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Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995419/t-cell-lymphoma-epidemiology-the-known-and-unknown
#1
REVIEW
Anh Phan, Rachel Veldman, Mary Jo Lechowicz
T-cell lymphoma, a collection of subtypes of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is a rare malignancy. The low prevalence of this disease has made it challenging to identify subtype-specific risk factors. Potential risk factors could enable us to identify high-risk patients and predict patient outcomes. Here, we report on the current epidemiologic and prognostic factors data associated with the individual subtypes both of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) found in large cohort and case studies...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900603/enteropathy-associated-t-cell-lymphoma
#2
REVIEW
Sarah Ondrejka, Deepa Jagadeesh
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is a rare neoplasm with uniformly aggressive features that arises from intestinal T-cells. There is strong evidence supporting its association as a dire complication of celiac disease. The clinical presentation can vary from malabsorption and abdominal pain to an acute abdominal emergency. Originally, it was divided into types I and II in World Health Organization (WHO) classification schemes, reflective of epidemiology and differences in clinicopathologic features. The debate over the degree of separation of the two types is ongoing as new data emerges regarding the pathogenetics...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778143/extranodal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-nasal-type-enktl-nt-an-update-on-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-and-natural-history-in-north-american-and-european-cases
#3
REVIEW
Bradley M Haverkos, Zenggang Pan, Alejandro A Gru, Aharon G Freud, Rachel Rabinovitch, Meng Xu-Welliver, Brad Otto, Carlos Barrionuevo, Robert A Baiocchi, Rosemary Rochford, Pierluigi Porcu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly occurring in East Asia and Latin America but with increasing incidence in the United States. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and outcome for European and North American ("Western") cases are very limited. We review published landmark clinical studies on ENKTL-NT in the West and report in detail recent data, including our institutional experience...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734262/antibody-based-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#4
REVIEW
Phillip M Garfin, Eric J Feldman
While antibody-based therapies have emerged as clinically effective approaches for several hematologic and solid malignancies, they have not played a significant role to date in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). More recently, improvements in antibody-drug conjugate technology, bispecific antibodies, as well as identification of novel AML antigens have re-invigorated enthusiasm for antibody-based therapies for AML. This review describes experiences with former and existing antibody-based therapies for AML, including unconjugated antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), radio-labelled antibodies, and immune-engaging antibodies, and discusses the promise and challenges associated with each...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734261/molecular-testing-in-patients-with-suspected-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#5
REVIEW
Tamara K Moyo, Michael R Savona
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of clonal hematologic malignancies characterized by a hypercellular bone marrow and morphologic dysplasia in one or more lineage (i.e., myeloid, erythroid, or megakaryocytic), presenting clinically with leukopenia, anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia and with a propensity to transform to acute myelogenous leukemia. Newer technologies such as next-generation sequencing have allowed better understanding of the genetic landscape in MDS. Nearly 80 % of MDS patients have at least one mutation, and approximately 40 recurrent somatic mutations have been identified to occur in >1 % of cases...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704468/s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-clinical-and-biological-aspects
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca Kohnken, Stephanie Fabbro, Justin Hastings, Pierluigi Porcu, Anjali Mishra
Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare and aggressive type of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) characterized by an intensely pruritic, exfoliative rash, known as erythroderma, with cutaneous and systemic dissemination of clonal CD4+ T cells into the blood and lymph nodes. This review aims to present recent advancements in the biological and clinical aspects of SS. We begin by providing an overview of the diagnostic criteria for SS and reviewing some of its epidemiological and clinical aspects. We then discuss updates in the etiology of this elusive disease and the genetic and molecular landscapes that define it...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704467/palliative-and-end-of-life-care-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#7
REVIEW
Myles Nickolich, Areej El-Jawahri, Thomas W LeBlanc
