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Current Cardiology Reviews

Nooraldaem Yousif, Mohammady Shahin, Robert Manka, Slayman Obeid
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is an abnormal communication between the termination of a coronary artery or its branches and a cardiac chamber, a great vessel or other vascular structure. Symptomatic patients with large CAF should undergo surgical or percutanous closure of the fistula at the drainage site while still the debate on closing asymptomatic CAF and re-openening symptomatic occluded CAF is ongoing. CASE SUMMARY: We are reporting a 30-year-old male patient with no previous medical history presented as non-ST segment elevation myocardial Infarction...
December 6, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Stacy Westerman, Nanette Wenger
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The scope and impact of atrial fibrillation is wide; it can affect cardiac function, functional status, and quality of life, and it confers a stroke risk. There are sex differences in atrial fibrillation across the scope of the disease process, from epidemiology and causative mechanisms to management and outcomes. The approach to management of atrial fibrillation differs between women and men, and there are sex differences in response to medical therapy and catheter ablation...
December 4, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
E Russo, D R Potenza, M Casella, R Massaro, G Russo, M Braccio, A Dello Russo, M Cassese
Transcather aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a safe and indispensable treatment option for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk. Recently, outcomes after TAVI have improved significantly and TAVI has emerged as a qualified alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in the treatment of intermediate risk patients and greater adoption of this procedure is to be expected in a wider patients population, including younger patients and low surgical risk patients...
December 4, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Akira Sekikawa, Masafumi Ihara, Oscar Lopez, Chikage Kakuta, Brian Lopresti, Aya Higashiyama, Howard Aizenstein, Yue-Fang Chang, Chester Mathis, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Lewis Kuller, Chendi Cui
BACKGROUND: Observational studies in Asia show that dietary intake of soy isoflavones had a significant inverse association with coronary heart disease (CHD). A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) of soy isoflavones on atherosclerosis in the US, however, failed to show their benefit. The discrepancy may be due to the much lower prevalence of S-equol producers in Westerners: Only 20-30% of Westerners produce S-equol in contrast to 50-70% in Asians. S-equol is a metabolite of dietary soy isoflavone daidzein by gut microbiome and possesses the most anti-atherogenic properties among all isoflavones...
December 4, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Mohammad Reeaze Khurwolah, Jing Yao, Xiang-Qing Kong
Several studies have focused on the deleterious consequences of right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing on left ventricular (LV) function, mediated by pacing-induced ventricular dyssynchrony. Therapeutic strategies to reduce the detrimental consequences of RVA pacing have been proposed, that includes upgrading of RVA pacing to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), alternative right ventricular (RV) pacing sites, minimal ventricular pacing strategies, as well as atrial-based pacing. In developing countries, single chamber RV pacing still constitutes a majority of cases of permanent pacing, and assessment of the optimal RV pacing site is of paramount importance...
November 29, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Pradhum Ram, Benjamin Horn, Kevin Bryan U Lo, Gregg Pressman, Janani Rangaswami
BACKGROUND: Acute Kidney Injury as a complication of cardiac catheterization is associated with increased length of hospital stay and mortality. In recent years, the use of the radial artery for cardiac catheterization is increasing in frequency. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this concise review was to evaluate method of cardiac access site and its impact on Acute Kidney Injury following cardiac catheterization. METHODS: After a thorough search on Medline, Google Scholar and PubMed, we included all literature relevant to Acute kidney injury following transradial and transfemoral cardiac catheterization...
November 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Daniel Azpiazu, Sergio Gonzalo, Ricardo Villa-Bellosta
Vascular calcification is a pathologic phenomenon consisting of calcium phosphate crystal deposition in the vascular walls. Vascular calcification has been found to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, due to its correlation with cardiovascular events and mortality, and it has been associated with aging, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Studies of vascular calcification have focused on phosphate homeostasis, primarily on the important role of hyperphosphatemia. Moreover, vascular calcification has been associated with loss of plasma pyrophosphate, one of the main inhibitors of calcification, thus indicating the importance of the phosphate/pyrophosphate ratio...
October 31, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Atena Pourtaji, Vajiheh Jahani, Seyed Mohammad Hassan Moallem, Asieh Karimani, Amir Houshang Mohammadpour
INTRODUCTION: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a disorder in which the heart is unable to supply enough blood for body tissues. Since heart is an adaptable organ, it overcomes this condition by going under remodeling process. Considering cardiac myocytes are capable of proliferation after MI, stimulation of neovascularization as well as their regeneration might serve as a novel target in cardiac remodeling prevention and CHF treatment. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), is a hematopoietic cytokine that promotes proliferation and differentiation of neutrophils and is involved in cardiac repair after MI...
October 31, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Kevin Bryan Lo, Sandeep Dayanand, Pradhum Ram, Pradeep Dayanand, Leandro N Slipczuk Bustamante, Vincent M Figueredo, Janani Rangaswami
Percutaneous mitral valve repair is emerging as a reasonable alternative especially in those with an unfavorable surgical risk profile in the repair of mitral regurgitation. At this time, our understanding of the effects of underlying renal dysfunction on outcomes with percutaneous mitral valve repair and the effects of this procedure itself on renal function is evolving, as more data emerges in this field. The current evidence suggests that the correction of mitral regurgitation via percutaneous mitral valve repair is associated with some degree of improvement in cardiac function, hemodynamics and renal function...
