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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710665/physical-exercise-reduces-pyruvate-carboxylase-pcb-and-contributes-to-hyperglycemia-reduction-in-obese-mice
#1
Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Barbara Moreira Crisol, Guilherme Pedron Formigari, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, José Diego Botezelli, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689272/insulin-does-not-rescue-cortical-and-trabecular-bone-loss-in-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rats
#2
Ratchaneevan Aeimlapa, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Kannikar Wongdee, Wacharaporn Tiyasatkulkovit, Kanchana Kengkoom, Nateetip Krishnamra
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the decreased bone strength is often associated with hyperglycemia and bone cell insulin resistance. Since T2DM is increasingly reported in young adults, it is not known whether the effect of T2DM on bone would be different in young adolescents and aging adults. Here, we found shorter femoral and tibial lengths in 7-month, but not 13-month, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) T2DM rats as compared to wild-type rats. Bone µCT analysis showed long-lasting impairment of both cortical and trabecular bones in GK rats...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685325/potential-signaling-pathways-of-acute-endurance-exercise-induced-cardiac-autophagy-and-mitophagy-and-its-possible-role-in-cardioprotection
#3
REVIEW
Youngil Lee, Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Wankeun Song, Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Mark H Roltsch
Cardiac myocytes are terminally differentiated cells and possess extremely limited regenerative capacity; therefore, preservation of mature cardiac myocytes throughout the individual's entire life span contributes substantially to healthy living. Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent cellular catabolic process, is essential for normal cardiac function and mitochondria maintenance. Therefore, it may be reasonable to hypothesize that if endurance exercise promotes cardiac autophagy and mitochondrial autophagy or mitophagy, exercise-induced cardiac autophagy (EICA) or exercise-induced cardiac mitophagy (EICM) may confer propitious cellular environment and thus protect the heart against detrimental stresses, such as an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681363/physiological-insights-of-recent-clinical-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-technologies-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Kenji Shigemi, Soichiro Fuke, Dai Une, Keita Saku, Shuji Shimizu, Toru Kawada, Toshiaki Shishido, Kenji Sunagawa, Masaru Sugimachi
Diagnostic and therapeutic methods for cardiovascular diseases continue to be developed in the 21st century. Clinicians should consider the physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system to ensure successful diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we focus on the roles of cardiovascular physiology in recent diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for cardiovascular diseases. In the first section, we discuss how to evaluate and utilize left ventricular arterial coupling in the clinical settings...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681362/protein-phosphatases-1-and-2a-and-their-naturally-occurring-inhibitors-current-topics-in-smooth-muscle-physiology-and-chemical-biology
#5
REVIEW
Akira Takai, Masumi Eto, Katsuya Hirano, Kosuke Takeya, Toshiyuki Wakimoto, Masaru Watanabe
Protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) are the most ubiquitous and abundant serine/threonine phosphatases in eukaryotic cells. They play fundamental roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. This review focuses on recent advances in the functional studies of these enzymes in the field of smooth muscle physiology. Many naturally occurring protein phosphatase inhibitors with different relative PP1/PP2A affinities have been discovered and are widely used as powerful research tools. Current topics in the chemical biology of PP1/PP2A inhibitors are introduced and discussed, highlighting the identification of the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of calyculin A in a symbiont microorganism of a marine sponge...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674776/investigating-%C3%AE-adrenergic-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-through-computational-approach-classical-and-non-classical-pathways
#6
Ali Khalilimeybodi, Alireza Daneshmehr, Babak Sharif-Kashani
The chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors plays a crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy and its progression to heart failure. In β-adrenergic signaling, in addition to the well-established classical pathway, Gs/AC/cAMP/PKA, activation of non-classical pathways such as Gi/PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and Gi/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK contribute in cardiac hypertrophy. The signaling network of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is very complex and not fully understood. So, we use a computational approach to investigate the dynamic response and contribution of β-adrenergic mediators in cardiac hypertrophy...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667588/post-injury-stretch-promotes-recovery-in-a-rat-model-of-muscle-damage-induced-by-lengthening-contractions
#7
Tomohiro Mori, Nobuhide Agata, Yuta Itoh, Masumi Inoue-Miyazu, Kazue Mizumura, Masahiro Sokabe, Toru Taguchi, Keisuke Kawakami
