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Current Cardiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366425/hypertriglyceridemia-common-causes-prevention-and-treatment-strategies
#1
Katarzyna Rygiel
Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemias represent the key issues of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prophylaxis, and thus, the effective management of different types of lipid disorders should be a priority for healthcare practitioners (primary care physicians, cardiology or endocrinology specialists, dietitians, and pharmacists), who provide medical care, and for patients, who receive this care, and should be engaged in it, to improve outcomes. The aim of this review is to facilitate translation of current trends in hypertriglyceridemia treatment to a daily patient management...
January 23, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366424/it-s-time-to-talk-challenges-in-providing-integrated-palliative-care-in-advanced-congestive-heart-failure
#2
Justin Yewman Chow, Helen Senderovich
BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure is an increasingly prevalent terminal illness in a globally aging population. Prognosis for this disease remains poor despite optimal therapy. Evidence suggests that a palliative care approach may be beneficial - and is currently recommended - in advanced congestive heart failure but these services remain underutilized. OBJECTIVES: To identify the main challenges to the access and delivery of palliative care in patients with advanced congestive heart failure, and to summarize recommendations for clinical practice based on the available literature...
January 23, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366423/therapeutic-approach-to-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#3
Chakradhari Inampudi, Paulino Alvarez, Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis
Several risk factors including Ischemic heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, high output heart failure (HF) from shunting through vascular hemodialysis access, and anemia, contribute to development of HF in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Guideline-directed medical and device therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) has not been extensively studied and may have limited safety and efficacy in patients with ESRD. Maintenance of interdialytic and intradialytic euvolemia is a key component of HF management in these patients but often difficult to achieve...
January 23, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332590/the-potential-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-a-narrative-review
#4
Abeer Rababa H, Ashley Guillory, Rima Mustafa, Tamara Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: A common phenotype associated with heart failure is the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to stress, such as hypertension, coronary vascular disease, or myocardial infarction. The most critical pathophysiological conditions involved may include dilated hypertrophy, fibrosis and contractile malfunction. The intricate pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy have been the core of several scientific studies, which may help in opening a new avenue in preventive and curative procedures...
January 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278215/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-the-elderly-are-drug-coated-balloons-the-future
#5
Ioannis Merinopoulos, Tharusha Gunawardena, Upul Wickramarachchi, Alisdair Ryding, Simon Eccleshall, Vassilios S Vassiliou
Balloon angioplasty revolutionised percutaneous treatment for coronary artery disease four decades ago, but vessel-threatening dissections, elastic recoil and restenosis were major drawbacks to an otherwise successful long-lasting intervention. Subsequent advances with bare metal stents and then drug eluting stents followed, aiming to mitigate the risks of acute vessel closure and restenosis. However, stent implantation often necessitates dual antiplatelet therapy for a prolonged period of time, which in itself can lead to adverse outcomes, especially in the frail elderly population at higher risk of bleeding...
December 26, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189172/cardiovascular-complications-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#6
Daniela Sofia Martins Pinto, Manuel Joaquim Lopes Vaz da Silva
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the life expectancy and health quality for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly improved. Nevertheless, as a result of not only the deleterious effects of the virus itself and prolonged ART, but also the effects of aging, cardiovascular diseases have emerged as one of the most common causes of death among these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to explore the new insights on the spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV infection, with emphasis on the factors that contribute to the atherosclerotic process and its role in the development of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of infection...
November 29, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189171/inappropriate-sinus-tachycardia
#7
Mohammed Ruzieh, Abdelmoniem Moustafa, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Mohammad M. Karim, Saima Karim
Definition and diagnosis: Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a sinus heart rate inexplicably higher than one hundred beats per minute at rest that is associated with symptoms like palpitations, dyspnea or dizziness in the absence of primary causes of tachycardia. The diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of tachycardia including medications/substances (such as anti-cholinergic, beta-blocker withdrawal, caffeine, and alcohol) or medical conditions (such as panic attacks, pulmonary embolism, fever, hyperthyroidism, hypovolemia, anemia, and pain)...