October 24, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Rita Marinheiro, Leonor Parreira, Pedro Amador, Dinis Mesquita, José Farinha, Marta Fonseca, Tatiana Duarte, Andreia Fernandes, Claudia Lopes, Rui Caria
Obstrutive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition thought to increase in the future. Being mostly undiagnosed, the most serious complications are cardiovascular diseases, among which arrhythmias. Controversy remains as to whether OSA is a primary etiologic factor for ventricular arrhythmias, because of the high incidence of cardiovascular comorbidities in OSA patients. However, there is mostly a strong evidence of a relation between OSA and ventricular arrhythmias. A few mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for this association and some electrocardiographic changes have also been demonstrated to be more frequent in OSA patients...
October 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Mario Naranjo, Kevin Bryan Lo, Kenechukwu Mezue, Janani Rangaswami
Pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon in patients with renal disease and vice versa; therefore, influences treatments and outcomes. There is a large body of literature on pulmonary hypertension in patients with kidney disease, its prognostic implications, economic burden, and management strategies. However, the converse, namely the hemodynamic effects of pulmonary hypertension on kidney function (acute and chronic kidney injury) is less studied and described. There is also increasing interest in the effects of pulmonary hypertension on kidney transplant outcomes...
October 8, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Daniele Muser, Pasquale Santangeli, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Gaetano Nucifora
Ventricular Arrhythmias (VAs) may present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mildly symptomatic frequent premature ventricular contractions to life-threatening events such as sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Myocardial scar plays a central role in the genesis and maintenance of re-entrant arrhythmias which are commonly associated with SHD such as ischemic heart disease, healed myocarditis and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. However, the arrhythmogenic substrate may remain unclear in up to 50% of the cases after a routine diagnostic workup comprehensive of 12-lead surface ECG, transthoracic echocardiography and coronary angiography/computed tomography...
September 24, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Seitaro Oda, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Takeshi Nakaura, Masafumi Kidoh, Yoshinori Funama, Kenichi Tsujita, Yasuyuki Yamashita
Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a rapidly growing, robust and established noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of coronary artery diseases. During coronary CTA, sufficient arterial enhancement is essential for the accurate assessment of coronary artery diseases. To obtain optimal contrast enhancement and perform appropriate clinical coronary CTA, physicians, radiologists, and radiology technologists should acquire a basic knowledge of contrast injection protocols. This review article summarizes the basic concepts of contrast injection protocols for coronary CTA...
September 17, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Sergi Cesar, Maria Dolores Zambrano, Anna Fernandez-Falgueras, Victoria Fiol, Anna Iglesias, Francesc Torres, Oscar Garcia-Algar, Elena Arbelo, Josep Brugada, Ramon Brugada, Oscar Campuzano
BACKGROUND: Sudden death of a newborn is a rare entity, which may be caused by genetic cardiac arrhythmias. Among these diseases, Long QT syndrome is the most prevalent arrhythmia in neonates, but other diseases such as Brugada syndrome, Short QT syndrome and Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia also cause sudden death in infants. All these entities are characterized by well-known alterations in the electrocardiogram and the first symptom of the disease may be an unexpected death...
September 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Bandar Al-Ghamdi
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a significant health problem worldwide. Multiple randomized controlled trials have shown that implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective life-saving management option for individuals at risk of SCD in both primary and secondary prevention. Although the conventional transvenous ICDs (TV-ICDs) are safe and effective, there are potential complications associated with its use, including localized pocket or wound infection or systematic infection, a vascular access related complication such as pneumothorax, and venous thrombosis, and lead related complications such as dislodgement, malfunction, and perforation...
July 16, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Hymie Chera, Menachem Nagar, Aaron Richler, Mahyar Pourriahi, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yitzhak Rosen
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unexpected death caused by heart dysfunction. Autoantibodies against cardiac proteins may be potentially involved in the occurrence and progression of cardiac disease and SCD. The first report on the role of autoantibodies in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy appeared in the 1980s. In recent years new studies on the effects of the presence of specific autoantibodies and their relationship to ventricular arrhythmias and SCD were published. The purpose of the current mini-review is to analyze the results of the research studies focused on the relationship between anti-cardiomyocyte autoantibodies and SCD with respect to autoimmune disorders...
July 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Natalia G Vallianou, Shah Mitesh, Agathoniki Gkogkou, Eleni Geladari
Chronic Kidney Disease is a growing health burden world widely. Traditional and mutual risk factors between CVD and CKD are age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, family history and male gender. In this review, we will focus on whether or not early CKD is an important risk factor for the presence, severity and progression of CVD. Specifically, we will examine both traditional and novel risk factors of both CKD and CVD and how they relate to each other. We will also assess if early treatment of CKD, intensive compared to standard, has an important effect on the halt of the development of CKD as well as CVD...
July 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Jian'an Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Katarzyna Rygiel
BACKGROUND: Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemias represent the key issues of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) prophylaxis. Consequently, the effective management of different types of lipid disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, should be a priority for the healthcare practitioners (e.g.: cardiology and endocrinology specialists, primary care physicians, dietitians, and pharmacists), who provide medical care, as well as for the patients, who receive this care, and need to be directly engaged in it, in order to improve their outcomes...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Chakradhari Inampudi, Paulino Alvarez, Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors including Ischemic heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, high output Heart Failure (HF) from shunting through vascular hemodialysis access, and anemia, contribute to development of HF in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Guidelinedirected medical and device therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) has not been extensively studied and may have limited safety and efficacy in patients with ESRD. RESULTS: Maintenance of interdialytic and intradialytic euvolemia is a key component of HF management in these patients but often difficult to achieve...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
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