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Current Cardiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095058/cardiac-response-to-exercise-in-normal-ageing-what-can-we-learn-from-masters-athletes
#1
A Beaumont, A Campbell, F Grace, N Sculthorpe
INTRODUCTION: Ageing is associated with a progressive decline in cardiac and vascular health, resulting in an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lifestyle factors such as exercise have emerged as a primary therapeutic target in the prevention of CVD, yet older individuals are frequently reported as being the least active, with 1 in four adults failing to meet the physical activity guidelines. In contrast, well trained older individuals (Masters athletes) have superior functional capacity than their sedentary peers and are often comparable with young non-athletes...
August 10, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30068282/arterial-aging-metalloproteinase-regulation-and-the-potential-of-resistance-exercise
#2
Allan Knox
BACKGROUND: Aging is a process that affects all living organisms. The transition through life elicits tissue specific alterations in the functional and structural capabilities of all physiological systems. In particular, the vasculature is vulnerable to aging specific adaptations which induces morphological changes and ultimately increases the risk of pathological states. Matrix metalloproteinases are a group of extremely active enzymes that regulate the age-associated structural changes of the vasculature which has been regarded as the hallmark of arterial aging...
August 1, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047332/endothelial-regenerative-capacity-and-aging-influence-of-diet-exercise-and-obesity
#3
Mark D Ross
The endothelium plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation, from blood flow, to platelet aggregation, immune cell infiltration and demargination. A dysfunctional endothelium leads to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aging endothelium displays significant alterations in function, such as reduced vasomotor functions and reduced angiogenic capabilities. This could be partly due to elevated levels of oxidative stress and reduced endothelial cell turnover. Circulating angiogenic cells, such as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a significant role in maintaining endothelial health and function, by supporting endothelial cell proliferation, or via incorporation into the vasculature and differentiation into mature endothelial cells...
July 25, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014805/subcutaneous-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-an-overview-of-implantation-techniques-and-clinical-outcomes
#4
Bandar Al-Ghamdi
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a significant health problem worldwide. Multiple randomized controlled trials have shown that implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective life-saving management option for individuals at risk of SCD in both primary and secondary prevention. Although the conventional transvenous ICDs (TV-ICDs) are safe and effective, there are potential complications associated with its use, including localized pocket or wound infection or systematic infection, a vascular access related complication such as pneumothorax, and venous thrombosis, and lead related complications such as dislodgement, malfunction, and perforation...
July 16, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009713/autoantibodies-for-cardiac-channels-and-sudden-cardiac-death-and-its-relationship-to-autoimmune-disorders
#5
Hymie Chera, Menachem Nagar, Aaron Richler, Mahyar Pourriahi, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yitzhak Rosen
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unexpected death caused by heart dysfunction. Autoantibodies against cardiac proteins may be potentially involved in the occurrence and progression of cardiac disease and SCD. The first report on the role of autoantibodies in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy appeared in the 1980s. In recent years new studies on the effects of the presence of specific autoantibodies and their relationship to ventricular arrhythmias and SCD were published. The purpose of the current mini-review is to analyze the results of the research studies focused on the relationship between anti-cardiomyocyte autoantibodies and SCD with respect to autoimmune disorders...
July 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992892/chronic-kidney-disease-and-cardiovascular-disease-is-there-any-relationship
#6
Natalia G Vallianou, Shah Mitesh, Agathoniki Gkogkou, Eleni Geladari
Chronic Kidney Disease is a growing health burden world widely. Traditional and mutual risk factors between CVD and CKD are age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, family history and male gender. In this review, we will focus on whether or not early CKD is an important risk factor for the presence, severity and progression of CVD. Specifically, we will examine both traditional and novel risk factors of both CKD and CVD and how they relate to each other. We will also assess if early treatment of CKD, intensive compared to standard, has an important effect on the halt of the development of CKD as well as CVD...
