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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

Meihua Li, Can Zheng, Toru Kawada, Masashi Inagaki, Kazunori Uemura, Masaru Sugimachi
Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) induces bradycardia in chronic heart failure (CHF). We hypothesized that beta-blocker would cover the beneficial effects of VNS on CHF if the anti-beta-adrenergic effect was the main VNS effect. This study investigated the effects of VNS on cardiac remodeling in rats with CHF treated with metoprolol. Two weeks after myocardial infarction, surviving rats were randomly assigned to groups of sham stimulation (SS), sham stimulation with metoprolol (SSM), or VNS with metoprolol (VSM)...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Mahnaz Davoudi, Hossein Azizi, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Saeed Semnanian
Acute opioid withdrawal syndrome is a series of neurological symptoms caused by the abrupt cessation of the chronic administration of opioids such as morphine. The locus coeruleus (LC) in the brain stem receives a dense projection of orexinergic fibers from the hypothalamus and is a candidate site for the expression of the somatic aspects of morphine withdrawal. Previous studies have shown that orexin-A contributes to the behavioral symptoms of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal, partly by reducing the activity of GABAergic neurons, suggesting that orexin-A may negatively modulate fast GABAergic neurotransmission during morphine withdrawal...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Khin Thuzar Aung, Kazuaki Yoshioka, Sho Aki, Kazuhiro Ishimaru, Noriko Takuwa, Yoh Takuwa
Pinocytosis is an important fundamental cellular process that is used by the cell to transport fluid and solutes. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate a diverse array of dynamic membrane events. However, it is not well-understood which PI3K isoforms are involved in specific mechanisms of pinocytosis. We performed knockdown studies of endogenous PI3K isoforms and clathrin heavy chain (CHC) mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results demonstrated that the class II PI3K PI3K-C2α and PI3K-C2β, but not the class I or III PI3K, were required for pinocytosis, based on an evaluation of fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran uptake in endothelial cells...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Masatoshi Niwa, Ken Muramatsu, Kiyomi Nakayama, Sei-Ichi Sasaki
Ia excitation and recurrent inhibition are basic neuronal circuits in motor control in hind limb. Renshaw cells receive synaptic inputs from axon collaterals of motoneurons and inhibit motoneurons and Ia inhibitory interneurons. It is important to know properties of Ia excitation and recurrent inhibition of trunk muscle such as abdominal muscles. The abdominal muscles have many roles and change those roles for different kind of functions. Intracellular recordings were obtained from the abdominal motoneurons of the upper lumbar segments in cats anesthetized...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Tipwadee Bunprajun, Chaowalit Yuajit, Rattikarn Noitem, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
This study aimed to investigate the effects of various types of exercise on organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) function, a major transporter that plays a role in the secretion of a variety of drugs and endogenous compounds. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to non-exercise, exhaustive, acute and training exercise groups. The function of Oat3 was assessed by the uptake of [3 H]-estrone sulfate ([3 H]-ES) into rat renal cortical slices. Acute and training exercises had no effect on [3 H]-ES uptake whereas a marked reduction in [3 H]-ES uptake occurred immediately after exhaustive exercise...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Toshinori Yoshihara, Toshiharu Natsume, Takamasa Tsuzuki, Shuo-Wen Chang, Ryo Kakigi, Takao Sugiura, Hisashi Naito
We tested the hypothesis that there are sex differences in hindlimb unloading-induced activation of the forkhead box subfamily O3a (FoxO3a) signaling pathway in rat soleus muscle. Age-matched male and female Wistar rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading, and the soleus muscle was removed before or 1 or 7 days after unloading. Female rats showed greater percent changes in relative soleus muscle weight than males. FoxO3a phosphorylation was lower in females than in males and was associated with higher levels of protein ubiquitination 7 days after unloading...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Masayuki Tanaka, Miho Kanazashi, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Hidemi Fujino
The protective effects of Brazilian propolis on capillary regression induced by chronically neuromuscular inactivity were investigated in rat soleus muscle. Four groups of male Wistar rat were used in this study; control (CON), control plus Brazilian propolis supplementation (CON + PP), 2-week hindlimb unloading (HU), and 2-week hindlimb unloading plus Brazilian propolis supplementation (HU + PP). The rats in the CON + PP and HU + PP groups received two oral doses of 500 mg/kg Brazilian propolis daily (total daily dose 1000 mg/kg) for 2 weeks...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
The objective of this paper was to systematically evaluate the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of exercise in attenuating stress-induced memory impairment. A systematic review was employed, searching PubMed, PsychInfo, Sports Discus and Google Scholar databases. For eligibility, studies had to be published in English, employ an experimental design, have the acute or chronic bout of exercise occur prior to, during or after the stressor, implement a psychophysiological stressor, and have an assessment of memory function occurring after the stressor...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sae Uchida, Hiroshi Taniguchi, Yoshie Ito, Fusako Kagitani
We aimed to determine whether acupuncture to the auricular region increases cortical regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The rCBF was measured using laser speckle contrast imaging in urethane-anesthetized rats. Acupuncture stimulation was performed manually at the auricular concha or abdomen. The former's stimulation significantly increased the rCBF of the bilateral cerebral cortex in the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes without altering the systemic arterial pressure. In contrast, abdominal stimulation affected neither rCBF nor systemic arterial pressure...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Toru Kawada, Shuji Shimizu, Kazunori Uemura, Yohsuke Hayama, Hiromi Yamamoto, Toshiaki Shishido, Takuya Nishikawa, Masaru Sugimachi
