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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889225/effects-of-blood-flow-restriction-during-moderate-intensity-eccentric-knee-extensions
#1
Michael Behringer, Lars Heinke, Jannik Leyendecker, Joachim Mester
We investigated if blood flow restriction (BFR, cuff pressure 20 mmHG below individual occlusion pressure) increases metabolic stress, hormonal response, release of muscle damage markers, and muscle swelling induced by moderate-intensity eccentric contractions. In a randomized, matched-pair design, 20 male subjects (25.3 ± 3.3 years) performed four sets of unilateral eccentric knee extensions (75% 1RM) to volitional failure with (IG) or without (CG) femoral BFR. Despite significant differences of performed repetitions between IG (85...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884429/effects-of-hypergravity-on-gene-levels-in-anti-gravity-muscle-and-bone-through-the-vestibular-system-in-mice
#2
Naoyuki Kawao, Hironobu Morita, Kazuaki Nishida, Koji Obata, Kohei Tatsumi, Hiroshi Kaji
We recently reported that hypergravity with 3 g for 4 weeks affects muscle and bone through the vestibular system in mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypergravity with 2 g, which had no influence on circulating glucocorticoid level, on the gene levels in muscle and bone, as well as the roles of the vestibular system in those changes using vestibular lesioned (VL) mice. Hypergravity for 2 and 8 weeks or VL exerted little effects on the mRNA levels of muscle differentiation factors and myokines in the soleus muscle...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879502/role-of-macrophages-in-depot-dependent-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#3
Ken Machida, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Woongchul Shin, Shinya Matsuoka, Ayumi Tsubota, Kazuhiro Kimura
Sympathetic stimulation induces beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), known as browning of WAT. In this study, exposure of mice to cold ambient temperature (10 °C) for 24 h induced the mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a marker for beige adipocytes, in inguinal WAT, but not in perigonadal WAT. Thus, we examined the role of macrophages in depot-dependent WAT browning in mice. Flowcytometric analysis showed that total number of macrophages was higher in perigonadal WAT than in inguinal WAT...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879494/regeneration-of-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-by-a-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticle-containing-collagen-type-i-hydrogel
#4
Majid Salehi, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammdreza Nourani, Ahmad Vaez, Saeed Farzamfar, Jafar Ai
The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a hydroxyapatite nanoparticle-containing collagen type I hydrogel. A solution of type I collagen, extracted from the rat tails, was incorporated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (with the average diameter of ~212 nm) and crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) to prepare the hydrogel. The Schwann cell cultivation on the prepared hydrogel demonstrated a significantly higher cell proliferation than the tissue culture plate, as positive control, after 48 h (n = 3, P < 0...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836167/attenuation-of-ductus-arteriosus-intimal-thickening-in-preterm-sheep-twins-compared-with-singletons
#5
Satoko Ito, Utako Yokoyama, Junichi Saito, Shinichi Sato, Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Ryuta Kitanishi, Yuichiro Miura, Masatoshi Saito, Takushi Hanita, Tadashi Matsuda, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Preterm twins have a higher morbidity rate of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) than do singletons. However, the effect of multiple births on maturation of the ductus arteriosus (DA) has not been reported. Because intimal thickening (IT) is required for DA anatomical closure, we examined IT development in the DA of preterm twins and singletons. Sheep DA tissues obtained from preterm fetuses were subjected to elastica van Gieson staining to evaluate IT. The total IT score in each DA was the sum of the IT scores obtained from six evenly divided parts of the DA, which was positively correlated with gestational ages in singletons...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785888/simple-and-inexpensive-technique-for-measuring-oxygen-consumption-rate-in-adherent-cultured-cells
#6
Eiji Takahashi, Yoshihisa Yamaoka
Measurement of cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is essential in assessing roles of mitochondria in physiology and pathophysiology. Classical techniques, in which polarographic oxygen electrode measures the extracellular oxygen concentration in a closed measuring vessel, require isolation and suspension of the cell. Because cell functions depend on the extracellular milieu including the extracellular matrix, isolation of cultured cells prior to the measurement may significantly affect the OCR. More recent techniques utilize optical methods in which oxygen-dependent quenching of fluorophores determines oxygen concentration in the medium at a few microns above the surface of the cultured cells...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770434/assessment-of-the-septal-area-neuronal-activity-during-penile-erections-in-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-waking-in-the-rats
#7
Kamalesh K Gulia, Yukihiko Kayama, Yoshimasa Koyama
To understand the central mechanism of penile erections during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and waking, single units were recorded from the septal area in un-anesthetized head-restrained rats simultaneous with erections. Erectile events were assessed by pressure in the bulb of the corpus spongiosum of the penis and bulbospongiosus-muscle activity. Of 143 recorded neurons, 36% showed increased activity (E-type) and 24% decreased activity (I-type) during different phases of erection in REM sleep, while 10% were E-type and 35% were I-type during erections in waking...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770433/a-new-myofilament-contraction-model-with-atp-consumption-for-ventricular-cell-model
