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Acta Physiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035739/targeting-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#1
EDITORIAL
Qiang Liu, Rayna J Gonzales
Despite the substantial progress that has been made over the past decades, there remains a dearth of approaches for the effective management of acute stroke. To date, many attempts for brain protection fail in clinical trials, presenting an unmet need for identification of new treatment options. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 30, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029731/reduced-blood-glucose-through-thyroid-hormone-degradation-product
#2
EDITORIAL
Lena Eliasson
Western lifestyle with increasing obesity together with genetic factors contribute to the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the population. In practice the hyperglycaemia is due to insulin resistance and failure of the insulin secreting beta cells to adjust to the increased metabolic demand (Halban et al., 2014). Improvements in lifestyle with increased exercise and reduced energy consumption would be beneficial for human health (Hagberg et al., 2012). A more personalized regime has also been suggested due to the heterogeneity of the disease why new individual treatments needs to be discovered...
December 28, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024118/maternal-fetal-cholesterol-transport-in-the-second-half-of-mouse-pregnancy-does-not-involve-lrp2
#3
Mathijs V Zwier, Maria E Baardman, Theo H van Dijk, Angelika Jurdzinski, Lambertus J Wisse, Vincent W Bloks, Rolf M F Berger, Marco C DeRuiter, Albert K Groen, Torsten Plösch
AIM: Lipoprotein related receptor protein type 2 (LRP2) is highly expressed on both yolk sac and placenta. Mutations in the corresponding gene are associated with severe birth defects in humans, known as Donnai-Barrow syndrome. We here characterized the contribution of LRP2 and maternal plasma cholesterol availability to maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and fetal cholesterol levels in utero in mice. METHODS: Lrp2(+/-) mice were mated heterozygously to yield fetuses of all 3 genotypes...
December 26, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024113/a-novel-and-complex-mechanism-regulating-pgc-1%C3%AE-4-expression
#4
EDITORIAL
Bradley S Gordon
In the current issue of Acta Physiologica, Brown et al. (Brown et al. 2016) describes a novel regulatory mechanism for the expression of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) splice variant 4 (PGC-1α4). Since the discovery of the parent PGC-1α gene, it has been at the forefront of muscle biology research as it significantly altered muscle phenotype in both pathological and physiological model systems (Lin et al. 2002, Sandri et al. 2006). This article is protected by copyright...
December 26, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981782/neuromuscular-changes-and-the-rapid-adaptation-following-a-bout-of-damaging-eccentric-exercise
#5
Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas, Martin Barwood, Karen Keane, Javier T Gonzalez, Alan St Clair Gibson, Glyn Howatson
To determine if neuromuscular disturbances are modulated following a repeated bout of eccentric exercise METHODS: Following eccentric exercise performed with the elbow-flexors, we measured maximal voluntary force, resting twitch force, muscle soreness, creatine kinase and voluntary activation using motor point and motor cortex stimulation at baseline, immediately post and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days post-exercise on two occasions, separated by 3 weeks RESULTS: Significant muscle damage and fatigue was evident following the first exercise bout; maximal voluntary contraction was reduced immediately by 32% and remained depressed at 7 days post-exercise...
December 16, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981759/writing-brilliant-manuscripts
#6
EDITORIAL
P B Persson
A scientist passed away. Spirits let him choose between heaven and hell. As researchers leave nothing to chance, both locations were inspected. While descending into the blistering depths, rows of chained scientists appeared. All were lashed at by thorny whips while they wrote. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 16, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981752/the-effect-of-physical-fatigue-on-oscillatory-dynamics-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex
#7
Adam Fry, Karen J Mullinger, George C O'Neill, Matthew J Brookes, Jonathan P Folland
AIM: While physical fatigue is known to arise in part from supraspinal mechanisms within the brain exactly how brain activity is modulated during fatigue is not well understood. Therefore, this study examined how typical neural oscillatory responses to voluntary muscle contractions were affected by fatigue. METHODS: Eleven healthy adults (age 27±4 years) completed two experimental sessions in a randomised crossover design. Both sessions first assessed baseline maximal voluntary isometric wrist-flexion force (MVFb )...
December 16, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896930/you-are-not-alone
#8
EDITORIAL
M Ludwig, A Högner, A Patzak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875022/a-comparison-of-left-and-right-atrial-fibroblasts-reveals-different-collagen-production-activity-and-stress-induced-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-in-rats
#9
Cheng-Chih Chung, Yu-Hsun Kao, Chih-Jung Yao, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yi-Jen Chen
AIM: Atrial fibrosis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). The left atrium (LA) experiences greater fibrosis than the right atrium (RA) during HF. It is not clear whether LA cardiac fibroblasts contain distinctive activities that predispose LA to fibrosis. METHODS: LA and RA fibrosis were evaluated in healthy and isoproterenol induced HF Sprague-Dawley rats. Rat LA and RA primary isolated fibroblasts were subjected to proliferation assay, oxidative stress assay, cell migration analysis, collagen measurement, cytokine array and western blot...
