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Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

Sarah Ondrejka, Deepa Jagadeesh
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is a rare neoplasm with uniformly aggressive features that arises from intestinal T-cells. There is strong evidence supporting its association as a dire complication of celiac disease. The clinical presentation can vary from malabsorption and abdominal pain to an acute abdominal emergency. Originally, it was divided into types I and II in World Health Organization (WHO) classification schemes, reflective of epidemiology and differences in clinicopathologic features. The debate over the degree of separation of the two types is ongoing as new data emerges regarding the pathogenetics...
November 29, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Bradley M Haverkos, Zenggang Pan, Alejandro A Gru, Aharon G Freud, Rachel Rabinovitch, Meng Xu-Welliver, Brad Otto, Carlos Barrionuevo, Robert A Baiocchi, Rosemary Rochford, Pierluigi Porcu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly occurring in East Asia and Latin America but with increasing incidence in the United States. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and outcome for European and North American ("Western") cases are very limited. We review published landmark clinical studies on ENKTL-NT in the West and report in detail recent data, including our institutional experience...
October 24, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Phillip M Garfin, Eric J Feldman
While antibody-based therapies have emerged as clinically effective approaches for several hematologic and solid malignancies, they have not played a significant role to date in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). More recently, improvements in antibody-drug conjugate technology, bispecific antibodies, as well as identification of novel AML antigens have re-invigorated enthusiasm for antibody-based therapies for AML. This review describes experiences with former and existing antibody-based therapies for AML, including unconjugated antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), radio-labelled antibodies, and immune-engaging antibodies, and discusses the promise and challenges associated with each...
October 12, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Tamara K Moyo, Michael R Savona
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of clonal hematologic malignancies characterized by a hypercellular bone marrow and morphologic dysplasia in one or more lineage (i.e., myeloid, erythroid, or megakaryocytic), presenting clinically with leukopenia, anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia and with a propensity to transform to acute myelogenous leukemia. Newer technologies such as next-generation sequencing have allowed better understanding of the genetic landscape in MDS. Nearly 80 % of MDS patients have at least one mutation, and approximately 40 recurrent somatic mutations have been identified to occur in >1 % of cases...
October 12, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Rebecca Kohnken, Stephanie Fabbro, Justin Hastings, Pierluigi Porcu, Anjali Mishra
Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare and aggressive type of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) characterized by an intensely pruritic, exfoliative rash, known as erythroderma, with cutaneous and systemic dissemination of clonal CD4+ T cells into the blood and lymph nodes. This review aims to present recent advancements in the biological and clinical aspects of SS. We begin by providing an overview of the diagnostic criteria for SS and reviewing some of its epidemiological and clinical aspects. We then discuss updates in the etiology of this elusive disease and the genetic and molecular landscapes that define it...
October 4, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Myles Nickolich, Areej El-Jawahri, Thomas W LeBlanc
A growing literature demonstrates that MDS is associated with significant impairments in overall quality of life. Given the poor prognosis for many patients with MDS, and the considerable morbidities associated with this disease, there is a critical need to address palliative and end-of-life care needs in this population. However, palliative and end-of-life care issues are under-represented in the MDS literature. In this article, we highlight a growing body of literature that demonstrates unmet palliative and end-of-life care needs in hematologic malignancies, including MDS, and highlight opportunities for further research and quality improvement initiatives to address unmet needs in MDS care...
October 4, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Heidi D Klepin
Determining who is fit or unfit for standard treatments among older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a challenge. However, available evidence can provide guidance on strategies to assess and categorize fitness. Evidence is strongest to guide identification of "frail" older adults at the time of diagnosis based on performance status, physical function, and comorbidity. Many older adults, with adequate performance status and comorbidity burden, however, may be better characterized as "vulnerable"...
September 28, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Chetasi Talati, Eric Padron
According to the recently published 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid malignancies, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) include atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and MDS/MPN ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T). MDS/MPN-RS-T was previously a provisional category known as refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (RARS-T) which has now attained a distinct designation in the 2016 WHO classification...
September 24, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Geetika Bhatt, Kami Maddocks, Beth Christian
Evolution of cancer therapeutics has resulted in the development of agents with varying mechanisms of selective target inhibition. One such therapeutic approach is utilizing antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), the combination of a cytotoxic agent linked with a monoclonal antibody, to achieve localization of the target and internalization of the cytotoxic agent in order to maximize efficacy with fewer toxicities. This review focuses on CD30 as a therapeutic target and the development and clinical activity of the ADC brentuximab vedotin in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and other B cell lymphomas...
September 9, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Neha Bhatnagar, Laure Nizery, Oliver Tunstall, Paresh Vyas, Irene Roberts
Children with constitutional trisomy 21 (Down syndrome (DS)) have a unique predisposition to develop myeloid leukaemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS). This disorder is preceded by a transient neonatal preleukaemic syndrome, transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). TAM and ML-DS are caused by co-operation between trisomy 21, which itself perturbs fetal haematopoiesis and acquired mutations in the key haematopoietic transcription factor gene GATA1. These mutations are found in almost one third of DS neonates and are frequently clinically and haematologcially 'silent'...
