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Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

Khoan Vu, Weiyun Ai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the rarity of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), studies evaluating new therapies have typically grouped ALCL together with other peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL). Thus, the treatment paradigm for ALCL largely mirrors that of PTCL in general. In this review, we discuss the current standard of care as well as emerging therapies, including antibody-based drugs, in systemic ALCL as well as primary cutaneous and breast implant-associated ALCL. RECENT FINDINGS: High CD30 expression in ALCL has allowed the use of brentuximab vedotin, an anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate, in both systemic and primary cutaneous ALCL...
March 7, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Gunjan L Shah, Navneet Majhail, Nandita Khera, Sergio Giralt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Improved tolerability and outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), along with the availability of alternative donors, have expanded its use. With this growth, and the development of additional cellular therapies, we also aim to increase effectiveness, efficiency, and the quality of the care provided. Fundamentally, the goal of value-based care is to have better health outcomes with streamlined processes, improved patient experience, and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system...
February 27, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Craig S Boddy, Shuo Ma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has multiple current frontline therapy options, including chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) and most recently, ibrutinib. Here, we review the most recent updates in the frontline treatment of CLL, including updates in CIT, updates in targeted therapies, and ongoing clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Ibrutinib was FDA-approved for the upfront treatment of CLL in 2016 after being studied in older patients and those with 17p deletions or TP53 mutations...
February 26, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Prajwal Boddu, Alessandra Ferrajoli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is heterogeneous disease characterized by a variable clinical course that is greatly influenced by various patient and disease characteristics. Over the last two decades, advent of new diagnostic methodologies has led to the identification of several factors of prognostic and predictive relevance. Furthermore, recent advances in next-generation sequencing techniques has identified recurrent novel mutations in NOTCH1, SF3B1, BIRC3, and ATM genes whose role as prognostic and predictive markers is currently being investigated...
February 23, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Kristen B McCullough, Miriam A Hobbs, Jithma P Abeykoon, Prashant Kapoor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to evaluate management strategies for common adverse effects of novel therapies in multiple myeloma (MM), including immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and a histone deacetylase inhibitor. RECENT FINDINGS: There are several adverse effects that occur across multiple classes of antimyeloma drugs, including rash, peripheral neuropathy, infusion reactions, and cardiotoxicity, but most can be managed without complete discontinuation of the agent or abandonment of the class...
February 15, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Parwiz J Siaghani, Joo Y Song
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will describe and update the readers on the recent changes of the 2017 WHO classification in regard to peripheral T cell lymphomas. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advances in molecular studies have resulted in revisions of the classification as well as introduction of provisional entities (such as breast implant-associated ALCL, nodal PTCL with TFH phenotype). Major advances in molecular and gene expression profiling have expanded our knowledge of T cell lymphomas, including updates in the diagnostic criteria and sub-classification which will facilitate in improving patient care and research...
February 14, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Victor M Orellana-Noia, Michael G Douvas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology is a relatively new field encompassing research in the unique pathophysiology, clinical care, and psychosocial issues facing patients between the ages of 15 and 40 with cancer. About 100,000 of the approximately 1.5 million people diagnosed annually with cancer in the USA are in this age range. This chapter will review notable new developments in the care of adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) within the last 3 years...
February 14, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Nicholas J Short, Hagop Kantarjian, Elias Jabbour, Farhad Ravandi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Older adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have worse survival compared to their younger counterparts. Here, we review the reasons for the poorer outcomes of older patients with ALL and also summarize the current and future therapeutic approaches to ALL in the elderly population. RECENT FINDINGS: The poor outcomes of older adults with ALL are driven largely by lack of tolerance to standard-dose chemotherapy, which leads to unacceptably high rates of myelosuppression-related deaths...
February 8, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Joseph Bubalo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the breadth and types of mental distress experienced by hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients and highlight the need for better prevention and management of delirium. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent publications highlight additional risks factors which predict for mental distress during the HSCT process. Despite new medications and additional psychological reports, there is little progress in non-pharmacologic or medication therapy in the prevention and treatment of delirium...
February 5, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Helen Ma, Ardy Davarifar, Jennifer E Amengual
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral T cell lymphoma is a rare heterogeneous group of diseases which are characterized by poor outcomes to treatment and short overall survival. In the past decade, several new therapies targeting T cell biology have been approved in the relapsed setting. These new therapies, such as pralatrexate, romidepsin, belinostat, and brentuximab vedotin, have begun to make their way into practice. Despite these advances, outcomes have not changed dramatically. In recent years, efforts have been made to incorporate these new therapies into combination strategies to treat this challenging disease entity...