November 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864916/enhanced-contractility-of-intraparenchymal-arterioles-after-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rat-new-insights-into-the-development-of-delayed-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#10
Stine Spray, Sara Ellinor Johansson, Aneta Radziwon-Balicka, Kristian Agmund Haanes, Karin Warfvinge, Gro Klitgaard Povlsen, Paul A T Kelly, Lars Edvinsson
AIM: Delayed cerebral hypoperfusion is a secondary complication found in the days after transient global cerebral ischemia that worsens the ischemic damage inflicted by the initial transient episode of global cerebral ischemia. A recent study demonstrated increased cerebral vasoconstriction in the large arteries on the brain surface (pial arteries) after global cerebral ischemia. However, smaller arterioles inside the brain (parenchymal arterioles) are equally important in the regulation of cerebral blood flow and yet their pathophysiology after global cerebral ischemia is largely unknown...
November 19, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860407/from-fish-to-nephrology-modelling-glomerular-function-in-danio-rerio-larvae
#11
EDITORIAL
S Bachmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862984/of-channels-and-pumps-different-ways-to-boost-the-aldosterone
#12
REVIEW
S Bandulik
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is a major factor controlling the salt and water balance and thereby also the arterial blood pressure. Accordingly, primary aldosteronism (PA) characterized by an inappropriately high aldosterone secretion is the most common form of secondary hypertension. The physiological stimulation of aldosterone synthesis in adrenocortical glomerulosa cells by angiotensin II and an increased plasma K(+) concentration depends on a membrane depolarization and an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) activity...
November 15, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863008/electrical-pulse-stimulation-of-cultured-skeletal-muscle-cells-as-a-model-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-exercise-possibilities-and-limitations
#13
REVIEW
N Nikolić, S W Görgens, G H Thoresen, V Aas, J Eckel, K Eckardt
The beneficial health-related effects of exercise are well recognized, and numerous studies have investigated underlying mechanism using various in vivo and in vitro models. Although electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for the induction of muscle contraction has been used for quite some time, its application on cultured skeletal muscle cells of animal or human origin as a model of in vitro exercise is a more recent development. In this review, we compare in vivo exercise and in vitro EPS with regard to effects on signalling, expression level and metabolism...
November 10, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028935/renoprotection-focus-on-trpv1-trpv4-trpc6-and-trpm2
#14
REVIEW
L Markó, M Mannaa, T N Haschler, S Krämer, M Gollasch
Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel receptor family have unique sites of regulatory function in the kidney which enables them to promote regional vasodilatation and controlled Ca(2+) influx into podocytes and tubular cells. Activated TRP vanilloid 1 receptor channels (TRPV1) have been found to elicit renoprotection in rodent models of acute kidney injury following ischaemia/reperfusion. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 (TRPC6) in podocytes is involved in chronic proteinuric kidney disease, particularly in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#15
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809413/cutaneous-exposure-to-hypoxia-does-not-affect-skin-perfusion-in-humans
#16
C Siebenmann, M E Keramidas, H Rundqvist, S Mijwel, A S Cowburn, R S Johnson, O Eiken
AIM: Experiments have indicated that skin perfusion in mice is sensitive to reductions in environmental O2 availability. Specifically, a reduction in skin-surface PO2 attenuates transcutaneous O2 diffusion, and hence epidermal O2 supply. In response, epidermal HIF-1α expression increases and facilitates initial cutaneous vasoconstriction and subsequent nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation. Here, we investigated whether the same mechanism exists in humans. METHODS: In a first experiment, eight males rested twice for 8 h in a hypobaric chamber...
November 3, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809412/pgc-1%C3%AE-4-gene-expression-is-suppressed-by-the-il-6-mek-erk-1-2-mapk-signaling-axis-and-altered-by-resistance-exercise-obesity-and-muscle-injury
#17
Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, David E Lee, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Kevin L Shimkus, Thomas A Blackwell, James D Fluckey, James A Carson, Sami Dridi, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
AIM: PGC-1α4 is a novel regulator of muscle hypertrophy, however, there is limited understanding of the regulation of its expression and role in many (patho)physiologic conditions. Therefore, our purpose was to elicit signaling mechanisms regulating gene expression of Pgc1α4 and examine its response to (patho)physiologic stimuli associated with altered muscle mass. METHODS: IL-6 knockout mice and pharmacological experiments in C2C12 myocytes were used to identify regulation of Pgc1α4 transcription...
November 3, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804259/neuromodulation-by-cerebrovasculature-bdnf-is-it-much-greater-than-we-think
#18
EDITORIAL
C Joakim Ek
The findings published by Monnier et al. (2016) in this journal showing substantial cerebrovascular BDNF synthesis are very interesting and could change our way we perceive BDNF production in the brain under normal and disease states. BDNF is one of the classic neurotrophins first discovered in the 1950s and acts on TrkB and pan75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ) receptors. TrkB-signalling leads to increased proliferation and survival, whereas p75(NTR) -signalling is less clear but has mostly been associated with cell damage and apoptosis (Ibanez and Simi, 2012)...
November 2, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804256/urothelium-update-how-the-bladder-mucosa-measures-bladder-filling
#19
REVIEW
D A W Janssen, J A Schalken, J P F A Heesakkers
AIM: This review critically evaluates the evidence on mechanoreceptors and pathways in the bladder urothelium that are involved in normal bladder filling signalling. METHODS: Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on (i) signalling pathways like the adenosine triphosphate pathway, cholinergic pathway and nitric oxide and adrenergic pathway, and (ii) different urothelial receptors that are involved in bladder filling signalling like purinergic receptors, sodium channels and TRP channels will be evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804214/focus-of-attention-changes-intracortical-excitability-in-the-primary-motor-cortex
#20
EDITORIAL
W Marinovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Acta Physiologica
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