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Acta Physiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896930/you-are-not-alone
#1
EDITORIAL
M Ludwig, A Högner, A Patzak
Be assured, not alone at all, indifferent what you wish for. Between you and me and the bedpost, you are even outnumbered. Outnumbered by trillions of tiny individuals living, laughing and eating on and inside you. Actually, the numbers are a little scary: its 10:1 microorganisms versus humans, and in terms of genes, we are even talking about an incredible 100:1 ratio. So, dear advocates of individualism, we are literally more bug than human. And as our little cohabitants have followed us on our journey through evolution, we better continue to cooperate in order to stay healthy...
November 29, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875022/a-comparison-of-left-and-right-atrial-fibroblasts-reveals-different-collagen-production-activity-and-stress-induced-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-in-rats
#2
Cheng-Chih Chung, Yu-Hsun Kao, Chih-Jung Yao, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yi-Jen Chen
AIM: Atrial fibrosis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). The left atrium (LA) experiences greater fibrosis than the right atrium (RA) during HF. It is not clear whether LA cardiac fibroblasts contain distinctive activities that predispose LA to fibrosis. METHODS: LA and RA fibrosis were evaluated in healthy and isoproterenol induced HF Sprague-Dawley rats. Rat LA and RA primary isolated fibroblasts were subjected to proliferation assay, oxidative stress assay, cell migration analysis, collagen measurement, cytokine array and western blot...
November 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864916/enhanced-contractility-of-intraparenchymal-arterioles-after-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rat-new-insights-into-the-development-of-delayed-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#3
Stine Spray, Sara Ellinor Johansson, Aneta Radziwon-Balicka, Kristian Agmund Haanes, Karin Warfvinge, Gro Klitgaard Povlsen, Paul A T Kelly, Lars Edvinsson
AIM: Delayed cerebral hypoperfusion is a secondary complication found in the days after transient global cerebral ischemia that worsens the ischemic damage inflicted by the initial transient episode of global cerebral ischemia. A recent study demonstrated increased cerebral vasoconstriction in the large arteries on the brain surface (pial arteries) after global cerebral ischemia. However, smaller arterioles inside the brain (parenchymal arterioles) are equally important in the regulation of cerebral blood flow and yet their pathophysiology after global cerebral ischemia is largely unknown...
November 19, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860407/from-fish-to-nephrology-modeling-glomerular-function-in-danio-rerio-larvae
#4
EDITORIAL
Sebastian Bachmann
The assessment of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential to judge renal function in clinical practice. Estimated GFR based on serum creatinine concentration is useful as a "first line" test of kidney function, whereas measured GFR using urinary or plasma clearance of exogenously applied markers of filtration provides more accurate information and allows conclusions on the function of the filtration barrier and the tubular reabsorptive capacity (Stevens & Levey 2009). Defects of the glomerular filtration barrier may impair size selectivity and cause proteinuria, leading to chronic kidney disease...
November 17, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862984/of-channels-and-pumps-different-ways-to-boost-the-aldosterone
#5
REVIEW
Sascha Bandulik
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is a major factor controlling the salt and water balance and thereby also the arterial blood pressure. Accordingly, primary aldosteronism characterized by an inappropiately high aldosterone secretion is the most common form of secondary hypertension. The physiological stimulation of aldosterone synthesis in adrenocortical glomerulosa cells by angiotensin II and an increased plasma K(+) concentration depends on a membrane depolarization and an increase of the cytosolic Ca(2+) activity...
November 15, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863044/exercise-for-healthy-flow
#6
EDITORIAL
P Hillmeister, E Buschmann, P B Persson, A Bondke Persson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863008/electrical-pulse-stimulation-of-cultured-skeletal-muscle-cells-as-a-model-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-exercise-possibilities-and-limitations
#7
REVIEW
N Nikolić, S W Görgens, G H Thoresen, V Aas, J Eckel, K Eckardt
The beneficial health-related effects of exercise are well recognized, and numerous studies have investigated underlying mechanism using various in vivo and in vitro models. Although electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for the induction of muscle contraction has been used for quite some time, its application on cultured skeletal muscle cells of animal or human origin as a model of in vitro exercise is a more recent development. In this review, we compare in vivo exercise and in vitro EPS with regard to effects on signalling, expression level and metabolism...