We investigated the cellular mechanisms and therapeutic effect of post-injury stretch on the recovery process from muscle injury induced by lengthening contractions (LC). One day after LC, a single 15-min bout of muscle stretch was applied at an intensity of 3 mNm. The maximal isometric torque was measured before and at 2-21 days after LC. The myofiber size was analyzed at 21 days after LC. Developmental myosin heavy chain-immunoreactive (dMHC-ir) cells, a marker of regenerating myofibers, were observed in the early recovery stage (2-5 days after LC)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631196/erratum-to-peroxiredoxins-and-sports-new-insights-on-the-antioxidative-defense
#8
Christian Brinkmann, Klara Brixius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623463/hypotonicity-induced-cell-swelling-activates-trpa1
#9
Fumitaka Fujita, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yasunori Takayama, Yoshiro Suzuki, Masayuki Takaishi, Makoto Tominaga
Hypotonic solutions can cause painful sensations in nasal and ocular mucosa through molecular mechanisms that are not entirely understood. We clarified the ability of human TRPA1 (hTRPA1) to respond to physical stimulus, and evaluated the response of hTRPA1 to cell swelling under hypotonic conditions. Using a Ca(2+)-imaging method, we found that modulation of AITC-induced hTRPA1 activity occurred under hypotonic conditions. Moreover, cell swelling in hypotonic conditions evoked single-channel activation of hTRPA1 in a cell-attached mode when the patch pipette was attached after cell swelling under hypotonic conditions, but not before swelling...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616820/possible-involvement-of-central-oxytocin-in-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-in-rats
#10
Koichi Arase, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Reiko Saito, Yasuhito Motojima, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Keiji Hirata, Yasuhito Uezono, Yoichi Ueta
During cancer chemotherapy, drugs such as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have typically been used to control vomiting and anorexia. We examined the effects of oxytocin (OXT), which has been linked to appetite, on cisplatin-induced anorexia in rats. Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) expressed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) after intraperitoneal (ip) administration of cisplatin. We also examined the fluorescence intensity of OXT-mRFP1 after ip administration of cisplatin in OXT-mRFP1 transgenic rats...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601951/acupuncture-stimulation-at-gb34-suppresses-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-striatum-of-mice
#11
Yukyung Lee, Gaeun Choi, Hyongjun Jeon, Dongsoo Kim, Sun Ryu, Sungtae Koo, Ki-Tae Ha, Seungtae Kim
Recent studies have suggested that increased oxidative stress is a potential etiology in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture regulates antioxidants in the striatum (ST) of a PD mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 30 mg/kg of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intraperitoneally once a day for 5 days and given acupuncture stimulation at SI3 or GB34 (Yanglingquan) was for 12 consecutive days. Dopaminergic neuronal survival in the nigrostriatal pathway and DJ-1 expression in the ST was evaluated by immunostaining, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the ST was by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601950/increase-in-carbon-dioxide-accelerates-the-performance-of-endurance-exercise-in-rats
#12
Takeshi Ueha, Keisuke Oe, Masahiko Miwa, Takumi Hasegawa, Akihiro Koh, Hanako Nishimoto, Sang Yang Lee, Takahiro Niikura, Masahiro Kurosaka, Ryosuke Kuroda, Yoshitada Sakai
Endurance exercise generates CO2 via aerobic metabolism; however, its role remains unclear. Exogenous CO2 by transcutaneous delivery promotes muscle fibre-type switching to increase endurance power in skeletal muscles. Here we determined the performance of rats running in activity wheels with/without transcutaneous CO2 exposure to clarify its effect on endurance exercise and recovery from muscle fatigue. Rats were randomised to control, training and CO2 groups. Endurance exercise included activity-wheel running with/without transcutaneous CO2 delivery...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573594/transmural-cellular-heterogeneity-in-myocardial-electromechanics
#13
Anastasia Khokhlova, Nathalie Balakina-Vikulova, Leonid Katsnelson, Gentaro Iribe, Olga Solovyova
Myocardial heterogeneity is an attribute of the normal heart. We have developed integrative models of cardiomyocytes from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) ventricular regions that take into account experimental data on specific regional features of intracellular electromechanical coupling in the guinea pig heart. The models adequately simulate experimental data on the differences in the action potential and contraction between the ENDO and EPI cells. The modeling results predict that heterogeneity in the parameters of calcium handling and myofilament mechanics in isolated ENDO and EPI cardiomyocytes are essential to produce the differences in Ca(2+) transients and contraction profiles via cooperative mechanisms of mechano-calcium-electric feedback and may further slightly modulate transmural differences in the electrical properties between the cells...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567570/%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-monoamine-oxidase-a-and-antioxidant-defence-in-the-myocardium-of-shr-and-shr-mtbn-conplastic-rat-strains-the-effect-of-chronic-hypoxia
#14
Klara Hahnova, Iveta Brabcova, Jan Neckar, Romana Weissova, Anna Svatonova, Olga Novakova, Jitka Zurmanova, Martin Kalous, Jan Silhavy, Michal Pravenec, Frantisek Kolar, Jiri Novotny
