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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

Ryota Tokunaga, Rie Shimoju, Hideshi Shibata, Mieko Kurosawa
Noxious cutaneous stimulation increases, whereas innocuous cutaneous stimulation decreases serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to those responses. Release of 5-HT in the CeA was monitored by microdialysis before and after 10-min stimulation by pinching or stroking. Increased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to pinching was abolished by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the DRN...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Fernanda Peres da Silveira, Carla Basso, Wagner Raupp, Morgana Dalpiaz, Karine Bertoldi, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira, Pedro Dal Lago, Maristela Padilha de Souza, Viviane Rostirola Elsner
Our aim was to compare the basal levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and global histone H4 acetylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy amateur runners (EXE group) with sedentary individuals (SED group) as well as to investigate the acute effect of a running race on these markers in the EXE group. Five days before the race, all participants were submitted to a basal blood collection. On the race day, two blood samples were collected in the EXE group before the running started and immediately at the end...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sahar Moghbelinejad, Safar Alizadeh, Ghazaleh Mohammadi, Fatemeh Khodabandehloo, Zahra Rashvand, Reza Najafipour, Marjan Nassiri-Asl
The flavonoid quercetin has recently been reported to have neuroprotective effects, and the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A alpha 5 subunit (GABAA α5) receptor has been determined in some nervous system disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism of the effect of quercetin administered at anticonvulsive doses on the expression of the GABAA α5 receptor gene in kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures in mice. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: control, KA, and KA + quercetin at 50 or 100 mg/kg, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Yoshiro Ishimaru, Chisayo Kozuka, Kenichiro Nakajima, Tsutomu Sasaki
At the 93rd annual meeting of the Physiological Society of Japan, a symposium entitled "Expanding frontiers in weight-control research explored by young investigators" was organized. The latest research on weight control was presented by young up-and-coming investigators. The symposium consisted of the following presentations: Gastrointestinal brush cells, immunity, and energy homeostasis; Impact of a brown rice-derived bioactive product on feeding regulation and fuel metabolism; A novel G protein-coupled receptor-regulated neuronal signaling pathway triggers sustained orexigenic effects; and NMDA receptor co-agonist D-serine regulates food preference...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Mayumi Takeya, Yuushi Okumura, Takeshi Nikawa
Skin can respond to various types of internal and/or external mechanostimuli, such as excessive tension caused by body growth or decompression due to weight loss, which significantly affect skin morphology. Mechanosensors, including p130Cas, are reported to play a role in deformation and subsequent recovery of various tissues including skeletal muscles and blood vessels. However, the role of mechanotransduction via p130Cas in the regulation of skin size remains unclear. In this report, p130Cas activation was manipulated using a fibroblast-embedded collagen gel model or mouse skin contraction model...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Toshiyuki Maezawa, Masayuki Tanaka, Miho Kanazashi, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Hidemi Fujino
Immobilization induces skeletal muscle fibrosis characterized by increasing collagen synthesis in the perimysium and endomysium. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is associated with this lesion via promoting differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are shown to mediate TGF-β1-induced fibrosis in tissues. These reports suggest the importance of ROS reduction for attenuating skeletal muscle fibrosis. Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant, has been shown to reduce ROS production in disused muscle...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Juliana B M Lima, Clarice C Veloso, Fabiana C Vilela, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva
Previous studies have demonstrated that zymosan, a cell wall component of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, induces inflammation in experimental models. However, few studies have evaluated the potential of zymosan to induce sickness behavior, a central motivational state that allows an organism to cope with infection. To determine whether zymosan administration results in sickness behavior, mice were submitted to the forced swim (FST) and open field (OFT) tests 2, 6, and 24 h after treatment with zymosan (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Takuro Tobina, Yukari Mori, Yukiko Doi, Fuki Nakayama, Akira Kiyonaga, Hiroaki Tanaka
Muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1)α gene expression is influenced by the Gly482Ser gene polymorphism, which is a candidate genetic risk factor for diabetes mellitus and obesity. This study investigated the effects of PGC-1 gene Gly482Ser polymorphisms on alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism induced by exercise training. A 12-week intervention study was performed for 119 participants who were more than 65 years of age and completed exercise training at lactate threshold intensity...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Fereshteh Safari, Shahnaz Shekarforoosh, Tahmineh Hashemi, Simin Namvar Aghdash, Asefeh Fekri, Fatemeh Safari
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sirtinol, as an inhibitor of sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury following early and late ischemia preconditioning (IPC). Rats underwent sustained ischemia and reperfusion (IR) alone or proceeded by early or late IPC. Sirtinol (S) was administered before IPC. Arrhythmias were evaluated based on the Lambeth model. Infarct size (IS) was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The transcription level of antioxidant-coding genes was assessed by real-time PCR...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kannikar Wongdee, Nateetip Krishnamra, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) are associated with profound deterioration of calcium and bone metabolism, partly from impaired intestinal calcium absorption, leading to a reduction in calcium uptake into the body. T1DM is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, whereas the skeletal changes in T2DM are variable, ranging from normal to increased and to decreased BMD. However, both types of DM eventually compromise bone quality through production of advanced glycation end products and misalignment of collagen fibrils (so-called matrix failure), thereby culminating in a reduction of bone strength...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Shuji Shimizu, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Toru Kawada, Yusuke Sata, Michael James Turner, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Hiromi Yamamoto, Atsunori Kamiya, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
