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Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

Roberta Zappasodi, Jedd D Wolchok, Taha Merghoub
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The conflict of interest statement was incorrect. The corrected statement is given below.
November 8, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Ting Zhou, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Shimin Hu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we emphasize up-to-date practical cytogenetic and molecular aspects of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and summarize current knowledge on tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance and treatment response monitoring of CML. RECENT FINDINGS: The introduction of TKIs has changed the natural course of CML and markedly improved patient survival. Over the past decades, many research efforts were devoted to elucidating the leukemogenic mechanisms of BCR-ABL1 and developing novel TKIs...
October 29, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Robert Havard, Deborah M Stephens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article will review the use of anti-CD19 CAR-T therapy used in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical outcomes, safety analysis, and other relevant considerations will be discussed with an emphasis on the most recently published data regarding the ZUMA-1, JULIET, and TRANSCEND NHL-001 trials. Anti-CD19 CAR-T therapy is an exciting new therapy now approved and available to patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma...
October 25, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Helen Ma, Ahmed Sawas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is about the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), a form of drug delivery consisting of a monoclonal antibody, linker, and cytotoxic payload. We summarize the history of ADC development, highlighting the three FDA-approved ADCs currently available. RECENT FINDINGS: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is a CD33-targeted ADC linked to calicheamicin. It is approved for CD33+ AML in the first line or the relapsed or refractory (R/R) setting. Brentuximab vedotin is a CD30-targeted ADC bound to MMAE...
October 25, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Bing Li, John O Mascarenhas, Raajit K Rampal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are chronic, clonal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) disorders marked by proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages, a substantial proportion of patients transform to acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemic transformation (LT) from a pre-existing MPN carries a dismal prognosis. Here, we review recent genetic, biological, and clinical data regarding LT. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decade, DNA sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of the genomic landscape of LT...
October 23, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Joseph D Khoury
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare malignancy derived from plasmacyoid dendritic cells whose biology, clinical features, and treatment options are increasingly better understood. RECENT FINDINGS: TCF4 is a master regulator that drives donwstream transcriptional programs in BPDCN. In turn, TCF4 activity is dependent on the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein BRD4 whose inhibition provides a promising therapeutic vulnerability...
October 22, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
P Rastogi, A K Deva, H Miles Prince
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a recently recognised malignancy of T lymphocytes exclusively associated with textured breast implants. This review aims to evaluate existing theories regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical evaluation and management of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The true incidence of BIA-ALCL is difficult to define. Prevailing pathogenic theories recognise the interplay between textured implants, Gram-negative bacteria, host genetics (e...
October 22, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Naveen Pemmaraju, Audun Utengen, Vikas Gupta, Michael A Thompson, Andrew A Lane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Engagement on social media for professional, healthcare-related communication is rapidly rising around the world. We aimed to better understand the dynamics of a rare disease Twitter hashtag community. RECENT FINDINGS: Twitter has served as a platform for academic discussion, a method for knowledge dissemination directly from medical meetings, and a venue for patient caregiver and support groups. One example of a rare cancer that has seen an increase in available information via Twitter is blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm, or BPDCN...
October 18, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Bei Hu, Ryan Jacobs, Nilanjan Ghosh
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The ligation of PD-1 with PD-L1 activates a critical immune checkpoint leading to T cell dysfunction, exhaustion, and tolerance. Anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies can reverse the immune checkpoint, releasing the brake on T cell responses. We provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the activity of checkpoint inhibitors in lymphoma. RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss the latest findings with checkpoint inhibitors in lymphoma and new promising studies incorporating these agents...
October 18, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Maria Sanz-De Pedro, Wei Wang, Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, Joseph D Khoury
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a comprehensive update of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and their diagnostic criteria, with emphasis on novel concepts and state-of-the-art laboratory workup, including multiparameter/multicolor flow cytometry, chromosome analysis, and mutation profiling. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in genetics and molecular technologies have provided unprecedented insights into the pathogenic mechanisms and genomic landscape of MDS and its precursor lesions...