November 29, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141552/para-prosthetic-leaks-following-mitral-valve-replacement-case-analysis-on-a-20-year-period
#8
Melvin Dziubek, Charalampos Pierrakos, Louis Chebli, Helene Demanet, Ahmed Sanoussi, Pierre Wauthy
BACKGROUND: Mitral para-prosthetic leaks are rare but major complications of mitral heart valve replacements. When they must be re-operated, they are burdened with high mortality rates. We propose to review our surgical experience in terms of approach and type of operation carried out. METHODS: Demographic, preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics of 34 patients who benefited from a surgical treatment of mitral paravalvular leak at the Brugmann University Hospital between 1996 and 2016 have been gathered retrospectively...
November 9, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990536/novel-insights-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-mediated-atherosclerosis
#9
Johnna F Varghese, Rohit Patel, Umesh C S Yadav
CONTEXT: Atherosclerosis is a progressive pathological process and a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Clinical research and epidemiological studies states that atherosclerosis is caused by an amalgamation of metabolic and inflammatory deregulation involving three important pathological events including endothelial dysfunction (ED), foam cell formation (FCF), and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and migration. OBJECTIVES: Research in recent years has identified metabolic syndrome, which involves factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes, to be responsible for the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis...
October 9, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969539/transseptal-access-to-the-left-atrium-tips-and-tricks-to-keep-it-safe-derived-from-single-operator-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Antonis S Manolis
BACKGROUND: Transseptal puncture (TSP) remains a demanding procedural step in accessing the left atrium with inherent risks and safety concerns, mostly related to cardiac tamponade. OBJECTIVE: Based on our own experience with 249 TSP procedures and in-depth literature review, we present our results and offer several tips and tricks that may render TSP successful and safe. METHODS: This prospective study comprised 249 consecutive patients (146 men), aged 41...
September 27, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969538/triple-therapy-versus-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-for-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-systematic-literature-review
#11
Aimee Louise Fake, Anil Ranchord, Scott Harding, Peter Larsen
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) have indications for both dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and oral anticoagulation (OAC). Triple therapy (TT), the combination of DAPT and OAC, is recommended in guidelines. We examined studies comparing clinical outcomes on DAPT versus TT for patients with AF and ACS. METHODS: We searched Medline, Medline pending, EMBASE and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases for studies published between January 2000 to December 2016 in AF patients with ACS that compared DAPT and TT that reported ischaemic and/or bleeding outcomes...
September 27, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782494/the-role-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-in-cardiovascular-homeostasis-a-non-systematic-literature-review
#12
Ahmad Hachem, Essa Hariri, Perla Saoud, Christelle Lteif, Louis Lteif, Francine Welty
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been gaining major attention recently after the emergence of data showing the promising role of these proteins in lipid homeostasis and atherosclerosis process, glucose and blood pressure regulation. PubMed, EMBASE, Scholar and Scopus databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, observational studies, in-vitro trials and reviews about the role of PCSK9 in cardiovascular homeostasis. PCSK9 was found to have major impact on lipid homeostasis and inflammatory process through regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors...
August 4, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782493/big-data-and-genome-editing-technology-a-new-paradigm-of-cardiovascular-genomics
#13
Chayakrit Krittanawong, Tao Sun, Eyal Herzog
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) encompasse a range of conditions extending from congenital heart disease to acute coronary syndrome most of which are heterogenous in nature and some of them are multiple genetic loci. However, the pathogenesis of most CVDs remains incompletely understood. The advance in genome-editing technologies, an engineering process of DNA sequences at precise genomic locations, has enabled a new paradigm that human genome can be precisely modified to achieve a therapeutic effect. Genome-editing includes the correction of genetic variants that cause disease, the addition of therapeutic genes to specific sites in the genomic locations, and the removal of deleterious genes or genome sequences...
August 4, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782492/impact-of-pre-existing-kidney-dysfuntion-on-outcomes-following-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#14
Ikechukwu A Ifedili, Oluwaseyi Bolorunduro, Tamunoinemi Bob-Manuel, Mark R Heckle, Ellis Christian, Saibal Kar, Uzoma N Ibebuogu
BACKGROUND: Pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) portends adverse outcomes following heart valve surgery. However, only limited and conflicting evidence is available on the impact of CKD on outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The objective of this review was to evaluate the effect of pre-existing CKD on TAVR outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic electronic search using the PRISMA statement to identify all randomized controlled trials and observational studies investigating the effect of pre-existing CKD on outcomes following TAVR...
