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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213824/an-approach-to-the-research-on-ion-and-water-properties-in-the-interphase-between-the-plasma-membrane-and-bulk-extracellular-solution
#1
REVIEW
Hiroshi Hibino, Madoka Takai, Hidenori Noguchi, Seishiro Sawamura, Yasufumi Takahashi, Hideki Sakai, Hitoshi Shiku
In vivo, cells are immersed in an extracellular solution that contains a variety of bioactive substances including ions and water. Classical electrophysiological analyses of epithelial cells in the stomach and small intestine have revealed that within a distance of several hundred micrometers above their apical plasma membrane, lies an extracellular layer that shows ion concentration gradients undetectable in the bulk phase. This "unstirred layer", which contains stagnant solutes, may also exist between the bulk extracellular solution and membranes of other cells in an organism and may show different properties...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213823/long-term-resistance-exercise-induced-muscular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-autophagy-modulation-in-rats
#2
Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Joon-Yong Cho, Young C Jang, Youngil Lee
Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213822/effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-circadian-clock-genes-per2-and-bmal1-in-mouse-ovary
#3
Takashi Shimizu, Kaya Watanabe, Nozomi Anayama, Koyomi Miyazaki
In mammals, circadian rhythms are associated with multiple physiological events. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on circadian systems in the ovary. Immature female mice were received an intra-peritoneal injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and LPS. Total RNA was collected from the ovary at 6-h intervals throughout a 48 h of experimental period. The expression of the circadian genes period 2 (Per2) and brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (Bmal1) such as circadian genes was measured by quantitative PCR...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205139/the-potentiating-effect-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-on-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-activity-and-the-electrophysiological-responses-of-rat-trigeminal-neurons-to-nociceptive-stimuli
#4
Duangthip Chatchaisak, Mark Connor, Anan Srikiatkhachorn, Banthit Chetsawang
Growing evidence suggests that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) participates in trigeminal nociceptive responses. However, the role of CGRP in sensitization or desensitization of nociceptive transduction remains poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further investigate the CGRP-induced up-regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and the responses of trigeminal neurons to nociceptive stimuli. Rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) organ cultures and isolated trigeminal neurons were incubated with CGRP...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185236/regulation-of-osmolality-for-cancer-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Atsushi Shiozaki, Daisuke Ichikawa, Toshiyuki Kosuga, Yoshinori Marunaka, Eigo Otsuji
Disseminated metastasis is associated with a poor prognosis, and its management in the peritoneal or pleural cavity is crucial in the treatment of cancer. Recent studies show that ion and water transporters play important roles in fundamental cellular functions, including the regulation of cell volume that would be involved in the cancer process. Here, we review the evidence for hypotonic treatments of cancer and evaluate the potential of the cellular physiological approach in clinical management. The regulation of extracellular osmolality is a promising method, with several studies demonstrating the cytocidal effects of hypotonic solution on cancer cells...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185235/impact-of-a-simulated-gravity-load-for-atmospheric-reentry-10%C3%A2-g-for-2%C3%A2-min-on-conscious-mice
#6
Hironobu Morita, Aoi Yamaguchi, Dai Shiba, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency recently performed a mouse experiment in the International Space Station in which mice were raised for 35 days, retrieved using the Dragon spacecraft, and then harvested for analysis 2 days after splashdown. However, the impact of the retrieval procedure, which exposed mice to 5-10 g for 2 min during atmospheric reentry and splashdown, was unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a 10 g load for 2 min (using a gondola-type centrifuge with a 1...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155036/relationship-between-cognitive-function-and-regulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow
#7
REVIEW
Shigehiko Ogoh
Ageing is the primary risk factor for cognitive deterioration. Given that the cerebral blood flow (CBF) or regulation of cerebral circulation is attenuated in the elderly, it could be expected that ageing-induced cognitive deterioration may be affected by a decrease in CBF as a result of brain ischemia and energy depletion. CBF regulation associated with cerebral metabolism thus likely plays an important role in the preservation of cognitive function. However, in some specific conditions (e.g. during exercise), change in CBF does not synchronize with that of cerebral metabolism...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144845/gastric-vascular-and-motor-responses-to-anaphylactic-hypotension-in-anesthetized-rats-in-comparison-to-those-with-hemorrhagic-or-vasodilator-induced-hypotension
