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Acta Physiologica

Rikke Ydegaard, Henrik Andersen, Christina S Oxlund, Ib A Jacobsen, Pernille B L Hansen, Jonathan F Jürgensen, A Augusto Peluso, Paul M Vanhoutte, Mette Staehr, Per Svenningsen, Boye L Jensen
AIMS: The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in cultured endothelial cells and inhibitory coupling to eNOS activity has been proposed. The present study tested the hypothesis that ENaC blockers increase systemic NO-products and lower blood pressure in patients and mice, depending on eNOS. METHODS: NO-products and cGMP were measured in diabetes patient urine and plasma samples before and after amiloride treatment (20-40 mg for two days, plasma n=22, urine n=12 and 5-10mg for eight weeks, plasma n=52, urine n=55)...
September 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Anika Westphal, Ralf Mrowka
Hormones: They control the human circadian rhythm, cause happiness after physical exercise, cause butterflies in one's stomach and contribute to the chemistry of love, turn a pregnant woman's life upside down and influence the growth of the fetus, in short, they are essential in the human individual development and homeostasis of organs. Hormones are mainly produced in the brain, pancreas, thyroid, kidney and the genital organs and represent the most important chemical messengers in the human organism. Hormone-dependent pathologic conditions are manifold and dysregulations need to be treated in order to warrant a healthy human body...
September 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Tingting Di, Peipei Chen, Zihao Yuan, Ya Wang, Sha Sha, Ling Chen
AIM: The present study investigated the effects of dorsal hypothalamic dopamine (dh-DA) neurons on activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adult male mice. METHODS: Tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled DA neurons, DA content, c-Fos immune-positive (c-Fos+) cells and CRH expression in paraventricular nuclei (PVN), serum CORT and ACTH were examined at 4-h, 8-h and 12-h after a signal injection of MPTP (20 mg kg-1), respectively. RESULTS: The dh-DA neurons and DA content in PVN at 4-h post-MPTP were reduced with recovery at 12-h post-MPTP, while decline of nigrostriatal DA neurons and DA content in striatum started from 12-h post-MPTP...
September 11, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Briana M Bohannon, Marta E Perez, Sara I Liin, H Peter Larsson
AIM: The IK s channel is important for termination of the cardiac action potential. Hundreds of loss-of-function mutations in the IK s channel reduce the K+ current and, thereby, delay the repolarization of the action potential, causing Long QT Syndrome. Long QT predisposes individuals to Torsades de Pointes which can lead to ventricular fibrillation and sudden death. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are potential therapeutics for Long QT, as they affect IK s channels. However, it is unclear which properties of PUFAs are essential for their effects on IK s channels...
September 5, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Ralf Mrowka
Regulation of blood pressure and the understanding of its mechanisms have been one focus of current publications in Acta Physiologica. Among those are many publications that investigate mechanistic aspects of blood pressure regulation. A number of papers in Acta Physiologica deal with modifiers of blood pressure that received attention only recently. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 3, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Nicola Lai, China M Kummitha, Mariana G Rosca, Hisashi Fujioka, Bernard Tandler, Charles L Hoppel
AIM: The subsarcolemmal (SSM) and interfibrillar (IFM) mitochondria in skeletal muscle appear to have distinct biochemical properties affecting metabolism in health and disease. The isolation of mitochondrial subpopulations has been a long-time challenge while the presence of a continuous mitochondrial reticulum challenges the view of distinctive SSM and IFM bioenergetics. Here, a comprehensive approach is developed to identify the best conditions to separate mitochondrial fractions. METHODS: The main modifications to the protocol to isolate SSM and IFM from rat skeletal muscle were: (a) decreased dispase content and homogenization speed; (b) trypsin treatment of SSM fractions; (c) recentrifugation of mitochondrial fractions at low speed to remove subcellular components...
August 31, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Siu-Lung Chan, Mark T Nelson, Marilyn J Cipolla
AIM: Adaptive responses of brain parenchymal arterioles (PAs), a target for cerebral small vessel disease, to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is largely unknown. Previous evidence suggested that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channels may be involved in the regulation of cerebrovascular tone. Therefore, we investigated the role of TRPV4 in adaptations of PAs in a mouse model of chronic hypoperfusion. METHODS: TRPV4 knockout (-/- ) and wildtype (WT) mice were subjected to unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAo) for 28 days...
