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Acta Physiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330945/cyclosporine-a-induces-endothelin-converting-enzyme-ece-1-studies-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#1
Samuel N Heyman, Zaid Abassi, Christian Rosenberger, Hiba Yaseen, Galia Skarjinski, Ahuva Shina, Susanne Mathia, Natalia Krits, Mogher Khamaisi
AIM: Cyclosporine A (CsA) induces renal vasoconstriction and hypoxia and enhances the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) pro-hormone (pre-pro ET-1), plausibly leading to a feed-forward loop of renal vasoconstriction, hypoxia, and enhanced synthesis of the potent vasoconstrictor ET-1. Endothelin converting enzyme (ECE)-1 cleaves big endothelin to generate endothelin (ET)-1 and is up-regulated by hypoxia via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We hypothesized that in addition to the direct induction of ET-1 synthesis, CsA might also intensify renal ECE-1expression, thus contributing to enhanced ET-1 synthesis following CsA...
January 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330928/specific-labelling-of-myonuclei-by-an-antibody-against-pericentriolar-material-1-pcm1-on-skeletal-muscle-tissue-sections
#2
I M Winje, M Bengtsen, E Eftestøl, I Juvkam, J C Bruusgaard, K Gundersen
AIM: Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue containing several different cell types and only about 40 - 50% of the cell nuclei within the tissue belong to myofibres. Existing technology, attempting to distinguish myonuclei from other nuclei at the light microscopy level, has led to controversies in our understanding of the basic cell biology of muscle plasticity. The present study aims at demonstrating that an antibody against the protein Pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1) can be used to reliably identify myonuclei on histological cross sections from humans, mice and rats...
January 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330917/mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-remains-stable-despite-a-comprehensive-and-sustained-increase-in-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-patients-undergoing-gastric-bypass-surgery
#3
Michael T Lund, Steen Larsen, Merethe Hansen, Julie Courraud, Andrea K Floyd, Mikael Støckel, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
AIM: It has been proposed, but not yet demonstrated by convincing evidence in published articles, that insulin resistance and mitochondrial respiratory function are causally-related physiological phenomena. Here, we tested the prediction that weight loss induced increase in insulin sensitivity will correlate with a corresponding change in mitochondrial respiratory capacity over the same time period. METHODS: Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycemic clamp technique and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity was evaluated by high-resolution respirometry in 26 patients with obesity...
January 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316265/effects-of-chronic-hypoxia-on-diaphragm-function-in-deer-mice-native-to-high-altitude
#4
Neal J Dawson, Sulayman A Lyons, Danielle A Henry, Graham R Scott
AIM: We examined the effects of chronic hypoxia on diaphragm function in high- and low-altitude populations of Peromyscus mice. METHODS: Deer mice (P. maniculatus) native to high altitude and congeneric mice native to low altitude (P. leucopus) were born and raised in captivity to adulthood, and were acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (12 or 9 kPa, simulating hypoxia at 4300 m and 7000 m) for 6-8 weeks. We then measured indices of mitochondrial respiration capacity, force production, and fatigue resistance in the diaphragm...
January 9, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316253/post-factual-gender-in-science-debate
#5
EDITORIAL
P B Persson
Gender issues come up regularly in science too. Yet here, imbalance - if not outright discrimination - is often anticipated when <50% of all authors, editors and reviewers are female. Surprisingly, we tend to accept such straight forward statistics and conclusions without much afterthought. Facts on female authorship provided by the journal Science may tell us more, by putting female publications in relation to active female scientists: When comparing percentages of women researchers with the proportion of females publishing in Science, women are underrepresented by approximately one-third...
January 7, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297989/increased-temperature-accelerates-glycogen-synthesis-and-delays-fatigue-in-isolated-mouse-muscle-during-repeated-contractions
#6
Ester Hanya, Abram Katz
AIM: Elevated glycogen content in muscle delays fatigue during exercise. We examined if increasing muscle temperature during recovery from exercise affects glycogen synthesis and muscle performance during a subsequent bout of exercise. METHODS: Isolated mouse extensor digitorum longus muscles were stimulated electrically to perform repeated tetanic contractions until force decreased to 40% of initial at 25°C. Thereafter muscles recovered for 120 min at 25°C (control), 120 min at 35°C, or 60 min at 35°C followed by 60 min at 25°C...