August 4, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782491/the-impact-of-cardiovascular-diseases-on-the-cardiovascular-regulation-during-exercise-in-humans-studies-on-the-metaboreflex-elicited-by-the-post-exercise-muscle-ischemia-method
#15
Antonio Crisafulli
Hemodynamics during dynamic exercise is finely regulated by some neural mechanisms. One of these mechanisms is the metabolic part of the exercise pressor reflex, i.e. the muscle metaboreflex. Hemodynamic response during the metaboreflex is characterised by the recruitment of the reserves in cardiac inotropism, pre-load, after-load and chronotropism. If one of these reserves is exhausted, then the cardiovascular response is achieved by recruiting one of the other reserves, thereby indicating a remarkable plasticity of the control of circulation...
August 4, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699488/a-review-of-interventions-to-improve-enrolment-and-attendance-to-cardiac-rehabilitation-among-patients-aged-65-years-or-above
#16
Bashir M Matata, Sean Andrew Williamson
Purpose This review provides an overview and quality assessment of existing interventions, assessing the intervention types that are most effective at increasing enrolment and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation in older patients aged ≥65 years Methods The review of the literature was performed using electronic databases that searched for randomised controlled trials that aimed to increase enrolment and/or adherence to cardiac rehabilitation in older patients aged ≥65 years. The main key words were cardiac rehabilitation, enrolment, adherence and older patients...
July 9, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093988/adherence-to-secondary-prophylaxis-for-acute-rheumatic-fever-and-rheumatic-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#17
Priya Minaxi Kevat, Benjamin M Reeves, Alan R Ruben, Ronny Gunnarsson
BACKGROUND: Optimal delivery of regular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) injections prescribed as secondary prophylaxis for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is vital to preventing disease morbidity and cardiac sequelae in affected pediatric and young adult populations. However, poor uptake of secondary prophylaxis remains a significant challenge to ARF/RHD control programs. OBJECTIVE: In order to facilitate better understanding of this challenge and thereby identify means to improve service delivery, this systematic literature review explored rates of adherence and factors associated with adherence to secondary prophylaxis for ARF and RHD worldwide...
January 16, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925859/effects-of-evolocumab-on-cardiovascular-events
#18
Nasser Mikhail
BACKGROUND: Evolocumab is a potent lipid-lowering drug that decreases plasma levels of lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 50-60%. FOURIER is a landmark randomized trial involving 27,564 patients with established cardiovascular disease already on statins and plasma LDLC levels > 70 mg/dl. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of FOURIER was to examine the effects of evolocumab on cardiovascular events. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 2...
2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707575/bayes-syndrome-and-imaging-techniques
#19
Ivan Hernandez-Betancor, Maria Manuela Izquierdo-Gomez, Javier Garcia-Niebla, Ignacio Laynez-Cerdena, Martin Jesus Garcia-Gonzalez, A Barragan-Acea, Jose Luis Irribarren-Sarria, Juan Jose Jimenez-Rivera, Juan Lacalzada-Almeida
Interatrial block (IAB) is due to disruption in the Bachmann region (BR). According to whether interatrial electrical conduction is delayed or completely blocked through the BR, it can be classified as IAB of first, second or third degree. On the surface electrocardiogram, a P wave ≥ 120 ms (partial IAB) is observed or associated to the prolongation of the P wave with a biphasic (positive / negative) morphology in the inferior leads (advanced IAB). Bayes syndrome is defined as an advanced IAB associated with atrial arrhythmia, more specifically atrial fibrillation...
2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545351/assessing-coronary-blood-flow-physiology-in-the-cardiac-catheterisation-laboratory
#20
Sethumadhavan Vijayan, David S Barmby, Ian R Pearson, Andrew G Davies, Stephen B Wheatcroft, Mohan Sivananthan
BACKGROUND: Contemporary management of coronary disease focuses on the treatment of stenoses in the major epicardial vessels. However, myocardial blood flow is known to be contingent on a range of factors in addition to the patency of the epicardial vessels. These include anatomical and physiological factors such as the extent of myocardium supplied by the vessel, systemic blood pressure, the natural variation in vascular tone in response to physiological needs which allows for coronary autoregulation and pathological factors such as the presence of downstream obstruction to flow due to disease of the small coronary vessels or myocardium...
2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
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