October 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Lynda M Vrooman, Lewis B Silverman
While the majority of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured, as many as 20 % of patients will experience relapse. On current treatment regimens, the intensity of upfront treatment is stratified based upon prognostic factors with the aim of improving cure rates (for those at the highest risk of relapse) and minimizing treatment-related morbidity (for lower-risk patients). Here we review advances in the understanding of prognostic factors and their application...
October 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Gunnar Birgegård
Anagrelide (ANA) is a drug with specific platelet-lowering activity, used primarily in ET, registered as a second-line drug in essential thrombocythemia (ET) in Europe and in some countries as first-line therapy, in USA licensed by FDA for thrombocythemia in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). The platelet-lowering efficacy is similar to that of hydroxycarbamide (HC), around 70 % complete response and 90 % partial response. Side effects are common, especially headache and tachycardia, but usually subside or disappear within a few weeks...
October 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Hugo F Fernandez
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex clonal disorder. The disease is characterized by chromosomal and molecular abnormalities that propagate and expand the abnormal clone(s). The main goal of therapy is to achieve and ultimately maintain a complete remission. In the younger AML patient (less than 60 years of age), there has been a standardization of the initial therapy with the 3 + 7 regimen, consisting of an anthracycline and cytarabine combination. Recent intensification of the anthracycline has led to improved remission and survival outcomes in these patients...
October 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Marco Ruella, Carl H June
Genetic redirection of T lymphocytes allows us to unleash these potent cellular immune effectors against cancer. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are the best-in-class example that genetic engineering of T cells can lead to deep and durable responses, as has been shown in several clinical trials for CD19+ B cell malignancies. As a consequence, in the last few years, several academic institutions and commercial partners have started developing anti-CD19 CAR T cell products. Although most of these T cell products are highly effective in vivo, basic differences among them can generate different performance characteristics and thereby impact their long-term clinical outcome...
October 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Mary Frances McMullin
An absolute erythrocytosis is present when the red cell mass is greater than 125 % of the predicted value for sex and body mass. It can have a primary or secondary and congenital or acquired cause. New causes particularly congenital continue to be discovered and investigated. Investigation for the cause starts with repeat and confirmation of the raised hemoglobin and measurement of an erythropoietin level to indicate whether to pursue primary or secondary causes and then further investigations as appropriate...
October 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Andreas Reiter, Claire Harrison
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by an overactive Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway through mutations in JAK2 exons 12 or 14 (JAK2 V617F). The dominant clinical characteristics include erythrocytosis (with or without leukocytosis/thrombocytosis), thrombotic events, and symptoms. Increased risk of mortality is mainly caused by thrombotic events and progression to post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis (PPV-MF) or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML)...
October 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Joshua P Sasine, Gary J Schiller
The development and approval of novel, effective therapies for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has lagged behind other malignancies. Judging success of therapy with meaningful endpoints is critical to development of new treatments. Overall survival (OS) has typically been the parameter necessary for regulatory approval of experimental therapy in AML. Herein, we discuss different strategies to define outcomes for patients with AML and their relative challenges.
September 7, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Anna Mies, Olivier Hermine, Uwe Platzbecker
Distinct subtypes of lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes display ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow, i. e., erythroid progenitors characterized by excessive iron deposited in the mitochondria. This morphological feature is frequently associated with somatic mutations in components of the splicing machinery that constitutes the underlying molecular principle of the disease. Conventional treatment regimen with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents often fails to induce sustained erythroid improvement in these patients that harbor defects in late-stage erythroblasts downstream of erythropoietin action...
September 5, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Zachary A K Frosch, Gregory A Abel
Measuring the quality of care for patients with chronic cancers is difficult, especially for heterogeneous malignancies such as the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Recent work suggests that improvements may be needed in the quality of diagnostic, treatment, and end-of-life care for patients with these syndromes. Moreover, rigorous assessment of factors that are necessary to deliver high-quality care such as preferred method of decision-making and pre-treatment quality of life are often overlooked. Finally, a key component of quality care is that it is received equitably across different patient populations, yet several recent studies suggest that there are financial, educational, race-ethnic, and age-related barriers to equitable MDS care...
August 25, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Aziz Nazha, Mikkael A Sekeres
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the accumulation of complex genetic alterations that drive disease pathogenesis and outcome. Several prognostic models have been developed over the last two decades to risk stratify patients with MDS. These models mainly used clinical variables including blast percentage, cytopenias, cytogenetics, transfusion dependency, and age. Recently, somatic mutations in specific genes have been shown to impact overall survival in MDS and can be incorporated into established prognostic models to improve their predictive abilities...
August 8, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
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