The β-adrenergic signaling pathways and antioxidant defence mechanisms play important roles in maintaining proper heart function. Here, we examined the effect of chronic normobaric hypoxia (CNH, 10% O2, 3 weeks) on myocardial β-adrenergic signaling and selected components of the antioxidant system in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in a conplastic SHR-mtBN strain characterized by the selective replacement of the mitochondrial genome of SHR with that of the more ischemia-resistant Brown Norway strain...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508339/induction-of-hibernation-like-hypothermia-by-central-activation-of-the-a1-adenosine-receptor-in-a-non-hibernator-the-rat
#15
Hiroki Shimaoka, Takayuki Kawaguchi, Kahori Morikawa, Yuuki Sano, Kiyotada Naitou, Hiroyuki Nakamori, Takahiko Shiina, Yasutake Shimizu
Central adenosine A1-receptor (A1AR)-mediated signals play a role in the induction of hibernation. We determined whether activation of the central A1AR enables rats to maintain normal sinus rhythm even after their body temperature has decreased to less than 20 °C. Intracerebroventricular injection of an adenosine A1 agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), followed by cooling decreased the body temperature of rats to less than 20 °C. Normal sinus rhythm was fundamentally maintained during the extreme hypothermia...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500439/effect-of-basal-forebrain-stimulation-on-extracellular-acetylcholine-release-and-blood-flow-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#16
Sae Uchida, Fusako Kagitani
The olfactory bulb receives cholinergic basal forebrain input, as does the neocortex; however, the in vivo physiological functions regarding the release of extracellular acetylcholine and regulation of regional blood flow in the olfactory bulb are unclear. We used in vivo microdialysis to measure the extracellular acetylcholine levels in the olfactory bulb of urethane-anesthetized rats. Focal chemical stimulation by microinjection of L-glutamate into the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain, which is the main source of cholinergic input to the olfactory bulb, increased extracellular acetylcholine release in the ipsilateral olfactory bulb...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484984/the-central-clock-controls-the-daily-rhythm-of-aqp5-expression-in-salivary-glands
#17
Hitoshi Uchida, Takahiro J Nakamura, Nana N Takasu, Aya Obana-Koshino, Hitomi Ono, Takeshi Todo, Takayoshi Sakai, Wataru Nakamura
Salivary secretion displays day-night variations that are controlled by the circadian clock. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates daily physiological rhythms by prompting peripheral oscillators to adjust to changing environments. Aquaporin 5 (Aqp5) is known to play a key role in salivary secretion, but the association between Aqp5 and the circadian rhythm is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Aqp5 expression in submandibular glands (SMGs) is driven by the central clock in the SCN or by autonomous oscillations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466258/relationships-between-trait-and-respiratory-parameters-during-quiet-breathing-in-normal-subjects
#18
Akae Kato, Koki Takahashi, Ikuo Homma
Respiratory patterns are influenced and altered by various emotional changes. In the present study, we investigated how respiratory patterns differ from individual to individual during quiet breathing. We examined the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and various respiratory parameters in 16 healthy male subjects. Tidal volume was significantly larger and respiratory rate (RR) was significantly higher in both the higher trait (HT) and higher state (HS) anxiety groups compared to the lower trait and lower state anxiety groups...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656459/involvement-of-thermosensitive-trp-channels-in-energy-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
Kunitoshi Uchida, Katsuya Dezaki, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Tatsuo Watanabe, Jun Yamazaki, Masayuki Saito, Toshihiko Yada, Makoto Tominaga, Yusaku Iwasaki
To date, 11 thermosensitive transient receptor potential (thermo-TRP) channels have been identified. Recent studies have characterized the mechanism of thermosensing by thermo-TRPs and the physiological role of thermo-TRPs in energy metabolism. In this review, we highlight the role of various thermo-TRPs in energy metabolism and hormone secretion. In the pancreas, TRPM2 and other TRPs regulate insulin secretion. TRPV2 expressed in brown adipocytes contributes to differentiation and/or thermogenesis. Sensory nerves that express TRPV1 promote increased energy expenditure by activating sympathetic nerves and adrenaline secretion...
September 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601952/an-in-vitro-experimental-model-for-analysis-of-central-control-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#20
Yuji Oyama, Kamon Iigaya, Yoshino Minoura, Toshitaka Okabe, Masahiko Izumizaki, Hiroshi Onimaru
Newborn rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations are useful for in vitro analysis of various brainstem functions including respiratory activity. When studying the central control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), it is important to record peripheral outputs of the SNA. We developed an in vitro preparation in which neuronal connections between the cardiovascular center in the medulla and SNA peripheral outputs are preserved. Zero- to 1-day-old rats were deeply anesthetized with isoflurane, and the brainstem and spinal cord were isolated with a partial right thoracic cage to record sympathetic nerve discharge from the right thoracic sympathetic nerve trunk (T9-T11)...
September 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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