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Acta Physiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429884/in-defence-of-ph
#1
EDITORIAL
Holger Nilsson
The maintenance of the milieu intérieur is at an essential concept in physiology. The first line of defence against perturbations of the internal environment consists of the homeostatic mechanisms that maintain constancy of the extracellular fluid. A second line of defence is the maintenance of a constant intracellular environment, should the extracellular have been compromised. In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Bonde and Boedtkjer(1) study the maintenance of intracellular pH under situations of increased acidity and reduced sodium concentration in the extracellular environment...
April 21, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429509/co2-permeability-and-carbonic-anhydrase-activity-of-rat-cardiomyocytes
#2
Mariela Arias-Hidalgo, Samer Al-Samir, Natalie Weber, Cornelia Geers-Knörr, Gerolf Gros, Volker Endeward
AIM: We determine here the CO2 permeability (PCO2 ) of plasma membranes of cardiomyocytes. These cells were chosen because heart possesses the highest rate of O2 -consumption/CO2 -production in the body. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes were isolated from rat hearts using the Langendorff technique. Cardiomyocyte suspensions exhibited a vitality of 2-14% and were studied by the previously described mass spectrometric (18) O-exchange-technique deriving PCO2 . We show by mass spectrometry and by carbonic anhydrase (CA)-staining that non-vital cardiomyocytes are free of CA and thus do not contribute to the mass spectrometric signal, which is determined exclusively by the fully functional vital cardiomyocytes...
April 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403557/research-funding-do-you-get-what-you-pay-for
#3
EDITORIAL
Pontus B Persson, Anja B Persson
Our society is based on transactions. As customers, we expect to be treated not only politely, but obligingly, by the providers of products or services we pay for. Return policies ensure that, more often than not, we actually get what we pay for. Significantly more often. And then, everything is different when research is funded commercially. If, however, customers get what they pay for, this is nice material for a little scandal (1). This intro is meant to be provocative, but it may be worth attempting a look behind a field that has much more than COI declarations...
April 12, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387014/weak-by-the-machines-muscle-motor-protein-dysfunction-ndash-a-side-effect-of-intensive-care-unit-treatment
#4
REVIEW
O Friedrich, S Diermeier, L Larsson
Intensive care interventions involve periods of mechanical ventilation, sedation and complete mechanical silencing of patients. Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is an ICU-acquired myopathy that is associated with limb muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, electrical silencing of muscle and motor-proteinopathy. The hallmark of CIM is a preferential muscle myosin loss due to increased catabolic and reduced anabolic activity. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important role, apart from recently identified novel mechanisms affecting nonlysosomal protein degradation or autophagy...
April 7, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376284/the-role-of-neuropeptide-w-in-energy-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Hui Li, Stephen J Kentish, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Neuropeptide W is the endogenous ligand for G-protein-coupled receptors GPR7 and GPR8. In this review, we summarize findings on the distribution of neuropeptide W and its receptors in the central nervous system and the periphery, and discuss the role of NPW in food intake and energy homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 4, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371478/transcriptional-regulation-of-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels
#6
REVIEW
R González-Ramírez, R Felix
The transcriptional regulation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV ) channels is an emerging research area that promises to improve our understanding of how many relevant physiological events are shaped in the central nervous system, the skeletal muscle and other tissues. Interestingly, a picture of how transcription of CaV channel subunit genes is controlled is evolving with the identification of the promoter regions required for tissue-specific expression and the identification of transcription factors that control their expression...
March 31, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371470/role-of-renal-vascular-potassium-channels-in-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#7
REVIEW
Max Salomonsson, Jens Christian Brasen, Charlotte M Sorensen
The control of renal vascular tone is important for the regulation of salt and water balance, blood pressure and the protection against damaging elevated glomerular pressure. The K(+) conductance is a major factor in the regulation of the membrane potential (Vm ) in vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) and endothelial cells (EC). The vascular tone is controlled by Vm via its effect on the opening probability of voltage operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCC) in VSMC. When K(+) conductance increases Vm becomes more negative and vasodilation follows, while deactivation of K(+) channels leads to depolarization and vasoconstriction...
