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Acta Physiologica

Elisa Meroni, Nathalie Stakenborg, Maria Francesca Viola, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Over the past decades, there has been an increasing understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate modulation of the immune system by the autonomic nervous system. The discovery that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) attenuates endotoxin-induced experimental sepsis paved the way for further studies investigating neuro-immune interaction. In particular, great attention is now given to intestinal macrophages: several studies report the existence of both intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms by which intestinal immune homeostasis can be regulated in different layers of the intestine, mainly by affecting macrophage activation through neurotransmitter release...
July 11, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Susanne Ackermann, Ralf Mrowka
Nephropathy denotes a loss of kidney function due to renal disease or kidney damage. In general this can be caused by inflammation or non-inflammatory causes. Non-inflammatory processes leading to nephropathy are for example a decreased glomerular flow rate (GFR), exposure to renal toxins (e. g. drugs) and renal trauma. Acute kidney injuries (AKI) occur global and are a common challenge in hospitals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 8, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Mark J Burish, Zheng Chen, Seung-Hee Yoo
Circadian rhythms of physiology are key to health and fitness, as dysregulation, by genetic mutations or environmental factors, increases disease risk and aggravates progression. Molecular and physiological studies have shed important light on an intrinsic clock that drives circadian rhythms and serves essential roles in metabolic homeostasis, organ physiology, and brain functions. One exciting new area in circadian research is pain, including headache and neuropathic pain for which new mechanistic insights have recently emerged...
July 3, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Pontus B Persson
This year has brought many happy events for Acta Physiologica. Of course our launched Acta Physiologica Award over $100,000 (probably the greatest prize of its type)1 was reason of great delight, not only for the awardees from Regensburg.2 Because we had so many outstanding manuscripts to choose from,3 we will include manuscripts from 2016 in 2017 once more for our next Acta Physiologica Award selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Alexandra Ribon-Demars, Vincent Pialoux, Anaëlle Boreau, François Marcouiller, Richard Larivière, Aida Bairam, Vincent Joseph
AIM: We tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E2 ) reduces aortic oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats exposed to room air (RA) or chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). METHODS: We used intact or OVX female rats treated with vehicle or E2 (0.5 mg/kg/day) and exposed to RA or CIH (21-10% O2 , 10cycles/h, 8h/day) for 7 or 35 days, and measured the arterial pressure, heart rate and plasma endothelin-1 levels. We also measured in thoracic aortic samples, the activities of the pro-oxidant enzymes NADPH (NOX) and xanthine oxidase (XO), the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP - oxidative stress marker)...
June 27, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Shih-Pin Lee, Wei-Yi Wu, Jong-Kai Hsiao, Jia-Hao Zhou, Hao-Hsiang Chang, Chiang-Ting Chien
AIM: This study determines whether the activation of olfactory calcium-sensing receptor initiates a sympathetic activation-dependent neurovascular reflex subsequently contributing to renal hemodynamic depression. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and nose-loading calcium sensitive dye were used to explore the location and function of calcium-sensing receptor on the olfactory sensory neuron. The renal sympathetic nervous activity, renal hemodynamics and the microcirculation of kidney, liver and intestine were evaluated after liquid-phase intranasal administrations of saline, lidocaine, calcium-sensing receptor agonists and antagonist in sham and bilateral renal denervated rats...
June 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Caroline M Kristensen, Henrik Jessen, Stine Ringholm, Henriette Pilegaard
AIM: To provide a detailed time course of hepatic autophagy and all UPR branches in response to an acute bout of exercise and 24h of fasting, and test the hypothesis that muscle-specific PGC-1α overexpression dampens the UPR and autophagy responses to these metabolic challenges. METHODS: Muscle-specific PGC-1α overexpression (TG) and wild-type (WT) mice 1) performed a single bout of exercise, where the liver was obtained immediately after exercise, 2, 6 or 10h into recovery as well as from resting mice or 2) were fasting for 24h or remained fed and the liver was obtained...
June 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Paul D Loprinzi
A recent publication in Acta Physiologica addressed the importance of physical activity in battling cardiovascular disease, discussing several key molecular mediators (e.g., IGF-1, SIRT1, TNF-α).1 But what role may physical activity play on cognitive function, specifically memory function? Can IGF-1 be a potential mediator? The ability for the brain to learn, store, and retrieve memories is a remarkable phenomenon that, unquestionably, is critical for optimal daily functioning. This article is protected by copyright...
June 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Rudolf Schubert
The study by Bouzinova and colleagues 1 published in this issue of Acta Physiologica attracted my attention due to a particular issue that fits well into a series of recent observations and may set a trend: ion transporters that do not only carry ions through biological membranes but function also as signal transducers. For a long time, ion transporters, i.e. pumps, exchangers and channels have been considered to be exclusively responsible for transferring ions, unable to pass the membrane lipid bilayer on their own, from one side of the membrane to the other...