A growing literature demonstrates that MDS is associated with significant impairments in overall quality of life. Given the poor prognosis for many patients with MDS, and the considerable morbidities associated with this disease, there is a critical need to address palliative and end-of-life care needs in this population. However, palliative and end-of-life care issues are under-represented in the MDS literature. In this article, we highlight a growing body of literature that demonstrates unmet palliative and end-of-life care needs in hematologic malignancies, including MDS, and highlight opportunities for further research and quality improvement initiatives to address unmet needs in MDS care...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681539/definition-of-unfit-for-standard-acute-myeloid-leukemia-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Heidi D Klepin
Determining who is fit or unfit for standard treatments among older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a challenge. However, available evidence can provide guidance on strategies to assess and categorize fitness. Evidence is strongest to guide identification of "frail" older adults at the time of diagnosis based on performance status, physical function, and comorbidity. Many older adults, with adequate performance status and comorbidity burden, however, may be better characterized as "vulnerable"...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664113/an-exercise-in-extrapolation-clinical-management-of-atypical-cml-mds-mpn-unclassifiable-and-mds-mpn-rs-t
#9
REVIEW
Chetasi Talati, Eric Padron
According to the recently published 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid malignancies, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) include atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and MDS/MPN ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T). MDS/MPN-RS-T was previously a provisional category known as refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (RARS-T) which has now attained a distinct designation in the 2016 WHO classification...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613003/cd30-and-cd30-targeted-therapies-in-hodgkin-lymphoma-and-other-b-cell-lymphomas
#10
REVIEW
Geetika Bhatt, Kami Maddocks, Beth Christian
Evolution of cancer therapeutics has resulted in the development of agents with varying mechanisms of selective target inhibition. One such therapeutic approach is utilizing antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), the combination of a cytotoxic agent linked with a monoclonal antibody, to achieve localization of the target and internalization of the cytotoxic agent in order to maximize efficacy with fewer toxicities. This review focuses on CD30 as a therapeutic target and the development and clinical activity of the ADC brentuximab vedotin in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and other B cell lymphomas...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604228/acute-myeloid-leukemia-how-do-we-measure-success
#11
REVIEW
Joshua P Sasine, Gary J Schiller
The development and approval of novel, effective therapies for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has lagged behind other malignancies. Judging success of therapy with meaningful endpoints is critical to development of new treatments. Overall survival (OS) has typically been the parameter necessary for regulatory approval of experimental therapy in AML. Herein, we discuss different strategies to define outcomes for patients with AML and their relative challenges.
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595736/activin-receptor-ii-ligand-traps-and-their-therapeutic-potential-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-with-ring-sideroblasts
#12
REVIEW
Anna Mies, Olivier Hermine, Uwe Platzbecker
Distinct subtypes of lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes display ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow, i. e., erythroid progenitors characterized by excessive iron deposited in the mitochondria. This morphological feature is frequently associated with somatic mutations in components of the splicing machinery that constitutes the underlying molecular principle of the disease. Conventional treatment regimen with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents often fails to induce sustained erythroid improvement in these patients that harbor defects in late-stage erythroblasts downstream of erythropoietin action...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562670/assessing-quality-of-care-for-the-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Zachary A K Frosch, Gregory A Abel
Measuring the quality of care for patients with chronic cancers is difficult, especially for heterogeneous malignancies such as the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Recent work suggests that improvements may be needed in the quality of diagnostic, treatment, and end-of-life care for patients with these syndromes. Moreover, rigorous assessment of factors that are necessary to deliver high-quality care such as preferred method of decision-making and pre-treatment quality of life are often overlooked. Finally, a key component of quality care is that it is received equitably across different patient populations, yet several recent studies suggest that there are financial, educational, race-ethnic, and age-related barriers to equitable MDS care...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502092/improving-prognostic-modeling-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Aziz Nazha, Mikkael A Sekeres