This study examined the mechanism of release of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) in rabbit renal cortex by applying a microdialysis technique. In anesthetized rabbits, a microdialysis probe was implanted into the renal cortex and perfused with Ringer's solution containing high potassium concentration, high sodium concentration, a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor (ouabain), or an epithelial Na(+) channel blocker (benzamil). Dialysate samples were collected at baseline and during exposure to each agent, and ACh concentrations in the samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Fumio Yamazaki, Ryoko Sone
To test the hypothesis that topical menthol-induced reactivity of cold sensation and cutaneous vasoconstriction to local cooling is augmented in individuals with a cold constitution, we examined thermal sensation and cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses at menthol-treated and untreated sites in the legs during local skin cooling in young women complaining of chilliness (C group) and young women with no complaint as a normal control group (N group). During local skin cooling, the sensitivity to cold sensation was greater in the C group than in the N group...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kikue Todoroki, Yoshimori Ikeya, Sayato Fukui, Chiharu Tanaka, Kaori Sekine, Ryoko Imazeki, Toru Shizuma, Naoto Fukuyama, Hidezo Mori
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the vital prognoses of elderly people in their mid-eighties living in a group home (GH) compared to age- and sex-matched outpatient clinic (OPC) in an observational study conducted over 6 years. We investigated the association between mortality and general, cardiac, and nutritional parameters, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in 54 GH residents (83 ± 8 years old) and 57 OPC attendees (83 ± 5 years old). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard ratio analyses were used to assess the association between EPA drug administration and mortality in the GH residents and OPC attendees, respectively...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Shaoan Chen, Pengpeng Ma, Ying Zhao, Bin Li, Shaobo Jiang, Hui Xiong, Zheng Wang, Hanbo Wang, Xunbo Jin, Chuan Liu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play a critical role in cancer development and progression. LncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) is a kidney cancer-associated onco-lncRNA involved in the progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the pathological role of lncRNA MALAT-1 in RCC proliferation and metastasis remains poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the biological role and mechanism of MALAT-1 in RCC proliferation and metastasis...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Mamede de Carvalho, Michael Swash
We set out to study whether in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) fasciculation potentials (FPs) arise from the most excitable motor units (MUs). We studied 70 patients with ALS and 18 subjects with benign fasciculation syndrome (BFS). Of the 56 eligible ALS patients, 31 had signs of reinnervation in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle selected for study, and 25 did not. Two needle electrodes were placed in different MUs in each studied muscle. We defined the most excitable MU as that first activated by minimal voluntary contraction...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Katsushige Sato, Yoko Momose-Sato
Clarification of the functiogenesis of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS) has long been problematic, because conventional electrophysiological techniques have several limitations. First, early embryonic neurons are small and fragile, and the application of microelectrodes is challenging. Second, the simultaneous monitoring of electrical activity from multiple sites is limited, and as a consequence, spatiotemporal response patterns of neural networks cannot be assessed. We have applied multiple-site optical recording with a voltage-sensitive dye to the embryonic CNS and paved a new way to analyze the functiogenesis of the CNS...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kayoko Oda, Masanari Umemura, Rina Nakakaji, Ryo Tanaka, Itaru Sato, Akane Nagasako, Chiaki Oyamada, Erdene Baljinnyam, Mayumi Katsumata, Lai-Hua Xie, Masatoshi Narikawa, Yukie Yamaguchi, Taisuke Akimoto, Makoto Ohtake, Takayuki Fujita, Utako Yokoyama, Kousaku Iwatsubo, Michiko Aihara, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Melanoma has an extremely poor prognosis due to its rapidly progressive and highly metastatic nature. Several therapeutic drugs have recently become available, but are effective only against melanoma with specific BRAF gene mutation. Thus, there is a need to identify other target molecules. We show here that Transient receptor potential, canonical 3 (TRPC3) is widely expressed in human melanoma. We found that pharmacological inhibition of TRPC3 with a pyrazole compound, Pyr3, decreased melanoma cell proliferation and migration...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Yuki Aoki, Yuya Nishimura, Timm Hondrich, Ryota Nakayama, Hideyoshi Igata, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
Current research on stress pathology has revealed a set of molecular and cellular mechanisms through which psychosocial stress impairs brain function. However, there are few studies that have examined how chronic stress exposure alters neuronal activity patterns at a network level. Here, we recorded ensemble neuronal activity patterns of the cortico-hippocampal network from urethane-anesthetized mice that were subjected to repeated social defeat stress. In socially defeated mice, the magnitudes of local field potential signals, including theta, slow gamma, and fast gamma oscillations, were significantly reduced in the dentate gyrus, whereas they remained unchanged in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kenichi Sasaguri, Kentaro Yamada, Yuri Narimatsu, Masami Oonuki, Azusa Oishi, Koyo Koda, Kin-Ya Kubo, Toshiharu Yamamoto, Toshihiko Kadoya
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is differentially expressed in normal and pathological tissues and regulates immune cell homeostasis. Restraint stress increases serum Gal-1 in rats. However, the function of stress-induced Gal-1 in serum is unknown. We determined if stress-induced Gal-1 in serum accumulates in immunocompetent organs as protection from physiological and/or psychological stress. Western blotting showed that the intensity of Gal-1 bands in stressed groups was significantly higher than that in controls. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the Gal-1 mRNA level did not increase after restraint stress...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Masae Naruse, Yasuki Ishizaki, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Aoi Tanaka, Seiji Hitoshi
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) appear in the late embryonic brain, mature into oligodendrocytes (OLs), and form myelin in the postnatal brain. It has been proposed that early born OPCs derived from the ventral forebrain are eliminated postnatally and late-born OLs predominate in the adult mouse cortex. However, the temporal and regional niche for cortical OL generation, which persists throughout life in adult mammals, remains to be determined. Our recent study provides new insight into self-renewing and multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs)...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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