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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896597/noradrenergic-inhibition-of-spinal-hyperexcitation-elicited-by-cutaneous-cold-stimuli-in-rats-with-oxaliplatin-induced-allodynia-electrophysiological-and-behavioral-assessments
#1
Seunghwan Choi, Akihiro Yamada, Woojin Kim, Sun Kwang Kim, Hidemasa Furue
We investigated the spinal action of noradrenaline on cold-elicited hyperexcitation detected in dorsal horn neurons of rats with allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. In vivo extracellular recordings from the spinal dorsal horn showed that wide dynamic range neurons responded to cutaneous acetone (10 μl) stimulation in normal rats, and cold-elicited firings in oxaliplatin-administered rats were increased with a longer duration, correlated with behavioral responses. These responses were significantly attenuated by spinal administration (50 μM) of noradrenaline or its agonists, clonidine (α2), phenylephrine (α1) and isoprenaline (β), in descending order of efficacy...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873157/eicosapentaenoic-acid-triggers-ca-2-release-and-ca-2-influx-in-mouse-cerebral-cortex-endothelial-bend-3-cells
#2
King-Chuen Wu, Kar-Lok Wong, Mei-Ling Wang, Lian-Ru Shiao, Iat-Lon Leong, Chi-Li Gong, Ka-Shun Cheng, Paul Chan, Yuk-Man Leung
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid abundant in fish oil, protects endothelial cells (EC) from lipotoxicity and triggers EC NO release. The latter is related to an elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+). Although EPA has been shown to cause human EC cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, the mechanism is unclear. Microfluorimetric imaging was used here to measure free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. EPA was shown to cause intracellular Ca(2+) release in mouse cerebral cortex endothelial bEND.3 cells; interestingly, the EPA-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) pool(s) appeared to encompass and was larger than the Ca(2+) pool mobilized by sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibition by cyclopiazonic acid...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864684/network-mechanisms-of-hippocampal-laterality-place-coding-and-goal-directed-navigation
#3
REVIEW
Takuma Kitanishi, Hiroshi T Ito, Yuichiro Hayashi, Yoshiaki Shinohara, Kenji Mizuseki, Takatoshi Hikida
The hippocampus and associated structures are responsible for episodic memory in humans. In rodents, the most prominent behavioral correlate of hippocampal neural activity is place coding, which is thought to underlie spatial navigation. While episodic memory is considered to be unique to humans in a restricted context, it has been proposed that the same neural circuitry and algorithms that enable spatial coding and navigation also support episodic memory. Here we review the recent progress in neural circuit mechanisms of hippocampal activity by introducing several topics: (1) cooperation and specialization of the bilateral hippocampi, (2) the role of synaptic plasticity in gamma phase-locking of spikes and place cell formation, (3) impaired goal-related activity and oscillations in a mouse model of mental disorders, and (4) a prefrontal-thalamo-hippocampal circuit for goal-directed spatial navigation...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848144/the-human-physiological-impact-of-global-deoxygenation
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Martin, Helen McKenna, Valerie Livina
There has been a clear decline in the volume of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere over the past 20 years. Although the magnitude of this decrease appears small compared to the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, it is difficult to predict how this process may evolve, due to the brevity of the collected records. A recently proposed model predicts a non-linear decay, which would result in an increasingly rapid fall-off in atmospheric oxygen concentration, with potentially devastating consequences for human health...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838886/altered-uterine-contractility-in-response-to-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-agonists-in-ovarian-cancer
#5
Beata Modzelewska, Maciej Jóźwik, Marcin Jóźwik, Stanisław Sulkowski, Anna Pędzińska-Betiuk, Tomasz Kleszczewski, Anna Kostrzewska
We aimed to prospectively examine β-adrenoceptor-mediated uterine contractility in women suffering from gynecological malignancies. Myometrial specimens were obtained from non-pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy for benign gynecological disorders, and ovarian, endometrial, synchronous ovarian-endometrial, and cervical cancer. Contractions of myometrial strips in an organ bath before and after cumulative dosages of β2- and β3-adrenoceptor agonists with preincubation of propranolol, SR 59230A, and butoxamine were studied...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826897/interactions-between-%C3%AE-adrenergic-vasodilation-and-cervical-sympathetic-nerves-are-mediated-by-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-rat-masseter-muscle
#6
Hisayoshi Ishii, Toshiya Sato
Neural and humoral autonomic mechanisms may be important in the maintenance of blood flow in the masseter muscle (MBF). However, their interactions remain unclear. In this study, we examined interactions between neural and humoral regulation of MBF and investigated the mechanisms mediating these interactions in urethane-anesthetized rats. Stimulation of the adrenal nerve (AN) projecting to the adrenal medulla increased MBF, and this increase was mediated by β-adrenoceptors. Sectioning of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) significantly inhibited increases in MBF induced by AN stimulation during high activity in the CST, but not during low activity...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744641/somatosensory-regulation-of-serotonin-release-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-is-mediated-via-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#7
