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Acta Physiologica

William J Pearce
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Ansar et al. study the role of MAPK in ischemic stroke1 . The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have long been recognized as major common mediators of stimuli that lead to cell growth and proliferation in numerous cell types. MAPK pathways also influence diverse cell processes such as differentiation, motility, and survival, often through activation of secondary downstream kinases (MAPKAP kinases)2 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 14, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Silke Haerteis, Anja Schork, Thomas Dörffel, Bernhard N Bohnert, Regina Nacken, Matthias Wörn, Mengyun Xiao, Daniel Essigke, Andrea Janessa, Alvin H Schmaier, Edward P Feener, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Marko Bertog, Christoph Korbmacher, Ferruh Artunc
AIM: Recent work has demonstrated that activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by aberrantly filtered serine proteases causes sodium retention in nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to elucidate a potential role of plasma kallikrein (PKLK) as a candidate serine protease in this context. METHODS: We analyzed PKLK in the urine of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, n=171) and investigated its ability to activate human ENaC expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
February 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Malou Friederich-Persson, Patrik Persson, Peter Hansell, Fredrik Palm
AIM: Uncoupling Protein-2 (UCP-2) can induce mitochondrial uncoupling in the diabetic kidney. Although mitochondrial uncoupling reduces oxidative stress originating from the mitochondria and can be regarded as a protective mechanism, the increased oxygen consumption occurring secondarily to increased mitochondria uncoupling, i.e. leak respiration, may contribute to kidney tissue hypoxia. Using UCP-2-/- mice we tested the hypothesis that UCP-2-mediated leak respiration is important for the development of diabetes-induced intrarenal hypoxia and proteinuria...
February 26, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Elena V Bouzinova, Lise Hangaard, Christian Staehr, Aleksandra Mazur, Avelino Ferreira, Alexander Chibalin, Shaun L Sandow, Zijian Xie, Christian Aalkjaer, Vladimir V Matchkov
AIMS: The Na,K-ATPase is involved in a large number of regulatory activities including cSrc-dependent signalling. Upon inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase with ouabain, cSrc activation is shown to occur in many cell types. This study tests the hypothesis that acute potentiation of agonist-induced contraction by ouabain is mediated through Na,K-ATPase-cSrc signalling-dependent sensitization of vascular smooth muscle cells to Ca2+ . METHODS: Agonist-induced rat mesenteric small artery contraction was examined in vitro under isometric conditions and in vivo in anaesthetized rats...
February 26, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Henrik Dimke, Jürgen Schnermann
The thick ascending limb (TAL) extends from the border of the inner medulla to the renal cortex, thus ascending through regions with wide differences in tissue solute and electrolyte concentrations. Structural and functional differences between TAL cells in the medulla (mTAL) and the cortex (cTAL) would therefore be useful to adapt TAL transport function to a changing external fluid composition. While mechanisms common to all TAL cells play a central role in the reclamation of about 25% of the NaCl filtered by the kidney, morphological features, Na+ / K+ -ATPase activity, NKCC2 splicing and phosphorylation does vary between segments and cells...
February 24, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Louise Torp Dalgaard
In his recent Editorial Dr. Persson surmises that it is not surprising that the number of truck accidents involving male truck drivers is much larger than the number of accidents involving female drivers, because there are more male drivers (1). However, this information is only relevant from any perspective in the gender debate, if the numbers of accidents are compared with the amount of drivers of each gender to create a gender-specific accident risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
February 14, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Valentin Schmidt, Karin M Kirschner
Have you ever felt ashamed of yourself when using copy and paste instead of writing an original? You do not have to! Nature is using copy and paste with incredibly great success and we can learn a lot by studying this intriguing method called alternative splicing.If you compare the mRNA with genomic sequences, you will notice that they are quite different. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 14, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Martino V Franchi, Severin Ruoss, Paola Valdivieso, Kyle W Mitchell, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Marco V Narici, Martin Flück
AIMS: We assessed focal adhesion kinase (FAK) response to concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) resistance training (RT) at two vastus lateralis (VL) sites, and the relationships between FAK, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and morphological remodeling. METHODS: Six young males trained both legs unilaterally 3 times/week for 8 weeks; one leg performed CON RT, the contralateral performed ECC RT. Muscle biopsies were collected after training from VL midbelly (MID) and distal (Distal) sites at 0, 4, 8 weeks...
February 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Yue Liu, Fang Lin, Yu Fu, Wenjia Chen, Wenxiu Liu, Jinyu Chi, Xiaohui Zhang, Xinhua Yin
AIM: Cortistatin (CST) is a newly discovered endogenous active peptide that exerts protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the relationship between CST and aortic calcification and the underlying mechanism remain obscure. Therefore, we investigated effects of CST on aortic calcification and its signaling pathways. METHODS: Calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured using the o-cresolphthalein colorimetric method and ALP assay kit, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Martin J Gibala
The paper by Søgaard et al.1 in this issue of Acta Physiologica sheds new light on the potential for high-intensity interval training (HIIT) to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health in older individuals. While interval training has been practiced by high-level athletes for more than a century, the last decade in particular has seen a resurgence of interest in the method as a means to enhance health in a wide range of individuals. Renewed scientific inquiry has been accompanied by increased attention from fitness enthusiasts, as evidenced by the fact that HIIT was again recently named the top fitness trend worldwide in an annual survey by the American College of Sports Medicine...