November 10, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#8
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809413/cutaneous-exposure-to-hypoxia-does-not-affect-skin-perfusion-in-humans
#9
C Siebenmann, M E Keramidas, H Rundqvist, S Mijwel, A S Cowburn, R S Johnson, O Eiken
AIM: Experiments have indicated that skin perfusion in mice is sensitive to reductions in environmental O2 availability. Specifically, a reduction in skin-surface PO2 attenuates transcutaneous O2 diffusion, and hence epidermal O2 supply. In response, epidermal HIF-1α expression increases and facilitates initial cutaneous vasoconstriction and subsequent nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation. Here, we investigated whether the same mechanism exists in humans. METHODS: In a first experiment, eight males rested twice for 8 h in a hypobaric chamber...
November 3, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809412/pgc-1%C3%AE-4-gene-expression-is-suppressed-by-the-il-6-mek-erk-1-2-mapk-signaling-axis-and-altered-by-resistance-exercise-obesity-and-muscle-injury
#10
Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, David E Lee, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Kevin L Shimkus, Thomas A Blackwell, James D Fluckey, James A Carson, Sami Dridi, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
AIM: PGC-1α4 is a novel regulator of muscle hypertrophy, however, there is limited understanding of the regulation of its expression and role in many (patho)physiologic conditions. Therefore, our purpose was to elicit signaling mechanisms regulating gene expression of Pgc1α4 and examine its response to (patho)physiologic stimuli associated with altered muscle mass. METHODS: IL-6 knockout mice and pharmacological experiments in C2C12 myocytes were used to identify regulation of Pgc1α4 transcription...
November 3, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804259/neuromodulation-by-cerebrovasculature-bdnf-is-it-much-greater-than-we-think
#11
EDITORIAL
C Joakim Ek
The findings published by Monnier et al. (2016) in this journal showing substantial cerebrovascular BDNF synthesis are very interesting and could change our way we perceive BDNF production in the brain under normal and disease states. BDNF is one of the classic neurotrophins first discovered in the 1950s and acts on TrkB and pan75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ) receptors. TrkB-signalling leads to increased proliferation and survival, whereas p75(NTR) -signalling is less clear but has mostly been associated with cell damage and apoptosis (Ibanez and Simi, 2012)...
November 2, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804256/urothelium-update-how-the-bladder-mucosa-measures-bladder-filling
#12
REVIEW
D A W Janssen, J A Schalken, J P F A Heesakkers
AIM: This review critically evaluates the evidence on mechanosreceptors and pathways in the bladder urothelium that are involved in normal bladder filling signaling. METHODS: Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on 1) signaling pathways like the adenosine triphosphate pathway, cholinergic pathway and Nitrc Oxide and adrenergic pathway will be evaluated and 2) different urothelial receptors that are involved in bladder filling signaling like purinergic receptors, sodium channels and TRP channels will be evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804214/focus-of-attention-changes-intracortical-excitability-in-the-primary-motor-cortex
#13
EDITORIAL
Welber Marinovic
New evidence recently published in Acta Physiologica shows that the focus of attention - internal or external - during execution of a motor task can cause transient neuroplastic-like responses in motor areas of the brain (Khun et al., 2016). Neuroplasticity refers to the capacity of the brain to reorganize itself in response to experience. Typically, changes to the organization of the brain come about to support brain function. For instance, after a spinal cord injury or stroke, the brain must adapt to allow functional recovery (Rao et al...
November 2, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770498/acute-physical-exercise-and-long-term-individual-shear-rate-therapy-increase-telomerase-activity-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#14
Andreas Zietzer, Eva Elina Buschmann, Doreen Janke, Lulu Li, Michèle Brix, Heike Meyborg, Philipp Stawowy, Constantin Jungk, Ivo Buschmann, Philipp Hillmeister
AIM: Physical activity is a potent way to impede vascular aging. However, patients who suffer from peripheral artery disease (PAD) are often unable to exercise adequately. For those patients, we have developed individual shear rate therapy (ISRT), which is an adaptation of external counterpulsation and enhances endovascular fluid shear stress to increase collateral growth (arteriogenesis). To evaluate the effects of physical exercise and ISRT on the telomere biology of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we conducted two clinical trials...
