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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

Annemarie Stroustrup, Jennifer B Bragg, Stefanie A Busgang, Syam S Andra, Paul Curtin, Emily A Spear, Allan C Just, Manish Arora, Chris Gennings
In the United States each year, more than 300,000 infants are admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) where they are exposed to a chemical-intensive hospital environment during a developmentally vulnerable period. Although multiple studies have demonstrated elevated phthalate biomarkers in NICU patients, specific sources of NICU-based phthalate exposure have not been identified.In this study, premature newborns with birth weight <1500 g were recruited to participate in a prospective environmental health cohort during the NICU hospitalization...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Namdi Brandon, Kathie L Dionisio, Kristin Isaacs, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, Dustin Kapraun, R Woodrow Setzer, Paul S Price
Exposure to a chemical is a critical consideration in the assessment of risk, as it adds real-world context to toxicological information. Descriptions of where and how individuals spend their time are important for characterizing exposures to chemicals in consumer products and in indoor environments. Herein we create an agent-based model (ABM) that simulates longitudinal patterns in human behavior. By basing the ABM upon an artificial intelligence (AI) system, we create agents that mimic human decisions on performing behaviors relevant for determining exposures to chemicals and other stressors...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Daniel R S Middleton, Valerie A McCormack, Michael O Munishi, Diana Menya, Andrew L Marriott, Elliott M Hamilton, Amos O Mwasamwaja, Blandina T Mmbaga, David Samoei, Odipo Osano, Joachim Schüz, Michael J Watts
Element deficiencies and excesses play important roles in non-communicable disease aetiology. When investigating their roles in epidemiologic studies without prospective designs, reverse-causality limits the utility of transient biomarkers in cases. This study aimed to investigate whether surrogate participants may provide viable proxies by assessing concentration correlations within households. We obtained spot urine samples from 245 Tanzanian and Kenyan adults (including 101 household pairs) to investigate intra-household correlations of urinary elements (As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Sr, Tl, V and Zn) and concentrations (also available for: Bi, Ce, Sb, Sn and U) relative to external population-levels and health-based values...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Anna Rosofsky, Jonathan I Levy, Michael S Breen, Antonella Zanobetti, M Patricia Fabian
Individual housing characteristics can modify outdoor ambient air pollution infiltration through air exchange rate (AER). Time and labor-intensive methods needed to measure AER has hindered characterization of AER distributions across large geographic areas. Using publicly-available data and regression models associating AER with housing characteristics, we estimated AER for all Massachusetts residential parcels. We conducted an exposure disparities analysis, considering ambient PM2.5 concentrations and residential AERs...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Robin E Dodson, Vincent Bessonneau, Julia O Udesky, Marcia Nishioka, Martha McCauley, Ruthann A Rudel
Innovative exposure measurement methods are needed for large environmental health studies, particularly for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Active air sampling methods are costly to implement, but passive air sampling presents a viable method. To expand and improve the use of passive air samplers (PAS) for indoor SVOC monitoring, we designed a unique, compact sampler using commercially available polyurethane foam (PUF) disks housed within durable, easy-to-setup, low-profile enclosures. We evaluated the new design using co-located active air samplers (AAS) and analyzed for SVOCs...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
J D Berman, L Jin, M L Bell, F C Curriero
Sampling campaign design is a crucial aspect of air pollution exposure studies. Selection of both monitor numbers and locations is important for maximizing measured information, while minimizing bias and costs. We developed a two-stage geostatistical-based method using pilot NO2 samples from Lanzhou, China with the goal of improving sample design decision-making, including monitor numbers and spatial pattern. In the first step, we evaluate how additional monitors change prediction precision through minimized kriging variance...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Barbara A Cohn, Piera M Cirillo, Michele A La Merrill
