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Acta Physiologica

Jaana T Sarasniemi, Kalle Koskensalo, Juho Raiko, Pirjo Nuutila, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Kirsi A Virtanen
In a recent review of Acta Physiologica, Rodriguez et al1 suggests that the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be detected studied using 18 F-FDG-PET/CT. Although this method is commonly used in BAT research, it is very expensive and time-consuming and exposes the subjects to ionizing radiation. Therefore, more affordable and radiation-free methods have been developed, such as thermal infrared imaging (IR) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) 2 . This article is protected by copyright...
May 14, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Pontus B Persson, Anja Bondke Persson
The current obesity epidemic has not only spread from Western to developing economies, but is affecting ever younger individuals. While oftentimes blamed on a slow metabolism or a hereditary component, one might consider whether family recipes and dietary habits are hereditary to a much higher degree than slow metabolism or big bones could ever be. Education is critical, so how do we explain metabolism to a layman, e.g. a parent of an obese child? - Metabolism denotes all the processes, which turn nutrients from our food into energy...
May 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Alejandra M Yeves, Juan I Burgos, Andrés J Medina, M Celeste Villa-Abrille, Irene L Ennis
AIM: Myocardial Na+ /H+ exchanger-1 (NHE-1) hyperactivity and oxidative stress are interrelated phenomena playing pivotal roles in the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Exercise training is effective to convert pathological into physiological hypertrophy in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and IGF-1 -key humoral mediator of exercise training- inhibits myocardial NHE-1, at least in normotensive rats. Therefore, we hypothesize that IGF-1 by hampering NHE-1 hyperactivity and oxidative stress should exert a cardioprotective effect in the SHR...
May 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Julie Sletten, Germaine Cornelissen, Jørg Assmus, Torvid Kiserud, Susanne Albrechtsen, Jörg Kessler
AIM: The knowledge on circadian rhythmicity is rapidly expanding. We aimed to define the longitudinal development of the circadian heart rate rhythm in the human fetus in an unrestricted, out-of-hospital setting, and to examine the effects of maternal physical activity, season and fetal sex. METHODS: We recruited 48 women with low-risk singleton pregnancies. Using a portable monitor for continuous fetal electrocardiography, fetal heart rate recordings were obtained around gestational weeks 24, 28, 32 and 36...
May 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Catarina Rippe, Sebastian Albinsson, Gregor Guron, Holger Nilsson, Karl Swärd
Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is an effector enzyme of nitric oxide (NO). Recent work has unraveled how levels of this enzyme are controlled, and highlighted a role in vascular disease. We provide a timely summary of available knowledge on transcriptional regulation of sGC, including influences from the NOTCH signaling pathway and genetic variants. It is speculated that hypertension-induced repression of sGC starts a vicious circle that can be initiated by periods of stress, diet or genetic factors, and a key tenet is that reduction of sGC further raises blood pressure...
May 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Bogdan Galusca, Julien Verney, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Yiin Ling, Pascal Edouard, Leonard Feasson, Marion Ravelojaona, Hubert Vidal, Bruno Estour, Natacha Germain
AIM: Constitutional thinness (CT) is a rare condition of natural low bodyweight, with no psychological issues, no marker of undernutrition and a resistance to weight gain. This study evaluated the skeletal muscle phenotype of CT women by comparison to a normal BMI control group. METHODS: 10 CT women (BMI< 17.5 kg/m2) and 10 female controls (BMI: 18.5-25 kg/m2) underwent metabolic and hormonal assessment along with muscle biopsies to analyse the skeletal muscular fibers pattern, capillarity, enzymes activities and transcriptomics...
May 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Corinna Schulte, Heidi Noels
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, a publication by Jian et al. expands our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms behind re-endothelialization and neointima formation after injury of the vascular endothelium1 . The rationale for performing this study was that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ is highly expressed in injury-induced neointima and acts as a master regulator of atherosclerosis. As interferon-induced protein 35 (IFI35) is induced by IFN-γ and known to be important in inflammation-related disorders, the authors hypothesized a potential involvement of IFI35 in neointima formation...
May 10, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Antonio M G de Diego, Antonio G García
Chromaffin cells from the adrenal gland (CCs) have extensively been used to explore the molecular structure and function of the exocytotic machinery, neurotransmitter release and synaptic transmission. The CC is integrated in the sympathoadrenal axis that helps the body maintain homeostasis during both routine life and in acute stress conditions. This function is exquisitely controlled by the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus. We propose the hypothesis that damage undergone by the brain during neurodegenerative diseases is also affecting the neurosecretory function of adrenal medullary CCs...
May 9, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Jacqueline K Phillips
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, a paper by Liu et al1 examines the mechanisms by which the neuropeptide cortistatin ameliorates calcification in animal and cell based models of vascular calcification. Previous work by the authors established that cortistatin was able to inhibit medial vascular calcification and associated disease pathology, and the current work goes on to show a strong association between the beneficial effects of cortistatin and modulation of Wnt signalling pathways. This article is protected by copyright...
May 5, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Anika Westphal, Ralf Mrowka
The causes for the development of chronic diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease or cancer are multifactorial and often influence each other. With increasing age the risk for developing type 2 diabetes increases and the risk to suffer from cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease is increased once a patient is diabetic. Besides pharmacological treatment there is one strategy to combat the development or progress of most chronic disease: physical activity. Research is going on to understand the impact of skeletal muscle and exercise on improving the health status in e...
