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Current Cardiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663894/coenzyme-q10-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases-current-state-of-the-problem
#1
Vladlena I Zozina, Serghei Covantev, Olga A Goroshko, Liudmila M Krasnykh, Vladimir G Kukes
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increasing with every year. Although the management of these conditions has improved greatly over the years it is still far from perfect. With all of this in mind, there is a need for new methods of prophylaxis and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential compound of the human body. There is growing evidence that CoQ10 is tightly linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Its supplementation can be useful in a variety of chronic and acute disorders. This review analyses the role of CoQ10 in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, viral myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, cardiac toxicity, dyslipidemia, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac procedures and resuscitation...
April 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623849/cardiac-imaging-in-systemic-diseases-what-the-clinician-should-know
#2
Cesar J Herrera, Pamela Pina Santana, Jorge Martinez, Mario J Garcia
IMPORTANCE: Systemic diseases that affect the cardiovascular system constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for all specialists involved; imaging tools along with clinical suspicion play an essential role in their evaluation. These entities share neurological, immunological, renal, hematologic, oncologic, infectious and endocrine processes, all of which may have associated cardiac involvement. OBSERVATIONS: Recent advances in cardiac ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear scintigraphy have impacted the management of these conditions when involving the heart since they provide valuable anatomical and functional information while avoiding the use of invasive techniques...
April 5, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564979/levosimendan-for-perioperative-cardioprotection-myth-or-reality
#3
Elpidio Santillo, Monica Migale, Carlo Massini, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
BACKGROUND: Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer drug causing increased contractility in the myocardium and vasodilation in the vascular system. It is mainly used for the therapy of acute decompensated heart failure. Several studies on animals and humans provided evidence of the cardioprotective properties of levosimendan including preconditioning and anti-apoptotic. In view of these favorable effects, levosimendan has been tested in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for the prevention or treatment of low cardiac output syndrome...
March 21, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485000/transient-secondary-hypothyroidism-and-thyroid-hormone-replacement-therapy-in-pediatric-postoperative-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#4
Travis F D Souza, Steven G Hoshal, Ridwaan Albeiruti, Mario P Zambito, Giuseppe M Zambito, Faizan M Khan, Bennett P Samuel, Teri L Crumb, Surender Rajasekaran, Joseph J Vettukattil
BACKGROUND: To develop an understanding of current practices in the management of transient secondary hypothyroidism in pediatric postoperative cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) patients. METHODS: Electronic survey comprising a 10-item questionnaire was sent to sixty-four high volume pediatric heart centers in the United States and United Kingdom. Survey participants included cardiologist, intensivists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and advanced practice providers. A retrospective chart review was also performed at a large regional referral center in the Midwest on subjects 0-18 years old who underwent CPB from 2005-2015...
February 26, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473518/management-of-measurable-variable-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors
#5
Sonja Francula Zaninovic, Iskra A Nola
AIM: To summarize the main findings on variable cardiovascular risk factors and their management in everyday practice. METHODS: A narrative review of the relevant literature known to the authors and incorporation of healthy changes tips in defined variable cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: There are known variable cardiovascular risk factors to be claimed as those that should be changed in order to achieve a better prevention of cardiovascular disease development...
February 21, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366424/it-s-time-to-talk-challenges-in-providing-integrated-palliative-care-in-advanced-congestive-heart-failure
#6
Justin Yewman Chow, Helen Senderovich
BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure is an increasingly prevalent terminal illness in a globally aging population. Prognosis for this disease remains poor despite optimal therapy. Evidence suggests that a palliative care approach may be beneficial - and is currently recommended - in advanced congestive heart failure but these services remain underutilized. OBJECTIVES: To identify the main challenges to the access and delivery of palliative care in patients with advanced congestive heart failure, and to summarize recommendations for clinical practice based on the available literature...
January 23, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557738/preface
#7
Jian'an Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366425/hypertriglyceridemia-common-causes-prevention-and-treatment-strategies
#8
Katarzyna Rygiel
BACKGROUND: Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemias represent the key issues of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) prophylaxis. Consequently, the effective management of different types of lipid disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, should be a priority for the healthcare practitioners (e.g.: cardiology and endocrinology specialists, primary care physicians, dietitians, and pharmacists), who provide medical care, as well as for the patients, who receive this care, and need to be directly engaged in it, in order to improve their outcomes...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366423/therapeutic-approach-to-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#9
Chakradhari Inampudi, Paulino Alvarez, Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors including Ischemic heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, high output Heart Failure (HF) from shunting through vascular hemodialysis access, and anemia, contribute to development of HF in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Guidelinedirected medical and device therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) has not been extensively studied and may have limited safety and efficacy in patients with ESRD. RESULTS: Maintenance of interdialytic and intradialytic euvolemia is a key component of HF management in these patients but often difficult to achieve...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332590/oxidative-stress-and-cardiac-remodeling-an-updated-edge
#10
Abeer M Rababa'h, Ashley N Guillory, Rima Mustafa, Tamara Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: A common phenotype associated with heart failure is the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to stress, such as hypertension, coronary vascular disease, or myocardial infarction. The most critical pathophysiological conditions involved may include dilated hypertrophy, fibrosis and contractile malfunction. The intricate pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy have been the core of several scientific studies, which may help in opening a new avenue in preventive and curative procedures...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278215/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-the-elderly-are-drug-coated-balloons-the-future
#11
Ioannis Merinopoulos, Tharusha Gunawardena, Upul Wickramarachchi, Alisdair Ryding, Simon Eccleshall, Vassilios S Vassiliou
BACKGROUND: Balloon angioplasty revolutionised percutaneous treatment for coronary artery disease four decades ago, but vessel-threatening dissections, elastic recoil and restenosis were major drawbacks to an otherwise successful long-lasting intervention. Subsequent advances with bare metal stents and then drug eluting stents followed, aiming to mitigate the risks of acute vessel closure and restenosis. However, stent implantation often necessitates dual antiplatelet therapy for a prolonged period of time, which in itself can lead to adverse outcomes, especially in the frail elderly population at higher risk of bleeding...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189172/cardiovascular-disease-in-the-setting-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#12
Daniela Sofia Martins Pinto, Manuel Joaquim Lopes Vaz da Silva
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), the life expectancy and health quality for patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have significantly improved. Nevertheless, as a result of not only the deleterious effects of the virus itself and prolonged ART, but also the effects of aging, cardiovascular diseases have emerged as one of the most common causes of death among these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to explore the new insights on the spectrum of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in HIV infection, with emphasis on the factors that contribute to the atherosclerotic process and its role in the development of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of infection...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189171/inappropriate-sinus-tachycardia
#13
Mohammed Ruzieh, Abdelmoniem Moustafa, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Mohammad M. Karim, Saima Karim
Definition and diagnosis: Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a sinus heart rate inexplicably higher than one hundred beats per minute at rest that is associated with symptoms like palpitations, dyspnea or dizziness in the absence of primary causes of tachycardia. The diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of tachycardia including medications/substances (such as anti-cholinergic, beta-blocker withdrawal, caffeine, and alcohol) or medical conditions (such as panic attacks, pulmonary embolism, fever, hyperthyroidism, hypovolemia, anemia, and pain)...
