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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

Kyo Koizumi, Masatoshi Inoue, Srikanta Chowdhury, Haruhiko Bito, Akihiro Yamanaka, Toru Ishizuka, Hiromu Yawo
To investigate how the functional architecture is organized in layer 5 (L5) of the somatosensory cortex of a mouse in vivo, the input-output relationship was investigated using an all-optical approach. The neural activity in L5 was optically recorded using a Ca2+ sensor, R-CaMP2, through a microprism inserted in the cortex under two-photon microscopy, while the L5 was regionally excited using optogenetics. The excitability was spread around the blue-light irradiated region, but the horizontal propagation was limited to within a certain distance (λ < 130 μm from the center of the illumination spot)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Paweł Jóźków, Dawid Koźlenia, Katarzyna Zawadzka, Marek Konefał, Paweł Chmura, Katarzyna Młynarska, Michał Kosowski, Marek Mędraś, Jan Chmura, Piotr Ponikowski, Jacek Daroszewski
Our aim was to verify whether running a marathon is associated with changes in irisin concentration in healthy, endurance-trained men. In an observational study, we assessed baseline biochemical and fitness parameters of 28 middle-aged runners (mean ± SD age, BMI, VO2max : 58 ± 8 years; 24.5 ± 3 kg/m2 ; 51.1 ± 1.7 ml/kg/min). We evaluated irisin before, immediately after, and 7 days after the marathon. Irisin concentration decreased from a baseline value of 639 ± 427 to 461 ± 255 ng/ml immediately after the marathon (p < 0...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Bahram Rasoulian, Zahra Hajializadeh, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Marzieh Rashidipour, Iman Fatemi, Ayat Kaeidi
Diabetes mellitus is associated with the development of neuronal tissue damage in different central and peripheral nervous system regions. A common complication of diabetes is painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We have explored the antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The nociceptive threshold and motor coordination of these diabetic rats was assessed using the tail-flick and rotarod treadmill tests, respectively...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Eriko Kage-Nakadai, Simo Sun, Satoru Iwata, Sawako Yoshina, Yoshikazu Nishikawa, Shohei Mitani
The membrane trafficking events that regulate unicellular tube formation and maintenance are not well understood. Here, using an RNAi screen, we identified the small GTPase ARF1 homolog ARF-1.2 as a regulator of excretory tube formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. RNAi-mediated knockdown and knockout of the arf-1.2 gene resulted in the formation of large intracellular vacuoles at the growth sites (varicosities) of the excretory canals. arf-1.2 mutant animals were sensitive to hyperosmotic conditions. arf-1.2 RNAi affected the localization of the anion transporter SULP-8, which is expressed in the basal plasma membrane of the excretory canals, but did not affect the expression of SULP-4, which is expressed in the apical membrane...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Samir Henni, Pierre Abraham
A recent report in the journal evaluated microvascular response at the facial and peripheral level during various types and levels of emotional stresses with laser speckle contrast imaging. Our short letter aims at underlying the importance of artifact removal in this situation and suggest directions for improving the results of this kind of experiment.
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Rumiko Nishimura, Naoki Nishimura, Satoshi Iwase, Masao Takeshita, Mitsuhiro Katashima, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Motohiko Sato
We examined the effect of intake of a catechin-enriched ion beverage (Cat-I) on the thermoregulatory response in a hot environment. Eight healthy men were exposed to a hot environment for 90 min at an ambient temperature of 35 °C (relative humidity: 75%) combined with lower leg water immersion at 40 °C. At that time, either Cat-I, an ion beverage (Ion), or mineral water (Placebo) was consumed at three points: (1) at the start of lower leg immersion, (2) at 30 min after immersion, and (3) at 60 min after immersion...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sebastian Haidarliu, Ehud Ahissar, Inbar Saraf-Sinik
A self-adjusting head holder is designed to allow stable fixation and precise positioning (anterior-posterior, pitch, and roll) of guinea pig head in stereotaxic devices. These are achieved with no use of ear-bars. It is thus easy to use, preferable for studies of the auditory system, and for avoiding tissue damage of the ear in general. This head holder can accommodate various head sizes and is thus adapted for males and females of a large range of body weights, as confirmed for guinea pigs of 360-940 g. Moreover, this head holder is easy and cost-effective to manufacture, making it accessible for any lab...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Airi Nakayama, Wataru Aoi, Maki Takami, Nariyuki Hirano, Yumi Ogaya, Sayori Wada, Akane Higashi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of downhill walking on muscle damage and glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. All ten healthy young men and women (age, 24.0 ± 1.4 years) performed rest, uphill walking, and downhill walking trials. In the exercise trials, uphill (+ 5%) or downhill (- 5%) treadmill walking was performed at 6 km/h for 30 min. On the next day, muscle soreness was significantly higher in the downhill trial than in the uphill trial (P < 0.01). Respiratory metabolic performance did not differ between trials...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Hisayoshi Ishii, Toshiya Sato
The article Interactions between β-adrenergic vasodilation and cervical sympathetic nerves are mediated by α2-adrenoceptors in the rat masseter muscle, written by Hisayoshi Ishii and Toshiya Sato, was originally published Online First without open access.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Mami Noda, A I Kobayashi
The article Nicotine inhibits activation of microglial proton currents via interactions with α7 acetylcholine receptors, written by Mami Noda and AI Kobayashi, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 67, issue 1, pages 235-245.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Takamitsu Tanaka, Masao Saotome, Hideki Katoh, Terumori Satoh, Prottoy Hasan, Hayato Ohtani, Hiroshi Satoh, Hideharu Hayashi, Yuichiro Maekawa
