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Acta Physiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319329/extracellular-acidosis-and-very-low-na-inhibit-nbcn1-and-nhe1-mediated-net-acid-extrusion-from-mouse-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#1
Lisbeth Bonde, Ebbe Boedtkjer
AIM: The electroneutral Na(+) ,HCO3(-) -cotransporter NBCn1 and Na(+) /H(+) -exchanger NHE1 regulate acid-base balance in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and modify artery function and structure. Pathological conditions-notably ischemia-can dramatically perturb intracellular (i) and extracellular (o) pH and [Na(+) ]. We examined effects of low [Na(+) ]o and pHo on NBCn1 and NHE1 activity in VSMCs of small arteries. METHODS: We measured pHi by 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein-based fluorescence microscopy of mouse mesenteric arteries and induced intracellular acidification by NH4(+) -prepulse technique...
March 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317338/release-of-calcium-into-the-myofibrillar-space-in-response-to-active-shortening-of-striated-muscle
#2
K A P Edman, C Caputo
AIM: The study was undertaken to explore whether shortening of striated muscle during activity is associated with release of bound Ca(2+) into the myofibrillar space as has previously been proposed in order to explain the depressant effect of active shortening. METHODS: The experiments were carried out on single muscle fibres isolated from the anterior tibialis muscle of Rana temporaria. The fibres were loaded with the calcium sensitive indicator Fluo-3. The fibres, stimulated to produce a partially fused isometric tetanus, were subjected to a shortening ramp or, alternatively, to a stretch ramp during activity while force, fibre length, sarcomere length and the Fluo-3 signal were recorded...
March 19, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316125/deferoxamine-activated-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-restores-cardioprotective-effects-of-sevoflurane-postconditioning-in-diabetic-rats
#3
Peng Xie, Long Yang, Ailaiti Talaiti, Jianjiang Wu, Jin Yu, Tian Yu, Haiying Wang, Bo Huang, Qin Wu, Yiliyaer Maimaitili, Jiang Wang, Haiping Ma, Yining Yang, Hong Zheng
AIM: The cardioprotective effects of sevoflurane postconditioning (SpostC) are eliminated under diabetic conditions, and the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon remains unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1(HIF-1) signaling pathway in the myocardium is impaired under diabetic conditions. This study was to investigate whether deferoxamine (DFO)-induced activation of HIF-1 signaling pathway can restore the cardioprotective effects of SpostC in diabetic rats...
March 17, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296171/calcium-dependent-nedd4-2-upregulation-mediates-degradation-of-the-cardiac-sodium-channel-nav1-5-implications-for-heart-failure
#4
Ling Luo, Feifei Ning, Yuan Du, Bingxue Song, Dandan Yang, Samantha C Salvage, Ya Wang, James A Fraser, Shetuan Zhang, Aiqun Ma, Tingzhong Wang
AIM: Reductions of voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5) function/expression provide a slowed-conduction substrate for cardiac arrhythmias. Nedd4-2, which is activated by calcium, post-translationally modulates Nav1.5. We aim to investigate whether elevated intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) reduces Nav1.5 through Nedd4-2 and its role in heart failure (HF). METHODS: Using a combination of biochemical, electrophysiological, cellular and in vivo methods, we tested the effect and mechanism of calcium on Nedd4-2 and in turn Nav1...
March 10, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296151/bilirubin-protects-the-aging-heart
#5
EDITORIAL
Samuel O Adeosun, David E Stec
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Bakrania, et al., examined the effects of hyperbilirubinemia on the aging male heart under basal conditions and after ischemic injury (1) . Heart disease is a significant problem for the aging population in general and males in particular. Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of global mortality for males and is responsible for one out of four deaths in males in the United States. Therefore, developing novel strategies to combat the development and progression of heart disease has the potential to save millions of lives a year...
March 10, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262007/muscle-oxygen-saturation-increases-during-head-up-tilt-induced-pre-syncope
#6
A Lund, H Sørensen, T W Jensen, M J Niemann, N D Olesen, H B Nielsen, N V Olsen, N H Secher
AIM: To evaluate whether muscle vasodilatation plays a role for hypotension developed during central hypovolaemia, muscle oxygenation (Sm O2 ) was examined during (pre)syncope induced by head-up tilt (HUT). Skin blood flow (SkBF) and oxygenation (Sskin O2 ) were determined because evaluation of Sm O2 may be affected by superficial tissue oxygenation. Furthermore, we evaluated cerebral oxygenation (Sc O2 ) and middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity (MCAvmean ). METHODS: Twenty healthy male volunteers (median age 24 years; range 19-38) were subjected to passive 50° HUT for 1 hour or until (pre)syncope...
