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Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215040/who-should-receive-a-transplant-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#1
REVIEW
Rishi Dhawan, David I Marks
Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation continues to be an important curative therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Traditionally accepted indications for allografting adult ALL patients need reevaluation in light of outcomes with paediatric-like intensive regimens. Minimal residual disease status and oncogenetics can be used for restratification of standard risk patients. A greater body of data on haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes from haploidentical and cord blood donor sources has been generated in recent years...
February 18, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197963/a-concise-review-of-autoimmune-cytopenias-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#2
REVIEW
Mazie Tsang, Sameer A Parikh
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is frequently associated with autoimmune complications such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, pure red cell aplasia, and autoimmune granulocytopenia. It is critical to diagnose cytopenias from these secondary complications of CLL accurately, since prognosis and therapy are substantially different from patients who have cytopenias due to extensive bone marrow infiltration by CLL. The pathogenesis of autoimmune cytopenias in CLL is complex; and it involves antigen presentation by CLL cells to polyclonal B cells resulting in production of autoantibody, and alteration of the T cell milieu tilting the balance in favor of an autoimmune response...
February 14, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155013/targeted-therapy-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cll
#3
REVIEW
Erin M Pettijohn, Shuo Ma
The standard of care for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has traditionally been chemoimmunotherapy. For patients who are unable to tolerate chemotherapy and those with high risk 17p deletions, there were previously few feasible or efficacious treatment options. Novel targeted agents for the treatment of CLL have the potential to offer long-term, durable remissions and offer promising treatment options for those in previously challenging population groups. Current targeted agents in CLL are directed against B cell receptor-associated tyrosine kinases such as BTK and SYK, the downstream PI3-kinase pathway, as well as the antiapoptotic protein BCL-2...
February 2, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155012/immune-checkpoint-blockade-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#4
REVIEW
Reid W Merryman, Philippe Armand
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) relies primarily upon graft-versus-tumor activity for cancer eradication. Relapse remains the principal cause of treatment failure after HSCT, implying frequent immune escape, which in at least some cases, appears to be mediated by increased expression of inhibitory immune checkpoints. In an attempt to restore anti-tumor immunity, checkpoint blockade therapy (CBT) targeting PD-1 and CLTA-4 has been used in conjunction with both allogeneic and autologous HSCT...
February 2, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144893/a-view-from-the-plateau-is-there-a-role-for-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-era-of-highly-effective-therapies-for-multiple-myeloma
#5
REVIEW
Damian J Green, William I Bensinger
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) represents the earliest form of immunotherapy used to treat multiple myeloma (MM). Since the first successful myeloablative allografts were performed in the early 1980s, highly effective new agents to treat this disease have been identified at an unprecedented pace. Currently, sixteen FDA-approved therapies are available to treat MM. As a consequence of these advances, the median overall survival for standard risk MM patients has extended to over 7 years...
January 31, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144892/10%C3%A2-years-of-preparedness-by-the-radiation-injury-treatment-network
#6
REVIEW
Cullen Case
The Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN) began in 2006 with the ambitious vision to provide a resource to help with the surge of casualties following a mass casualty incident with marrow toxic injuries. Through the efforts of the National Marrow Donor Program and American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the support of the Office of Naval Research, the initial 13 hospitals and cancer centers have grown to 76, training over 13,500 hospital staff and conducted, funded, and supported 580 disaster exercises testing preparedness...
January 31, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116634/the-development-and-current-use-of-bcl-2-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin L Lampson, Matthew S Davids
The BCL-2 family of proteins integrates pro- and anti-apoptotic signals within the cell and is responsible for initiation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are particularly dependent on the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 for their survival, making this an attractive therapeutic target in CLL. Several early efforts to create inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic family members faced significant challenges, but eventually, the BCL-2 specific inhibitor venetoclax moved forward in CLL...
January 23, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116633/t-cell-depleted-and-t-cell-replete-hla-haploidentical-stem-cell-transplantation-for-non-malignant-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Alice Bertaina, Angela Pitisci, Matilde Sinibaldi, Mattia Algeri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a treatment option for children with malignant and non-malignant disorders as well as an expanding number of inherited disorders. However, only a limited portion of patients in the need of an allograft have an HLA-compatible, either related or unrelated, donor. Haploidentical HSCT is now considered a valid treatment option, especially in view of the recent insights in terms of graft manipulation. This review will offer an overview of clinical results obtained through the use of haploidentical HSCT in non-malignant diseases...
