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Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930298/comparison-of-questionnaire-based-estimation-of-pesticide-residue-intake-from-fruits-and-vegetables-with-urinary-concentrations-of-pesticide-biomarkers
#1
Yu-Han Chiu, Paige L Williams, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Matthew Gillman, Qi Sun, Maria Ospina, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
We developed a pesticide residue burden score (PRBS) based on a food frequency questionnaire and surveillance data on food pesticide residues to characterize dietary exposure over the past year. In the present study, we evaluated the association of the PRBS with urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers. Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was classified as having high (PRBS≥4) or low (PRBS<4) pesticide residues for 90 men from the EARTH study. Two urine samples per man were analyzed for seven biomarkers of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930297/estimated-radiation-exposure-of-german-commercial-airline-cabin-crew-in-the-years-1960-2003-modeled-using-dose-registry-data-for-2004-2015
#2
Daniel Wollschläger, Gaël Paul Hammer, Thomas Schafft, Steffen Dreger, Maria Blettner, Hajo Zeeb
Exposure to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin is an occupational risk factor in commercial aircrew. In a historic cohort of 26,774 German aircrew, radiation exposure was previously estimated only for cockpit crew using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Here, a new method for retrospectively estimating cabin crew dose is developed. The German Federal Radiation Registry (SSR) documents individual monthly effective doses for all aircrew. SSR-provided doses on 12,941 aircrew from 2004 to 2015 were used to model cabin crew dose as a function of age, sex, job category, solar activity, and male pilots' dose; the mean annual effective dose was 2...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930296/the-verified-neighbor-approach-to-geoprivacy-an-improved-method-for-geographic-masking
#3
Wayne Richter
Geographic information adds a powerful component to environmental epidemiology studies but can compromise subject confidentiality. Although locations are often masked by perturbing spatial coordinates, existing masks do not ensure that the perturbation area contains a sufficient number of valid surrogates to prevent disclosure, nor are they designed to minimize perturbation while maintaining a specified level of privacy. I introduce a new approach to geoprivacy in which real property parcel data with information about land use are used to develop a pool of verified neighbors...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901326/environmental-and-biological-monitoring-for-the-identification-of-main-exposure-determinants-in-vineyard-mancozeb-applicators
#4
Stefan Mandic-Rajcevic, Federico M Rubino, Eugenio Ariano, Danilo Cottica, Sara Neri, Claudio Colosio
Grapevine is a vulnerable crop to several fungal diseases often requiring the use of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides, such as mancozeb. This fungicide has been reported to have goitrogenic, endocrine disrupting, and possibly immunotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure in two scenarios of mancozeb application and analyse the main determinants of exposure in order to better understand their mechanism of influence. Environmental monitoring was performed using a modified Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "patch" methodology and by hand-wash collection, while mancozeb's metabolite, ethylenethiourea (ETU), was measured in 24-h preexposure and postexposure urine samples...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901325/associations-between-socio-demographic-characteristics-and-chemical-concentrations-contributing-to-cumulative-exposures-in-the-united-states
#5
Hongtai Huang, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, Timothy M Barzyk
Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quantify associations between environmental and social stressors. Socio-demographic variables were generated based on U.S. Census tract-level income, race/ethnicity population percentage, education level, and age information from the 2010-2014, 5-Year Summary files in the American Community Survey (ACS) database, and chemical variables were generated by utilizing the 2011 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) census tract-level air pollutant exposure concentration data...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792002/in-vitro-human-skin-permeation-of-benzene-in-gasoline-effects-of-concentration-multiple-dosing-and-skin-preparation
#6
H Frederick Frasch, Ana M Barbero
In vitro human skin benzene permeation was measured from gasoline formulations with benzene concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 10 vol% and from neat benzene. Steady-state fluxes (JSS), permeability coefficients (kp) and lag times (tlag) were calculated from infinite dose exposures. Permeation of benzene from small gasoline doses administered over a two-day period was also studied. The thermodynamic activity of benzene in gasoline at 30 °C was determined and the solution is near-ideal over the range from 0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766560/radiofrequency-electromagnetic-field-exposure-in-everyday-microenvironments-in-europe-a-systematic-literature-review
