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Current Cardiology Reviews

Giovanni Cimmino, Francesco S Loffredo, Alberto Morello, Saverio D Elia, Raffaele De Palma, Plinio Cirillo, Paolo Golino
In the last twenty years, our comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved in formation, progression and complication of atherosclerotic plaque has advanced significantly and the main role of inflammation and immunity in this phenomenon is now largely accepted. Accumulating evidence highlight the crucial role of different inflammatory and immune cells, such as monocytes and T-lymphocytes, in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion, particularly in contributing to its complications, such as rupture or ulceration...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Guang-Ming Tan, Bryan P Yan
Colchicine is a well-established drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention and treatment of gout. It processes unique anti-inflammatory properties. Interests in the usage of colchicine in cardiovascular medicine have been rekindled recently with several large trials been carried out to investigate its efficacy in treatment of various cardiac conditions including pericarditis, postpericardiotomy syndrome, atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease. In this review, the basic pharmacological properties of colchicine will be discussed, and the evidences of its benefits for different applications in cardiovascular medicine will be reviewed...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Malgorzata Furmanik, Catherine M Shanahan
Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Simon W Rabkin
BACKGROUND: Coronary blood flow (CBF) is essential for optimal cardiac performance and to maintain myocardial viability. There is considerable ambiguity concerning CBF in hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To investigates the relationship between CBF and left ventricular (LV) mass in persons with hypertension. Methods OvidSP Medline was systematically searched. Eligible articles assessed CBF, and LV mass in adults with and without hypertension (HTN). Results Eleven studies met the entry criteria...
September 8, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Michael Allen Horseman, Salim Surani, John D Bowman
BACKGROUND: Endotoxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constituent of the outer membrane of most gram negative bacteria. Ubiquitous in the environment, it has been implicated as a cause or contributing factor in several disparate disorders from sepsis to heatstroke and Type II diabetes mellitus. Starting at birth, the innate immune system develops cellular defense mechanisms against environmental microbes that are in part modulated through a series of receptors known as toll-like receptors...
September 1, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Mohammad Zibaei
Toxocariasis is the clinical term used to describe human infection with either the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or the feline ascarid Toxocara cati. As with other helminths zoonoses, the infective larvae of these Toxocara species cannot mature into adults in the human host. Instead, the worms wander through organs and tissues, mainly the liver, lungs, myocardium, kidney and central nervous system, in a vain attempt to find that, which they need to mature into adults. The migration of these immature nematode larvae causes local and systemic inflammation, resulting in the "larva migrans" syndrome...
August 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Pupalan Iyngkaran, Chiew Wong, Sylvia Chen
Imaging modalities stand at the frontiers for progress in congestive heart failure (CHF) screening, risk stratification and monitoring. Advancements in echocardiography (ECHO) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have allowed for improved tissue characterizations, cardiac motion analysis, and cardiac performance under stress. Common cardiac comorbidities such as hypertension, metabolic syndromes and chronic renal failure contribute to cardiac remodeling, sharing similar pathophysiological mechanisms starting with interstitial changes, structural changes and finally clinical CHF...
August 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Alexandros Briasoulis, Emmanuel Androulakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
The age of initiation and the rate of progression of atherosclerosis vary markedly among individuals and have been difficult to predict with traditional cardiovascular risk assessment models. Although these risk models provide good discrimination and calibration in certain populations, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk may not be accurately estimated in low- and intermediate risk individuals. Therefore, imaging techniques such Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), Coronary Artery Calcium score (CAC), carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT), flow mediated dilation (FMD) and Positron emission Tomography (PET) have been developed and used to reclassify these individuals...
August 2, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Kenechukwu Mezue, Chukwudi Obiagwu, Jinu John, Abhishek Sharma, Felix Yang, Jacob Shani
Almost 800,000 new or recurrent strokes happen every year. Atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is a major risk factor for stroke, accounting for 15-20% of ischemic strokes. Apixaban is a direct inhibitor of Factor Xa that was approved in December 2012 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. It is part of a family of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) which have the advantage over warfarin of less dosing variability, rapid onset of action and no INR monitoring required...
July 19, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Sidakpal Panaich, Alexandros Briasoulis, Shaun Cardozo, Luis Afonso
Subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction refers to subtle abnormalities in the LV function that typically precede a reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The assessment of myocardial function using LVEF, a radial metric of function, is subject to load dependence, intra-observer and inter-observer variability. Reductions in LVEF typically manifest late in the disease process thus compromising the ability to intervene before irreversible impairment of systolic performance sets in. 2-Dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE), a novel strain imaging modality has shown promise as a sensitive indicator of myocardial contractility...
July 11, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Melanie Harris, Samia R Toukhsati, Christine Connors, Kangaharan Nadarajan, Marcus Ilton, Tricia Nagel, Debra K Moser, Malcolm Battersby
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an ambulatory health care condition characterized by episodes of decompensation and is usually without cure. It is a leading cause for morbidity and mortality and the lead cause for hospital admissions in older patients in the developed world. The long-term requirement for medical care and pharmaceuticals contributes to significant health care costs. CHF management follows a hierarchy from physician prescription to allied health, predominately nurse-led, delivery of care. Health services are easier to access in urban compared to rural settings...