June 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Christopher J Broyd, Fausto Rigo, Sukhjinder Nijjer, Sayan Sen, Ricardo Petraco, Rasha Al-Lamee, Nicolas Foin, Andrew Chukwuemeka, Jon Anderson, Jessica Parker, Iqbal S Malik, Ghada W Mikhail, Darrel P Francis, Kim Parker, Alun D Hughes, Jamil Mayet, Justin E Davies
AIM: Severe aortic stenosis frequently involves the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) creating a dichotomous hemodynamic state within the coronary circulation. Whilst the increased force of ventricular contraction enhances its resultant relaxation and thus increases the distal diastolic coronary 'suction' force, the presence of LVH has a potentially opposing effect on ventricular-coronary interplay. The aim of this study was to use non-invasive coronary wave-intensity analysis (WIA) to separate and measure the sequential effects of outflow-tract obstruction relief and then left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) regression following intervention for aortic stenosis...
June 23, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Hans Degens, Rob C I Wüst
Water is indispensable for life. It is the medium in the cell required for biochemical reactions, a main source of evaporative cooling and a solute for waste products in our urine. Water is also the main component of blood that is crucial for the transport of oxygen, hormones and substrates to, and removal of heat and metabolites from, body cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Guillaume de Lartigue, Molly McDougle
Predicting the uncertainties of the ever-changing environment provides a competitive advantage for animals. The need to anticipate food sources has provided a strong evolutionary drive for synchronizing behavioral and internal processes with daily circadian cycles. When food is restricted to a few hours per day, rodents exhibit increased wakefulness and foraging behavior preceding the arrival of food. Interestingly, while the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus entrains daily rhythms to the light cycle, it is not necessary for this food anticipated activity...
June 19, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Michael A Trevino, Adam J Sterczala, Jonathan D Miller, Mandy E Wray, Hannah L Dimmick, Anthony B Ciccone, Joseph P Weir, Philip M Gallagher, Andrew C Fry, Trent J Herda
AIM: To investigate the relationships between motor unit action potential amplitudes (MUAPAMP ), muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) and composition (mEI), percent myosin heavy chain (%MHC) areas, and sex in the vastus lateralis (VL). METHODS: Ten males and 10 females performed a submaximal isometric trapezoid muscle action that included a linearly increasing, steady torque at 40% maximal voluntary contraction, and linearly decreasing segments. Surface electromyographic decomposition techniques were utilized to determine MUAPAMPS in relation to recruitment thresholds (RT)...
June 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
P B Persson
Four-wheel drive means being stuck in an even more remote place. It is so difficult to push or pull in any direction, sweat drips by the liter, yet the wheel moves by the μm, just to slide back into stuck position. The same can happen to journals. Something may not work as intended, or the scientific environment changes and strategic decisions must be made to reestablish past glory. Acta Physiologica experienced hard times, as Scandinavian authors no longer took for granted publishing in their small, but beautiful, society owned journal...
June 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
J Donovan, P S Wong, M J Garle, S P H Alexander, W R Dunn, V Ralevic
AIM: Hypoxia causes vasodilatation of coronary arteries which protects the heart from ischaemic damage through mechanisms including the generation of hydrogen sulphide (H2 S), but the influence of the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and myocardium is incompletely understood. This study aimed to determine whether PVAT and the myocardium modulate the coronary artery hypoxic response and whether this involves hydrogen sulphide. METHODS: Porcine left circumflex coronary arteries were prepared as cleaned segments and with PVAT intact, myocardium intact or both PVAT and myocardium intact, and contractility investigated using isometric tension recording...
June 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
N Strugala, P B Persson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Acta Physiologica
W I Rosenblum
Endothelium-dependent responses were first demonstrated 40 years ago in the aorta. Since then, extensive research has been conducted in vitro using conductance vessels and materials derived from them. However, the microcirculation controls blood flow to vital organs and has been the focus of in vivo studies of endothelium-dependent dilation beginning immediately after the first in vitro report. Initial in vivo studies employed a light/dye technique for selectively damaging the endothelium to unequivocally prove, in vivo, the existence of endothelium-dependent dilation and in the microvasculature...
June 6, 2018: Acta Physiologica
D A Cardinale, F J Larsen, M Jensen-Urstad, E Rullman, H Søndergaard, D Morales-Alamo, B Ekblom, J A L Calbet, R Boushel
AIM: We examined the Fick components together with mitochondrial O2 affinity (p50mito ) in defining O2 extraction and O2 uptake during exercise with large and small muscle mass during normoxia (NORM) and hyperoxia (HYPER). METHODS: Seven individuals performed 2 incremental exercise tests to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer (BIKE) and 2 on a 1-legged knee extension ergometer (KE) in NORM or HYPER. Leg blood flow and VO2 were determined by thermodilution and the Fick method...
June 4, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Kristin Pogoda, Petra Kameritsch, Hanna Mannell, Ulrich Pohl
Vascular endothelial cells, as well as smooth muscle cells, show heterogeneity with regard to their receptor expression and reactivity. For the vascular wall to act as a functional unit, the various cells' responses require integration. Such an integration is not only required for a homogeneous response of the vascular wall, but also for the vasomotor behaviour of consecutive segments of the microvascular arteriolar tree. Since flow resistances of individual sections are connected in series, sections require synchronization and coordination manner to allow effective changes of conductivity and blood flow...
June 2, 2018: Acta Physiologica
P Aagaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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