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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

Mark Stewart
This review traces the examination of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory derangements associated with seizure activity in the clinical and preclinical literature generally, and in the author's animal model specifically, and concludes with the author's views on the potential mechanisms for sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP). An animal model that employs kainic acid-induced seizures on a background of urethane anesthesia has permitted unprecedented access to the behavior of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems during seizure activity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Genta Ochi, Yusuke Kanazawa, Kazuki Hyodo, Kazuya Suwabe, Takeshi Shimizu, Takemune Fukuie, Kyeongho Byun, Hideaki Soya
Although it has been traditionally thought that decreasing SpO2 with ascent to high altitudes not only induces acute mountain sickness but also can decrease executive function, the relationship between decreased SpO2 levels and hypoxia-induced lowered executive function is still unclear. Here we aimed to clarify whether hypoxia-induced lowered executive function was associated with arterial oxygen desaturation, using 21 participants performing the color-word Stroop task under normoxic and three hypoxic conditions (FIO2  = 0...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Makito Iizuka, Masaaki Kobayashi, Yoshimasa Hasegawa, Kazuhide Tomita, Reiko Takeshima, Masahiko Izumizaki
We tried to develop a new device to detect laryngeal movement noninvasively. We made small piezo pressure sensors (length, 1.5 mm, width, 7.0 mm), and five of these were lined up with 3.0-mm intervals and embedded in the middle of a palm-sized urethane resin sheet. This sheet was lightly attached to the ventral surface of the neck near the laryngeal prominence. The first and second peaks obtained from each sensor should correspond to the period when the larynx moves to the upper and lower positions during swallowing...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kornkamon Lertsuwan, Kannikar Wongdee, Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Osteoporosis and derangement of calcium homeostasis are common complications of thalassemia. Despite being an important process for bone and calcium metabolism, little is known about intestinal calcium transport in thalassemia. Recent reports of decreases in both intestinal calcium transport and bone mineral density in thalassemic patients and animal models suggested that defective calcium absorption might be a cause of thalassemic bone disorder. Herein, the possible mechanisms associated with intestinal calcium malabsorption in thalassemia are discussed...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kana Endo, Nan Liang, Mitsuhiro Idesako, Kei Ishii, Kanji Matsukawa
Cognitive function declines with age. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of cognitive performance, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that an incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation during a cognitive Stroop test decreases in progress of ageing, resulting in a slowdown of cognitive performance. To test this hypothesis, we identified, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, the characteristics of the oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) responses of the prefrontal cortex to both incongruent Stroop and congruent word-reading test...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sato Honma
The circadian nature of physiology and behavior is regulated by a circadian clock that generates intrinsic rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 h. The mammalian circadian system is composed of a hierarchical multi-oscillator structure, with the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulating the peripheral clocks found throughout the body. In the past two decades, key clock genes have been discovered in mammals and shown to be interlocked in transcriptional and translational feedback loops...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Zoha Deldar, Nabi Rustamov, Suzie Bois, Isabelle Blanchette, Mathieu Piché
The aim of this study was to examine whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances pain inhibition by improving working memory (WM). Forty healthy volunteers participated in two tDCS sessions. Pain was evoked by electrical stimulation at the ankle. Participants performed an n-back task (0-back and 2-back). The experimental protocol comprised five counterbalanced conditions (0-back, 2-back, pain, 0-back with pain and 2-back with pain) that were performed twice (pre-tDCS baseline and during tDCS)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Nami Aso-Someya, Kimiya Narikiyo, Akira Masuda, Shuji Aou
Tail pinch facilitates eating in rats. We investigated an unidentified link between tail-pinch-induced eating behavior and individual emotionality in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze (EPM) and in the open field test (OFT). Tail-pinch-induced eating was observed as follows: After a 30-min habituation period, the tail pinch was applied for 5 min, followed by a 30-min recovery period. During the habituation and recovery periods, rats were allowed to access food ad libitum...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Umit Yilmaz, Suat Tekin, Mehmet Demir, Yilmaz Cigremis, Suleyman Sandal
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intracerebroventricular chronic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) infusion on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, energy metabolism, food intake and body weight. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and divided into three groups including control, sham (vehicle) and FGF21 infused groups (n = 10). Intracerebroventricularly, FGF21 and vehicle groups were infused for 7 days with FGF21 (0.72 µg/day) and artificial cerebrospinal fluid, respectively...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Silvia Enes-Marques, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva
Maternal behavior has a substantial impact on the behavioral, endocrine, and neural development of the pups. This study investigated the effect of altering the neonatal nutritional environment by modifying the litter size on maternal care and anxiety- and fear-like behaviors in rats during adulthood. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of three pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors were scored daily during lactation (PND2-21). The weight gain, food intake, adiposity, and biochemical landmarks of offspring rats were evaluated...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
