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Current Cardiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792146/use-of-bipolar-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-in-treatment-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#1
Filip Soucek, Zdenek Starek
Background Arrhythmia management is a complex process involving both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Radiofrequency ablation is the pillar of non-pharmacological arrhythmia treatment. Unipolar ablation is considered to be the gold standard in the treatment of the majority of arrhythmias; however, its efficacy is limited to specific cases. In particular, the creation of deep or transmural lesions to eliminate intramurally originating arrhythmias remains inadequate. Bipolar ablation is proposed as an alternative to overcome unipolar ablation boundaries...
May 23, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788894/rotational-atherectomy-in-acute-stemi-with-heavily-calcified-culprit-lesion-is-a-rule-breaking-solution
#2
Mohammady Shahin
Calcified coronary lesions represents technical challenges and are associated with a high frequency of restenosis and target lesion revascularization.1 Rotational atherectomy has been shown to increase procedural success in severely calcified lesions, facilitate stent delivery in undilatable lesions and ensure complete stent expansion(2,3). However rotational atherectomy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is traditionally avoided given the concern for slow or no reflow(4) and considerded as a contraindication by its manufacturer (Rotablator, Boston Scientific) in a lesion with a visible thrombus...
May 22, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788893/triple-valve-endocarditis-in-a-diabetic-patient-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Anis John Kadado, Vikram Grewal, Krystel Feghali, Jaime Hernandez-Montfort
Despite major advancements since its first description in the 19th century, infective endocarditis remains a significant medical challenge. Although commonly involving a single valve, multiple valve involvement may occur, complicating matters even further. Triple-valve endocarditis is a very rare phenomenon. Poorly studied and described only a handful of times in the literature, little is known about the optimal therapeutic and management options in dealing with this complex entity. In this paper we describe the case of a 48-year-old male who was diagnosed with triple-valve endocarditis and provide a review of the literature to delineate what is already known and improve our understanding of this rare phenomenon...
May 22, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769006/role-of-cardiac-catheterization-lab-post-resuscitation-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#4
Sridhar Reddy, Kwan S Lee, Karl Kern, Kapildeo Lotun
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest remains a common and lethal condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Even with improving survival rates, the successfully resuscitated post cardiac arrest patient is also at risk for poor neurological outcomes, functional status and long- term survival if not managed appropriately. Given that acute coronary occlusion has been found to be the leading cause of cardiac arrest, long-term prognosis is good in selected patients after successful out-of-hospital resuscitation and ST elevation myocardial infarction who are taken for immediate coronary angiography, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and hypothermia when indicated...
May 16, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741141/cardiac-arrest-in-the-catheterization-laboratory
#5
Kapil Yadav, Huu Tam Truong
Cardiac arrest in the Catheterization Lab is a rare and unique scenario that is often logistically challenging. It often has dire prognosis especially in patients suffering from severe pre-existing illnesses (high risk patient) such as acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, or patients undergoing high risk procedures. As the number of complex interventional procedures increases, cardiac arrest in the cath lab will become more common and optimal management of this scenario is critical for both the patient and operator...
May 9, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737261/coronary-catheterization-laboratory-role-for-post-resuscitation-care-without-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#6
Kris Kumar, Kapildeo Lotun
Out of hospital cardiac arrest management of patients with non-ST myocardial infarction per current American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council guidelines leave the decision in regard to early angiography up to the physician operators. Guidelines are clear on the positive impact of early intervention on survival and improvement on left ventricular function in patients presenting with cardiac arrest and ST elevation myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram. This review aims to analyze the data that current guidelines are based upon in regards to out of hospital cardiac arrest with electrocardiogram findings of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction as well as other clinical trials that support early angiography and reperfusion strategies as well as future studies that are in trial to study the role of the coronary catheterization laboratory in cardiac arrest...
May 7, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737260/targeted-temperature-management-review-of-literature-and-guidelines-a-cardiologist-s-perspective
#7
Taimoor Hashim, Ranjith Shetty
Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains not an uncommon occurrence in USA and rest of the world. However, the survival to discharge following an episode of OHCA in adults is still very disappointing at around 10%. Several areas of improvement including education of general public in early Cardio Pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by bystander, chest compression first, and improvement of Emergency Medical response time have had a positive effect in outcomes and survival but much still needs to be done. Recently new data has emerged with regards to post resuscitation care and mild induced hypothermia (now preferably called; targeted temperature management {TTM}) and several advances have been made...
