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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

Rebecca K Moos, Petra Apel, Christa Schröter-Kermani, Marike Kolossa-Gehring, Thomas Brüning, Holger M Koch
In recent years, exposure to parabens has become more of a concern because of evidence of ubiquitous exposure in the general population, combined with evidence of their potency as endocrine disruptors. New human metabolism data from oral exposure experiments enable us to back calculate daily paraben intakes from urinary paraben levels. We report daily intakes (DIs) for six parabens based on 660 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected between 1995 and 2012. Median DI values ranged between 1...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
William M Mendez, Sorina Eftim, Jonathan Cohen, Isaac Warren, John Cowden, Janice S Lee, Reeder Sams
Increased risks of lung and bladder cancer have been observed in populations exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic. However, studies at lower exposures (i.e., less than 100 μg/l in water) have shown inconsistent results. We therefore conducted an ecological analysis of the association between historical drinking water arsenic concentrations and lung and bladder cancer incidence in U.S. counties. We used drinking water arsenic concentrations measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and state agencies in the 1980s and 1990s as proxies for historical exposures in counties where public groundwater systems and private wells are important sources of drinking water...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lung-Chang Chien, Yuming Guo, Xiao Li, Hwa-Lung Yu
The distributed lag non-linear (DLNM) model has been frequently used in time series environmental health research. However, its functionality for assessing spatial heterogeneity is still restricted, especially in analyzing spatiotemporal data. This study proposed a solution to take a spatial function into account in the DLNM, and compared the influence with and without considering spatial heterogeneity in a case study. This research applied the DLNM to investigate non-linear lag effect up to 7 days in a case study about the spatiotemporal impact of fine particulate matter (PM2...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Javier Vila, Joseph D Bowman, Jordi Figuerola, David Moriña, Laurel Kincl, Lesley Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis
To estimate occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the INTEROCC study, a database of source-based measurements extracted from published and unpublished literature resources had been previously constructed. The aim of the current work was to summarize these measurements into a source-exposure matrix (SEM), accounting for their quality and relevance. A novel methodology for combining available measurements was developed, based on order statistics and log-normal distribution characteristics...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Isabelle Magne, Martine Souques, Isabelle Bureau, Anne Duburcq, Emmanuel Remy, Jacques Lambrozo
The assessment of magnetic field exposure in children is an important point in the context of epidemiological issues. EXPERS is the first study ever carried out measuring personal exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields at a national scale, involving 977 French children with 24 h personal measurements. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed for all the children, and only for children where no alarm clock was identified, as in some cases this requirement of the measurement protocol was not respected...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Lingchuan Guo, Xing Li, Yanjun Xu, Yonghui Zhang, Jen Jen Chang, Michael G Vaughn, Zhengmin Min Qian, Wenjun Ma
Hourly peak concentration may capture health effects of ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) better than daily averages. We examined the associations of hourly peak concentration of PM2.5 with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China. We obtained daily data on cardiovascular mortality and hourly PM2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou from 19 January 2013 through 30 June 2015. Generalized additive models were applied to evaluate the associations with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Significant associations were found between hourly peak concentrations of PM2...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Trevor K Peckham, Jeffry H Shirai, Annette L Bunge, Yvette W Lowney, Michael V Ruby, John C Kissel
In vitro assessments of (14)C-benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) absorption through human epidermis were conducted with the sub-63-μm fraction of four test soils containing different amounts of organic and black carbon. Soils were artificially weathered for eight weeks and applied to epidermis at nominal BaP concentrations of 3 and 10 mg/kg for 8 or 24 h. Experiments were also conducted at 24 h with unweathered soils and with BaP deposited onto skin from acetone at a comparable chemical load. For the weathered soils, absorption was independent of the amount of organic or black carbon, the mass in the receptor fluid was proportional to exposure duration but independent of concentration, and the mass recovered in the skin after washing was proportional to concentration and independent of exposure time...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Mustafa Cansiz, Teymuraz Abbasov, M Bahattin Kurt, A Recai Celik
In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Chhavi Raj Bhatt, Mary Redmayne, Baki Billah, Michael J Abramson, Geza Benke
The aim of this study was to assess environmental and personal radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures in kindergarten children. Ten children and 20 kindergartens in Melbourne, Australia participated in personal and environmental exposure measurements, respectively. Order statistics of RF-EMF exposures were computed for 16 frequency bands between 88 MHz and 5.8 GHz. Of the 16 bands, the three highest sources of environmental RF-EMF exposures were: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz downlink (82 mV/m); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) 2100MHz downlink (51 mV/m); and GSM 900 MHz uplink (45 mV/m)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lesa L Aylward, Sean M Hays, Angelika Zidek
Population biomonitoring data sets such as the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collect and analyze spot urine samples for analysis for biomarkers of exposure to non-persistent chemicals. Estimation of population intakes using such data sets in a risk-assessment context requires consideration of intra- and inter-individual variability to understand the relationship between variation in the biomarker concentrations and variation in the underlying daily and longer-term intakes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Wesley T O'Neal, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jimmy T Efird, Suzanne E Judd, Virginia J Howard, George Howard, Leslie A McClure