January 3, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297976/platelet-responses-to-pharmacological-and-physiological-interventions-in-middle-aged-men-with-different-habitual-physical-activity-levels
#7
M H Lundberg Slingsby, L Gliemann, M Thrane, N Rytter, J Egelund, M V Chan, P C Armstrong, T D Warner, Y Hellsten
The current guidelines following an acute coronary syndrome recommend dual anti-platelet therapy (aspirin plus a P2Y12 antagonist) alongside lifestyle modifications, including more regular physical activity. It is currently unknown if regular exercise affects the pharmacology of dual anti-platelet therapy. AIM: To explore how exercise-induced improvements in vascular and platelet function affect the efficacy of dual anti-platelet therapy, in a cross-sectional study of men with different physical activity level (training status)...
January 3, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282897/uniaxial-strain-of-cultured-mouse-and-rat-cardiomyocyte-strands-slows-conduction-more-when-its-axis-is-parallel-to-impulse-propagation-than-when-it-is-perpendicular
#8
Andrea Buccarello, Michela Azzarito, Frédéric Michoud, Stéphanie P Lacour, Jan P Kucera
AIM: Cardiac tissue deformation can modify tissue resistance, membrane capacitance and ion currents, and hence cause arrhythmogenic slow conduction. Our aim was to investigate whether uniaxial strain causes different changes in conduction velocity (θ) when the principal strain axis is parallel vs. perpendicular to impulse propagation. METHODS: Cardiomyocyte strands were cultured on stretchable custom microelectrode arrays and θ was determined during steady-state pacing...
December 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282884/a-sticky-wicket-overexpression-of-integrin-alpha-11-is-sufficient-for-cardiac-fibrosis
#9
EDITORIAL
Andrew Leask
Increased mechanical loading in the microenvironment is linked to pathologies including fibrosis, a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by increased production of scar tissue that culminates in organ failure and, often, death. Cells sense surrounding stiffness via cell surface receptors called integrins, which stimulate downstream signaling molecules including focal adhesion kinase to cause further overproduction and remodeling of connective tissue. Thus increased mechanical loading (i.e., stiff connective tissue) perpetuates the fibrotic phenotype...
December 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282868/epigenetic-changes-mediating-transition-to-chronic-kidney-disease-hypoxic-memory
#10
EDITORIAL
Tetsuhiro Tanaka
Underlying mechanisms accounting for the transition of AKI to CKD have been eagerly sought. Candidates so far include nephron loss, inflammation, endothelial injury with vascular rarefaction and cell cycle arrest in epithelial cells. Among them, hypoxia is increasingly recognized as a common pathway mediating transition from AKI to CKD 2 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282866/body-clocks-time-for-the-nobel-prize
#11
EDITORIAL
Charna Dibner, Ueli Schibler
Already in 1729 Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan, a French astronomer, noticed that the mimosa plants in his backyard opened and closed their leaves at similar times during the day. Intriguingly, these daily cycles of leaf movements persisted in plants kept in nearly constant darkness, and de Mairan thus concluded that they must be driven by endogenous clocks rather than environmental light-dark cycles. In the meantime self-sustained circadian oscillators have been found in nearly all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to mammals...
December 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271578/cell-specific-resetting-of-mouse-islet-cellular-clocks-by-glucagon-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-somatostatin
#12
Volodymyr Petrenko, Charna Dibner
AIM: Molecular clocks, operative in pancreatic islet cells, represent an intrinsic mechanism regulating intracellular metabolism and hormone secretion. Glucagon, somatostatin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are essential coordinators of islet physiology. Here, we assess the synchronizing capacity of glucagon, somatostatin and GLP-1 on pancreatic α- and β-cell circadian clocks. METHODS: Triple transgenic mice, expressing a circadian PER2::luciferase (luc) reporter combined with α- and β-cell specific fluorescent reporters were employed...
December 22, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266771/record-submission-of-well-over-600-manuscript-in-2017
#13
EDITORIAL
P B Persson
In the face of dramatically increasing numbers of profit oriented journals, most of them open access,1, 2 it is a particular pleasure that Acta Physiologica receives more and more submissions by the year. As you know, Acta Physiologica provides the authors with the choice of open access or free to publish. On top, all color figures are free and we supply less favored regions of the world with free access to Acta Physiologica. It seems that it is possible to provide open access and free to publish options, while providing free subscriptions for those scientists in need...