#7
Sanjay Sagar, Stefan Dongus, Anna Schoeni, Katharina Roser, Marloes Eeftens, Benjamin Struchen, Milena Foerster, Noëmi Meier, Seid Adem, Martin Röösli
The impact of the introduction and advancement in communication technology in recent years on exposure level of the population is largely unknown. The main aim of this study is to systematically review literature on the distribution of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in the everyday environment in Europe and summarize key characteristics of various types of RF-EMF studies conducted in the European countries. We systematically searched the ISI Web of Science for relevant literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 April 2015, which assessed RF-EMF exposure levels by any of the methods: spot measurements, personal measurement with trained researchers and personal measurement with volunteers...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745305/preparation-and-performance-features-of-wristband-samplers-and-considerations-for-chemical-exposure-assessment
#8
Kim A Anderson, Gary L Points, Carey E Donald, Holly M Dixon, Richard P Scott, Glenn Wilson, Lane G Tidwell, Peter D Hoffman, Julie B Herbstman, Steven G O'Connell
Wristbands are increasingly used for assessing personal chemical exposures. Unlike some exposure assessment tools, guidelines for wristbands, such as preparation, applicable chemicals, and transport and storage logistics, are lacking. We tested the wristband's capacity to capture and retain 148 chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). The chemicals span a wide range of physical-chemical properties, with log octanol-air partitioning coefficients from 2...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745304/multi-class-chemical-exposure-in-rural-peru-using-silicone-wristbands
#9
Alan J Bergmann, Paula E North, Luis Vasquez, Hernan Bello, Maria Del Carmen Gastañaga Ruiz, Kim A Anderson
Exposure monitoring with personal silicone wristband samplers was demonstrated in Peru in four agriculture and urban communities where logistic and practical constraints hinder use of more traditional approaches. Wristbands and associated methods enabled quantitation of 63 pesticides and screening for 1397 chemicals including environmental contaminants and personal care products. Sixty-eight wristbands were worn for approximately one month by volunteers from four communities of Alto Mayo, Peru. We identified 106 chemicals from eight chemical classes among all wristbands...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677675/probabilistic-dietary-risk-assessment-of-pesticide-residues-in-foods-for-the-german-population-based-on-food-monitoring-data-from-2009-to-2014
#10
Christian Sieke, Britta Michalski, Thomas Kuhl
Dietary risks for the German population owing to pesticide residues in foods were assessed based on food monitoring data, consumption surveys for children and adults and compound specific toxicological reference values or general thresholds of toxicological concern. A tiered probabilistic modelling was conducted to screen 700 pesticides for significant long- and short-term dietary exposures. Especially for the short-term dietary exposure, the probabilistic methodology used allows simultaneous consideration of the complete daily consumption, whereas most regulatory bodies still rely on single commodity approaches...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824176/the-current-inadequacy-of-exposure-assessments-and-controls-for-airborne-particulate-matter-pm-mixtures
#11
Morton Lippmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401896/lead-exposure-ige-and-the-risk-of-asthma-in-children
#12
I-Jen Wang, Wilfried J J Karmaus, Chen-Chang Yang
Lead (Pb) has adverse effects on our nervous system and renal systems. Young children are more vulnerable to Pb exposure. However, the role of low-level Pb exposure in the immune system and allergic diseases in children is not well established. The aims of this study are to investigate the associations between Pb exposure and allergic diseases; between Pb and immunoglobulin E (IgE) as an intervening variable; and gender-based differences. We used multistage stratified random sampling to recruit kindergarten children nationwide in Taiwan...
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120835/associations-among-personal-care-product-use-patterns-and-exogenous-hormone-use-in-the-niehs-sister-study
#13
Kyla W Taylor, Donna D Baird, Amy H Herring, Lawrence S Engel, Hazel B Nichols, Dale P Sandler, Melissa A Troester
It is hypothesized that certain chemicals in personal care products may alter the risk of adverse health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to use a data-centered approach to classify complex patterns of exposure to personal care products and to understand how these patterns vary according to use of exogenous hormone exposures, oral contraceptives (OCs) and post-menopausal hormone therapy (HT). The NIEHS Sister Study is a prospective cohort study of 50,884 US women. Limiting the sample to non-Hispanic blacks and whites (N=47,019), latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify groups of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use based on responses to 48 survey questions...
