello, Jinde Zhang, Jacqueline A Isaacs, Joey L Mead, Susan R Woskie
In this study, the characteristics of airborne particles generated during injection molding and grinding processes of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites (CNT-PC) were investigated. Particle number concentration, size distribution, and morphology of particles emitted from the processes were determined using real-time particle sizers and transmission electron microscopy. The air samples near the operator's breathing zone were collected on filters and analyzed using scanning electron microscope for particle morphology and respirable fiber count...
July 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176761/summertime-extreme-heat-events-and-increased-risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-hospitalizations
#17
Jared A Fisher, Chengsheng Jiang, Sutyajeet I Soneja, Clifford Mitchell, Robin C Puett, Amir Sapkota
Few studies have examined the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or demonstrated which populations are most vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat. We defined extreme heat events as days when the daily maximum temperature (TMAX) exceeded the location- and calendar day-specific 95th percentile of the distribution of daily TMAX during the 30-year baseline period (1960-1989). We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to analyze the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of hospitalization for AMI in the summer months (June-August) with 0, 1, or 2 lag days...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120830/characterizing-the-impact-of-projected-changes-in-climate-and-air-quality-on-human-exposures-to-ozone
#18
Kathie L Dionisio, Christopher G Nolte, Tanya L Spero, Stephen Graham, Nina Caraway, Kristen M Foley, Kristin K Isaacs
The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O3) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966668/predictors-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-and-internal-dose-in-inner-city-baltimore-children
#19
Kamau O Peters, D' Ann L Williams, Salahadin Abubaker, Jean Curtin-Brosnan, Meredith C McCormack, Roger Peng, Patrick N Breysse, Elizabeth C Matsui, Nadia N Hansel, Gregory B Diette, Paul T Strickland
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the by-products of incomplete combustion of organic materials, are commonly found on particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with the development of asthma and asthma exacerbation in urban populations. We examined time spent in the home and outdoors as predictors of exposures to airborne PAHs and measured urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG) as internal dose of PAHs in 118 children aged 5-12 years from Baltimore, MD. During weeklong periods (Saturday-Saturday) in each of four seasons: daily activities were assessed using questionnaires, indoor air nicotine and PM concentrations were monitored, and urine specimens were collected on Tuesday (day 3) and Saturday (day 7) for measurement of 1-OHPG...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966664/maternal-fetal-metabolomes-appear-to-mediate-the-impact-of-arsenic-exposure-on-birth-weight-a-pilot-study
#20
Yongyue Wei, Qianwen Shi, Zhaoxi Wang, Ruyang Zhang, Li Su, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Mahmuder Rahman, Feng Chen, David C Christiani
Arsenic exposure has been associated with low birth weight. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Alterations to metabolites may act as causal mediators of the effect of arsenic exposure on low birth weight. This pilot study aimed to explore the role of metabolites in mediating the association of arsenic exposure on infant birth weight. Study samples were selected from a well-established prospectively enrolled cohort in Bangladesh comprising 35 newborns and a subset of 20 matched mothers...
May 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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