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Current Cardiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338742/ventricular-arrhythmias-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Rita Marinheiro, Leonor Parreira, Pedro Amador, Dinis Mesquita, José Farinha, Marta Fonseca, Tatiana Duarte, Andreia Fernandes, Claudia Lopes, Rui Caria
Obstrutive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition thought to increase in the future. Being mostly undiagnosed, the most serious complications are cardiovascular diseases, among which arrhythmias. Controversy remains as to whether OSA is a primary etiologic factor for ventricular arrhythmias, because of the high incidence of cardiovascular comorbidities in OSA patients. However, there is mostly a strong evidence of a relation between OSA and ventricular arrhythmias. A few mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for this association and some electrocardiographic changes have also been demonstrated to be more frequent in OSA patients...
October 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306876/effects-of-pulmonary-hypertension-and-right-ventricular-function-in-short-and-long-term-kidney-function
#2
Mario Naranjo, Kevin Bryan Lo, Kenechukwu Mezue, Janani Rangaswami
Pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon in patients with renal disease and vice versa; therefore, influences treatments and outcomes. There is a large body of literature on pulmonary hypertension in patients with kidney disease, its prognostic implications, economic burden, and management strategies. However, the converse, namely the hemodynamic effects of pulmonary hypertension on kidney function (acute and chronic kidney injury) is less studied and described. There is also increasing interest in the effects of pulmonary hypertension on kidney transplant outcomes...
October 8, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251607/role-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-idiopathic-ventricular-arrhythmias
#3
Daniele Muser, Pasquale Santangeli, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Gaetano Nucifora
Ventricular Arrhythmias (VAs) may present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mildly symptomatic frequent premature ventricular contractions to life-threatening events such as sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Myocardial scar plays a central role in the genesis and maintenance of re-entrant arrhythmias which are commonly associated with SHD such as ischemic heart disease, healed myocarditis and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. However, the arrhythmogenic substrate may remain unclear in up to 50% of the cases after a routine diagnostic workup comprehensive of 12-lead surface ECG, transthoracic echocardiography and coronary angiography/computed tomography...
September 24, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227821/basic-concepts-of-a-contrast-injection-protocols-for-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#4
Seitaro Oda, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Takeshi Nakaura, Masafumi Kidoh, Yoshinori Funama, Kenichi Tsujita, Yasuyuki Yamashita
Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a rapidly growing, robust and established noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of coronary artery diseases. During coronary CTA, sufficient arterial enhancement is essential for the accurate assessment of coronary artery diseases. To obtain optimal contrast enhancement and perform appropriate clinical coronary CTA, physicians, radiologists, and radiology technologists should acquire a basic knowledge of contrast injection protocols. This review article summarizes the basic concepts of contrast injection protocols for coronary CTA...
September 17, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210005/electrocardiographic-assessment-and-genetic-analysis-in-neonates-a-current-topic-of-discussion
#5
Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Sergi Cesar, Maria Dolores Zambrano, Anna Fernandez-Falgueras, Victoria Fiol, Anna Iglesias, Francesc Torres, Oscar Garcia-Algar, Elena Arbelo, Josep Brugada, Ramon Brugada, Oscar Campuzano
BACKGROUND: Sudden death of a newborn is a rare entity, which may be caused by genetic cardiac arrhythmias. Among these diseases, Long QT syndrome is the most prevalent arrhythmia in neonates, but other diseases such as Brugada syndrome, Short QT syndrome and Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia also cause sudden death in infants. All these entities are characterized by well-known alterations in the electrocardiogram and the first symptom of the disease may be an unexpected death...
September 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014805/subcutaneous-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-an-overview-of-implantation-techniques-and-clinical-outcomes
#6
Bandar Al-Ghamdi
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a significant health problem worldwide. Multiple randomized controlled trials have shown that implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective life-saving management option for individuals at risk of SCD in both primary and secondary prevention. Although the conventional transvenous ICDs (TV-ICDs) are safe and effective, there are potential complications associated with its use, including localized pocket or wound infection or systematic infection, a vascular access related complication such as pneumothorax, and venous thrombosis, and lead related complications such as dislodgement, malfunction, and perforation...