July 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962348/reactive-oxygen-species-as-intracellular-signaling-molecules-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#7
Andrey V Krylatov, Leonid N Maslov, Nikita S Voronkov, Alla A Boshchenko, Sergey V Popov, Ludovic Gomez, Hongxin Wang, Amteshwar S Jaggi, James M Downey
Redox signaling plays an important role in the lives of cells. This signaling not only becomes apparent in pathologies but is also thought to be involved in maintaining physiological homeostasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can activate protein kinases: CaMKII, PKG, PKA, ERK, PI3K, Akt, PKC, PDK, JNK, p38. It is unclear whether it is a direct interaction of ROS with these kinases or whether their activation is a consequence of inhibition of phosphatases. ROS have a biphasic effect on the transport of Ca2+ in the cell: on one hand, they activate the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, which can reduce the level of Ca2+ in the cell, and on the other they can inactivate the Ca2+-ATPase of the plasma membrane and open the cation channels TRPM2, which promotes Ca2+-loading and subsequent apoptosis...
July 2, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952263/the-protective-role-of-crocus-sativus-l-saffron-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-nature-opposing-cardiovascular-diseases
#8
Kyriaki Hatziagapiou, George I Lambrou
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, which are collectively called reactive oxygen nitrogen species, are inevitable by-products of cellular metabolic redox reactions, such as oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, phagocytosis, reactions of biotransformation of exogenous and endogenous substrata in endoplasmic reticulum, eicosanoid synthesis, and redox reactions in the presence of metal with variable valence. Among medicinal plants there is growing interest in Crocus Sativus L...
June 27, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921208/clinical-utility-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-pericardial-diseases
#9
Nael Aldweib, Victor Farah, Robert W W Biederman
Pericardial diseases are relatively common in clinical practice and encountered in various clinical settings with consequent significant morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis as well as management can be complex and challenging, as the clinical presentation is usually non-specific. Therefore, there is an increasing role for cardiac magnetic resonance Imaging (CMR) as an imaging tool to facilitate the diagnosis of pericardial diseases. Herein we describe conventional and unique CMR approaches to provide an increased non-invasive understanding of the pericardium in health and disease including a novel method to diagnose constrictive pericarditis via radio-frequency tissue tagging by defining unique visceral-parietal adherence patterns easily learned by the cardiologist and radiologist...
June 18, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921207/role-of-bisphosphonates-in-vascular-calcification-and-bone-metabolism-a-clinical-summary
#10
Pradeep Dayanand, Harigopal Sandhyavenu, Sandeep Dayanand, Jasmin Martinez, Janani Rangaswami
Vascular calcification is known to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular adverse events and mortality. Atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging, abnormal bone mineral homeostasis and high uremic milieu such as chronic kidney disease are major factors that contribute to the progression of vascular calcification. Several mechanisms such as the osteoblastic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells in response to oxidative stress have shed light on the active nature of vascular calcification, which was once thought to be a passive process...
June 18, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792146/use-of-bipolar-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-in-treatment-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#11
Filip Soucek, Zdenek Starek
Background Arrhythmia management is a complex process involving both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Radiofrequency ablation is the pillar of non-pharmacological arrhythmia treatment. Unipolar ablation is considered to be the gold standard in the treatment of the majority of arrhythmias; however, its efficacy is limited to specific cases. In particular, the creation of deep or transmural lesions to eliminate intramurally originating arrhythmias remains inadequate. Bipolar ablation is proposed as an alternative to overcome unipolar ablation boundaries...
May 23, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788894/rotational-atherectomy-in-acute-stemi-with-heavily-calcified-culprit-lesion-is-a-rule-breaking-solution
#12
Mohammady Shahin
Calcified coronary lesions represents technical challenges and are associated with a high frequency of restenosis and target lesion revascularization.1 Rotational atherectomy has been shown to increase procedural success in severely calcified lesions, facilitate stent delivery in undilatable lesions and ensure complete stent expansion(2,3). However rotational atherectomy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is traditionally avoided given the concern for slow or no reflow(4) and considerded as a contraindication by its manufacturer (Rotablator, Boston Scientific) in a lesion with a visible thrombus...