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the accumulation of complex genetic alterations that drive disease pathogenesis and outcome. Several prognostic models have been developed over the last two decades to risk stratify patients with MDS. These models mainly used clinical variables including blast percentage, cytopenias, cytogenetics, transfusion dependency, and age. Recently, somatic mutations in specific genes have been shown to impact overall survival in MDS and can be incorporated into established prognostic models to improve their predictive abilities...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492253/targeting-splicing-in-the-treatment-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes-and-other-myeloid-neoplasms
#15
REVIEW
Charlotte K Brierley, David P Steensma
Genome sequencing of primary cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) led to the identification of recurrent heterozygous mutations in gene encoding components of the spliceosome, the cellular machinery which processes pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) to mature mRNA during gene transcription. Splicing mutations are mutually exclusive with one another and collectively represent the most common mutation class in MDS, occurring in approximately 60 % of patients overall and more than 80 % of those with ring sideroblasts...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492118/social-media-and-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-mpn-analysis-of-advanced-metrics-from-the-first-year-of-a-new-twitter-community-mpnsm
#16
REVIEW
Naveen Pemmaraju, Audun Utengen, Vikas Gupta, Jean-Jacques Kiladjian, Ruben Mesa, Michael A Thompson
The social media platform Twitter has provided the hematology/oncology community with unprecedented, novel methods of interpersonal communication and increased ability for the dissemination of important updates in a rapidly moving field. The advent, and subsequent success, of disease-specific Twitter communities have further enabled interested healthcare stakeholders to become quickly organized around a unique set of rare medical conditions, such as hematologic malignancies, that, historically, generally lack large amounts of reliable online information...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492117/social-media-and-internet-resources-for-patients-with-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm-bpdcn
#17
REVIEW
Naveen Pemmaraju, Vikas Gupta, Michael A Thompson, Andrew A Lane
The incorporation of Internet resources and the use of social media among patients, clinicians, advocates, and researchers in the field of hematology and oncology are growing in importance. Utilization of online information sharing is rising, especially among those involved in rare blood cancer fields, which have generally featured a paucity of reliable, updated information. In particular, blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN), an uncommon, but highly aggressive hematologic malignancy, is one example of a cancer with limited information readily available to the general public...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893061/social-media-and-the-adolescent-and-young-adult-aya-patient-with-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Miguel-Angel Perales, Emily K Drake, Naveen Pemmaraju, William A Wood
Over 70,000 adolescent and young adults (AYA) aged 15 to 39 years are diagnosed with cancer each year in the US. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has identified AYA cancer patients as a unique population. The most common cancers in this age group include tumors typically seen in pediatric patients such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and brain tumors, as well as cancers more typically seen in adult patients such as breast cancer and melanoma. In addition, some cancers have their highest incidence in AYA patients, such as Hodgkin Lymphoma, testicular cancer, and bone tumors...
December 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510823/transient-abnormal-myelopoiesis-and-aml-in-down-syndrome-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Neha Bhatnagar, Laure Nizery, Oliver Tunstall, Paresh Vyas, Irene Roberts
Children with constitutional trisomy 21 (Down syndrome (DS)) have a unique predisposition to develop myeloid leukaemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS). This disorder is preceded by a transient neonatal preleukaemic syndrome, transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). TAM and ML-DS are caused by co-operation between trisomy 21, which itself perturbs fetal haematopoiesis and acquired mutations in the key haematopoietic transcription factor gene GATA1. These mutations are found in almost one third of DS neonates and are frequently clinically and haematologcially 'silent'...
October 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502091/treatment-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-prognostic-factors-and-clinical-advances
#20
REVIEW
Lynda M Vrooman, Lewis B Silverman
While the majority of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured, as many as 20 % of patients will experience relapse. On current treatment regimens, the intensity of upfront treatment is stratified based upon prognostic factors with the aim of improving cure rates (for those at the highest risk of relapse) and minimizing treatment-related morbidity (for lower-risk patients). Here we review advances in the understanding of prognostic factors and their application...
October 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
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