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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

Chhavi Raj Bhatt, Mary Redmayne, Baki Billah, Michael J Abramson, Geza Benke
The aim of this study was to assess environmental and personal radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures in kindergarten children. Ten children and 20 kindergartens in Melbourne, Australia participated in personal and environmental exposure measurements, respectively. Order statistics of RF-EMF exposures were computed for 16 frequency bands between 88 MHz and 5.8 GHz. Of the 16 bands, the three highest sources of environmental RF-EMF exposures were: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz downlink (82 mV/m); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) 2100MHz downlink (51 mV/m); and GSM 900 MHz uplink (45 mV/m)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lesa L Aylward, Sean M Hays, Angelika Zidek
Population biomonitoring data sets such as the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collect and analyze spot urine samples for analysis for biomarkers of exposure to non-persistent chemicals. Estimation of population intakes using such data sets in a risk-assessment context requires consideration of intra- and inter-individual variability to understand the relationship between variation in the biomarker concentrations and variation in the underlying daily and longer-term intakes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Wesley T O'Neal, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jimmy T Efird, Suzanne E Judd, Virginia J Howard, George Howard, Leslie A McClure
Several reports have suggested that particulate matter (PM) exposure increases the risk for atrial arrhythmias. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies supporting this hypothesis are lacking. We examined the association of PM <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) concentration with premature atrial contractions (PACs) in 26,609 (mean age=65±9.4 years; 55% female; 41% black) participants from the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study. Estimates of short- (2 weeks) and long-term (1 year) PM2...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jaime E Mirowsky, Robert B Devlin, David Diaz-Sanchez, Wayne Cascio, Shannon C Grabich, Carol Haynes, Colette Blach, Elizabeth R Hauser, Svati Shah, William Kraus, Kenneth Olden, Lucas Neas
Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used hierarchical clustering to aggregate 444 US Census block groups in Durham, Orange, and Wake Counties, NC, USA into six homogeneous clusters of similar characteristics based on 12 demographic factors. We assigned 2254 cardiac catheterization patients to these clusters based on residence at first catheterization...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Robert K R Scragg, Alistair W Stewart, Richard L McKenzie, Anthony I Reeder, J Ben Liley, Martin W Allen
There is uncertainty about the amount of sun exposure required to increase low blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels, a possible disease risk factor. The study aimed to quantify the association between sun exposure and serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in a multiethnic community sample (n=502) living in Auckland (37°S) and Dunedin (46°S), New Zealand, aged 18-85 years. They wore electronic ultraviolet dosimeters between March and November (autumn, winter and spring) for 8 weeks to record their sun exposure...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jonathan M Gaffin, Carter R Petty, Marissa Hauptman, Choong-Min Kang, Jack M Wolfson, Yara Abu Awad, Qian Di, Peggy S Lai, William J Sheehan, Sachin Baxi, Brent A Coull, Joel D Schwartz, Diane R Gold, Petros Koutrakis, Wanda Phipatanakul
Outdoor air pollution penetrates buildings and contributes to total indoor exposures. We investigated the relationship of indoor to outdoor particulate matter in inner-city school classrooms. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the effect of classroom-based environmental exposures on students with asthma in the northeast United States. Mixed effects linear models were used to determine the relationships between indoor PM2.5 (particulate matter) and black carbon (BC), and their corresponding outdoor concentrations, and to develop a model for predicting exposures to these pollutants...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Martina Beránková, Jarmila Hojerová, Zuzana Peráčková
Exposure of handlers'/operators' hands is a main route of agricultural pesticides entry into their body. Non-occupational handlers still lack information about appropriate selection of protective gloves to minimize exposure and reduce adverse effects of these chemicals. According to the results of our previous survey, six commercially available, water-resistant gloves commonly used by non-professional gardeners were evaluated for permeation of Acetamiprid, Pirimicarb, and Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Chlorp-m) pesticides by means of in vitro testing...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Marissa N Smith, Tomomi Workman, Katie M McDonald, Melinda A Vredevoogd, Eric M Vigoren, William C Griffith, Beti Thompson, Gloria D Coronado, Dana Barr, Elaine M Faustman
Since 1998, the University of Washington's Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research has followed a community-based participatory research strategy in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State to assess pesticide exposure among families of Hispanic farmworkers. As a part of this longitudinal study, house dust samples were collected from both farmworker and non-farmworker households, across three agricultural seasons (thinning, harvest and non-spray). The household dust samples were analyzed for five organophosphate pesticides: azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Sachiko Kobayashi, Kaoru Azumi, Houman Goudarzi, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Sachiko Itoh, Seiko Sasaki, Mayumi Ishizuka, Hiroyuki Nakazawa, Tamiko Ikeno, Reiko Kishi
Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) influences fetal growth and long-term health. However, whether PFAAs affect offspring DNA methylation patterns to influence health outcomes is yet to be evaluated. Here, we assessed effect of prenatal PFAA exposure on cord blood insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), H19, and long interspersed element 1 (LINE1) methylation and its associations with birth size. Mother-child pairs (N=177) from the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health were included in the study...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lisa K Baxter, Casson Stallings, Luther Smith, Janet Burke
Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER measurements. An algorithm for probabilistically estimating AER was developed based on the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory Infiltration model utilizing housing characteristics and meteorological data with adjustment for window opening behavior...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Scott A Venners, Neda Khoshnood, Matthew Jeronimo, Aaron Sobkowicz, Philip Provencher, Guanting Tang, Winnie Chu, Ray Copes