October 18, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Sagar S Patel, Navneet S Majhail
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Social media has dramatically changed the access and exchange of information in healthcare and beyond. A variety of platforms and resources exist allowing blood and marrow transplant providers, researchers, and patients to interact. We review the adoption of social media by the transplantation community. RECENT FINDINGS: Social media allows on-demand access to the latest developments at national and international meetings, newly published research articles, facilitates networking with colleagues, participation in advocacy, and promoting available clinical trials...
October 15, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Paola Ghione, Alison J Moskowitz, Nadia E K De Paola, Steven M Horwitz, Marco Ruella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Novel immunotherapies such as checkpoint inhibitors, bispecific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T cells are leading to promising responses when treating solid tumors and hematological malignancies. T cell neoplasms include leukemia and lymphomas that are derived from T cells and overall are characterized by poor clinical outcomes. This review describes the rational and preliminary results of immunotherapy for patients with T cell lymphoma and leukemia. RECENT FINDINGS: For T cell neoplasms, despite significant research effort, only few agents, such as monoclonal antibodies and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, showed some clinical activity...
October 13, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Sanam Loghavi, Joseph D Khoury
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide a practical and comprehensive update on changes in the classification of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and a summary of the most recent developments in our understanding of its genomic landscape, prognostic models, and therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2017 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification includes substantial changes to the subclassification CMML. The clinical utility of the newly revised subclassification scheme is discussed...
October 11, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Nour Abuhadra, Aziz Nazha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of online resources for patients with MDS is exponentially increasing; this is in large part due to the advent of social media which has introduced multiple avenues for information exchange and communication. Whether this information is targeted towards the patient population or not, the wealth of information online represents a new era of patient engagement in their health care. This review aims to highlight the different online resources being used in the field of MDS...
October 10, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Jacob S Appelbaum, Filippo Milano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cellular therapy using T cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T cells) has had striking success in patients that have failed previous treatment for CD19+ B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Curative therapy for this group of diseases has previously been limited to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation HCT (alloHCT). The recent results of CAR-T cell therapy raise the question of how best to integrate CAR-T cell therapy and alloHCT in the care of these patients...
October 2, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Daniel G Guy, Geoffrey L Uy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bispecific antibodies combine antigen recognition sites from two or more antibodies into a single construct allowing simultaneous binding to multiple targets. Bispecific antibodies exist which can redirect immune effector cells against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) targets. This review will highlight the progress to date and the challenges in developing bispecific antibodies for the treatment of AML. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, a number of bispecific antibody formats including bispecific T cell engagers, dual affinity retargeting proteins, and tandem diabodies are in clinical development for AML...
October 2, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Terrence J Bradley, Justin M Watts, Ronan T Swords
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease, which primarily occurs in older adults. Although hypomethylating agents have survival benefit and are the current standard of care, many MDS patients will not garner a response from therapy. For those who do respond, most responses are not durable, and the only hope for a cure is allogeneic stem cell transplant. New therapies to improve outcomes are urgently needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials combining standard hypomethylating agents with novel experimental agents are underway in an effort to improve clinical outcomes in MDS patients...
September 28, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Imo J Akpan, Afaf E G Osman, Michael W Drazer, Lucy A Godley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the diagnosis of individuals with hereditary hematopoietic malignancies (HHMs) that predispose to myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, barriers to HHM diagnosis, and unaddressed questions and controversies within the HHM field. RECENT FINDINGS: Pathogenic germline mutations in approximately a dozen genes predispose to HHMs, and many more genes are likely to be involved. Many of these HHM genes have only been identified recently...
September 26, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Roberta Zappasodi, Jedd D Wolchok, Taha Merghoub
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade across multiple tumor types, many patients do not respond to these therapies or become resistant after an initial response. This underscores the need to improve our understanding of the molecular determinants of response to guide more personalized and rational utilization of these therapies. Here, we describe available biomarkers of checkpoint blockade activity by classifying them into four major categories: tumor-intrinsic, immune microenvironmental, host-related, and dynamic factors...
October 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
John H Baird, Jason Gotlib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss recent developments in the treatment of advanced systemic mastocytosis (advSM) with inhibitors of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase. RECENT FINDINGS: advSM is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms of poor prognosis characterized by the accumulation of neoplastic mast cells. The canonical KIT D816V mutation is present in approximately 90% of SM patients, and its detection is critical for both diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. The multikinase/KIT inhibitor midostaurin was recently approved for advSM...
October 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
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