May 5, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Leon Islas, Arpad Szallasi
TRPV1 is a promising pain target. Although a number of small molecule TRPV1 antagonists have been advanced into clinical trials, thus far none has progressed beyond Phase II due to on-target side-effects such as a febrile reaction. In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Romanovsky and colleagues report two TRPV1 antagonists that paradoxically induce hypothermia in experimental animals, potentially opening a new avenue for drug development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 5, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Ralf Mrowka, Steven Kirchner, Stefanie Reuter
Knock out technologies and the application of siRNA made it possible to turn off genes or to diminish their activity. The opposite application was much harder so far. Directed switching on of endogenous genes has been virtually impossible. One option of overexpression of a gene of interest is to bring the complete genetic information of that gene into the desired target cell. Researchers used viruses or plasmids shuttling the DNA into the cell to accomplish this. For large genes this is rather a difficult art since the size capacity of the lentiviral systems is limited...
May 5, 2018: Acta Physiologica
A C P Motzko-Soares, R C L Vizin, T M S Martins, A R O Hungaro, J R Sato, M C Almeida, D C Carrettiero
AIM: Here, we have extensively investigated the relationship between thermoregulation and neurodegeneration-induced dementia of the Alzheimer's type using intracerebroventricular injections of streptozotocin (icv-STZ). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with bilateral injections of icv-STZ, and their thermoregulatory profiles (core body temperature, tail-skin temperature, cold and heat defence responses and thermal place preference) were evaluated. Spatial memory, locomotor activity, social interaction, brain ventricular volume, and Aβ1-42 and tau protein levels in the brain were analysed in order to characterize the effects of STZ on the brain and behaviour...
May 2, 2018: Acta Physiologica
C M Alam, J S G Silvander, T O Helenius, D M Toivola
AIM: Diabetes is a result of an interplay between genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Keratin intermediate filaments are stress proteins in epithelial cells and keratin mutations predispose to several human diseases. However, the involvement of keratins in diabetes is not well known. K8 and its partner K18 are the main β-cell keratins, and knockout of K8 (K8-/- ) in mice causes mislocalization of glucose transporter 2, mitochondrial defects, reduced insulin content, and altered systemic glucose/insulin control...
May 2, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Andreas Breenfeldt Andersen, Laura Oberholzer, Thomas Haider, Anne-Kristine Meinild-Lundby, Nazzareno Fagoni
As highlighted recently in this journal,1 but also in others, quantification of total haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ), red blood cell volume (RBCV), plasma volume (PV), and blood volume (BV) is common and relevant in a clinical and scientific context.1-5 For instance, a decline in BV is observed in artificial microgravity and during spaceflight, while a PV reduction is observed when sojourning to high altitude.2 Moreover, Hbmass and RBCV are two major determinants of physical performance,1 and measuring Hbmass might be a potential technique to detect blood doping...
April 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Kalyan C Chapalamadugu, Jared Tur, Sachin L Badole, Rakesh C Kukreja, Marco Brotto, Srinivas M Tipparaju
AIM: Potassium channel accessory subunits (Kvβ) play a key role in cardiac electrical activity through ion channel modulation. In the present study we hypothesize that Kvβ2 regulates skeletal muscle growth and fiber phenotype via protein-protein interactions. METHODS: Kvβ2 knockout mouse model was used for morphometric, immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis to evaluate the role of Kvβ2 in skeletal muscle physiology. RESULTS: Deletion of Kvβ2 gene in mice (Kvβ2 knockout, KO) leads to significant decrease in body weight along with skeletal muscle size...
April 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Holger Nilsson
In this issue, Mochalov et al.1 put another piece to the puzzle of how blood vessels develop from fetus to adult. Their study focusses on changes in the regulation of contraction as smooth muscle matures. For a long time, contraction regulation was extensively studied in striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac). There, calcium activates contraction by binding to troponin, causing a conformational change that displaces tropomyosin from the myosin binding site on actin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
April 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Lubomir T Lubomirov, Symeon Papadopoulos, Dilyana Filipova, Sufian Baransi, Daniel Todorović, Philipp Lake, Doris Metzler, Silvia Hilsdorf, Rudolf Schubert, Mechthild M Schroeter, Gabriele Pfitzer
AIM: Constitutive release of NO blunts intrinsic and stimulated contractile activity in cerebral arteries (CA). Here, we explored the involvement of phosphorylation and expression levels of the PKG sensitive, leucine zipper positive (LZ+ ) splice variants of the regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) and whether its expression is associated with higher cGMP sensitivity. METHODS: Vascular contractility was investigated by wire-myography. Phosphorylation of MYPT1 was determined by western blotting...
April 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Mattias Carlström, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
Nitric oxide (NO) importantly contributes to cardiovascular homeostasis by regulating blood flow and maintaining endothelial integrity. Conversely, reduced NO bioavailability is a central feature during natural aging and in many cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension. The inorganic anions nitrate and nitrite are endogenously formed after oxidation of NO synthase (NOS)-derived NO and are also present in our daily diet. Knowledge accumulated over the past two decades have demonstrated that these anions can be recycled back to NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides via serial reductions that involve oral commensal bacteria and various enzymatic systems...
April 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Pontus B Persson
While consuming another solemn sandwich lunch in front of your monitor, why not let your thoughts wander off to a daydream wherein you just won $100,000? This dream just became true for researchers in Regensburg!. For the first time, the recipients of the first-ever Acta Physiologica Award have been selected for the Acta Physiologica Award. Getting there, panning out the biggest nugget, was a challenge and a thrill to every selection committee member. We had a short list of 15 articles, which have been highly appreciated by our readers...
April 20, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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