March 30, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371392/exercise-and-epigenetic-inheritance-of-disease-risk
#8
REVIEW
Joshua Denham
Epigenetics is the study of gene expression changes that occur in the absence of altered genotype. Current evidence indicates a role for environmentally induced alterations to epigenetic modifications leading to health and diseases changes across multiple generations. This phenomenon is called intergenerational or transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of health or disease. Environmental insults, in the form of toxins, plastics and particular dietary interventions, perturb the epigenetic landscape and influence the health of F1 through to F4 generations in rodents...
March 30, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370992/cortical-adaptations-during-muscle-fatigue-the-role-of-sensorimotor-oscillations
#9
EDITORIAL
Tjeerd W Boonstra
During physical activity, fatigue arises not only from peripheral processes within the active spinal motor units but also from supraspinal mechanisms within the brain. Although the failure to generate a maximal output from the motor cortex is well established, the neural mechanisms of central fatigue remain unclear. In a recent study, Fry et al. (1) investigate changes in oscillatory activity in sensorimotor cortex following a fatiguing intervention to identify the cortical adaptations to muscle fatigue. This article is protected by copyright...
March 29, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371179/announcing-the-100-000-one-hundred-thousand-us-dollars-acta-physiologica-award
#10
EDITORIAL
P B Persson
It is with pleasure that the Scandinavian Physiological Society announces a $100,000 (one hundred thousand US Dollars) award for the best article published in Acta Physiologica during the last two years. $50,000 of the award is a personal award to the authors, whereas the remaining $50,000 is allocated to support your research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346772/tools-in-science
#11
EDITORIAL
Anna Zakrisson, Christine Kronfoth
When talking to non-scientists, it is rather amusing how much the Victorian view of a scientist still lingers. Many people, still view us [scientists] as crazy people working in basements (alright, that might contain some truth), who solve unholy puzzles using tools like beakers with colorful liquids and fuming test tubes. Sometimes, we burst out into euphoric cries of EUREKA when some incomprehensible problem is solved just prior to a minor explosion that causes our hair to stand up in disarray. This article is protected by copyright...
March 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342174/modeling-vision-computational-science-for-understanding-human-visual-perception
#12
EDITORIAL
Ralf Mrowka, Alexander Freytag, Stefanie Reuter
Human visual perception system is complex and involves a considerable portion of the brain's cortex. Hence, the wish to understand complex neuronal function is obvious, and the idea to model this by means of artificial neuronal networks might have been born at the time when first computational machines were constructed (Alan Turing, Intelligent machinery, 1948, h t t p: //www.npl.co.uk/about/history/notable-individuals/turing/intelligent-machinery) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 25, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319329/extracellular-acidosis-and-very-low-na-inhibit-nbcn1-and-nhe1-mediated-net-acid-extrusion-from-mouse-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#13
Lisbeth Bonde, Ebbe Boedtkjer
AIM: The electroneutral Na(+) ,HCO3(-) -cotransporter NBCn1 and Na(+) /H(+) -exchanger NHE1 regulate acid-base balance in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and modify artery function and structure. Pathological conditions-notably ischemia-can dramatically perturb intracellular (i) and extracellular (o) pH and [Na(+) ]. We examined effects of low [Na(+) ]o and pHo on NBCn1 and NHE1 activity in VSMCs of small arteries. METHODS: We measured pHi by 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein-based fluorescence microscopy of mouse mesenteric arteries and induced intracellular acidification by NH4(+) -prepulse technique...
March 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317338/release-of-calcium-into-the-myofibrillar-space-in-response-to-active-shortening-of-striated-muscle
#14
K A P Edman, C Caputo
AIM: The study was undertaken to explore whether shortening of striated muscle during activity is associated with release of bound Ca(2+) into the myofibrillar space as has previously been proposed in order to explain the depressant effect of active shortening. METHODS: The experiments were carried out on single muscle fibres isolated from the anterior tibialis muscle of Rana temporaria. The fibres were loaded with the calcium sensitive indicator Fluo-3. The fibres, stimulated to produce a partially fused isometric tetanus, were subjected to a shortening ramp or, alternatively, to a stretch ramp during activity while force, fibre length, sarcomere length and the Fluo-3 signal were recorded...