March 6, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238220/telomeres-exercise-and-cardiovascular-disease-finding-the-means-to-justify-the-ends
#7
EDITORIAL
Warrick L Chilton, Brendan J O'Brien, Fergal Grace, Fadi J Charchar
Telomeres are repetitive tandem DNA sequences (TTAGGG) located at chromosomal ends where they protect genomic DNA from enzymatic degradation. Telomeres are scaffolded upon six regulatory proteins, collectively known as the shelterin complex. A state of replicative senescence is triggered when telomeres reach a critically shortened threshold. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238218/vagal-nerve-stimulation-reduces-infarct-size-via-a-mechanism-involving-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-and-down-regulation-of-cardiac-and-vascular-arginase
#8
Attila Kiss, Yahor Tratsiakovich, Ali Mahdi, Jiangning Yang, Adrian T Gonon, Bruno K Podesser, John Pernow
AIMS: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) protects from myocardial and vascular injury following myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) via a mechanism involving activation of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) and reduced inflammation. Arginase is involved in development of myocardial IR injury driven by inflammatory mediators. The aim of the study was to clarify whether VNS downregulates myocardial and vascular arginase via a mechanism involving activation of α7 nAChR following myocardial IR METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were randomized to (1) sham operated, (2) control IR (30 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion, (3) VNS throughout IR, (4) the arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA+IR, (5) nor-NOHA+VNS+IR, (6) selective α7 nAChR blockade by methyllycaconitine (MLA) followed by VNS throughout IR and (7) MLA+IR...
February 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231640/mind-the-gap-mechanisms-regulating-the-endothelial-barrier
#9
REVIEW
Mariya Y Radeva, Jens Waschke
The endothelial barrier consists of intercellular contacts localized in the cleft between endothelial cells, which is covered by the glycocalyx in a sieve-like manner. Both types of barrier-forming junctions, i.e. the adherens junction (AJ) serving mechanical anchorage and mechanotransduction and the tight junction (TJ) sealing the intercellular space to limit paracelullar permeability, are tethered to the actin cytoskeleton. Under resting conditions, the endothelium thereby builds a selective layer controlling the exchange of fluid and solutes with the surrounding tissue...
February 23, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218996/hypoxia-stimulated-membrane-trafficking-requires-t-plastin
#10
Marieke Wottawa, Stephanie Naas, Johannes Böttger, Gijsbert J van Belle, Wiebke Möbius, Natalia H Revelo, Doris Heidenreich, Melanie von Ahlen, Anke Zieseniss, Katharina Kröhnert, Susanne Lutz, Christof Lenz, Henning Urlaub, Silvio O Rizzoli, Dörthe M Katschinski
Traffic between the plasma membrane and the endomembrane compartments is an essential feature of eukaryotic cells. The secretory pathway sends cargoes from biosynthetic compartments to the plasma membrane. This is counterbalanced by a retrograde endocytotic route and is essential for cell homeostasis. Cells need to adapt rapidly to environmental challenges like the reduction of pO2 which, however, has not been analyzed in relation to membrane trafficking in detail. Therefore we determined changes in the plasma membrane trafficking in normoxia, hypoxia, and after reoxygenation METHODS: Membrane trafficking was analyzed by using the bulk membrane endocytosis marker FM 1-43, the newly developed membrane probe mCLING, wheat germ agglutinin as well as fluorescently labeled choleratoxin subunit B...
February 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207997/chronically-elevated-bilirubin-protects-from-cardiac-reperfusion-injury-in-the-male-gunn-rat
#11
Bhavisha Bakrania, Eugene F Du Toit, Kevin J Ashton, Karl-Heinz Wagner, John P Headrick, Andrew C Bulmer
AIMS: Bilirubin is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, as evidenced in conditions of mild hyperbilirubinaemia (Gilbert's Syndrome). Little is known regarding myocardial stress-resistance in hyperbilirubinemic conditions or whether life-long exposure modifies cardiac function, which might contribute to protection from cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Hyperbilirubinemic rats and littermate controls underwent echocardiography at 3, 6 and 12 mo of age, with hearts subsequently assessed for resistance to 30 min of ischaemia...
February 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199786/alpha-adrenergic-receptor-blockade-increases-capillarisation-and-fractional-o2-extraction-and-lowers-blood-flow-in-contracting-human-skeletal-muscle
#12
Stefan P Mortensen, Stuart Egginton, Mads Madsen, Jonas B Hansen, Gregers D W Munch, Ulrik Winning Iepsen, Thorbjörn Åkerström, Bente K Pedersen, Ylva Hellsten
AIM: To investigate the effect of elevated basal shear stress on angiogenesis in humans, and the role of enhanced skeletal muscle capillarisation on blood flow and O2 extraction. METHODS: Limb haemodynamics and O2 extraction was measured at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise (12 and 24W) in 10 healthy untrained young men before and after 4 weeks treatment with an α1 receptor-antagonist (Terazosin, 1-2 mg day(-1) ). Corresponding biopsies were taken from the m...
