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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

Shigetomo Suyama, Toshihiko Yada
Several lines of study have suggested that GABA in the hypothalamic feeding center plays a role in promoting food intake. Recent studies revealed that not only NPY/AgRP neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) that co-express GABA but also other GABAergic neurons act as an orexigenic. Here, we review the progress of studies on hypothalamic GABAergic neurons distributed in ARC, dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), and lateral hypothalamus (LH). Three advanced technologies have been applied and greatly contributed to the recent progress...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Wancheng Yu, Mei Xu, Tao Zhang, Qian Zhang, Chengwei Zou
Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury results mainly from mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death. Mitophagy sustains mitochondrial function and exerts a pro-survival effect on the reperfused heart tissue. Mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) regulates chronic cardiac metabolic damage and autophagic activity, but its role in acute cardiac I/R injury, especially its effect on mitophagy, is unknown. The aim of this study is to explore whether Mst1 is involved in reperfusion-mediated cardiomyocyte death via modulation of FUN14 domain containing 1 (FUNDC1)-related mitophagy...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kanako Wakabayashi-Nakao, Yingchun Yu, Miyuki Nakakuki, Tzyh-Chang Hwang, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Yoshiro Sohma
A massive deletion over three exons 16-17b in the CFTR gene was identified in Japanese CF patients with the highest frequency (about 70% of Japanese CF patients definitely diagnosed). This pathogenic mutation results in a deletion of 153 amino acids from glycine at position 970 (G970) to threonine at 1122 (T1122) in the CFTR protein without a frameshift. We name it Δ(G970-T1122)-CFTR. In the present study, we characterized the Δ(G970-T1122)-CFTR expressed in CHO cells using immunoblots and a super resolution microscopy...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Michiko Tashiro, Hana Inoue, Masato Konishi
To examine whether TRPM7, a member of the melastatin family of transient receptor potential channels, is a physiological pathway for Mg2+ entry in mammalian cells, we studied the effect of TRPM7 regulators on cytoplasmic free Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+ ]i ) of rat ventricular myocytes. Acutely isolated single cells were AM-loaded with the fluorescent indicator furaptra, and [Mg2+ ]i was estimated at 25 °C. After [Mg2+ ]i was lowered by soaking the cells with a high-K+ and Mg2+ -Ca2+ -free solution, [Mg2+ ]i was recovered by extracellular perfusion of Ca2+ -free Tyrode's solution that contained 1 mM Mg2+ ...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
N Keating, K Dev, A C Hynes, L R Quinlan
There are both secretory and absorptive pathways working in tandem to support ionic movement driving fluid secretion across epithelia. The mechanisms exerting control of fluid secretion in the oviduct is yet to be fully determined. This study explored the role of apical or luminal extracellular ATP (ATPe)-stimulated ion transport in an oviduct epithelium model, using the Ussing chamber short-circuit current (Isc) technique. Basal Isc in oviduct epithelium in response to apical ATPe comprises both chloride secretion and sodium absorption and has distinct temporal phases...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
(no author information available yet)
In the original publication of the article, there are following misprints in the numbering of the planned symposia.
June 12, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Keitaro Satoh, Motoshi Ouchi, Asuka Morita, Masanori Kashimata
Little is known about the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on the pancreatic exocrine gland. In the gland, secretagogues induce amylase release. That signal transduction is evoked mainly by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We previously demonstrated that myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), a PKC substrate, is involved in pancreatic amylase release. Here, we studied the effects of GLP-1 on MARCKS phosphorylation and amylase release in rat pancreatic acini...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kyo Koizumi, Masatoshi Inoue, Srikanta Chowdhury, Haruhiko Bito, Akihiro Yamanaka, Toru Ishizuka, Hiromu Yawo
To investigate how the functional architecture is organized in layer 5 (L5) of the somatosensory cortex of a mouse in vivo, the input-output relationship was investigated using an all-optical approach. The neural activity in L5 was optically recorded using a Ca2+ sensor, R-CaMP2, through a microprism inserted in the cortex under two-photon microscopy, while the L5 was regionally excited using optogenetics. The excitability was spread around the blue-light irradiated region, but the horizontal propagation was limited to within a certain distance (λ < 130 μm from the center of the illumination spot)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Paweł Jóźków, Dawid Koźlenia, Katarzyna Zawadzka, Marek Konefał, Paweł Chmura, Katarzyna Młynarska, Michał Kosowski, Marek Mędraś, Jan Chmura, Piotr Ponikowski, Jacek Daroszewski
Our aim was to verify whether running a marathon is associated with changes in irisin concentration in healthy, endurance-trained men. In an observational study, we assessed baseline biochemical and fitness parameters of 28 middle-aged runners (mean ± SD age, BMI, VO2max : 58 ± 8 years; 24.5 ± 3 kg/m2 ; 51.1 ± 1.7 ml/kg/min). We evaluated irisin before, immediately after, and 7 days after the marathon. Irisin concentration decreased from a baseline value of 639 ± 427 to 461 ± 255 ng/ml immediately after the marathon (p < 0...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Bahram Rasoulian, Zahra Hajializadeh, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Marzieh Rashidipour, Iman Fatemi, Ayat Kaeidi