Ryota Tokunaga, Rie Shimoju, Hideshi Shibata, Mieko Kurosawa
Noxious cutaneous stimulation increases, whereas innocuous cutaneous stimulation decreases serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to those responses. Release of 5-HT in the CeA was monitored by microdialysis before and after 10-min stimulation by pinching or stroking. Increased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to pinching was abolished by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the DRN...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743179/bdnf-levels-are-increased-in-peripheral-blood-of-middle-aged-amateur-runners-with-no-changes-on-histone-h4-acetylation-levels
#8
Fernanda Peres da Silveira, Carla Basso, Wagner Raupp, Morgana Dalpiaz, Karine Bertoldi, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira, Pedro Dal Lago, Maristela Padilha de Souza, Viviane Rostirola Elsner
Our aim was to compare the basal levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and global histone H4 acetylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy amateur runners (EXE group) with sedentary individuals (SED group) as well as to investigate the acute effect of a running race on these markers in the EXE group. Five days before the race, all participants were submitted to a basal blood collection. On the race day, two blood samples were collected in the EXE group before the running started and immediately at the end...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743178/the-effects-of-quercetin-on-the-gene-expression-of-the-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-5-subunit-gene-in-a-mouse-model-of-kainic-acid-induced-seizure
#9
Sahar Moghbelinejad, Safar Alizadeh, Ghazaleh Mohammadi, Fatemeh Khodabandehloo, Zahra Rashvand, Reza Najafipour, Marjan Nassiri-Asl
The flavonoid quercetin has recently been reported to have neuroprotective effects, and the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A alpha 5 subunit (GABAA α5) receptor has been determined in some nervous system disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism of the effect of quercetin administered at anticonvulsive doses on the expression of the GABAA α5 receptor gene in kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures in mice. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: control, KA, and KA + quercetin at 50 or 100 mg/kg, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730500/expanding-frontiers-in-weight-control-research-explored-by-young-investigators
#10
Yoshiro Ishimaru, Chisayo Kozuka, Kenichiro Nakajima, Tsutomu Sasaki
At the 93rd annual meeting of the Physiological Society of Japan, a symposium entitled "Expanding frontiers in weight-control research explored by young investigators" was organized. The latest research on weight control was presented by young up-and-coming investigators. The symposium consisted of the following presentations: Gastrointestinal brush cells, immunity, and energy homeostasis; Impact of a brown rice-derived bioactive product on feeding regulation and fuel metabolism; A novel G protein-coupled receptor-regulated neuronal signaling pathway triggers sustained orexigenic effects; and NMDA receptor co-agonist D-serine regulates food preference...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718170/modulation-of-cutaneous-extracellular-collagen-contraction-by-phosphorylation-status-of-p130cas
#11
Mayumi Takeya, Yuushi Okumura, Takeshi Nikawa
Skin can respond to various types of internal and/or external mechanostimuli, such as excessive tension caused by body growth or decompression due to weight loss, which significantly affect skin morphology. Mechanosensors, including p130Cas, are reported to play a role in deformation and subsequent recovery of various tissues including skeletal muscles and blood vessels. However, the role of mechanotransduction via p130Cas in the regulation of skin size remains unclear. In this report, p130Cas activation was manipulated using a fibroblast-embedded collagen gel model or mouse skin contraction model...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714500/astaxanthin-supplementation-attenuates-immobilization-induced-skeletal-muscle-fibrosis-via-suppression-of-oxidative-stress
#12
Toshiyuki Maezawa, Masayuki Tanaka, Miho Kanazashi, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Hidemi Fujino
Immobilization induces skeletal muscle fibrosis characterized by increasing collagen synthesis in the perimysium and endomysium. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is associated with this lesion via promoting differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are shown to mediate TGF-β1-induced fibrosis in tissues. These reports suggest the importance of ROS reduction for attenuating skeletal muscle fibrosis. Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant, has been shown to reduce ROS production in disused muscle...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699583/prostaglandins-mediate-zymosan-induced-sickness-behavior-in-mice
#13
Juliana B M Lima, Clarice C Veloso, Fabiana C Vilela, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva
Previous studies have demonstrated that zymosan, a cell wall component of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, induces inflammation in experimental models. However, few studies have evaluated the potential of zymosan to induce sickness behavior, a central motivational state that allows an organism to cope with infection. To determine whether zymosan administration results in sickness behavior, mice were submitted to the forced swim (FST) and open field (OFT) tests 2, 6, and 24 h after treatment with zymosan (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699582/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-co-activator-1-gene-gly482ser-polymorphism-is-associated-with-the-response-of-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-concentrations-to-exercise-training-in-elderly-japanese