#8
Yuhichi Kuda, Toshishige Shibamoto, Tao Zhang, Wei Yang, Mamoru Tanida, Yasutaka Kurata
Anaphylactic shock is life-threatening, but pathophysiology of the stomach lesion remains unclear. We determined gastric hemodynamics and gastric functions during anaphylactic hypotension, as compared to hypotension induced by hemorrhage or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in anesthetized and ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. Systemic arterial pressure, portal venous pressure, and gastric arterial blood flow were measured, and gastric vascular resistance (GVR) was determined. Separately, the intragastric pressure (IGP) and gastric effluent, as a measure of gastric flux, were continuously measured...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124286/colokinetic-effect-of-somatostatin-in-the-spinal-defecation-center-in-rats
#9
Kiyotada Naitou, Takahiko Shiina, Hiroyuki Nakamori, Yuuki Sano, Hiroki Shimaoka, Yasutake Shimizu
Somatostatin and its receptors are expressed in the spinal cord, but the functional roles of the peptide remain unknown. In this study, we examined the colokinetic effect of somatostatin in the spinal defecation center in anesthetized rats. Intrathecal application of somatostatin into the lumbo-sacral cord caused propulsive contractions of the colorectum. However, somatostatin administered intravenously or intrathecally to the thoracic cord failed to enhance colorectal motility. Transection of the thoracic cord had no significant impact on the colokinetic action of somatostatin...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111704/bidirectional-cardiovascular-responses-evoked-by-microstimulation-of-the-amygdala-in-rats
#10
Ko Yamanaka, Miwa Takagishi, Jimmy Kim, Sabine S Gouraud, Hidefumi Waki
Although the amygdala is known as a negative emotion center for coordinating defensive behaviors, its functions in autonomic control remain unclear. To resolve this issue, we examined effects on cardiovascular responses induced by stimulation and lesions of the amygdala in anesthetized and free-moving rats. Electrical microstimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) induced a gradual increase in arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR), whereas stimulation of adjacent nuclei evoked a phasic AP decrease...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110456/facial-skin-blood-flow-responses-during-exposures-to-emotionally-charged-movies
#11
Kanji Matsukawa, Kana Endo, Kei Ishii, Momoka Ito, Nan Liang
The changes in regional facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance have been assessed for the first time with noninvasive two-dimensional laser speckle flowmetry during audiovisually elicited emotional challenges for 2 min (comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 12 subjects. Limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic cardiovascular variables were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by the subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious)...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105583/trpc3-participates-in-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-dependent-stress-induced-slow-increase-in-intracellular-ca-2-concentration-in-mouse-cardiomyocytes
#12
Yohei Yamaguchi, Gentaro Iribe, Toshiyuki Kaneko, Ken Takahashi, Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Motohiro Nishida, Lutz Birnbaumer, Keiji Naruse
When a cardiac muscle is held in a stretched position, its [Ca(2+)] transient increases slowly over several minutes in a process known as stress-induced slow increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) (SSC). Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 3 forms a non-selective cation channel regulated by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). In this study, we investigated the role of TRPC3 in the SSC. Isolated mouse ventricular myocytes were electrically stimulated and subjected to sustained stretch...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083734/effects-of-beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-hmb-on-the-expression-of-ubiquitin-ligases-protein-synthesis-pathways-and-contractile-function-in-extensor-digitorum-longus-edl-of-fed-and-fasting-rats
#13
Frederico Gerlinger-Romero, Lucas Guimarães-Ferreira, Caio Yogi Yonamine, Rafael Barrera Salgueiro, Maria Tereza Nunes
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, enhances the gain of skeletal muscle mass by increasing protein synthesis or attenuating protein degradation or both. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of HMB on molecular factors controlling skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation, as well as muscle contractile function, in fed and fasted conditions. Wistar rats were supplied daily with HMB (320 mg/kg body weight diluted in NaCl-0.9%) or vehicle only (control) by gavage for 28 days...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078626/time-course-investigation-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-tight-junction-protein-changes-in-a-rat-model-of-permanent-focal-ischemia
#14
Peng Liu, Rui Zhang, Danyang Liu, Jinling Wang, Chunling Yuan, Xuemei Zhao, Yinjie Li, Xuefei Ji, Tianyan Chi, Libo Zou
Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) is an animal model that is widely used to simulate human ischemic stroke. However, the timing of the changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and synaptic proteins associated with pMCAO remain incompletely understood. Therefore, to further explore the characteristics and mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during cerebral ischemic stroke, we used a pMCAO rat model to define dynamic changes in BBB permeability within 120 h after ischemia in order to examine the expression levels of the TJ proteins claudin-5 and occludin and the synaptic proteins synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070865/sphingosine-1-phosphate-pretreatment-amends-hypoxia-induced-metabolic-dysfunction-and-impairment-of-myogenic-potential-in-differentiating-c2c12-myoblasts-by-stimulating-viability-calcium-homeostasis-and-energy-generation
#15
Babita Rahar, Sonam Chawla, Sanjay Pandey, Anant Narayan Bhatt, Shweta Saxena
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has a role in transpiration in patho-physiological signaling in skeletal muscles. The present study evaluated the pre-conditioning efficacy of S1P in facilitating differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts under a normoxic/hypoxic cell culture environment. Under normoxia, exogenous S1P significantly promoted C2C12 differentiation as evident from morphometric descriptors and differentiation markers of the mature myotubes, but it could facilitate only partial recovery from hypoxia-induced compromised differentiation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054308/inhibition-of-ghrelin-induced-feeding-in-rats-by-pretreatment-with-a-novel-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist
#16
Mariko So, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Reiko Saito, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Yasuhito Motojima, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Koichi Kusuhara, Yoichi Ueta
Orexin-A and -B, and ghrelin are potent orexigenic peptides. The effects of ACT462206, a novel dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA), on ghrelin-induced feeding were examined in adult male Wistar rats. Hyperphagia induced by the intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of ghrelin was significantly suppressed for at least 2 h by pretreatment with icv administration of DORA. A marked increase was observed in the number of neurons showing Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), 90 min after icv administration of ghrelin...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035645/reflex-arc-of-the-teeth-clenching-induced-pressor-response-in-rats
#17
Ichiro Shoji, Takehito Kemuriyama, Megumi Tandai-Hiruma, Satoshi Maruyama, Akimasa Tashiro, Hidetaka Yokoe, Yasuhiro Nishida
Although "teeth clenching" induces pressor response, the reflex tracts of the response are unknown. In this study, dantrolene administration inhibited teeth clenching generated by electrical stimulation of the masseter muscles and completely abolished the pressor response. In addition, trigeminal ganglion block or hexamethonium administration completely abolished the pressor response. Local anesthesia of molar regions significantly reduced the pressor response to 27 ± 10%. Gadolinium (mechanoreceptor blocker of group III muscle afferents) entrapment in masticatory muscles also significantly reduced the pressor response to 62 ± 7%...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130681/physiological-roles-of-zinc-transporters-molecular-and-genetic-importance-in-zinc-homeostasis
#18
REVIEW
Takafumi Hara, Taka-Aki Takeda, Teruhisa Takagishi, Kazuhisa Fukue, Taiho Kambe, Toshiyuki Fukada
Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace mineral that regulates the expression and activation of biological molecules such as transcription factors, enzymes, adapters, channels, and growth factors, along with their receptors. Zn deficiency or excessive Zn absorption disrupts Zn homeostasis and affects growth, morphogenesis, and immune response, as well as neurosensory and endocrine functions. Zn levels must be adjusted properly to maintain the cellular processes and biological responses necessary for life. Zn transporters regulate Zn levels by controlling Zn influx and efflux between extracellular and intracellular compartments, thus, modulating the Zn concentration and distribution...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004337/erratum-to-the-effect-of-resveratrol-on-angiotensin-ii-levels-and-the-rate-of-transcription-of-its-receptors-in-the-rat-cardiac-hypertrophy-model
#19
Fahimeh Dorri Mashhadi, Javad Zavvar Reza, Mohabbat Jamhiri, Zeinab Hafizi, Fatemeh Zare Mehrjardi, Fatemeh Safari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000176/pathology-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-coarctation-of-the-aorta-and-its-association-with-the-ductus-arteriosus
#20
REVIEW
Utako Yokoyama, Yasuhiro Ichikawa, Susumu Minamisawa, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is defined as a congenital stenosis of the thoracic aorta and is one of the most common congenital cardiovascular diseases. Despite successful surgical treatment for CoA, arterial abnormalities, including refractory hypertension, aortic aneurysm, and proatherogenic phenotypic changes, frequently affect patients' quality of life. Emerging evidence from morphological and molecular biological investigations suggest that the area of CoA is characterized by phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells, intimal thickening, and impaired elastic fiber formation...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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