August 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Boye L Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Crystal Taylor, Malgorzata Kasztan, Binli Tao, Jennifer S Pollock, David M Pollock
AIM: The objective of this study is to determine if ambrisentan (ETA selective antagonist) and hydroxyurea (HU) treatment has a synergistic effect on renal injury in sickle cell nephropathy when compared to HU treatment alone. The premise of the study is based on recent studies showing that endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to the pathophysiology of nephropathy in sickle cell disease (SCD) and that ETA receptor blockade improves renal function and protects against renal injury. Hydroxyurea (HU) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of SCD and has been shown to reduce renal injury in patients with SCD...
August 24, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Yoan Arribat, Nicholas T Broskey, Chiara Greggio, Marie Boutant, Sonia Conde Alonso, Sameer S Kulkarni, Sylviane Lagarrigue, Elvis A Carnero, Cyril Besson, Carles Cantó, Francesca Amati
AIM: Healthy aging interventions encompass regular exercise to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, key player in sarcopenia pathogenesis. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been well documented, but mitochondrial remodeling in response to exercise training is poorly understood. Here we investigated fusion, fission and mitophagy before and after an exercise intervention in older adults. METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected from 22 healthy sedentary men and women before and after 4 months of supervised training...
August 24, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Anastasia A Shvetsova, Dina K Gaynullina, Olga S Tarasova, Rudolf Schubert
AIM: Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle membrane potential and arterial tone. However, the roles of potassium channels in vascular tone regulation in the systemic circulation during early postnatal development are poorly understood. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that the negative feedback regulation of vasocontraction by potassium channels changes during maturation. METHODS: Experiments were performed on endothelium-denuded saphenous arteries from 10- to 15-day-old and 2- to 3-month-old male rats...
August 23, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Shu-Fang Du, Xiu-Li Wang, Chang-Lin Ye, Ze-Jia He, Dong-Xia Li, Bai-Ren Du, Yu-Jian Liu, Xiao-Yan Zhu
AIMS: Clinical trials have shown the beneficial effects of exercise training against pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate whether prophylactic intervention with exercise training attenuates lung fibrosis via modulating endogenous hydrogen sulphde (H2 S) generation. METHODS: First, ICR mice were allocated to Control, Bleomycin, Exercise, and Bleomycin + Exercise groups. Treadmill exercise began on day 1 and continued for 4 weeks. A single intratracheal dose of bleomycin (3 mg/kg) was administered on day 15...
August 23, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Manuel Meurer, Klaus Höcherl
AIM: Alterations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and/or vitamin D signalling are frequently reported in patients with sepsis. The consequences on renal and intestinal Ca2+ and Pi regulatory mechanisms are still unclear. We hypothesized that endotoxaemia alters the expression of important renal and intestinal Ca2+ and Pi transport proteins. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3 mg/kg; i.p.). The mRNA and protein levels of renal and intestinal Ca2+ and Pi transport proteins were measured by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis...
August 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
João Bernardes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Pontus B Persson, Anja Bondke Persson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Hazem Akkad, Nicola Cacciani, Monica Llano-Diez, Rebeca Corpeno Kalamgi, Tamara Tchkonia, James L Kirkland, Lars Larsson
AIM: Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is a consequence of modern critical care, leading to skeletal muscle atrophy/paralysis with negative consequences for mortality/morbidity and health care costs. Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been proposed to trigger CIM. Here, we compare outcomes of two GCs, the commonly used prednisolone and the newly developed dissociative vamorolone in response to the intensive care unit (ICU) condition for 5 days, i.e., sedation, immobilization, and mechanical ventilation...
August 18, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Ken D O'Halloran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Ulf Simonsen, Asbjørn G Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Narimane Dorey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Andrea E Vasconez, Patrick Janetzko, James A Oo, Beatrice Pflüger-Müller, Corina Ratiu, Lunda Gu, Kristian Helin, Gerd Geisslinger, Ingrid Fleming, Katrin Schröder, Christian Fork, Ralf P Brandes, Matthias S Leisegang
AIM: The histone demethylase Jarid1b limits gene expression by removing the active methyl mark from histone3 lysine4 at gene promoter regions. A vascular function of Jarid1b is unknown, but a vasoprotective function to inflammatory and hypertrophic stimuli, like angiotensin II (AngII) could be inferred. This hypothesis was tested using Jarid1b knockout mice and the inhibitor PBIT. METHODS: Mice or aortic segments were treated with AngII to induce endothelial dysfunction...
August 4, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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