#14
Takuro Tobina, Yukari Mori, Yukiko Doi, Fuki Nakayama, Akira Kiyonaga, Hiroaki Tanaka
Muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1)α gene expression is influenced by the Gly482Ser gene polymorphism, which is a candidate genetic risk factor for diabetes mellitus and obesity. This study investigated the effects of PGC-1 gene Gly482Ser polymorphisms on alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism induced by exercise training. A 12-week intervention study was performed for 119 participants who were more than 65 years of age and completed exercise training at lactate threshold intensity...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677982/sirtinol-abrogates-late-phase-of-cardiac-ischemia-preconditioning-in-rats
#15
Fereshteh Safari, Shahnaz Shekarforoosh, Tahmineh Hashemi, Simin Namvar Aghdash, Asefeh Fekri, Fatemeh Safari
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sirtinol, as an inhibitor of sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury following early and late ischemia preconditioning (IPC). Rats underwent sustained ischemia and reperfusion (IR) alone or proceeded by early or late IPC. Sirtinol (S) was administered before IPC. Arrhythmias were evaluated based on the Lambeth model. Infarct size (IS) was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The transcription level of antioxidant-coding genes was assessed by real-time PCR...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671701/derangement-of-calcium-metabolism-in-diabetes-mellitus-negative-outcome-from-the-synergy-between-impaired-bone-turnover-and-intestinal-calcium-absorption
#16
Kannikar Wongdee, Nateetip Krishnamra, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) are associated with profound deterioration of calcium and bone metabolism, partly from impaired intestinal calcium absorption, leading to a reduction in calcium uptake into the body. T1DM is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, whereas the skeletal changes in T2DM are variable, ranging from normal to increased and to decreased BMD. However, both types of DM eventually compromise bone quality through production of advanced glycation end products and misalignment of collagen fibrils (so-called matrix failure), thereby culminating in a reduction of bone strength...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660058/sodium-ion-transport-participates-in-non-neuronal-acetylcholine-release-in-the-renal-cortex-of-anesthetized-rabbits
#17
Shuji Shimizu, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Toru Kawada, Yusuke Sata, Michael James Turner, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Hiromi Yamamoto, Atsunori Kamiya, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
This study examined the mechanism of release of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) in rabbit renal cortex by applying a microdialysis technique. In anesthetized rabbits, a microdialysis probe was implanted into the renal cortex and perfused with Ringer's solution containing high potassium concentration, high sodium concentration, a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor (ouabain), or an epithelial Na(+) channel blocker (benzamil). Dialysate samples were collected at baseline and during exposure to each agent, and ACh concentrations in the samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655022/desensitization-of-menthol-activated-cold-receptors-in-lower-extremities-during-local-cooling-in-young-women-with-a-cold-constitution
#18
Fumio Yamazaki, Ryoko Sone
To test the hypothesis that topical menthol-induced reactivity of cold sensation and cutaneous vasoconstriction to local cooling is augmented in individuals with a cold constitution, we examined thermal sensation and cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses at menthol-treated and untreated sites in the legs during local skin cooling in young women complaining of chilliness (C group) and young women with no complaint as a normal control group (N group). During local skin cooling, the sensitivity to cold sensation was greater in the C group than in the N group...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655021/the-vital-prognosis-of-elderly-adults-living-in-a-group-home-in-their-mid-eighties
#19
Kikue Todoroki, Yoshimori Ikeya, Sayato Fukui, Chiharu Tanaka, Kaori Sekine, Ryoko Imazeki, Toru Shizuma, Naoto Fukuyama, Hidezo Mori
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the vital prognoses of elderly people in their mid-eighties living in a group home (GH) compared to age- and sex-matched outpatient clinic (OPC) in an observational study conducted over 6 years. We investigated the association between mortality and general, cardiac, and nutritional parameters, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in 54 GH residents (83 ± 8 years old) and 57 OPC attendees (83 ± 5 years old). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard ratio analyses were used to assess the association between EPA drug administration and mortality in the GH residents and OPC attendees, respectively...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655020/biological-function-and-mechanism-of-malat-1-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-proliferation-and-apoptosis-role-of-the-malat-1-livin-protein-interaction
#20
Shaoan Chen, Pengpeng Ma, Ying Zhao, Bin Li, Shaobo Jiang, Hui Xiong, Zheng Wang, Hanbo Wang, Xunbo Jin, Chuan Liu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play a critical role in cancer development and progression. LncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) is a kidney cancer-associated onco-lncRNA involved in the progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the pathological role of lncRNA MALAT-1 in RCC proliferation and metastasis remains poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the biological role and mechanism of MALAT-1 in RCC proliferation and metastasis...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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