February 3, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Eric Tse, Yok-Lam Kwong
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells share the same ontogeny, and lymphomas derived from them are clinically diverse, occurring in nodal and extranodal sites. In addition to inherent properties of these lymphomas, their microenvironment also impacts on pathogenesis and response to therapy. An understanding of the milieu of T-cell and NK cell lymphomas has important implications on treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Components of the microenvironment include tumour-associated macrophages (TAM), non-neoplastic T-cells and B-cells, eosinophils, dendritic cells, endothelial cells and blood vessels...
February 2, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Fiona C He, Shernan G Holtan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) is a frequent cause of treatment-related mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT), with few effective treatment options beyond systemic steroids. Discovery of biomarkers for aGVHD may provide insight into the pathophysiology of aGVHD and suggest novel mechanisms for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: We highlight biomarkers within innate immune activation, T-cell-mediated tissue damage, endothelial damage, dysbiosis, and poor wound healing that can be obtained prior to transplant, in the early transplant period, or at the onset of aGVHD...
January 31, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Dai Chihara, Yasuhiro Oki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a difficult condition to treat, both as a primary and a secondary disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) in PTCL is very rare, making up only 2% of all PCNSLs. The incidence of CNS relapse is generally 2-6% in all cases of PTCL, but the risk may vary by histologic subtype, and extranodal involvement > 1 has been consistently found to be a risk factor for CNS relapse...
January 27, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Lucy E Horton, Nina M Haste, Randy A Taplitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of prophylactic antibiotics during the neutropenic period in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been the standard of care at most institutions for the past 20 years. We sought to review the benefits and risks of this practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data has highlighted the potential costs of antibacterial prophylaxis, from selecting for antibiotic resistance to perturbing the microbiome and contributing to increase risk for Clostridium difficile and perhaps graft-versus-host-disease, conditions which may lead to poorer outcomes...
January 26, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Sagar S Patel, Navneet S Majhail
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Social media has revolutionized the access and exchange of information in healthcare. The microblogging platform Twitter has been used by blood and marrow transplant physicians over the last several years with increasing enthusiasm. We review the adoption of Twitter in the transplant community and its implications on clinical care, education, and research. RECENT FINDINGS: Twitter allows instantaneous access to the latest research publications, developments at national and international meetings, networking with colleagues, participation in advocacy, and promoting available clinical trials...
January 26, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Ritsuro Suzuki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKL), nasal type, is a highly aggressive lymphoma which used to show a poor clinical outcome. Expression of P-glycoprotein on lymphoma cells of ENKL is a major reason for the refractoriness to conventional chemotherapy containing anthracycline. However, recent innovative approaches have improved the outcome and prognosis of ENKL. The purpose of this review is to summarize the proceedings of treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy containing platinum and several drugs including L-asparaginase, methotrexate, and alkylators shows excellent outcomes for the limited-stage ENKL...
January 24, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Naveen Pemmaraju, Audun Utengen, Vikas Gupta, Jean-Jacques Kiladjian, Ruben Mesa, Michael A Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of social media has now become a standard means of communication for many individuals worldwide. The use of one specific form of social media, Twitter, has increased among healthcare providers, both as a means of information gathering and as a conduit for original content creation. Recently, major efforts by users have been put forward to help streamline the unprecedented amount of information that can be found on Twitter. These efforts have led to the creation of diseasespecific hashtag (#) medical communities and have greatly enhanced the ability to understand and better categorize the available data on Twitter...
December 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Yi Zhou, Brent L Wood
The presence of measurable ("minimal") residual disease (MRD) after induction and/or consolidation chemotherapy is a significant risk factor for relapse in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In recognition of the clinical significance of AML MRD, the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recently recommended the establishment of CR-MRDNegative as a separate category of treatment response. This recommendation represents a major milestone in the integration of AML MRD testing in standard clinical practice...
December 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Kristen Pettit, Olatoyosi Odenike
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review was to provide a contemporary update of novel agents and targets under investigation in myelofibrosis in the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor era. RECENT FINDINGS: Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal stem cell disease characterized by marrow fibrosis and a heterogeneous disease phenotype with a variable degree of splenomegaly, cytopenias, and constitutional symptoms that significantly impact quality of life and survival. Overactive JAK/STAT signaling is a hallmark of MF...
December 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Aaron C Logan
Social media has become an important tool for physicians and scientists to rapidly share information with colleagues around the world. Use of social media outlets-in particular, Twitter-has risen rapidly in recent years, and it is now customary for national hematology meetings to have thousands of participants who share photographs and textual summaries of data presentations, as well as personal insights and commentary, with virtual audiences. These messages, or "tweets," can be specifically followed using a hashtag ontology which arose organically over the past several years in the context of medical meetings...
December 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
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