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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

Hiroki Shimaoka, Takayuki Kawaguchi, Kahori Morikawa, Yuuki Sano, Kiyotada Naitou, Hiroyuki Nakamori, Takahiko Shiina, Yasutake Shimizu
Central adenosine A1-receptor (A1AR)-mediated signals play a role in the induction of hibernation. We determined whether activation of the central A1AR enables rats to maintain normal sinus rhythm even after their body temperature has decreased to less than 20 °C. Intracerebroventricular injection of an adenosine A1 agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), followed by cooling decreased the body temperature of rats to less than 20 °C. Normal sinus rhythm was fundamentally maintained during the extreme hypothermia...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sae Uchida, Fusako Kagitani
The olfactory bulb receives cholinergic basal forebrain input, as does the neocortex; however, the in vivo physiological functions regarding the release of extracellular acetylcholine and regulation of regional blood flow in the olfactory bulb are unclear. We used in vivo microdialysis to measure the extracellular acetylcholine levels in the olfactory bulb of urethane-anesthetized rats. Focal chemical stimulation by microinjection of L-glutamate into the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain, which is the main source of cholinergic input to the olfactory bulb, increased extracellular acetylcholine release in the ipsilateral olfactory bulb...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Hitoshi Uchida, Takahiro J Nakamura, Nana N Takasu, Aya Obana-Koshino, Hitomi Ono, Takeshi Todo, Takayoshi Sakai, Wataru Nakamura
Salivary secretion displays day-night variations that are controlled by the circadian clock. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates daily physiological rhythms by prompting peripheral oscillators to adjust to changing environments. Aquaporin 5 (Aqp5) is known to play a key role in salivary secretion, but the association between Aqp5 and the circadian rhythm is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Aqp5 expression in submandibular glands (SMGs) is driven by the central clock in the SCN or by autonomous oscillations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Akae Kato, Koki Takahashi, Ikuo Homma
Respiratory patterns are influenced and altered by various emotional changes. In the present study, we investigated how respiratory patterns differ from individual to individual during quiet breathing. We examined the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and various respiratory parameters in 16 healthy male subjects. Tidal volume was significantly larger and respiratory rate (RR) was significantly higher in both the higher trait (HT) and higher state (HS) anxiety groups compared to the lower trait and lower state anxiety groups...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Wioleta Dudzinska, M Suska, A Lubkowska, K Jakubowska, M Olszewska, K Safranow, D Chlubek
This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and sedentary subjects before and after maximal physical exercise together with measuring the activity of purine metabolism enzymes as well as the concentration of purine (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. The study included 15 male elite rowers [mean age 24.3 ± 2.56 years; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 52.8 ± 4.54 mL/kg/min; endurance and strength training 8...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Akitoshi Maeda, Yukiko Himeno, Masayuki Ikebuchi, Akinori Noma, Akira Amano
A new glucose transport model relying upon diffusion and convection across the capillary membrane was developed, and supplemented with tissue space and lymph flow. The rate of glucose utilization (J util) in the tissue space was described as a saturation function of glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (C glu,isf), and was varied by applying a scaling factor f to J max. With f = 0, the glucose diffusion ceased within ~20 min. While, with increasing f, the diffusion was accelerated through a decrease in C glu,isf, but the convective flux remained close to resting level...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Chiharu Tanaka, Toru Hosoda, Yoshimori Ikeya, Yoshiro Shinozaki, Kikue Todoroki, Toru Shizuma, Takashi Shiraishi, Naoto Fukuyama, Toshihiko Ueda, Hidezo Mori
Conventional angiography is insufficient for evaluating the therapeutic effect of cardiac regeneration therapy. A microangiographic X-ray system using a cerium anode was developed. Cerium has a characteristic X-ray with a peak at 34.6 keV, which allows visualization of tiny amounts of iodine. The performance of the cerium anode X-ray system was evaluated in two excised normal canine hearts and in excised ischemic canine hearts treated with c-kit-positive cardiac stem cells (5 canines) or without cells (5 control canines)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Daisuke Kohno
The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. The feeding center senses the systemic energy status by detecting hormone and nutrient levels for homeostatic regulation, resulting in the control of food intake, heat production, and glucose production and uptake. The concentration of glucose is sensed by two types of glucose-sensing neurons in the feeding center: glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. Previous studies have mainly focused on glucose metabolism as the mechanism underlying glucose sensing...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Md Fazlul Karim, Soumyabrata Banerjee, Mrinal K Poddar
Patchouli oil, an essential aroma oil extracted from patchouli leaf during short-term exposure with five and ten drops either inhibited (at 1 or 2 h) or stimulated (at 4 h) the platelet MAO-A activity depending on the dosages of the aroma oil mainly due to inhibition or stimulation of its K m. The long-term 15 consecutive days exposure (with two or five drops) of patchouli oil, on the other hand, maximally stimulated the platelet MAO-A activity with five drops patchouli oil for 1 h exposure, but further continuation of its exposure with same doses (two or five drops) for 30 consecutive days significantly stimulated (with two drops) and inhibited (with five drops) the platelet MAO-A activity due to stimulation and inhibition respectively of its corresponding both K m and V max...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kenji Sunagawa
Guyton's most significant contributions are the exploration into the development of venous return and circulatory equilibrium. Recently, several physiologists challenged the validity of venous return as a function of venous pressure. Guyton's experiment in effect controlled venous pressure by changing cardiac output. Thus, critics claimed that cardiac output is the determinant of venous return. This claim is true, but in the presence of constant stressed volume, venous return and venous pressure have a fixed reciprocal relationship...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Takafumi Hara, Taka-Aki Takeda, Teruhisa Takagishi, Kazuhisa Fukue, Taiho Kambe, Toshiyuki Fukada
Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace mineral that regulates the expression and activation of biological molecules such as transcription factors, enzymes, adapters, channels, and growth factors, along with their receptors. Zn deficiency or excessive Zn absorption disrupts Zn homeostasis and affects growth, morphogenesis, and immune response, as well as neurosensory and endocrine functions. Zn levels must be adjusted properly to maintain the cellular processes and biological responses necessary for life. Zn transporters regulate Zn levels by controlling Zn influx and efflux between extracellular and intracellular compartments, thus, modulating the Zn concentration and distribution...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Fahimeh Dorri Mashhadi, Javad Zavvar Reza, Mohabbat Jamhiri, Zeinab Hafizi, Fatemeh Zare Mehrjardi, Fatemeh Safari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Utako Yokoyama, Yasuhiro Ichikawa, Susumu Minamisawa, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is defined as a congenital stenosis of the thoracic aorta and is one of the most common congenital cardiovascular diseases. Despite successful surgical treatment for CoA, arterial abnormalities, including refractory hypertension, aortic aneurysm, and proatherogenic phenotypic changes, frequently affect patients' quality of life. Emerging evidence from morphological and molecular biological investigations suggest that the area of CoA is characterized by phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells, intimal thickening, and impaired elastic fiber formation...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kunihiko Tanaka, Naoki Nishimura, Yasuaki Kawai
Humans are generally in standing or sitting positions on Earth during the day. The musculoskeletal system supports these positions and also allows motion. Gravity acting in the longitudinal direction of the body generates a hydrostatic pressure difference and induces footward fluid shift. The vestibular system senses the gravity of the body and reflexively controls the organs. During spaceflight or exposure to microgravity, the load on the musculoskeletal system and hydrostatic pressure difference is diminished...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Takuma Kitanishi, Hiroshi T Ito, Yuichiro Hayashi, Yoshiaki Shinohara, Kenji Mizuseki, Takatoshi Hikida
The hippocampus and associated structures are responsible for episodic memory in humans. In rodents, the most prominent behavioral correlate of hippocampal neural activity is place coding, which is thought to underlie spatial navigation. While episodic memory is considered to be unique to humans in a restricted context, it has been proposed that the same neural circuitry and algorithms that enable spatial coding and navigation also support episodic memory. Here we review the recent progress in neural circuit mechanisms of hippocampal activity by introducing several topics: (1) cooperation and specialization of the bilateral hippocampi, (2) the role of synaptic plasticity in gamma phase-locking of spikes and place cell formation, (3) impaired goal-related activity and oscillations in a mouse model of mental disorders, and (4) a prefrontal-thalamo-hippocampal circuit for goal-directed spatial navigation...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sahar Moghbelinejad, Safar Alizadeh, Ghazaleh Mohammadi, Fatemeh Khodabandehloo, Zahra Rashvand, Reza Najafipour, Marjan Nassiri-Asl
The flavonoid quercetin has recently been reported to have neuroprotective effects, and the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A alpha 5 subunit (GABAA α5) receptor has been determined in some nervous system disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism of the effect of quercetin administered at anticonvulsive doses on the expression of the GABAA α5 receptor gene in kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures in mice. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: control, KA, and KA + quercetin at 50 or 100 mg/kg, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Fumio Yamazaki, Ryoko Sone
To test the hypothesis that topical menthol-induced reactivity of cold sensation and cutaneous vasoconstriction to local cooling is augmented in individuals with a cold constitution, we examined thermal sensation and cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses at menthol-treated and untreated sites in the legs during local skin cooling in young women complaining of chilliness (C group) and young women with no complaint as a normal control group (N group). During local skin cooling, the sensitivity to cold sensation was greater in the C group than in the N group...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Hiroshi Ito, Hiroyuki Takuwa, Yosuke Tajima, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Takuya Urushihata, Junko Taniguchi, Yoko Ikoma, Chie Seki, Masanobu Ibaraki, Kazuto Masamoto, Iwao Kanno
The relation between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) can be expressed using the effective diffusivity for oxygen in the capillary bed (D) as OEF = 1 - exp(-D/CBF). The D value is proportional to the microvessel blood volume. In this study, changes in D during neural activation and deactivation were estimated from changes in capillary and arteriole diameter measured by two-photon microscopy in awake mice. Capillary and arteriole vessel diameter in the somatosensory cortex and cerebellum were measured under neural activation (sensory stimulation) and neural deactivation [crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD)], respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Yuki Arai, Hirotaka Ishii, Makito Kobayashi, Hitoshi Ozawa
GnRH neurons form a final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Although the involvement of acetylcholine in GnRH secretion has been reported, direct effects of acetylcholine and expression profiles of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) still remain to be studied. Using immortalized GnRH neurons (GT1-7 cells), we analyzed molecular expression and functionality of AChRs. Expression of the mRNAs were identified in the order α7 > β2 = β1 ≧ α4 ≧ α5 = β4 = δ > α3 for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and m4 > m2 for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Fahimeh Dorri Mashhadi, Javad Zavvar Reza, Mohabbat Jamhiri, Zeinab Hafizi, Fatemeh Zare Mehrjardi, Fatemeh Safari
This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on serum and cardiac levels of angiotensin II and transcription of its main receptors following pressure overload induced-hypertrophy. Rats were divided into untreated (Hyp) and resveratrol treated hypertrophied groups (H + R). Intact animals served as the control (Ctl). Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by abdominal aortic banding. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded via left carotid artery cannula. Fibrosis was confirmed by Masson trichrome staining. Angiotensin II level was measured using an ELIZA test...
March 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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