February 15, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181735/the-innervation-of-the-kidney-in-renal-injury-and-inflammation-a-cause-and-consequence-of-deranged-cardiovascular-control
#13
REVIEW
Mohammed H Abdulla, Edward J Johns
Extensive investigations have revealed that renal sympathetic nerves regulate renin secretion, tubular fluid reabsorption and renal haemodynamics which can impact on cardiovascular homoeostasis normally and in pathophysiological states. The significance of the renal afferent innervation and its role in determining the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is uncertain. The transduction pathways at the renal afferent nerves have been shown to require pro-inflammatory mediators and TRPV1 channels. Reno-renal reflexes have been described, both inhibitory and excitatory, demonstrating that a neural link exists between kidneys and may determine the distribution of excretory and haemodynamic function between the two kidneys...
February 9, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173614/arterial-hypertension
#14
EDITORIAL
R Mrowka
Blood pressure is an important determinant in the progression of many cardiovascular and renal diseases. The interest of the physiologists in this topic is reflected in the high number of articles that appeared in Acta Physiologica recently. About 20% of the articles in Acta Physiologica contain the keyword blood pressure or hypertension in the year 2016. According to the semantic analysis website gopubmed. org the term pressure is top rating among all semantic "concepts" in Acta Physiologica if one looks at the years 2014-2016...
February 7, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129470/the-water-channel-aqp1-is-expressed-in-human-atherosclerotic-vascular-lesions-and-aqp1-deficiency-augments-angiotensin-ii-induced-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#15
Pamela Wintmo, Søren H Johansen, Pernille B L Hansen, Jes S Lindholt, Sigitas Urbonavicius, Lars M Rasmussen, Peter Bie, Boye L Jensen, Jane Stubbe
AIM: The water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) promotes endothelial cell migration. It was hypothesized that AQP1 promotes neovascularization and growth of atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS: AQP1 immunoreactivity and protein abundance was examined in human and murine atherosclerotic lesions and aortic aneurysms. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout (-/-) and AQP1-/-ApoE-/- were developed and fed western diet (WD) for 8 and 16 weeks to accelerate the atherosclerosis process...
January 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112877/autophagy-in-renal-tubular-injury-and-repair
#16
REVIEW
Fangming Lin
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that maintains normal function and structure of the cell. It can be induced during stress and serves as an adaptive response for cell survival. Normal kidneys have high metabolic demands yet are relatively hypoxic, especially in the medulla and papilla. Injury or aging aggravates metabolic perturbation and activates autophagy in many types of renal cells. In the kidney, tubular epithelial cells consume the most energy due to active transport mechanisms and therefore are the most susceptible to injuries from hypoxic or low energy states...
January 23, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103427/repeated-maximal-intensity-hypoxic-exercise-superimposed-to-hypoxic-residence-boosts-skeletal-muscle-transcriptional-responses-in-elite-team-sport-athletes
#17
F Brocherie, G P Millet, G D'Hulst, R Van Thienen, L Deldicque, O Girard
AIM: To determine whether repeated maximal-intensity hypoxic exercise induces larger beneficial adaptations on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway and its target genes than similar normoxic exercise, when combined with chronic hypoxic exposure. METHODS: Lowland elite male team-sport athletes underwent 14 days of passive normobaric hypoxic exposure [≥14 h·day(-1) at inspired oxygen fraction (Fi O2 ) 14.5-14.2%] with the addition of six maximal-intensity exercise sessions either in normobaric hypoxia (Fi O2 ~14...
January 19, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035739/targeting-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#18
EDITORIAL
Q Liu, R J Gonzales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029731/reduced-blood-glucose-through-thyroid-hormone-degradation-product
#19
EDITORIAL
Lena Eliasson
Western lifestyle with increasing obesity together with genetic factors contribute to the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the population. In practice the hyperglycaemia is due to insulin resistance and failure of the insulin secreting beta cells to adjust to the increased metabolic demand (Halban et al., 2014). Improvements in lifestyle with increased exercise and reduced energy consumption would be beneficial for human health (Hagberg et al., 2012). A more personalized regime has also been suggested due to the heterogeneity of the disease why new individual treatments needs to be discovered...
December 28, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381367/the-principal-pathways-involved-in-the-in%C3%A2-vivo-modulation-of-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-pulmonary-arterial-remodelling-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
D Kylhammar, G Rådegran
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) serves to optimize ventilation-perfusion matching in focal hypoxia and thereby enhances pulmonary gas exchange. During global hypoxia, however, HPV induces general pulmonary vasoconstriction, which may lead to pulmonary hypertension (PH), impaired exercise capacity, right-heart failure and pulmonary oedema at high altitude. In chronic hypoxia, generalized HPV together with hypoxic pulmonary arterial remodelling, contribute to the development of PH. The present article reviews the principal pathways in the in vivo modulation of HPV, hypoxic pulmonary arterial remodelling and PH with primary focus on the endothelin-1, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase and adenine nucleotide pathways...
April 2017: Acta Physiologica
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