January 23, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995419/t-cell-lymphoma-epidemiology-the-known-and-unknown
#9
REVIEW
Anh Phan, Rachel Veldman, Mary Jo Lechowicz
T-cell lymphoma, a collection of subtypes of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is a rare malignancy. The low prevalence of this disease has made it challenging to identify subtype-specific risk factors. Potential risk factors could enable us to identify high-risk patients and predict patient outcomes. Here, we report on the current epidemiologic and prognostic factors data associated with the individual subtypes both of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) found in large cohort and case studies...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900603/enteropathy-associated-t-cell-lymphoma
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Ondrejka, Deepa Jagadeesh
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is a rare neoplasm with uniformly aggressive features that arises from intestinal T-cells. There is strong evidence supporting its association as a dire complication of celiac disease. The clinical presentation can vary from malabsorption and abdominal pain to an acute abdominal emergency. Originally, it was divided into types I and II in World Health Organization (WHO) classification schemes, reflective of epidemiology and differences in clinicopathologic features. The debate over the degree of separation of the two types is ongoing as new data emerges regarding the pathogenetics...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778143/extranodal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-nasal-type-enktl-nt-an-update-on-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-and-natural-history-in-north-american-and-european-cases
#11
REVIEW
Bradley M Haverkos, Zenggang Pan, Alejandro A Gru, Aharon G Freud, Rachel Rabinovitch, Meng Xu-Welliver, Brad Otto, Carlos Barrionuevo, Robert A Baiocchi, Rosemary Rochford, Pierluigi Porcu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly occurring in East Asia and Latin America but with increasing incidence in the United States. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and outcome for European and North American ("Western") cases are very limited. We review published landmark clinical studies on ENKTL-NT in the West and report in detail recent data, including our institutional experience...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734262/antibody-based-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#12
REVIEW
Phillip M Garfin, Eric J Feldman
While antibody-based therapies have emerged as clinically effective approaches for several hematologic and solid malignancies, they have not played a significant role to date in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). More recently, improvements in antibody-drug conjugate technology, bispecific antibodies, as well as identification of novel AML antigens have re-invigorated enthusiasm for antibody-based therapies for AML. This review describes experiences with former and existing antibody-based therapies for AML, including unconjugated antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), radio-labelled antibodies, and immune-engaging antibodies, and discusses the promise and challenges associated with each...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734261/molecular-testing-in-patients-with-suspected-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Tamara K Moyo, Michael R Savona
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of clonal hematologic malignancies characterized by a hypercellular bone marrow and morphologic dysplasia in one or more lineage (i.e., myeloid, erythroid, or megakaryocytic), presenting clinically with leukopenia, anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia and with a propensity to transform to acute myelogenous leukemia. Newer technologies such as next-generation sequencing have allowed better understanding of the genetic landscape in MDS. Nearly 80 % of MDS patients have at least one mutation, and approximately 40 recurrent somatic mutations have been identified to occur in >1 % of cases...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704468/s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-clinical-and-biological-aspects
#14
REVIEW
Rebecca Kohnken, Stephanie Fabbro, Justin Hastings, Pierluigi Porcu, Anjali Mishra
Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare and aggressive type of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) characterized by an intensely pruritic, exfoliative rash, known as erythroderma, with cutaneous and systemic dissemination of clonal CD4+ T cells into the blood and lymph nodes. This review aims to present recent advancements in the biological and clinical aspects of SS. We begin by providing an overview of the diagnostic criteria for SS and reviewing some of its epidemiological and clinical aspects. We then discuss updates in the etiology of this elusive disease and the genetic and molecular landscapes that define it...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704467/palliative-and-end-of-life-care-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#15
REVIEW
Myles Nickolich, Areej El-Jawahri, Thomas W LeBlanc
A growing literature demonstrates that MDS is associated with significant impairments in overall quality of life. Given the poor prognosis for many patients with MDS, and the considerable morbidities associated with this disease, there is a critical need to address palliative and end-of-life care needs in this population. However, palliative and end-of-life care issues are under-represented in the MDS literature. In this article, we highlight a growing body of literature that demonstrates unmet palliative and end-of-life care needs in hematologic malignancies, including MDS, and highlight opportunities for further research and quality improvement initiatives to address unmet needs in MDS care...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681539/definition-of-unfit-for-standard-acute-myeloid-leukemia-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Heidi D Klepin
Determining who is fit or unfit for standard treatments among older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a challenge. However, available evidence can provide guidance on strategies to assess and categorize fitness. Evidence is strongest to guide identification of "frail" older adults at the time of diagnosis based on performance status, physical function, and comorbidity. Many older adults, with adequate performance status and comorbidity burden, however, may be better characterized as "vulnerable"...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664113/an-exercise-in-extrapolation-clinical-management-of-atypical-cml-mds-mpn-unclassifiable-and-mds-mpn-rs-t
#17
REVIEW
Chetasi Talati, Eric Padron
According to the recently published 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid malignancies, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) include atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and MDS/MPN ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T). MDS/MPN-RS-T was previously a provisional category known as refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (RARS-T) which has now attained a distinct designation in the 2016 WHO classification...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613003/cd30-and-cd30-targeted-therapies-in-hodgkin-lymphoma-and-other-b-cell-lymphomas
#18
REVIEW
Geetika Bhatt, Kami Maddocks, Beth Christian
Evolution of cancer therapeutics has resulted in the development of agents with varying mechanisms of selective target inhibition. One such therapeutic approach is utilizing antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), the combination of a cytotoxic agent linked with a monoclonal antibody, to achieve localization of the target and internalization of the cytotoxic agent in order to maximize efficacy with fewer toxicities. This review focuses on CD30 as a therapeutic target and the development and clinical activity of the ADC brentuximab vedotin in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and other B cell lymphomas...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604228/acute-myeloid-leukemia-how-do-we-measure-success
#19
REVIEW
Joshua P Sasine, Gary J Schiller
The development and approval of novel, effective therapies for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has lagged behind other malignancies. Judging success of therapy with meaningful endpoints is critical to development of new treatments. Overall survival (OS) has typically been the parameter necessary for regulatory approval of experimental therapy in AML. Herein, we discuss different strategies to define outcomes for patients with AML and their relative challenges.
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595736/activin-receptor-ii-ligand-traps-and-their-therapeutic-potential-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-with-ring-sideroblasts
#20
REVIEW
Anna Mies, Olivier Hermine, Uwe Platzbecker
Distinct subtypes of lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes display ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow, i. e., erythroid progenitors characterized by excessive iron deposited in the mitochondria. This morphological feature is frequently associated with somatic mutations in components of the splicing machinery that constitutes the underlying molecular principle of the disease. Conventional treatment regimen with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents often fails to induce sustained erythroid improvement in these patients that harbor defects in late-stage erythroblasts downstream of erythropoietin action...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
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