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Acta Physiologica

Andrea Del Campo
The article published by Arribat et al. 1 in this issue of Acta Physiologica has particularly caught my attention due to the emphasis placed on two important facts that have become a topic for recent research in the development of sarcopenia, namely, (i) the importance of mitochondrial quality control in skeletal muscle- aging and (ii) the distinct patterns of mitochondrial adaptation produced by exercise in a time-dependent manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 15, 2018: Acta Physiologica
P B Persson
Submission fees for Acta Physiologica? No. Journals have experienced sharp decreases in submissions (by 1/3) after introducing payments before reviewing. Two months before the year's end, we are happy to announce that submissions to Acta Physiologica are on a new record level. Once again. More outstanding manuscripts come with the steady changes in Acta Physiologica's policies, appearance and prizes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 12, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Jennifer M Yentes, William Denton, Kaeli Samson, Kendra K Schmid, Casey Wiens, Stephen I Rennard
AIMS: Coupling between walking and breathing in humans is well established. In healthy systems, the ability to couple and uncouple leads to energy economization. It is unknown if physiologic efficiency is susceptible to alteration particularly in individuals with airflow obstruction. The aim of this research to determine if coupling was compromised in a disease characterized by abnormal airflow and dyspnea, and if this was associated with reduced energy efficiency. METHODS: As a model of airflow obstruction, 17 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 23 control subjects were included and walked on a treadmill for six-minutes at three speeds (preferred speed and ±20% preferred speed) while energy expenditure, breathing, and walking were recorded...
November 10, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Christopher L Axelrod, Ciarán E Fealy, Anny Mulya, John P Kirwan
AIMS: Mitochondria exist as a morphologically plastic network driven by cellular bioenergetic demand. Induction of fusion and fission machinery allows the organelle to regulate quality control and substrate flux. Physiologic stressors promote fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, a process implicated in the onset of metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. It is well known that exercise training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume, number, and density...
November 8, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Gesine Reichart, Johannes Mayer, Cindy Zehm, Timo Kirschstein, Tursonjan Tokay, Falko Lange, Simone Baltrusch, Markus Tiedge, Georg Fuellen, Saleh Ibrahim, Rüdiger Köhling
AIM: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations can negatively influence lifespan and organ function. More than 250 pathogenic mtDNA mutations are known, often involving neurological symptoms. Major neurodegenerative diseases share key etiopathogenetic components i.e. mtDNA mutations, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. METHODS: Here, we characterized a conplastic mouse strain (C57BL/6J-mtNOD) carrying an electron transport chain complex IV mutation that leads to an altered cytochrome c oxidase subunit III...
October 30, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Keiko Yasumatsu, Shusuke Iwata, Mayuko Inoue, Yuzo Ninomiya
AIM: To elucidate whether fatty acid taste has a quality that does not overlap with other primary qualities, we investigated potential neuron types coding fatty acid information and how GPR120 is involved. METHODS: Single fibre recordings in the chorda tympani (CT) nerve and behavioural response measurements using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm were performed in GPR120-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. RESULTS: Single fibres can be classified into fatty acid (F)-, S-, M-, electrolyte (E)-, Q-, and N-type groups according to the maximal response among oleic acid, sucrose, monopotassium glutamate (MPG), HCl, quinine hydrochloride, and NaCl, respectively...
October 30, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Ellen P S Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
AIM: To determine the role of neurons in the ventral part of the lateral preoptic area (vLPO) in CNS thermoregulation. METHODS: In vivo electrophysiological and neuropharmacological were used to evaluate the contribution of neurons in the vLPO to the regulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and muscle shivering in urethane/chloralose-anesthetized rats. RESULTS: Nanoinjections of NMDA targeting the medial preoptic area (MPA), and the vLPO suppressed the cold-evoked BAT sympathetic activity (SNA), and reduced BAT temperature (TBAT ), expired CO2 , mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate...
October 26, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Shahid Muhammad Iqbal, Rosa Lemmens-Gruber
Cardiomyocytes are highly coordinated cells with multiple proteins organized in micro domains. Minor changes or interference in subcellular proteins can cause major disturbances in physiology. The cardiac sodium channel (NaV 1.5) is an important determinant of correct electrical activity in cardiomyocytes which are localized at intercalated discs, T-tubules and lateral membranes in the form of a macromolecular complex with multiple interacting protein partners. The channel is tightly regulated by post-translational modifications for smooth conduction and propagation of action potentials...
October 26, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Paolo B Dominelli, Keisho Katayama, Tyler D Vermeulen, Troy J R Stuckless, Courtney V Brown, Glen E Foster, A William Sheel
Reducing the work of breathing during exercise improves locomotor muscle blood flow and reduces diaphragm and locomotor muscle fatigue and is thought to be the result of a sympathetically-mediated reflex. AIM: To assess muscle sympathetic nerve activity when the work of breathing is experimentally lowered during dynamic exercise. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n=12; age=29±9 yrs) performed semi-recumbent cycling trials at 40, 60 and 80% of peak workload. Exercise trials consisted of: spontaneous breathing, reduced work of breathing (proportional assist ventilator), followed by further spontaneous breathing (post-ventilator)...
October 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Jin-Feng Zhao, Hsiang-Ying Chen, Jeng Wei, Shr-Jeng Jim Leu, Tzong-Shyuan Lee
AIM: CCN family member 1 (CCN1) is an extracellular matrix cytokine and appears in atherosclerotic lesions. However, we have no evidence to support the role of CCN1 in regulating of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/- ) mice were used as in vivo model. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced macrophage-foam cells were used as in vitro model. RT-PCR and western blot analysis was used for evaluating gene and protein expression, respectively...