July 16, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009713/autoantibodies-for-cardiac-channels-and-sudden-cardiac-death-and-its-relationship-to-autoimmune-disorders
#7
Hymie Chera, Menachem Nagar, Aaron Richler, Mahyar Pourriahi, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yitzhak Rosen
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unexpected death caused by heart dysfunction. Autoantibodies against cardiac proteins may be potentially involved in the occurrence and progression of cardiac disease and SCD. The first report on the role of autoantibodies in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy appeared in the 1980s. In recent years new studies on the effects of the presence of specific autoantibodies and their relationship to ventricular arrhythmias and SCD were published. The purpose of the current mini-review is to analyze the results of the research studies focused on the relationship between anti-cardiomyocyte autoantibodies and SCD with respect to autoimmune disorders...
July 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992892/chronic-kidney-disease-and-cardiovascular-disease-is-there-any-relationship
#8
Natalia G Vallianou, Shah Mitesh, Agathoniki Gkogkou, Eleni Geladari
Chronic Kidney Disease is a growing health burden world widely. Traditional and mutual risk factors between CVD and CKD are age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, family history and male gender. In this review, we will focus on whether or not early CKD is an important risk factor for the presence, severity and progression of CVD. Specifically, we will examine both traditional and novel risk factors of both CKD and CVD and how they relate to each other. We will also assess if early treatment of CKD, intensive compared to standard, has an important effect on the halt of the development of CKD as well as CVD...
July 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962348/reactive-oxygen-species-as-intracellular-signaling-molecules-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#9
Andrey V Krylatov, Leonid N Maslov, Nikita S Voronkov, Alla A Boshchenko, Sergey V Popov, Ludovic Gomez, Hongxin Wang, Amteshwar S Jaggi, James M Downey
Redox signaling plays an important role in the lives of cells. This signaling not only becomes apparent in pathologies but is also thought to be involved in maintaining physiological homeostasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can activate protein kinases: CaMKII, PKG, PKA, ERK, PI3K, Akt, PKC, PDK, JNK, p38. It is unclear whether it is a direct interaction of ROS with these kinases or whether their activation is a consequence of inhibition of phosphatases. ROS have a biphasic effect on the transport of Ca2+ in the cell: on one hand, they activate the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, which can reduce the level of Ca2+ in the cell, and on the other they can inactivate the Ca2+-ATPase of the plasma membrane and open the cation channels TRPM2, which promotes Ca2+-loading and subsequent apoptosis...
July 2, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952263/the-protective-role-of-crocus-sativus-l-saffron-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-nature-opposing-cardiovascular-diseases
#10
Kyriaki Hatziagapiou, George I Lambrou
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, which are collectively called reactive oxygen nitrogen species, are inevitable by-products of cellular metabolic redox reactions, such as oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, phagocytosis, reactions of biotransformation of exogenous and endogenous substrata in endoplasmic reticulum, eicosanoid synthesis, and redox reactions in the presence of metal with variable valence. Among medicinal plants there is growing interest in Crocus Sativus L...