Ivabradine is a selective bradycardic agent that inhibits hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. HCN channels play a key role in mediating the positive chronotropic response to sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS). We examined whether ivabradine would interfere with dynamic sympathetic control of heart rate (HR). The effect of intravenous ivabradine (2 mg/kg, n = 7) or metoprolol (10 mg/kg, n = 6) on the transfer function from SNS to HR was examined in anesthetized rats...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Reiko Terashima, Maki Kimura, Asuka Higashikawa, Yuki Kojima, Tatsuya Ichinohe, Masakazu Tazaki, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
Bradykinin (BK) and its receptors, B1 and B2 , in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons are involved in the regulation of pain. Recent studies have revealed that B1 receptors are expressed in neonatal rat TG neurons; however, the intracellular signaling pathway following B1 receptor activation remains to be elucidated. To investigate the mechanism by which B1 receptor activation leads to intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, we measured the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) in primary-cultured TG neurons...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Jian Cao, Runjie Wei, Shukun Yao
Mitochondrial homeostasis is closely associated with liver cancer progression via multiple mechanisms and is also a potential tumour-suppressive target in clinical practice. However, the role of mitochondrial fission in liver cancer cell viability has not been adequately investigated. Matrine, a type of alkaloid isolated from Sophora flavescens, has been widely used to treat various types of cancer. However, the molecular effect of matrine on mitochondrial homeostasis is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine the role of mitochondrial fission in cell apoptosis, viability, migration and proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
(no author information available yet)
In the original publication of the article, there are following misprints in the numbering of the planned symposia.
August 24, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Hirofumi Tanaka
Arterial stiffness increases with advancing age and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. As the number of research studies investigating arterial stiffness has increased dramatically over the recent years, their scope has broadened from physiological investigations to clinical domains focused on risk predictions. A number of key research studies were conducted in Japan in the formative years; however, some of these studies are unknown to most and largely forgotten. In this mini-review, some of these key formative research studies conducted in Japan by Japanese investigators are re-introduced and highlighted to provide appreciation for their pioneering work conducted in the land of the rising sun...
November 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Samir Henni, Pierre Abraham
A recent report in the journal evaluated microvascular response at the facial and peripheral level during various types and levels of emotional stresses with laser speckle contrast imaging. Our short letter aims at underlying the importance of artifact removal in this situation and suggest directions for improving the results of this kind of experiment.
November 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sebastian Haidarliu, Ehud Ahissar, Inbar Saraf-Sinik
A self-adjusting head holder is designed to allow stable fixation and precise positioning (anterior-posterior, pitch, and roll) of guinea pig head in stereotaxic devices. These are achieved with no use of ear-bars. It is thus easy to use, preferable for studies of the auditory system, and for avoiding tissue damage of the ear in general. This head holder can accommodate various head sizes and is thus adapted for males and females of a large range of body weights, as confirmed for guinea pigs of 360-940 g. Moreover, this head holder is easy and cost-effective to manufacture, making it accessible for any lab...
November 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Takamitsu Tanaka, Masao Saotome, Hideki Katoh, Terumori Satoh, Prottoy Hasan, Hayato Ohtani, Hiroshi Satoh, Hideharu Hayashi, Yuichiro Maekawa
Accumulating evidence has revealed pivotal roles of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) inactivation on cardiac protection. Because the precise mechanisms of cardiac protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by GSK3β-inactivation remain elusive, we investigated the relationship between GSK3β-mediated mitochondrial hexokinase II (mitoHK-II; a downstream target of GSK3β) dissociation and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, GSK3β inactivation by SB216763 improved the left ventricular-developed pressure and retained mitoHK-II binding after I/R...
November 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Genta Ochi, Yusuke Kanazawa, Kazuki Hyodo, Kazuya Suwabe, Takeshi Shimizu, Takemune Fukuie, Kyeongho Byun, Hideaki Soya
Although it has been traditionally thought that decreasing SpO2 with ascent to high altitudes not only induces acute mountain sickness but also can decrease executive function, the relationship between decreased SpO2 levels and hypoxia-induced lowered executive function is still unclear. Here we aimed to clarify whether hypoxia-induced lowered executive function was associated with arterial oxygen desaturation, using 21 participants performing the color-word Stroop task under normoxic and three hypoxic conditions (FIO2  = 0...
November 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Makito Iizuka, Masaaki Kobayashi, Yoshimasa Hasegawa, Kazuhide Tomita, Reiko Takeshima, Masahiko Izumizaki
We tried to develop a new device to detect laryngeal movement noninvasively. We made small piezo pressure sensors (length, 1.5 mm, width, 7.0 mm), and five of these were lined up with 3.0-mm intervals and embedded in the middle of a palm-sized urethane resin sheet. This sheet was lightly attached to the ventral surface of the neck near the laryngeal prominence. The first and second peaks obtained from each sensor should correspond to the period when the larynx moves to the upper and lower positions during swallowing...
November 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kana Endo, Nan Liang, Mitsuhiro Idesako, Kei Ishii, Kanji Matsukawa
Cognitive function declines with age. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of cognitive performance, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that an incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation during a cognitive Stroop test decreases in progress of ageing, resulting in a slowdown of cognitive performance. To test this hypothesis, we identified, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, the characteristics of the oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) responses of the prefrontal cortex to both incongruent Stroop and congruent word-reading test...
November 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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