We evaluated 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure in four municipalities with and without cosmetic pesticide bylaws in British Columbia, Canada. We recruited a child (aged 1.5-5 years) and adult from 10 households in each city, who provided urine samples in May and June, 2009. No households had used pesticides for 7 days prior to sample collection. We quantified urinary 2,4-D using LC/MS/MS. Quantities of 2,4-D in urine were similar across cities and below biomonitoring equivalents corresponding to references doses in the United State of America and Canada...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kabindra M Shakya, Alyssa Noyes, Randa Kallin, Richard E Peltier
Inexpensive cloth masks are widely used in developing countries to protect from particulate pollution albeit limited data on their efficacy exists. This study examined the efficiency of four types of masks (three types of cloth masks and one type of surgical mask) commonly worn in the developing world. Five monodispersed aerosol sphere size (30, 100, and 500 nm, and 1 and 2.5 μm) and diluted whole diesel exhaust was used to assess facemask performance. Among the three cloth mask types, a cloth mask with an exhaust valve performed best with filtration efficiency of 80-90% for the measured polystyrene latex (PSL) particle sizes...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Matthew Lorber, Charles J Weschler, Glenn Morrison, Gabriel Bekö, Mengyan Gong, Holger M Koch, Tunga Salthammer, Tobias Schripp, Jørn Toftum, Geo Clausen
Six males clad only in shorts were exposed to high levels of airborne di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) in chamber experiments conducted in 2014. In two 6 h sessions, the subjects were exposed only dermally while breathing clean air from a hood, and both dermally and via inhalation when exposed without a hood. Full urine samples were taken before, during, and for 48 h after leaving the chamber and measured for key DnBP and DEP metabolites. The data clearly demonstrated high levels of DnBP and DEP metabolite excretions while in the chamber and during the first 24 h once leaving the chamber under both conditions...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Christina I Orazine, William A Arias, Suzanna R Magee, Ewa King
This study investigates whether pregnant women and their fetuses are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a result of living in apartments. We measured cotinine concentrations in serum, a biomarker of exposure to ETS, in non-smoking women's umbilical cord blood collected at delivery and in maternal blood drawn shortly after delivering a baby. Concurrently, information was collected regarding the women's housing situation, whether family members or co-workers smoked, and other potential exposure factors...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Michal Korek, Christer Johansson, Nina Svensson, Tomas Lind, Rob Beelen, Gerard Hoek, Göran Pershagen, Tom Bellander
Both dispersion modeling (DM) and land-use regression modeling (LUR) are often used for assessment of long-term air pollution exposure in epidemiological studies, but seldom in combination. We developed a hybrid DM-LUR model using 93 biweekly observations of NOx at 31 sites in greater Stockholm (Sweden). The DM was based on spatially resolved topographic, physiographic and emission data, and hourly meteorological data from a diagnostic wind model. Other data were from land use, meteorology and routine monitoring of NOx...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Suzana M Blesić, Đorđe I Stratimirović, Jelena V Ajtić, Caradee Y Wright, Martin W Allen
Personal sun exposure measurements provide important information to guide the development of sun awareness and disease prevention campaigns. We assess the scaling properties of personal ultraviolet radiation (pUVR) sun exposure measurements using the wavelet transform (WT) spectral analysis to process long-range, high-frequency personal recordings collected by electronic UVR dosimeters designed to measure erythemal UVR exposure. We analysed the sun exposure recordings of school children, farmers, marathon runners and outdoor workers in South Africa, and construction workers and work site supervisors in New Zealand...
November 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Judy S LaKind, Jonathan Overpeck, Patrick N Breysse, Lorrie Backer, Susan D Richardson, Jon Sobus, Amir Sapkota, Crystal R Upperman, Chengsheng Jiang, C Ben Beard, J M Brunkard, Jesse E Bell, Ryan Harris, Jean-Paul Chretien, Richard E Peltier, Ginger L Chew, Benjamin C Blount
Climate change is anticipated to alter the production, use, release, and fate of environmental chemicals, likely leading to increased uncertainty in exposure and human health risk predictions. Exposure science provides a key connection between changes in climate and associated health outcomes. The theme of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the International Society of Exposure Science-Exposures in an Evolving Environment-brought this issue to the fore. By directing attention to questions that may affect society in profound ways, exposure scientists have an opportunity to conduct "consequential science"-doing science that matters, using our tools for the greater good and to answer key policy questions, and identifying causes leading to implementation of solutions...
November 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Lin Liu, Weigang Zhang, Tianwen Gao, Chunying Li
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major environmental risk factor for melanoma, particularly among Caucasians. However, studies have generated conflicting results on the role of UV exposure in the development of acral melanoma, the most prevalent subtype of melanoma in non-Caucasians. In this review, we analyzed studies that have examined the relationship between acral melanoma and UV and show that acral melanoma has specific epidemiological and genetic characteristics, with a lower frequency or absence of UV-induced features...
November 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Sun-Young Kim, Lianne Sheppard, Silas Bergen, Adam A Szpiro, Paul D Sampson, Joel D Kaufman, Sverre Vedal
Although cohort studies of the health effects of PM2.5 have developed exposure prediction models to represent spatial variability across participant residences, few models exist for PM2.5 components. We aimed to develop a city-specific spatio-temporal prediction approach to estimate long-term average concentrations of four PM2.5 components including sulfur, silicon, and elemental and organic carbon for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort, and to compare predictions to those from a national spatial model...
September 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Florence Fulk, Erin N Haynes, Timothy J Hilbert, David Brown, Dan Petersen, Tiina Reponen
Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta...
September 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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