#8
Yuttamol Muangkram, Akinori Noma, Akira Amano
A new contraction model of cardiac muscle was developed by combining previously described biochemical and biophysical models. The biochemical component of the new contraction model represents events in the presence of Ca(2+)-crossbridge attachment and power stroke following inorganic phosphate release, detachment evoked by the replacement of ADP by ATP, ATP hydrolysis, and recovery stroke. The biophysical component focuses on Ca(2+) activation and force (F b) development assuming an equivalent crossbridge. The new model faithfully incorporates the major characteristics of the biochemical and biophysical models, such as F b activation by transient Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]-F b), [Ca(2+)]-ATP hydrolysis relations, sarcomere length-F b, and F b recovery after jumps in length under the isometric mode and upon sarcomere shortening after a rapid release of mechanical load under the isotonic mode together with the load-velocity relationship...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744803/xanthoceraside-modulates-neurogenesis-to-ameliorate-cognitive-impairment-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#9
Lin Zhu, Tianyan Chi, Xuemei Zhao, Lei Yang, Shijie Song, Qiaohui Lu, Xuefei Ji, Peng Liu, Lihua Wang, Libo Zou
Neuronal loss is reported to be an important pathological process in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis is a process of generation of new neurons to fill the neuronal loss. Xanthoceraside has been shown to attenuate the cognitive deficits in several AD animal models. However, little is known about the effect of xanthoceraside on neurogenesis in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether xanthoceraside can ameliorate learning and memory impairment by promoting NSCs proliferation and neuronal differentiation...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710665/physical-exercise-reduces-pyruvate-carboxylase-pcb-and-contributes-to-hyperglycemia-reduction-in-obese-mice
#10
Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Barbara Moreira Crisol, Guilherme Pedron Formigari, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, José Diego Botezelli, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689272/insulin-does-not-rescue-cortical-and-trabecular-bone-loss-in-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rats
#11
Ratchaneevan Aeimlapa, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Kannikar Wongdee, Wacharaporn Tiyasatkulkovit, Kanchana Kengkoom, Nateetip Krishnamra
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the decreased bone strength is often associated with hyperglycemia and bone cell insulin resistance. Since T2DM is increasingly reported in young adults, it is not known whether the effect of T2DM on bone would be different in young adolescents and aging adults. Here, we found shorter femoral and tibial lengths in 7-month, but not 13-month, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) T2DM rats as compared to wild-type rats. Bone µCT analysis showed long-lasting impairment of both cortical and trabecular bones in GK rats...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685325/potential-signaling-pathways-of-acute-endurance-exercise-induced-cardiac-autophagy-and-mitophagy-and-its-possible-role-in-cardioprotection
#12
REVIEW
Youngil Lee, Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Wankeun Song, Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Mark H Roltsch
Cardiac myocytes are terminally differentiated cells and possess extremely limited regenerative capacity; therefore, preservation of mature cardiac myocytes throughout the individual's entire life span contributes substantially to healthy living. Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent cellular catabolic process, is essential for normal cardiac function and mitochondria maintenance. Therefore, it may be reasonable to hypothesize that if endurance exercise promotes cardiac autophagy and mitochondrial autophagy or mitophagy, exercise-induced cardiac autophagy (EICA) or exercise-induced cardiac mitophagy (EICM) may confer propitious cellular environment and thus protect the heart against detrimental stresses, such as an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681363/physiological-insights-of-recent-clinical-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-technologies-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Kenji Shigemi, Soichiro Fuke, Dai Une, Keita Saku, Shuji Shimizu, Toru Kawada, Toshiaki Shishido, Kenji Sunagawa, Masaru Sugimachi
Diagnostic and therapeutic methods for cardiovascular diseases continue to be developed in the 21st century. Clinicians should consider the physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system to ensure successful diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we focus on the roles of cardiovascular physiology in recent diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for cardiovascular diseases. In the first section, we discuss how to evaluate and utilize left ventricular arterial coupling in the clinical settings...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681362/protein-phosphatases-1-and-2a-and-their-naturally-occurring-inhibitors-current-topics-in-smooth-muscle-physiology-and-chemical-biology
#14
REVIEW
Akira Takai, Masumi Eto, Katsuya Hirano, Kosuke Takeya, Toshiyuki Wakimoto, Masaru Watanabe
Protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) are the most ubiquitous and abundant serine/threonine phosphatases in eukaryotic cells. They play fundamental roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. This review focuses on recent advances in the functional studies of these enzymes in the field of smooth muscle physiology. Many naturally occurring protein phosphatase inhibitors with different relative PP1/PP2A affinities have been discovered and are widely used as powerful research tools. Current topics in the chemical biology of PP1/PP2A inhibitors are introduced and discussed, highlighting the identification of the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of calyculin A in a symbiont microorganism of a marine sponge...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674776/investigating-%C3%AE-adrenergic-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-through-computational-approach-classical-and-non-classical-pathways
#15
Ali Khalilimeybodi, Alireza Daneshmehr, Babak Sharif-Kashani
The chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors plays a crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy and its progression to heart failure. In β-adrenergic signaling, in addition to the well-established classical pathway, Gs/AC/cAMP/PKA, activation of non-classical pathways such as Gi/PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and Gi/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK contribute in cardiac hypertrophy. The signaling network of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is very complex and not fully understood. So, we use a computational approach to investigate the dynamic response and contribution of β-adrenergic mediators in cardiac hypertrophy...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667588/post-injury-stretch-promotes-recovery-in-a-rat-model-of-muscle-damage-induced-by-lengthening-contractions
#16
Tomohiro Mori, Nobuhide Agata, Yuta Itoh, Masumi Inoue-Miyazu, Kazue Mizumura, Masahiro Sokabe, Toru Taguchi, Keisuke Kawakami
We investigated the cellular mechanisms and therapeutic effect of post-injury stretch on the recovery process from muscle injury induced by lengthening contractions (LC). One day after LC, a single 15-min bout of muscle stretch was applied at an intensity of 3 mNm. The maximal isometric torque was measured before and at 2-21 days after LC. The myofiber size was analyzed at 21 days after LC. Developmental myosin heavy chain-immunoreactive (dMHC-ir) cells, a marker of regenerating myofibers, were observed in the early recovery stage (2-5 days after LC)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656459/involvement-of-thermosensitive-trp-channels-in-energy-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Kunitoshi Uchida, Katsuya Dezaki, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Tatsuo Watanabe, Jun Yamazaki, Masayuki Saito, Toshihiko Yada, Makoto Tominaga, Yusaku Iwasaki
To date, 11 thermosensitive transient receptor potential (thermo-TRP) channels have been identified. Recent studies have characterized the mechanism of thermosensing by thermo-TRPs and the physiological role of thermo-TRPs in energy metabolism. In this review, we highlight the role of various thermo-TRPs in energy metabolism and hormone secretion. In the pancreas, TRPM2 and other TRPs regulate insulin secretion. TRPV2 expressed in brown adipocytes contributes to differentiation and/or thermogenesis. Sensory nerves that express TRPV1 promote increased energy expenditure by activating sympathetic nerves and adrenaline secretion...
September 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601952/an-in-vitro-experimental-model-for-analysis-of-central-control-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#18
Yuji Oyama, Kamon Iigaya, Yoshino Minoura, Toshitaka Okabe, Masahiko Izumizaki, Hiroshi Onimaru
Newborn rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations are useful for in vitro analysis of various brainstem functions including respiratory activity. When studying the central control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), it is important to record peripheral outputs of the SNA. We developed an in vitro preparation in which neuronal connections between the cardiovascular center in the medulla and SNA peripheral outputs are preserved. Zero- to 1-day-old rats were deeply anesthetized with isoflurane, and the brainstem and spinal cord were isolated with a partial right thoracic cage to record sympathetic nerve discharge from the right thoracic sympathetic nerve trunk (T9-T11)...
September 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560575/unknown-biological-effects-of-l-glucose-ala-and-pufa
#19
REVIEW
Katsuya Yamada, Daisuke Sato, Takao Nakamura, Hizuru Amano, Yuji Morimoto
Key substrates including glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids play core roles in nutrient metabolism. In this review, we describe phenomena observed when key substrates are applied to cells. We focused on three promising substrates: L-glucose derivatives, 5-aminolevulinic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid. Since they are assumed to give a specific reaction when they are transported into cells or metabolized in cells, they are expected to be applied in a clinical setting. We provide the latest knowledge regarding their behaviors and effects on cells...
September 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213822/effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-circadian-clock-genes-per2-and-bmal1-in-mouse-ovary
#20
Takashi Shimizu, Kaya Watanabe, Nozomi Anayama, Koyomi Miyazaki
In mammals, circadian rhythms are associated with multiple physiological events. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on circadian systems in the ovary. Immature female mice were received an intra-peritoneal injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and LPS. Total RNA was collected from the ovary at 6-h intervals throughout a 48 h of experimental period. The expression of the circadian genes period 2 (Per2) and brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (Bmal1) such as circadian genes was measured by quantitative PCR...
September 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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