February 12, 2018: Acta Physiologica
A T Layton, V Vallon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Leonidas S Lundell, Mladen Savikj, Emil Kostovski, Per Ole Iversen, Juleen R Zierath, Anna Krook, Alexander V Chibalin, Ulrika Widegren
AIM: Spinal cord injury-induced loss of skeletal muscle mass does not progress linearly. In humans, peak muscle loss occurs during the first six weeks post-injury, and gradually continues thereafter. The aim of this study was to delineate the regulatory events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy during the first year following spinal cord injury. METHODS: Key translational, autophagic and proteolytic proteins were analyzed by immunoblotting of human vastus lateralis muscle obtained 1, 3 and 12 month's following spinal cord injury...
February 8, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Mark A Skarsfeldt, Sofia H Bomholtz, Pia R Lundegaard, Angelica Lopez-Izquierdo, Martin Tristani-Firouzi, Bo Hjorth Bentzen
AIM: The zebrafish has emerged as a novel model for investigating cardiac physiology and pathology. The aim of the current study is to investigate the atrium specific ion channels responsible for shaping the atrial cardiac action potential in zebrafish. METHODS: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction we assessed the expression level of atrium specific potassium channels. The functional role of these channels was studied by patch clamp experiments on isolated atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, and by optical mapping of explanted adult zebrafish hearts...
February 7, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Bryndis Birnir, Lena Eliasson
In response to your editorial 1 on gender issues in science and the effect choices people make have on their lives. The parallel you draw between truck drivers, prisoners, the homeless and female scientists is rather unusual and suggests that you do not consider unfair treatment of women pursuing science a real possibility. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 6, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Matjaž Stenovec, Saša Trkov Bobnar, Tina Smolič, Marko Kreft, Vladimir Parpura, Robert Zorec
AIM: Alzheimer disease (AD) is largely considered a neuron-derived insult, but also involves failure of astroglia. A recent study indicated that mutated presenilin 1 (PS1M146V), a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ channel with decreased Ca2+ conductance, impairs the traffic of astroglial peptidergic vesicles. Whether other pathogenically relevant PS1 mutants, such as PS1ΔE9, which code for ER channel with putative increased Ca2+ conductance, similarly affect vesicle traffic, is unknown...
February 2, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Yasutada Akiba, Jonathan D Kaunitz
In this issue of Acta Physiol, Taolang Li, et al. sought to answer the question of how the stomach of CAIX knockout mice exhibits parietal cell loss and foveolar hyperplasia by careful time course observation from the weaning to adult of CAIX KO mouse stomach 1 . CAIX KO stomach had downregulation of the tight junction protein claudin-18A2 and upregulation of the inflammatory mediators IL-1β and iNOS at 1 month of age, followed by parietal cell loss due to inflammation, with resultant hypergastrinemia, which ultimately promoted foveolar hyperplasia...
February 1, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Danny Christiansen, Robyn M Murphy, Jens Bangsbo, Christos G Stathis, David J Bishop
AIM: This study explored the effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) on mRNA responses of PGC-1α (total, 1α1, and 1α4) and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase isoforms (NKA; α1-3 , β1-3 , and FXYD1) to an interval running session, and determined if these effects were related to increased oxidative stress, hypoxia, and fibre type-specific AMPK and CaMKII signalling, in human skeletal muscle. METHODS: In a randomised, crossover fashion, eight healthy men (26 ± 5 y and 57.4 ± 6...
January 31, 2018: Acta Physiologica
S V Mochalov, N V Tarasova, T V Kudryashova, D K Gaynullina, V U Kalenchuk, A S Borovik, A V Vorotnikov, O S Tarasova, R Schubert
AIM: During early postnatal development, arterial contraction depends less on Ca2+ -signalling pathways but more on changes in Ca2+ -sensitivity compared to adult animals. Whether this difference is related to Rho-kinase, one of the major players affecting Ca2+ -sensitivity, is unknown for intact vessels. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that Rho-kinase critically contributes to the higher Ca2+ -sensitivity of contraction in intact arteries of 1-week old rats. METHODS: We studied 1-week-old, 4-5-week-old and 10-12-week-old rats performing isometric myography, Ca2+ -fluorimetry and Western blotting using intact saphenous arteries and arterial pressure measurements under urethane anesthesia...
January 31, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Peter Bie, Ralf Brandes, Susan Deuchars, David Eisner, Joachim Fandrey, Markus Hecker, William Louch, Tomi Taira, Bayram Yilmaz
The modern science of physiology began in Europe. Deciding on exactly who the first physiologist was is not easy but excellent candidates include Claude Bernard and Carl Ludwig. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was inaugurated in 1901 with the first award mentioning the word "physiology" being made to Ivan Pavlov (Russia) in 1904. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 29, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Yoshitaka Ohno, Akiko Oyama, Hikari Kaneko, Tatsuro Egawa, Shingo Yokoyama, Takao Sugiura, Yoshinobu Ohira, Toshitada Yoshioka, Katsumasa Goto
AIM: Lactate is produced in and released from skeletal muscle cells. Lactate receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81), is expressed in skeletal muscle cells. However, a physiological role of extracellular lactate on skeletal muscle is not fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate extracellular lactate-associated morphological changes and intracellular signals in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. METHODS: Mouse myoblast C2C12 cells were differentiated for 5 days to form myotubes...
January 27, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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