Accumulating evidence has revealed pivotal roles of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) inactivation on cardiac protection. Because the precise mechanisms of cardiac protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by GSK3β-inactivation remain elusive, we investigated the relationship between GSK3β-mediated mitochondrial hexokinase II (mitoHK-II; a downstream target of GSK3β) dissociation and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, GSK3β inactivation by SB216763 improved the left ventricular-developed pressure and retained mitoHK-II binding after I/R...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kazuki Nagaya, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Shohei Nakagiri, Ayumi Tsubota, Kazuhiro Kimura
In Syrian hamsters, brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops postnatally through the proliferation and differentiation of brown adipocyte progenitors. In the study reported here, we investigated how ambient temperature influenced BAT formation in neonatal hamsters. In both hamsters raised at 23 or 30 °C, the interscapular fat changed from white to brown coloration in an age-dependent manner and acquired the typical morphological features of BAT by day 16. However, the expression of uncoupling protein 1, a brown adipocyte marker, and of vascular endothelial growth factor α were lower in the group raised at 30 °C than in that raised at 23 °C...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Thierry Paquette, Hugues Leblond, Mathieu Piché
Neurological examination remains the primary clinical investigation in patients with spinal cord injury. However, neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are promising tools for following functional changes in the course of injury, disease and rehabilitation. However, the relationship between neuronal activity and blood flow in the spinal cord on which fMRI relies has been largely overlooked. The objective of this study was to examine neurovascular coupling in the spinal cord of decerebrated rats during electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve with and without isoflurane anesthesia (1...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Keiko Ishida, Koichi Misawa, Masaki Yamamoto, Akira Shimotoyodome
Habitual consumption of chlorogenic acid compounds (CGAs) from coffee increases fat catabolism and reduces body fat; however, the contribution of roasted coffee remains unclear. Hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) impairs the vasodilatory and antihypertensive effects of CGAs by reducing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Since HHQ also reduces fat catabolism, we hypothesized that HHQ does so by decreasing NO availability. Therefore, we investigated the effect of HHQ on energy metabolism in KKAy mice. In HHQ-treated mice, fat oxidation was significantly low and dose-dependent, serum and urinary hydrogen peroxide were high, and plasma NO metabolites and S-nitrosylated liver proteins were low...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Daisuke Ono, Ken-Ichi Honma, Yuchio Yanagawa, Akihiro Yamanaka, Sato Honma
In mammals, circadian rhythms, such as sleep/wake cycles, are regulated by the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN consists of thousands of individual neurons, which exhibit circadian rhythms. They synchronize with each other and produce robust and stable oscillations. Although several neurotransmitters are expressed in the SCN, almost all SCN neurons are γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic. Several studies have attempted to understand the roles of GABA in the SCN; however, precise mechanisms of the action of GABA in the SCN are still unclear...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Mark Stewart
This review traces the examination of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory derangements associated with seizure activity in the clinical and preclinical literature generally, and in the author's animal model specifically, and concludes with the author's views on the potential mechanisms for sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP). An animal model that employs kainic acid-induced seizures on a background of urethane anesthesia has permitted unprecedented access to the behavior of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems during seizure activity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Genta Ochi, Yusuke Kanazawa, Kazuki Hyodo, Kazuya Suwabe, Takeshi Shimizu, Takemune Fukuie, Kyeongho Byun, Hideaki Soya
Although it has been traditionally thought that decreasing SpO2 with ascent to high altitudes not only induces acute mountain sickness but also can decrease executive function, the relationship between decreased SpO2 levels and hypoxia-induced lowered executive function is still unclear. Here we aimed to clarify whether hypoxia-induced lowered executive function was associated with arterial oxygen desaturation, using 21 participants performing the color-word Stroop task under normoxic and three hypoxic conditions (FIO2  = 0...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Makito Iizuka, Masaaki Kobayashi, Yoshimasa Hasegawa, Kazuhide Tomita, Reiko Takeshima, Masahiko Izumizaki
We tried to develop a new device to detect laryngeal movement noninvasively. We made small piezo pressure sensors (length, 1.5 mm, width, 7.0 mm), and five of these were lined up with 3.0-mm intervals and embedded in the middle of a palm-sized urethane resin sheet. This sheet was lightly attached to the ventral surface of the neck near the laryngeal prominence. The first and second peaks obtained from each sensor should correspond to the period when the larynx moves to the upper and lower positions during swallowing...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kornkamon Lertsuwan, Kannikar Wongdee, Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Osteoporosis and derangement of calcium homeostasis are common complications of thalassemia. Despite being an important process for bone and calcium metabolism, little is known about intestinal calcium transport in thalassemia. Recent reports of decreases in both intestinal calcium transport and bone mineral density in thalassemic patients and animal models suggested that defective calcium absorption might be a cause of thalassemic bone disorder. Herein, the possible mechanisms associated with intestinal calcium malabsorption in thalassemia are discussed...
May 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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