To determine the effects of load and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscular responses, we asked 12 participants to perform chest presses under four different conditions [30/0, 30/40, 50/0, and 50/40, presented as percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM)/percentage arterial occlusion pressure (AOP)]. Muscle thickness increased pre- to post-exercise [chest: mean 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.37 cm; triceps: mean 0.44, 95% CI 0.34, 0.54 cm], remaining elevated for 15 min post-exercise. Electromyography amplitude was greater with 50% 1RM and increased over time for the first three repetitions of each set of chest presses...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Fang-Hui Li, Tao Li, Ying-Min Su, Jing-Yi Ai, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu
To investigate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) have different impacts on exercise performance and cardiac function and to determine the influence of these exercise protocols on modulating basal autophagy in the cardiac muscle of rats. Rats were assigned to three groups: sedentary control (SC), CMT, and HIIT. Total exercise volume and mean intensity were matched between the two protocols. After a 10-week training program, rats were evaluated for exercise performance, including exercise tolerance and grip strength...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Yukiko Ikeuchi, Haruka Kogiso, Shigekuni Hosogi, Saori Tanaka, Chikao Shimamoto, Toshio Inui, Takashi Nakahari, Yoshinori Marunaka
MQAE is a 'non-ratiometric' chloride ion (Cl-)-quenched fluorescent indicator that is used to determine intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i). MQAE-based two-photon microscopy is reported to be a useful method to measure [Cl-]i, but it is still controversial because a change in cell volume may alter the MQAE concentration, leading to a change in the fluorescence intensity without any change in [Cl-]i. In an attempt to elucidate the effect or lack of effect of cell volume on MQAE concentration, we studied the effects of changes in cell volume, achieved by applying different levels of osmotic stress, on the intensity of MQAE fluorescence in airway ciliary cells...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kimiko Masuda, Hiroki Takanari, Masaki Morishima, FangFang Ma, Yan Wang, Naohiko Takahashi, Katsushige Ono
Men have shorter rate-corrected QT intervals (QTc) than women, especially at the period of adolescence or later. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term effects of testosterone on cardiac excitability parameters including electrocardiogram (ECG) and potassium channel current. Testosterone shortened QT intervals in ECG in castrated male rats, not immediately after, but on day 2 or later. Expression of Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) mRNA was significantly upregulated by testosterone in cardiomyocytes of male and female rats...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Maria Guadalupe Soares Amorim, Maurício Dias de Oliveira, Daiane Santos Soares, Leandro da Silva Borges, Alexandre Dermargos, Elaine Hatanaka
The original article was corrected.
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Mayuko Morikawa, Sakura Nakano, Nobuo Mitsui, Hisashi Murasawa, Shizue Masuki, Hiroshi Nose
Muscle atrophy with aging is closely associated with chronic systemic inflammation and lifestyle-related diseases. Here, we assessed whether dried tofu intake during 5-month interval walking training (IWT) enhanced increases in thigh muscle mass and strength and ameliorated susceptibility to inflammation in older women. Subjects (n = 32, ~ 65 years) who performed IWT for > 6 months participated in this study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups: IWT + placebo intake (PLG, n = 16; 108 kcal, 0...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Xiaohua Xu, Wenhan Wan, Michael A Garza, John Q Zhang
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) play a critical role in the expression of genes that are major determinants of myocardial contractility, including α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) and β-MHC. After myocardial infarction (MI), changes in myocardial TRs consistently correlate with changes in thyroid hormone (TH) target gene transcription, and this is thought to play a key role in the progression to end-stage heart failure. Interestingly, post-MI exercise training has been shown to beneficially alter TH-target gene transcription and preserve cardiac function without changing serum TH...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Shuji Shimizu, Dai Une, Toru Kawada, Yohsuke Hayama, Atsunori Kamiya, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
The recent development of computer technology has made it possible to simulate the hemodynamics of congenital heart diseases on a desktop computer. However, multi-scale modeling of the cardiovascular system based on computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images still requires long simulation times. The lumped parameter model is potentially beneficial for real-time bedside simulation of congenital heart diseases. In this review, we introduce the basics of the lumped parameter model (time-varying elastance chamber model combined with modified Windkessel vasculature model) and illustrate its usage in hemodynamic simulation of congenital heart diseases using examples such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome and Fontan circulation...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Dong-Joo Hwang, Jung-Hoon Koo, Ki-Cheon Kwon, Dong-Hoon Choi, Sung-Deuk Shin, Jae-Hoon Jeong, Hyun-Seob Um, Joon-Yong Cho
Dysfunction of mitophagy, which is a selective degradation of defective mitochondria for quality control, is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, how treadmill exercise (TE) regulates mitophagy-related molecules in PD remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how TE regulates α-synuclein (α-syn)-induced neurotoxicity and mitophagy-related molecules in the nigro-striatal region of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-mice. Our data showed that TE exhibited a significant restoration of tyrosine hydroxylase and motor coordination with suppression of α-syn expression, hallmarks of PD, possibly via up-regulation of lysosomal degradation molecules, LAMP-2 and cathepsin L, with down-regulation of p62, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, PINK1 and parkin in the substantia nigra of MPTP mice...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Akira Takai, Masumi Eto, Katsuya Hirano, Kosuke Takeya, Toshiyuki Wakimoto, Masaru Watanabe
The article Protein phosphatases 1 and 2A and their naturally occurring inhibitors: current topics in smooth muscle physiology and chemical biology, written by Akira Takai, Masumi Eto, Katsuya Hirano, Kosuke Takeya, Toshiyuki Wakimoto and Masaru Watanabe, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 5th July 2017 without open access.
March 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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