Several reports have suggested that particulate matter (PM) exposure increases the risk for atrial arrhythmias. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies supporting this hypothesis are lacking. We examined the association of PM <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) concentration with premature atrial contractions (PACs) in 26,609 (mean age=65±9.4 years; 55% female; 41% black) participants from the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study. Estimates of short- (2 weeks) and long-term (1 year) PM2...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jaime E Mirowsky, Robert B Devlin, David Diaz-Sanchez, Wayne Cascio, Shannon C Grabich, Carol Haynes, Colette Blach, Elizabeth R Hauser, Svati Shah, William Kraus, Kenneth Olden, Lucas Neas
Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used hierarchical clustering to aggregate 444 US Census block groups in Durham, Orange, and Wake Counties, NC, USA into six homogeneous clusters of similar characteristics based on 12 demographic factors. We assigned 2254 cardiac catheterization patients to these clusters based on residence at first catheterization...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Robert K R Scragg, Alistair W Stewart, Richard L McKenzie, Anthony I Reeder, J Ben Liley, Martin W Allen
There is uncertainty about the amount of sun exposure required to increase low blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels, a possible disease risk factor. The study aimed to quantify the association between sun exposure and serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in a multiethnic community sample (n=502) living in Auckland (37°S) and Dunedin (46°S), New Zealand, aged 18-85 years. They wore electronic ultraviolet dosimeters between March and November (autumn, winter and spring) for 8 weeks to record their sun exposure...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jonathan M Gaffin, Carter R Petty, Marissa Hauptman, Choong-Min Kang, Jack M Wolfson, Yara Abu Awad, Qian Di, Peggy S Lai, William J Sheehan, Sachin Baxi, Brent A Coull, Joel D Schwartz, Diane R Gold, Petros Koutrakis, Wanda Phipatanakul
Outdoor air pollution penetrates buildings and contributes to total indoor exposures. We investigated the relationship of indoor to outdoor particulate matter in inner-city school classrooms. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the effect of classroom-based environmental exposures on students with asthma in the northeast United States. Mixed effects linear models were used to determine the relationships between indoor PM2.5 (particulate matter) and black carbon (BC), and their corresponding outdoor concentrations, and to develop a model for predicting exposures to these pollutants...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Suzana M Blesić, Đorđe I Stratimirović, Jelena V Ajtić, Caradee Y Wright, Martin W Allen
Personal sun exposure measurements provide important information to guide the development of sun awareness and disease prevention campaigns. We assess the scaling properties of personal ultraviolet radiation (pUVR) sun exposure measurements using the wavelet transform (WT) spectral analysis to process long-range, high-frequency personal recordings collected by electronic UVR dosimeters designed to measure erythemal UVR exposure. We analysed the sun exposure recordings of school children, farmers, marathon runners and outdoor workers in South Africa, and construction workers and work site supervisors in New Zealand...
November 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Judy S LaKind, Jonathan Overpeck, Patrick N Breysse, Lorrie Backer, Susan D Richardson, Jon Sobus, Amir Sapkota, Crystal R Upperman, Chengsheng Jiang, C Ben Beard, J M Brunkard, Jesse E Bell, Ryan Harris, Jean-Paul Chretien, Richard E Peltier, Ginger L Chew, Benjamin C Blount
Climate change is anticipated to alter the production, use, release, and fate of environmental chemicals, likely leading to increased uncertainty in exposure and human health risk predictions. Exposure science provides a key connection between changes in climate and associated health outcomes. The theme of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the International Society of Exposure Science-Exposures in an Evolving Environment-brought this issue to the fore. By directing attention to questions that may affect society in profound ways, exposure scientists have an opportunity to conduct "consequential science"-doing science that matters, using our tools for the greater good and to answer key policy questions, and identifying causes leading to implementation of solutions...
November 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lin Liu, Weigang Zhang, Tianwen Gao, Chunying Li
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major environmental risk factor for melanoma, particularly among Caucasians. However, studies have generated conflicting results on the role of UV exposure in the development of acral melanoma, the most prevalent subtype of melanoma in non-Caucasians. In this review, we analyzed studies that have examined the relationship between acral melanoma and UV and show that acral melanoma has specific epidemiological and genetic characteristics, with a lower frequency or absence of UV-induced features...
November 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Sun-Young Kim, Lianne Sheppard, Silas Bergen, Adam A Szpiro, Paul D Sampson, Joel D Kaufman, Sverre Vedal
Although cohort studies of the health effects of PM2.5 have developed exposure prediction models to represent spatial variability across participant residences, few models exist for PM2.5 components. We aimed to develop a city-specific spatio-temporal prediction approach to estimate long-term average concentrations of four PM2.5 components including sulfur, silicon, and elemental and organic carbon for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort, and to compare predictions to those from a national spatial model...
September 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Florence Fulk, Erin N Haynes, Timothy J Hilbert, David Brown, Dan Petersen, Tiina Reponen
Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta...
September 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Yaguang Fan, Yong Jiang, Ping Hu, Runsheng Chang, Shuxiang Yao, Bin Wang, Xuebing Li, Qinghua Zhou, Youlin Qiao
Arsenic and prior lung diseases have been shown to increase lung cancer risk; however, little is known about their joint effects. The aim of our study was to analyze the joint effects of inhaled arsenic and prior lung diseases on lung cancer risk within a occupational cohort. The interactions of prior lung diseases and inhaled arsenic were analyzed based on multiplicative and additive scales in the Cox proportional hazards model. Compared with low arsenic exposure and no history of asthma, the hazard ratios (HRs) of high arsenic exposure with asthma, high arsenic exposure without asthma and low arsenic exposure with asthma were 2...
September 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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