Diabetes mellitus is associated with the development of neuronal tissue damage in different central and peripheral nervous system regions. A common complication of diabetes is painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We have explored the antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The nociceptive threshold and motor coordination of these diabetic rats was assessed using the tail-flick and rotarod treadmill tests, respectively...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Eriko Kage-Nakadai, Simo Sun, Satoru Iwata, Sawako Yoshina, Yoshikazu Nishikawa, Shohei Mitani
The membrane trafficking events that regulate unicellular tube formation and maintenance are not well understood. Here, using an RNAi screen, we identified the small GTPase ARF1 homolog ARF-1.2 as a regulator of excretory tube formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. RNAi-mediated knockdown and knockout of the arf-1.2 gene resulted in the formation of large intracellular vacuoles at the growth sites (varicosities) of the excretory canals. arf-1.2 mutant animals were sensitive to hyperosmotic conditions. arf-1.2 RNAi affected the localization of the anion transporter SULP-8, which is expressed in the basal plasma membrane of the excretory canals, but did not affect the expression of SULP-4, which is expressed in the apical membrane...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Samir Henni, Pierre Abraham
A recent report in the journal evaluated microvascular response at the facial and peripheral level during various types and levels of emotional stresses with laser speckle contrast imaging. Our short letter aims at underlying the importance of artifact removal in this situation and suggest directions for improving the results of this kind of experiment.
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Rumiko Nishimura, Naoki Nishimura, Satoshi Iwase, Masao Takeshita, Mitsuhiro Katashima, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Motohiko Sato
We examined the effect of intake of a catechin-enriched ion beverage (Cat-I) on the thermoregulatory response in a hot environment. Eight healthy men were exposed to a hot environment for 90 min at an ambient temperature of 35 °C (relative humidity: 75%) combined with lower leg water immersion at 40 °C. At that time, either Cat-I, an ion beverage (Ion), or mineral water (Placebo) was consumed at three points: (1) at the start of lower leg immersion, (2) at 30 min after immersion, and (3) at 60 min after immersion...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sebastian Haidarliu, Ehud Ahissar, Inbar Saraf-Sinik
A self-adjusting head holder is designed to allow stable fixation and precise positioning (anterior-posterior, pitch, and roll) of guinea pig head in stereotaxic devices. These are achieved with no use of ear-bars. It is thus easy to use, preferable for studies of the auditory system, and for avoiding tissue damage of the ear in general. This head holder can accommodate various head sizes and is thus adapted for males and females of a large range of body weights, as confirmed for guinea pigs of 360-940 g. Moreover, this head holder is easy and cost-effective to manufacture, making it accessible for any lab...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Airi Nakayama, Wataru Aoi, Maki Takami, Nariyuki Hirano, Yumi Ogaya, Sayori Wada, Akane Higashi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of downhill walking on muscle damage and glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. All ten healthy young men and women (age, 24.0 ± 1.4 years) performed rest, uphill walking, and downhill walking trials. In the exercise trials, uphill (+ 5%) or downhill (- 5%) treadmill walking was performed at 6 km/h for 30 min. On the next day, muscle soreness was significantly higher in the downhill trial than in the uphill trial (P < 0.01). Respiratory metabolic performance did not differ between trials...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Hisayoshi Ishii, Toshiya Sato
The article Interactions between β-adrenergic vasodilation and cervical sympathetic nerves are mediated by α2-adrenoceptors in the rat masseter muscle, written by Hisayoshi Ishii and Toshiya Sato, was originally published Online First without open access.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Mami Noda, A I Kobayashi
The article Nicotine inhibits activation of microglial proton currents via interactions with α7 acetylcholine receptors, written by Mami Noda and AI Kobayashi, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 67, issue 1, pages 235-245.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship...
July 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Daisuke Ono, Ken-Ichi Honma, Yuchio Yanagawa, Akihiro Yamanaka, Sato Honma
In mammals, circadian rhythms, such as sleep/wake cycles, are regulated by the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN consists of thousands of individual neurons, which exhibit circadian rhythms. They synchronize with each other and produce robust and stable oscillations. Although several neurotransmitters are expressed in the SCN, almost all SCN neurons are γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic. Several studies have attempted to understand the roles of GABA in the SCN; however, precise mechanisms of the action of GABA in the SCN are still unclear...
July 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Mark Stewart
This review traces the examination of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory derangements associated with seizure activity in the clinical and preclinical literature generally, and in the author's animal model specifically, and concludes with the author's views on the potential mechanisms for sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP). An animal model that employs kainic acid-induced seizures on a background of urethane anesthesia has permitted unprecedented access to the behavior of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems during seizure activity...
July 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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