October 22, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Henrik Michaëlsson, Mats Andersson, Johan Svensson, Lars Karlsson, Johan Ehn, Georgia Culley, Anders Engström, Nicklas Bergström, Parthenia Savvidi, Hans-Georg Kuhn, Eric Hanse, Henrik Seth
AIM: Major depressive disorder is a common and debilitating condition with substantial economic impact. Treatment options, although effective, are aimed at relieving the symptoms with limited disease modification. Ketamine, a commonly used anesthetic, has received substantial attention as it shows rapid antidepressant effects clinically. We studied the effects of ketamine on hippocampal function and dentate gyrus proliferation in rats showing a depressive-like phenotype. METHODS: Adolescent and adult animals were prenatally exposed to the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone, and we verified a depressive-like phenotype using behavioural tests, such as the sucrose preference...
October 22, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Yuh-Ying Lin Wang, Wei-Kung Wang
Historically, some important concepts that help explain the power saving character of the circulatory system have been raised. About 2000 years ago, Greek physician Galen surmised that the arterial pulse propagates directly through the tunics of the arteries. Otto Frank first proposed arterial resonance in 1899. In the introduction of the second edition of McDonald's book1 , it was stated: "The main developments since 1950 have been in terms of treating the whole arterial system as being in a steady-state oscillation produced by the regularly repeated beat of the heart...
October 19, 2018: Acta Physiologica
David Scully, Peggy Sfyri, Sandrine Verpoorten, Petros Papadopoulos, María Carmen Muñoz-Turrillas, Robert Mitchell, Ahmed Aburima, Ketan Patel, Laura Gutierez, Khalid M Naseem, Antonios Matsakas
AIM: The use of platelets as biomaterials has gained intense research interest. However, the mechanisms regarding platelet-mediated skeletal myogenesis remain to be established. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet releasate in skeletal myogenesis and muscle stem cell fate in vitro and ex vivo respectively. METHODS: We analysed the effect of platelet releasate on proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts by means of cell proliferation assays, immunohistochemistry, gene expression and cell bioenergetics...
October 19, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Matteo Fiorenza, Thomas P Gunnarsson, Thomas S Ehlers, Jens Bangsbo
AIM: To examine whether hypertensive individuals exhibit altered muscle mitochondrial turnover and redox homeostasis compared with healthy normotensive counterparts, and whether the antihypertensive effect of high-intensity exercise training is associated with improved mitochondrial quality and enhanced anti-oxidant defence. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and longitudinal parallel design, 24 essential hypertensive (HYP) and 13 healthy normotensive (NORM) men completed six weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT)...
October 19, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Simon Pecha, Jussi Koivumäki, Bastiaan Geelhoed, Romy Kempe, Emanuel Berk, Andreas Engel, Hermann Reichenspurner, Thomas Eschenhagen, Ursula Ravens, Alberto Kaumann, Torsten Christ
There have been several attempts to reduce data scattering in contractility studies. When using superfused muscle preparations for contractility experiments, there is always the question how to compensate for variabilities in muscle thickness. A simple but rather imperfect approach is the normalization of force to cross-sectional area. However, this attempt does not consider the possibility of hypoxic cores in thick muscles, which probably do not really contribute to force development. Han et al. recently published a new computer model to investigate the relevance of oxygen distribution for force generation when intact muscles are superfused, as frequently used in physiological experiments...
October 18, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Werner J Z'Graggen, Joerg C Schefold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2018: Acta Physiologica
I M Winje, X Sheng, K-A Hansson, A Solbrå, S Tennøe, F Saatcioglu, J C Bruusgaard, K Gundersen
AIM: Cachexia is a severe wasting disorder involving loss of body- and muscle mass reducing survival and quality of life in cancer patients. We aim at determining if cachexia is a mere perturbation of the protein balance or if the condition also involves a degenerative loss myonuclei within the fiber syncytia or loss of whole muscle fibers. METHODS: We induced cachexia by xenografting PC3 prostate cancer cells in nu/nu mice. Six weeks later, we counted myonuclei by in vivo microscopic imaging of single live fibers in the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL), and the EDL, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were also harvested for ex vivo histology...
October 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
John D Imig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Fitz-Roy E Curry, Torfinn Taxt, Cecilie Brekke Rygh, Tina Pavlin, Ronja Bjønrstad, Stein Ove Døskeland, Rolf K Reed
AIM: Epac1-/- mice, but not Epac2-/- mice have elevated baseline permeability to albumin. This study extends the investigations of how Epac-dependent pathways modulate transvascular exchange in response to the classical inflammatory agent histamine. It also evaluates the limitations of models of blood-to-tissue exchange in transgenic mice in DCE-MRI measurements. METHODS: We measured DCE-MRI signal intensity in masseter muscle of wt and Epac1-/- mice with established approaches from capillary physiology to determine how changes in blood flow and vascular permeability contribute to overall changes of microvascular flux...
October 9, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Brent J Raiteri, Daniel Hahn
AIM: We investigated if residual force depression (rFD) is present during voluntary fixed-end contractions of human tibialis anterior (TA) and whether reducing TA's activation level after active shortening could reduce rFD. METHODS: Ten participants performed fixed-end dorsiflexion contractions to a low, moderate or high level while electromyography (EMG), dorsiflexion force and TA ultrasound images were recorded. Contractions were force- or EMG-matched and after the low or high contraction level was attained, participants respectively increased or decreased their force/EMG to a moderate level...
October 9, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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