June 27, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557738/preface
#11
Jian'an Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366425/hypertriglyceridemia-common-causes-prevention-and-treatment-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Katarzyna Rygiel
BACKGROUND: Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemias represent the key issues of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) prophylaxis. Consequently, the effective management of different types of lipid disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, should be a priority for the healthcare practitioners (e.g.: cardiology and endocrinology specialists, primary care physicians, dietitians, and pharmacists), who provide medical care, as well as for the patients, who receive this care, and need to be directly engaged in it, in order to improve their outcomes...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366423/therapeutic-approach-to-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#13
REVIEW
Chakradhari Inampudi, Paulino Alvarez, Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors including Ischemic heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, high output Heart Failure (HF) from shunting through vascular hemodialysis access, and anemia, contribute to development of HF in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Guidelinedirected medical and device therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) has not been extensively studied and may have limited safety and efficacy in patients with ESRD. RESULTS: Maintenance of interdialytic and intradialytic euvolemia is a key component of HF management in these patients but often difficult to achieve...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332590/oxidative-stress-and-cardiac-remodeling-an-updated-edge
#14
REVIEW
Abeer M Rababa'h, Ashley N Guillory, Rima Mustafa, Tamara Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: A common phenotype associated with heart failure is the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to stress, such as hypertension, coronary vascular disease, or myocardial infarction. The most critical pathophysiological conditions involved may include dilated hypertrophy, fibrosis and contractile malfunction. The intricate pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy have been the core of several scientific studies, which may help in opening a new avenue in preventive and curative procedures...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278215/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-the-elderly-are-drug-coated-balloons-the-future
#15
REVIEW
Ioannis Merinopoulos, Tharusha Gunawardena, Upul Wickramarachchi, Alisdair Ryding, Simon Eccleshall, Vassilios S Vassiliou
BACKGROUND: Balloon angioplasty revolutionised percutaneous treatment for coronary artery disease four decades ago, but vessel-threatening dissections, elastic recoil and restenosis were major drawbacks to an otherwise successful long-lasting intervention. Subsequent advances with bare metal stents and then drug eluting stents followed, aiming to mitigate the risks of acute vessel closure and restenosis. However, stent implantation often necessitates dual antiplatelet therapy for a prolonged period of time, which in itself can lead to adverse outcomes, especially in the frail elderly population at higher risk of bleeding...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189172/cardiovascular-disease-in-the-setting-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Daniela Sofia Martins Pinto, Manuel Joaquim Lopes Vaz da Silva
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), the life expectancy and health quality for patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have significantly improved. Nevertheless, as a result of not only the deleterious effects of the virus itself and prolonged ART, but also the effects of aging, cardiovascular diseases have emerged as one of the most common causes of death among these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to explore the new insights on the spectrum of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in HIV infection, with emphasis on the factors that contribute to the atherosclerotic process and its role in the development of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of infection...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189171/challenges-in-treatment-of-inappropriate-sinus-tachycardia
#17
REVIEW
Mohammed Ruzieh, Abdelmoniem Moustafa, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Mohammad M Karim, Saima Karim
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a sinus heart rate inexplicably higher than one hundred beats per minute at rest that is associated with symptoms like palpitations, dyspnea or dizziness in the absence of primary causes of tachycardia. The diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of tachycardia including medications/substances (such as anti-cholinergic, beta-blocker withdrawal, caffeine, and alcohol) or medical conditions (such as panic attacks, pulmonary embolism, fever, hyperthyroidism, hypovolemia, anemia, and pain)...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141552/para-prosthetic-leaks-following-mitral-valve-replacement-case-analysis-on-a-20-year-period
#18
REVIEW
Melvin Dziubek, Charalampos Pierrakos, Louis Chebli, Helene Demanet, Ahmed Sanoussi, Pierre Wauthy
BACKGROUND: Mitral para-prosthetic leaks are rare but major complications of mitral heart valve replacements. When they must be re-operated, they are burdened with high mortality rates. We proposed to review our surgical experience in terms of approach and type of operation carried out. METHODS: Demographic, preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics of 34 patients benefited from a surgical treatment of mitral paravalvular leak, at the Brugmann University Hospital between 1996 and 2016, have been analysed retrospectively...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990536/novel-insights-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-mediated-atherosclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Johnna F Varghese, Rohit Patel, Umesh C S Yadav
CONTEXT: Atherosclerosis is a progressive pathological process and a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Clinical research and epidemiological studies state that atherosclerosis is caused by an amalgamation of metabolic and inflammatory deregulation involving three important pathological events including Endothelial Dysfunction (ED), Foam Cell Formation (FCF), and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs) proliferation and migration. OBJECTIVES: Research in recent years has identified Metabolic Syndrome (MS), which involves factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes, to be responsible for the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324873/commentary-on-high-density-lipoprotein-versus-low-density-lipoprotein-therapy-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes-by-nikolaos-papageorgiou-et-al
#20
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