March 19, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316125/deferoxamine-activated-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-restores-cardioprotective-effects-of-sevoflurane-postconditioning-in-diabetic-rats
#15
Peng Xie, Long Yang, Ailaiti Talaiti, Jianjiang Wu, Jin Yu, Tian Yu, Haiying Wang, Bo Huang, Qin Wu, Yiliyaer Maimaitili, Jiang Wang, Haiping Ma, Yining Yang, Hong Zheng
AIM: The cardioprotective effects of sevoflurane postconditioning (SpostC) are eliminated under diabetic conditions, and the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon remains unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1(HIF-1) signaling pathway in the myocardium is impaired under diabetic conditions. This study was to investigate whether deferoxamine (DFO)-induced activation of HIF-1 signaling pathway can restore the cardioprotective effects of SpostC in diabetic rats...
March 17, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296171/calcium-dependent-nedd4-2-upregulation-mediates-degradation-of-the-cardiac-sodium-channel-nav1-5-implications-for-heart-failure
#16
Ling Luo, Feifei Ning, Yuan Du, Bingxue Song, Dandan Yang, Samantha C Salvage, Ya Wang, James A Fraser, Shetuan Zhang, Aiqun Ma, Tingzhong Wang
AIM: Reductions of voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5) function/expression provide a slowed-conduction substrate for cardiac arrhythmias. Nedd4-2, which is activated by calcium, post-translationally modulates Nav1.5. We aim to investigate whether elevated intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) reduces Nav1.5 through Nedd4-2 and its role in heart failure (HF). METHODS: Using a combination of biochemical, electrophysiological, cellular and in vivo methods, we tested the effect and mechanism of calcium on Nedd4-2 and in turn Nav1...
March 10, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296151/bilirubin-protects-the-ageing-heart
#17
EDITORIAL
S O Adeosun, D E Stec
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262007/muscle-oxygen-saturation-increases-during-head-up-tilt-induced-pre-syncope
#18
A Lund, H Sørensen, T W Jensen, M J Niemann, N D Olesen, H B Nielsen, N V Olsen, N H Secher
AIM: To evaluate whether muscle vasodilatation plays a role for hypotension developed during central hypovolaemia, muscle oxygenation (Sm O2 ) was examined during (pre)syncope induced by head-up tilt (HUT). Skin blood flow (SkBF) and oxygenation (Sskin O2 ) were determined because evaluation of Sm O2 may be affected by superficial tissue oxygenation. Furthermore, we evaluated cerebral oxygenation (Sc O2 ) and middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity (MCAvmean ). METHODS: Twenty healthy male volunteers (median age 24 years; range 19-38) were subjected to passive 50° HUT for 1 hour or until (pre)syncope...
March 6, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238220/telomeres-exercise-and-cardiovascular-disease-finding-the-means-to-justify-the-ends
#19
EDITORIAL
W L Chilton, B J O'Brien, F Grace, F J Charchar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238218/vagal-nerve-stimulation-reduces-infarct-size-via-a-mechanism-involving-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-and-down-regulation-of-cardiac-and-vascular-arginase
#20
Attila Kiss, Yahor Tratsiakovich, Ali Mahdi, Jiangning Yang, Adrian T Gonon, Bruno K Podesser, John Pernow
AIMS: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) protects from myocardial and vascular injury following myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) via a mechanism involving activation of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) and reduced inflammation. Arginase is involved in development of myocardial IR injury driven by inflammatory mediators. The aim of the study was to clarify whether VNS downregulates myocardial and vascular arginase via a mechanism involving activation of α7 nAChR following myocardial IR METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were randomized to (1) sham operated, (2) control IR (30 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion, (3) VNS throughout IR, (4) the arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA+IR, (5) nor-NOHA+VNS+IR, (6) selective α7 nAChR blockade by methyllycaconitine (MLA) followed by VNS throughout IR and (7) MLA+IR...
February 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
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