December 21, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266826/stress-affects-expression-of-the-clock-gene-bmal1-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-neonatal-rats-via-glucocorticoid-dependent-mechanism
#14
Lucie Olejníková, Lenka Polidarová, Alena Sumová
AIM: The reactivity of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) to stressful stimuli has been controversial but most studies have confirmed the resilience of the SCN to stress. We tested the hypothesis that during a critical period shortly after birth, the developing SCN clock is affected by glucocorticoids. METHODS: Mothers of two rat strains with different sensitivities to stress, i.e., Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and their pups were exposed to stressful stimuli every day from delivery, and clock gene expression profiles were detected in the 4-day-old pups' SCN...
December 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253326/tendinous-tissue-properties-after-short-and-long-term-functional-overload-differences-between-controls-12-weeks-and-4-years-of-resistance-training
#15
G J Massey, T G Balshaw, T M Maden-Wilkinson, J P Folland
AIM: The potential for tendinous tissues to adapt to functional overload, especially after several years of exposure to heavy resistance training is largely unexplored. This study compared the morphological and mechanical characteristics of the patellar tendon and knee-extensor tendon-aponeurosis complex between young men exposed to long-term (4 years; n=16), short-term (12 weeks; n=15) and no (untrained controls; n=39) functional overload in the form of heavy resistance training. METHODS: Patellar tendon cross-sectional area, vastus-lateralis aponeurosis area and quadriceps femoris volume, plus patellar tendon stiffness and Young's modulus, and tendon-aponeurosis complex stiffness, were quantified with MRI, dynamometry and ultrasonography...
December 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253320/novel-concepts-in-sleep-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Henna-Kaisa Wigren, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
Knowledge regarding the cellular mechanisms of sleep regulation is accumulating rapidly. In addition to neurons, also non-neuronal brain cells (astrocytes and microglia) are emerging as potential players. New techniques, particularly optogenetics and designed receptors activated by artificial ligands (DREADD) have provided also sleep research with important additional tools to study the effect of either silencing or activating specific neuronal groups/neuronal networks by opening or shutting ion channels on cells...
December 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253314/regulatory-mechanisms-of-microrna-sorting-into-extracellular-vesicles
#17
EDITORIAL
Andreas Zietzer, Nikos Werner, Felix Jansen
Coronary artery disease is the most important cause of mortality worldwide. In the last decades, key mechanisms of atherosclerosis and plaque formation have been described. It is commonly accepted, that continuous damage of endothelial cells by oxidative stress causes endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction, which mark the beginning of atherosclerotic plaque formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237245/molecular-mechanisms-and-physiological-relevance-of-rgk-proteins-in-the-heart
#18
REVIEW
U Meza, D Beqollari, R A Bannister
The primary route of Ca2+ entry into cardiac myocytes is via 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels. Ca2+ influx through these channels influences duration of action potential and engages excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in both the atria and the myocardium. Members of the RGK (Rad, Rem, Rem2, and Gem/Kir) family of small GTP binding proteins are potent, endogenously-expressed inhibitors of cardiac L-type channels. Although much work has focused on the molecular mechanisms by which RGK proteins inhibit the CaV 1...
December 13, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230959/fishing-for-histamine-h3-receptor-functions
#19
EDITORIAL
Helmut Haas
Puttonen et al. (this issue) report behavioral features and abnormalities of zebrafish lacking the histamine H3 receptor, which regulates the release of several neurotransmitters, including GABA, glutamate, histamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine1 . Despite normal morphological development, mutant larvae show faster locomotor adaptation to sudden darkness than control larvae, whereas there are no differences in basic locomotor activity during daytime and night. Zebrafish sleep, defined by immobility for a period of longer than 1 min, is normal in hrh3 KO larvae...
December 12, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230949/glucocorticoid-receptor-activation-is-associated-with-increased-resistance-to-heat-induced-hyperthermia-and-injury
#20
Yifan Chen, Tianzheng Yu
AIM: Anti-inflammatory mediators likely play a key role in maintaining thermal homeostasis and providing protection against heat stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and resistance to heat-induced hyperthermia and injury. METHODS: Effects of heat exposure on core body temperature, muscle GR phosphorylation status and subcellular expression were examined in control mice and thermal acclimation (TA)-exposed mice...
December 12, 2017: Acta Physiologica
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