October 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770485/3-5-diodothyronine-3-5-t2-reduces-blood-glucose-independently-of-insulin-sensitization-in-obese-mice
#15
Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Carly Filgueira, Douglas H Sieglaff, Cindy Benod, Rosa Villagomez, Laurie J Minze, Aijun Zhang, Paul Webb, Maria Tereza Nunes
AIM: Thyroid hormones regulate metabolic response. While triiodothyronine (T3) is usually considered to be the active form of thyroid hormone, one form of diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) exerts T3-like effects on energy consumption and lipid metabolism. 3,5-T2 also improves glucose tolerance in rats and 3,5-T2 levels correlate with fasting glucose in humans. Presently, however, little is known about mechanisms of 3,5-T2 effects on glucose metabolism. Here, we set out to compare effects of T3, 3,5-T2 and another form of T2 (3,3-T2) in a mouse model of diet induced obesity and determined effects of T3 and 3,5-T2 on markers of classical insulin sensitization to understand how diiodothyronines influence blood glucose...
October 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739650/stars-is-reduced-in-ageing-human-skeletal-muscle-and-targeted-by-mir-628-5p
#16
Aaron P Russell, Marita A Wallace, Ming Kalanon, Evelyn Zacharewicz, Paul A Della Gatta, Andrew Garnham, Séverine Lamon
AIM: The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) is a muscle-specific actin-binding protein. The STARS signalling pathway is activated by resistance exercise and is anticipated to play a role in signal mechanotransduction. Animal studies have reported a negative regulation of STARS signalling with age, but such regulation has not been investigated in humans. METHODS: Ten young (18-30 years) and 10 older (60-75 years) subjects completed an acute bout of resistance exercise...
October 14, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652590/dopamine-enhances-duodenal-epithelial-permeability-via-the-dopamine-d5-receptor-in-rodent
#17
X-Y Feng, D-N Zhang, Y-A Wang, R-F Fan, F Hong, Y Zhang, Y Li, J-X Zhu
AIM: The intestinal barrier is made up of epithelial cells and intercellular junctional complexes to regulate epithelial ion transport and permeability. Dopamine (DA) is able to promote duodenal epithelial ion transport through D1-like receptors, which includes subtypes of D1 (D1 R) and D5 (D5 R), but whether D1-like receptors influence the duodenal permeability is unclear. METHODS: FITC-dextran permeability, short-circuit current (ISC ), Western blot, immunohistochemistry and ELISA were used in human D5 R transgenic mice and hyperendogenous enteric DA (HEnD) rats in this study...
October 6, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699982/unsung-renal-receptors-orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptors-play-essential-roles-in-renal-development-and-homeostasis
#18
Premraj Rajkumar, Jennifer L Pluznick
Recent studies have shown that orphan GPCRs of the GPR family are utilized as specialized chemosensors in various tissues to detect metabolites, and in turn to activate downstream pathways which regulate systemic homeostasis. These studies often find that such metabolites are generated by well-known metabolic pathways, implying that known metabolites and chemicals may perform novel functions. In this review, we summarize recent findings highlighting the role of deorphanized GPRs in renal development and function...
October 3, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690155/cyclosporin-a-induces-renal-episodic-hypoxia
#19
M Fähling, S Mathia, J Scheidl, R Abramovitch, Z Milman, A Paliege, H Peters, P B Persson, S N Heyman, C Rosenberger
AIM: Cyclosporin A (CsA) causes renal toxicity. The underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, but may involve renal hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors (Hifs). We sought for hypoxia and Hif in mouse kidneys with CsA-induced toxicity, assessed their time course, Hif-mediated responses and the impact of interventional Hif upregulation. METHODS: Mice received CsA or its solvent cremophore for up to 6 weeks. Low salt diet (Na(+) ↓) was given in combination with CsA to enhance toxicity...
September 30, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684054/high-glucose-concentration-abrogates-sevoflurane-postconditioning-cardioprotection-by-advancing-mitochondrial-fission-but-dynamin-related-protein-1-inhibitor-restores-these-effects
#20
Jin Yu, Yiliyaer Maimaitili, Peng Xie, Jianjiang Wu, Jiang Wang, Yining Yang, Haiping Ma, Hong Zheng
AIM: Hyperglycaemia-induced cell injury is a primary cause of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. In vivo studies demonstrated that sevoflurane postconditioning (SpostC) was cardioprotective against ischaemia/reperfusion injury, which was blocked by hyperglycaemia. This study investigated whether high glucose concentration abrogated SpostC cardioprotection in vitro by advancing mitochondrial fission and whether mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (Mdivi-1) restored SpostC cardioprotection in cultured primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NCMs)...
September 29, 2016: Acta Physiologica
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