May 22, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788893/triple-valve-endocarditis-in-a-diabetic-patient-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Anis John Kadado, Vikram Grewal, Krystel Feghali, Jaime Hernandez-Montfort
Despite major advancements since its first description in the 19th century, infective endocarditis remains a significant medical challenge. Although commonly involving a single valve, multiple valve involvement may occur, complicating matters even further. Triple-valve endocarditis is a very rare phenomenon. Poorly studied and described only a handful of times in the literature, little is known about the optimal therapeutic and management options in dealing with this complex entity. In this paper we describe the case of a 48-year-old male who was diagnosed with triple-valve endocarditis and provide a review of the literature to delineate what is already known and improve our understanding of this rare phenomenon...
May 22, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663894/coenzyme-q10-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases-current-state-of-the-problem
#14
Vladlena I Zozina, Serghei Covantev, Olga A Goroshko, Liudmila M Krasnykh, Vladimir G Kukes
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increasing with every year. Although the management of these conditions has improved greatly over the years it is still far from perfect. With all of this in mind, there is a need for new methods of prophylaxis and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential compound of the human body. There is growing evidence that CoQ10 is tightly linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Its supplementation can be useful in a variety of chronic and acute disorders. This review analyses the role of CoQ10 in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, viral myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, cardiac toxicity, dyslipidemia, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac procedures and resuscitation...
April 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623849/cardiac-imaging-in-systemic-diseases-what-the-clinician-should-know
#15
Cesar J Herrera, Pamela Pina Santana, Jorge Martinez, Mario J Garcia
IMPORTANCE: Systemic diseases that affect the cardiovascular system constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for all specialists involved; imaging tools along with clinical suspicion play an essential role in their evaluation. These entities share neurological, immunological, renal, hematologic, oncologic, infectious and endocrine processes, all of which may have associated cardiac involvement. OBSERVATIONS: Recent advances in cardiac ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear scintigraphy have impacted the management of these conditions when involving the heart since they provide valuable anatomical and functional information while avoiding the use of invasive techniques...
April 5, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564979/levosimendan-for-perioperative-cardioprotection-myth-or-reality
#16
Elpidio Santillo, Monica Migale, Carlo Massini, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
BACKGROUND: Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer drug causing increased contractility in the myocardium and vasodilation in the vascular system. It is mainly used for the therapy of acute decompensated heart failure. Several studies on animals and humans provided evidence of the cardioprotective properties of levosimendan including preconditioning and anti-apoptotic. In view of these favorable effects, levosimendan has been tested in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for the prevention or treatment of low cardiac output syndrome...
March 21, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557738/preface
#17
Jian'an Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366425/hypertriglyceridemia-common-causes-prevention-and-treatment-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Katarzyna Rygiel
BACKGROUND: Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemias represent the key issues of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) prophylaxis. Consequently, the effective management of different types of lipid disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, should be a priority for the healthcare practitioners (e.g.: cardiology and endocrinology specialists, primary care physicians, dietitians, and pharmacists), who provide medical care, as well as for the patients, who receive this care, and need to be directly engaged in it, in order to improve their outcomes...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366423/therapeutic-approach-to-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#19
REVIEW
Chakradhari Inampudi, Paulino Alvarez, Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors including Ischemic heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, high output Heart Failure (HF) from shunting through vascular hemodialysis access, and anemia, contribute to development of HF in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Guidelinedirected medical and device therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) has not been extensively studied and may have limited safety and efficacy in patients with ESRD. RESULTS: Maintenance of interdialytic and intradialytic euvolemia is a key component of HF management in these patients but often difficult to achieve...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332590/oxidative-stress-and-cardiac-remodeling-an-updated-edge
#20
REVIEW
Abeer M Rababa'h, Ashley N Guillory, Rima Mustafa, Tamara Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: A common phenotype associated with heart failure is the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to stress, such as hypertension, coronary vascular disease, or myocardial infarction. The most critical pathophysiological conditions involved may include dilated hypertrophy, fibrosis and contractile malfunction. The intricate pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy have been the core of several scientific studies, which may help in opening a new avenue in preventive and curative procedures...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
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