Many suspected breast cancer risk factors, including the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), are stored in fat where they could influence carcinogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship of DDT and DDE (DDTs) with adiposity is modified by disposition to develop breast cancer. We predicted that concentrations of serum DDTs would be inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) during active exposure when DDTs move into the larger fat pool...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jiaqi Zhou, Gediminas Mainelis, Clifford P Weisel
Application of pyrethroid insecticides in residential settings may result in children's exposures to these chemicals and possible adverse health effects. Household dust is a recognized reservoir for pyrethroids and a potential medium for multi-route pyrethroid exposure. Young children move and play in a manner that resuspends dust, and since their breathing zone is close to the floor, they will have higher inhalation exposure to pesticide-laden dust than other age groups. Directly measuring a toddler's exposure to household dust presents many logistic challenges...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kathleen C Kacee Deener, Jason D Sacks, Ellen F Kirrane, Barbara S Glenn, Maureen R Gwinn, Thomas F Bateson, Thomas A Burke
Many epidemiologic studies are designed so they can be drawn upon to provide scientific evidence for evaluating hazards of environmental exposures, conducting quantitative assessments of risk, and informing decisions designed to reduce or eliminate harmful exposures. However, experimental animal studies are often relied upon for environmental and public health policy making despite the expanding body of observational epidemiologic studies that could inform the relationship between actual, as opposed to controlled, exposures and health effects...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Miguel Picornell, Tomás Ruiz, Rafael Borge, Pedro García-Albertos, David de la Paz, Julio Lumbreras
Air pollution is one of the greatest challenges cities are facing today and improving air quality is a pressing need to reduce negative health impacts. In order to efficiently evaluate which are the most appropriate policies to reduce the impact of urban pollution sources (such as road traffic), it is essential to conduct rigorous population exposure assessments. One of the main limitations associated with those studies is the lack of information about population distribution in the city along the day (population dynamics)...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
N Good, T Carpenter, G B Anderson, A Wilson, J L Peel, R C Browning, J Volckens
Air pollution intake represents the amount of pollution inhaled into the body and may be calculated by multiplying an individual's ventilation rate with the concentration of pollutant present in their breathing zone. Ventilation rate is difficult to measure directly, and methods for estimating ventilation rate (and intake) are lacking. Therefore, the goal of this work was to examine how well linear models using heart rate and other basic physiologic data can predict personal ventilation rate. We measured personal ventilation and heart rate among a panel of subjects (n = 36) while they conducted a series of specified routine tasks of varying exertion levels...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Mustafa Mahfuz, Mohammed Ashraful Alam, Shah Mohammad Fahim, Md Amran Gazi, Mohammad Jyoti Raihan, Muttaquina Hossain, Patricia A Egner, Pascal Obong Bessong, William A Petri, John D Groopman, Tahmeed Ahmed
Dietary exposure to aflatoxin is implicated in growth faltering of children. Despite the high burden of childhood stunting in urban Bangladesh, there are no data on long-term exposure to aflatoxin. This study aimed to explore aflatoxin exposure levels in a group of children followed longitudinally. The current study used data and biospecimens collected during 2010-2014 as part of the MAL-ED birth cohort study in an urban slum of Mirpur, Dhaka where children were followed from birth to 36 months. AFB1-lysine adduct concentrations were determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry from plasma samples collected at 7, 15, 24, and 36 months of age...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Ziliang Wang, Hong Liang, Xiaowen Tu, Wei Yuan, Zhijun Zhou, Longmei Jin, Maohua Miao, De-Kun Li
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor and is found in many consumer products. Studies suggest that BPA may perturb pubertal development, although evidence on BPA-influenced pubertal height growth is scarce. METHODS: A total of 754 children aged 9-18 years from three schools (one elementary, one middle, and one high school) in Shanghai were included in this longitudinal study. Height was measured at enrolment (visit 1) and, subsequently, at 19 months after enrolment (visit 2)...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Julia Baudry, Laurent Debrauwer, Gaël Durand, Gwendolina Limon, Adéline Delcambre, Rodolphe Vidal, Bruno Taupier-Letage, Nathalie Druesne-Pecollo, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Denis Lairon, Jean-Pierre Cravedi, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