July 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Arti Dhar
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally with limited treatment options. Despite improved pharmacological therapy, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases are still not fully understood. It is well known that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and controlling this inflammatory pathway may inhibit the progression of this chronic disease. Protein Kinase R (PKR), a serine threonine kinase is activated during various pathological conditions...
May 26, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
R Sankaranarayanan, D J Fox
Left atrial ablation strategies are being increasingly performed as a Class 1 therapeutic indication for drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Traditionally AF ablation has been performed with patients on uninterrupted warfarin therapy, however over the last few years, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have emerged as attractive alternatives to warfarin in order to reduce stroke risk due to AF. NOACs are therefore increasingly being used instead of warfarin in the management of AF. There is also mounting evidence mainly in the form of small randomised studies and meta-analysis that have demonstrated that the use of NOACs for AF ablation is efficacious, safe and convenient...
May 5, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Josien Engel, Nikki L Damen, Ineke van der Wulp, Martine C de Bruijne, Cordula Wagner
BACKGROUND: In the management of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NST-ACS) a gap between guideline-recommended care and actual practice has been reported. A systematic overview of the actual extent of this gap, its potential impact on patient-outcomes, and influential factors is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent of guideline adherence, to study associations with the occurrence of adverse cardiac events, and to identify factors associated with guideline adherence...
May 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Subodh Devabhaktuni, Ana Mercedes, Jimmy Diep, Chowdhury Ahsan
Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is one of the uncommon cardiovascular disorders. Its incidence ranges from 1.2%-4.9%. Coronary artery ectasia likely represents an exaggerated form of expansive vascular remodeling (i.e. excessive expansive remodeling) in response to atherosclerotic plaque growth with atherosclerosis being the most common cause. Although, it has been described more than five decades ago, its management is still debated. We therefore reviewed the literature until date by searching PubMed and Google scholar using key words "coronary artery ectasia," "coronary artery aneurysm ","pathophysiology," "diagnosis," "management" either by itself or in combination...
May 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Travis Sexton, Eric L Wallace, Susan S Smyth
HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins, are standard of care for preventing cardiovascular disease in at-risk populations. Statins are a well-established therapy proven to reduce long-term cardiovascular mortality and morbidity for prevention of secondary cardiovascular events and have become guideline-recommended therapy following acute myocardial infarction. Emerging data from clinical trials over the last decade indicates that statin therapy may provide broad beneficial effects beyond their primary lipid lowering mechanisms...
May 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Chukwunweike Nwosu, Kenechukwu Mezue, Kunal Bhagatwala, Nonso Ezema
Heart failure (HF) has a high incidence and prevalence in the USA and worldwide. It is a very common cause of significant morbidity and mortality with serious cost implications on the US health sector. The primary focus of this review is to synthesize an effective comprehensive care plan for patients in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) based on the most current evidence available. It begins with a brief overview of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation and evaluation of patients in ADHF. It then reviews management goals and treatment guidelines, with emphasis on challenges presented by diuretic resistance and worsening renal function (WRF)...
March 1, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Bhanu Duggal, Manveen K Gupta, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular diseases remain the foremost cause of mortality globally. As molecular medicine unravels the alterations in genomic expression and regulation of the underlying atherosclerotic process, it opens new vistas for discovering novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics for limiting the disease process. miRNAs have emerged as powerful regulators of protein translation by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. RECENT FINDINGS: Overexpression and under-expression of specific miRNAs are being evaluated as a novel approach to diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease...
March 1, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
G A Moustafa, A Kolokythas, K Charitakis, D V Avgerinos
In an era when less invasive techniques are favored, therapeutic cardiac catheterization constantly evolves and widens its spectrum of usage in the pediatric population. The advent of sophisticated devices and well-designed equipment has made the management of many congenital cardiac lesions more efficient and safer, while providing more comfort to the patient. Nowadays, a large variety of heart diseases are managed with transcatheter techniques, such as patent foramen ovale, atrial and ventricular septal defects, valve stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic coarctation, pulmonary artery and vein stenosis and arteriovenous malformations...
March 1, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Samir M Said, Erol Saygili, Obaida R Rana, Conrad Genz, Judit Hahn, Rajen Bali, Soumya Varshney, Khaled Albouaini, Roland Prondzinsky, Ruediger C Braun-Dullaeus
We performed a comparative literature review, to elucidate the major features of the Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy (TCM) collected in last 25 years. TCM is characterized by left- or biventricular apical ballooning with a clinical presentation, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and biomarker profils similar to those seen in acute myocardial infarction. Epidemiological studies have shown that TCM is more common in postmenopausal women; however exact figures are not available. The underlying aetiology is still largely undetermined...
February 11, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
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