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000683/elemental-analysis-of-infant-airborne-particulate-exposures
#14
Chantel D Sloan, Frank X Weber, Rebecca K Bradshaw, Tyler J Philipp, W Bradford Barber, Vanessa L Palmer, Robert J Graul, Steven C Tuttle, Ryan T Chartier, James D Johnston
Air pollution is hypothesized to have negative impacts on infant pulmonary health because of infants' increased rates of respiration and ongoing lung development. The severity and type of impact may differ depending on elemental concentrations. We conducted a study of 21 infants <6 months old whose parents carried a small personal particulate monitoring device (RTI MicroPEM) and GPS unit with the infant for 7 days in January and February 2015. The study area was Utah County, UT, USA. Real-time particulate exposure levels, as well as optical density and elemental analysis of the particulate matter (PM), were compared with levels from an outdoor stationary monitor...
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966669/asthma-diagnosis-in-a-child-and-cessation-of-smoking-in-the-child-s-home-the-piama-birth-cohort
#15
Alet H Wijga, Maarten Schipper, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard H Koppelman, Ulrike Gehring
Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n=3963), parents reported on smoking in their home and on asthma diagnosis in their child, annually from birth to 8 years. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the association between asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home...
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966666/measurement-error-in-mobile-source-air-pollution-exposure-estimates-due-to-residential-mobility-during-pregnancy
#16
Audrey Flak Pennington, Matthew J Strickland, Mitchel Klein, Xinxin Zhai, Armistead G Russell, Craig Hansen, Lyndsey A Darrow
Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations...
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827377/exposure-of-children-to-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-fields-in-france-results-of-the-expers-study
#17
Isabelle Magne, Martine Souques, Isabelle Bureau, Anne Duburcq, Emmanuel Remy, Jacques Lambrozo
The assessment of magnetic field exposure in children is an important point in the context of epidemiological issues. EXPERS is the first study ever carried out measuring personal exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields at a national scale, involving 977 French children with 24 h personal measurements. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed for all the children, and only for children where no alarm clock was identified, as in some cases this requirement of the measurement protocol was not respected...
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759027/radiofrequency-electromagnetic-field-exposures-in-kindergarten-children
#18
Chhavi Raj Bhatt, Mary Redmayne, Baki Billah, Michael J Abramson, Geza Benke
The aim of this study was to assess environmental and personal radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures in kindergarten children. Ten children and 20 kindergartens in Melbourne, Australia participated in personal and environmental exposure measurements, respectively. Order statistics of RF-EMF exposures were computed for 16 frequency bands between 88 MHz and 5.8 GHz. Of the 16 bands, the three highest sources of environmental RF-EMF exposures were: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz downlink (82 mV/m); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) 2100MHz downlink (51 mV/m); and GSM 900 MHz uplink (45 mV/m)...
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599885/sun-exposure-and-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-levels-in-a-community-sample-quantifying-the-association-with-electronic-dosimeters
#19
Robert K R Scragg, Alistair W Stewart, Richard L McKenzie, Anthony I Reeder, J Ben Liley, Martin W Allen
There is uncertainty about the amount of sun exposure required to increase low blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels, a possible disease risk factor. The study aimed to quantify the association between sun exposure and serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in a multiethnic community sample (n=502) living in Auckland (37°S) and Dunedin (46°S), New Zealand, aged 18-85 years. They wore electronic ultraviolet dosimeters between March and November (autumn, winter and spring) for 8 weeks to record their sun exposure...
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599884/modeling-indoor-particulate-exposures-in-inner-city-school-classrooms
#20
Jonathan M Gaffin, Carter R Petty, Marissa Hauptman, Choong-Min Kang, Jack M Wolfson, Yara Abu Awad, Qian Di, Peggy S Lai, William J Sheehan, Sachin Baxi, Brent A Coull, Joel D Schwartz, Diane R Gold, Petros Koutrakis, Wanda Phipatanakul
Outdoor air pollution penetrates buildings and contributes to total indoor exposures. We investigated the relationship of indoor to outdoor particulate matter in inner-city school classrooms. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the effect of classroom-based environmental exposures on students with asthma in the northeast United States. Mixed effects linear models were used to determine the relationships between indoor PM2.5 (particulate matter) and black carbon (BC), and their corresponding outdoor concentrations, and to develop a model for predicting exposures to these pollutants...
September 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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