November 29, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141552/para-prosthetic-leaks-following-mitral-valve-replacement-case-analysis-on-a-20-year-period
#14
Melvin Dziubek, Charalampos Pierrakos, Louis Chebli, Helene Demanet, Ahmed Sanoussi, Pierre Wauthy
BACKGROUND: Mitral para-prosthetic leaks are rare but major complications of mitral heart valve replacements. When they must be re-operated, they are burdened with high mortality rates. We propose to review our surgical experience in terms of approach and type of operation carried out. METHODS: Demographic, preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics of 34 patients who benefited from a surgical treatment of mitral paravalvular leak at the Brugmann University Hospital between 1996 and 2016 have been gathered retrospectively...
November 9, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990536/novel-insights-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-mediated-atherosclerosis
#15
Johnna F Varghese, Rohit Patel, Umesh C S Yadav
CONTEXT: Atherosclerosis is a progressive pathological process and a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Clinical research and epidemiological studies states that atherosclerosis is caused by an amalgamation of metabolic and inflammatory deregulation involving three important pathological events including endothelial dysfunction (ED), foam cell formation (FCF), and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and migration. OBJECTIVES: Research in recent years has identified metabolic syndrome, which involves factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes, to be responsible for the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis...
October 9, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093988/adherence-to-secondary-prophylaxis-for-acute-rheumatic-fever-and-rheumatic-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#16
Priya Minaxi Kevat, Benjamin M Reeves, Alan R Ruben, Ronny Gunnarsson
BACKGROUND: Optimal delivery of regular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) injections prescribed as secondary prophylaxis for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is vital to preventing disease morbidity and cardiac sequelae in affected pediatric and young adult populations. However, poor uptake of secondary prophylaxis remains a significant challenge to ARF/RHD control programs. OBJECTIVE: In order to facilitate better understanding of this challenge and thereby identify means to improve service delivery, this systematic literature review explored rates of adherence and factors associated with adherence to secondary prophylaxis for ARF and RHD worldwide...
January 16, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969539/transseptal-access-to-the-left-atrium-tips-and-tricks-to-keep-it-safe-derived-from-single-operator-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Antonis S Manolis
BACKGROUND: Transseptal puncture (TSP) remains a demanding procedural step in accessing the left atrium with inherent risks and safety concerns, mostly related to cardiac tamponade. OBJECTIVE: Based on our own experience with 249 TSP procedures and in-depth literature review, we present our results and offer several tips and tricks that may render TSP successful and safe. METHODS: This prospective study comprised 249 consecutive patients (146 men), aged 41...
2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969538/triple-therapy-versus-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-for-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Aimee Fake, Anil Ranchord, Scott Harding, Peter Larsen
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) have indications for both dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and oral anticoagulation (OAC). Triple therapy (TT), the combination of DAPT and OAC, is recommended in guidelines. We examined studies comparing clinical outcomes on DAPT versus TT for patients with AF and ACS. METHODS: We searched Medline, Medline pending, EMBASE and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases for studies published between January 2000 to December 2016 in AF patients with ACS that compared DAPT and TT that reported ischaemic and/or bleeding outcomes...
2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925859/effects-of-evolocumab-on-cardiovascular-events
#19
REVIEW
Nasser Mikhail
BACKGROUND: Evolocumab is a potent lipid-lowering drug that decreases plasma levels of lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 50-60%. FOURIER is a landmark randomized trial involving 27,564 patients with established cardiovascular disease already on statins and plasma LDLC levels > 70 mg/dl. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of FOURIER was to examine the effects of evolocumab on cardiovascular events. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 2...
2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782494/the-role-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-in-cardiovascular-homeostasis-a-non-systematic-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Ahmad Hachem, Essa Hariri, Perla Saoud, Christelle Lteif, Louis Lteif, Francine Welty
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been gaining major attention recently after the emergence of data showing the promising role of these proteins in lipid homeostasis and atherosclerosis process, glucose and blood pressure regulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Scholar and Scopus databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, observational studies, in-vitro trials and reviews about the role of PCSK9 in cardiovascular homeostasis...
2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
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