An organic diet may reduce dietary exposure to pesticides but findings based on observational data are scant. We aimed to compare urinary pesticide concentrations between "organic" and "conventional" consumers from the NutriNet-Santé study. Organic food consumption was determined using a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Individuals with a proportion of organic food in the whole diet (in g/d) below 10% were defined as low organic food consumers and those whose proportion was above 50% as high organic food consumers...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jia Coco Liu, Roger D Peng
Epidemiological studies of wildfire PM2.5 constituents are hindered by the limited information on the population exposure to ambient PM2.5 constituents during high-pollution episodes from wildfires ("smoke waves"). The chemical composition of wildfire-related PM2.5 can be affected by different ecosystems. Current literature assessing the differences in PM2.5 pollution from wildfire smoke by ecosystems often analyzes air samples collected from the smoke near the center of an individual fire, but the results might not represent the exposure of the general public living away from the fire center but affected by the smoke of the fire...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Samira Salihovic, Tove Fall, Andrea Ganna, Corey D Broeckling, Jessica E Prenni, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Anna Kärrman, P Monica Lind, Erik Ingelsson, Lars Lind
Recent epidemiological studies suggest that human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may be associated with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic phenotypes. To gain further insights regarding PFASs exposure in humans, we here aimed to characterize the associations between different PFASs and the metabolome. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 965 individuals from Sweden (all aged 70 years, 50% women) sampled in 2001-2004. PFASs were analyzed in plasma using isotope-dilution ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Xiao Chen, Zhongqiu Wang, Guoying Zhu, Gunnar F Nordberg, Taiyi Jin, Xiaoqiang Ding
Bone is one of the target organs for cadmium toxicity. However, few studies have shown the association between cumulative cadmium intake and prevalence of osteoporosis and bone fracture. In the present study, we evaluated the association between cumulative cadmium intake and osteoporosis and risk of fracture in a Chinese population. A total of 790 subjects (488 women and 302 men) living in a control area and two cadmium-polluted areas were included. The cumulative cadmium intake was estimated by a food survey...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Yong Niu, Xiao Zhang, Tao Meng, Haisheng Wang, Ping Bin, Meili Shen, Wen Chen, Shanfa Yu, Shuguang Leng, Yuxin Zheng
Exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was associated with various adverse health effects including lung cancer. Particle size distribution and profiles of organic compounds in both particle and gas phases of DEE that could provide valuable insights into related health effects were measured in a diesel engine testing workshop. Concentrations of urinary 6 mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) in 137 DEE-exposed workers and 127 non-DEE-exposed workers were determined. Benchmark dose method was applied to estimate lower limit of benchmark dose (BMDL) of urinary OH-PAHs most specific to DEE exposure for previously reported cancer biomarkers...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Kristin A Miller, Elizabeth W Spalt, Amanda J Gassett, Cynthia L Curl, Timothy V Larson, Ed Avol, Ryan W Allen, Sverre Vedal, Adam A Szpiro, Joel D Kaufman
OBJECTIVES: We aim to characterize the qualities of estimation approaches for individual exposure to ambient-origin fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), for use in epidemiological studies. METHODS: The analysis incorporates personal, home indoor, and home outdoor air monitoring data and spatio-temporal model predictions for 60 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). We compared measurement-based personal PM2.5 exposure with several measured or predicted estimates of outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Elaine A Cohen Hubal, Barbara A Wetmore, John F Wambaugh, Hisham El-Masri, Jon R Sobus, Tina Bahadori
Scientifically sound, risk-informed evaluation of chemicals is essential to protecting public health. Systematically leveraging information from exposure, toxicology, and epidemiology studies can provide a holistic understanding of how real-world exposure to chemicals may impact the health of populations, including sensitive and vulnerable individuals and life-stages. Increasingly, public health policy makers are employing toxicokinetic (TK) modeling tools to integrate these data streams and predict potential human health impact...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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