May 7, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737259/refractory-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#8
Madhan Shanmugasundaram, Kapildeo Lotun
Refractory out of hospital cardiac arrest is a common problem that is associated with poor overall survival rates and neurological outcomes. There are various definitions that have been used but the most accepted one is cardiac arrest that requires more than 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) efforts or more than 3 defibrillation attempts. There have been different pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that were studied in these patients. None of the antiarrhythmic or vasopressor medications have been consistently shown to improve survival or neurological outcomes in this subset of patients...
May 7, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737258/improving-community-survival-rates-from-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#9
Prashant Rao, Karl Kern
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest affects 350,000 Americans each year. Unfortunately, the national survival rate from such an event remains no better than 12% [1], though some communities do better and some worse [2]. The "Chain of Survival" concept has been accepted for decades and remains the roadmap for many communities in their efforts to improve their local survival rates from sudden cardiac death (SCD) (3-Chain of Survival concept). The key for this chain to be successful is the EARLY application of each link in the sequence of treating cardiac arrest...
May 7, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737257/electrophysiologic-considerations-after-sudden-cardiac-arrest
#10
Prakash Suryanarayana, Hyon-He K Garza, Jacob Klewer, Mathew D Hutchinson
In this review, we discuss electrophysiologic management in SCA survivors, including both pharmacological and invasive therapies.
May 7, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663894/coenzyme-q10-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases-current-state-of-the-problem
#11
Vladlena I Zozina, Serghei Covantev, Olga A Goroshko, Liudmila M Krasnykh, Vladimir G Kukes
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increasing with every year. Although the management of these conditions has improved greatly over the years it is still far from perfect. With all of this in mind, there is a need for new methods of prophylaxis and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential compound of the human body. There is growing evidence that CoQ10 is tightly linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Its supplementation can be useful in a variety of chronic and acute disorders. This review analyses the role of CoQ10 in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, viral myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, cardiac toxicity, dyslipidemia, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac procedures and resuscitation...
April 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623849/cardiac-imaging-in-systemic-diseases-what-the-clinician-should-know
#12
Cesar J Herrera, Pamela Pina Santana, Jorge Martinez, Mario J Garcia
IMPORTANCE: Systemic diseases that affect the cardiovascular system constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for all specialists involved; imaging tools along with clinical suspicion play an essential role in their evaluation. These entities share neurological, immunological, renal, hematologic, oncologic, infectious and endocrine processes, all of which may have associated cardiac involvement. OBSERVATIONS: Recent advances in cardiac ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear scintigraphy have impacted the management of these conditions when involving the heart since they provide valuable anatomical and functional information while avoiding the use of invasive techniques...
April 5, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564979/levosimendan-for-perioperative-cardioprotection-myth-or-reality
#13
Elpidio Santillo, Monica Migale, Carlo Massini, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
BACKGROUND: Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer drug causing increased contractility in the myocardium and vasodilation in the vascular system. It is mainly used for the therapy of acute decompensated heart failure. Several studies on animals and humans provided evidence of the cardioprotective properties of levosimendan including preconditioning and anti-apoptotic. In view of these favorable effects, levosimendan has been tested in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for the prevention or treatment of low cardiac output syndrome...
March 21, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557738/preface
#14
Jian'an Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366425/hypertriglyceridemia-common-causes-prevention-and-treatment-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Katarzyna Rygiel
BACKGROUND: Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemias represent the key issues of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) prophylaxis. Consequently, the effective management of different types of lipid disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, should be a priority for the healthcare practitioners (e.g.: cardiology and endocrinology specialists, primary care physicians, dietitians, and pharmacists), who provide medical care, as well as for the patients, who receive this care, and need to be directly engaged in it, in order to improve their outcomes...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366423/therapeutic-approach-to-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#16
REVIEW
Chakradhari Inampudi, Paulino Alvarez, Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors including Ischemic heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, high output Heart Failure (HF) from shunting through vascular hemodialysis access, and anemia, contribute to development of HF in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Guidelinedirected medical and device therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) has not been extensively studied and may have limited safety and efficacy in patients with ESRD. RESULTS: Maintenance of interdialytic and intradialytic euvolemia is a key component of HF management in these patients but often difficult to achieve...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332590/oxidative-stress-and-cardiac-remodeling-an-updated-edge
#17
Abeer M Rababa'h, Ashley N Guillory, Rima Mustafa, Tamara Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: A common phenotype associated with heart failure is the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to stress, such as hypertension, coronary vascular disease, or myocardial infarction. The most critical pathophysiological conditions involved may include dilated hypertrophy, fibrosis and contractile malfunction. The intricate pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy have been the core of several scientific studies, which may help in opening a new avenue in preventive and curative procedures...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278215/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-the-elderly-are-drug-coated-balloons-the-future
#18
REVIEW
Ioannis Merinopoulos, Tharusha Gunawardena, Upul Wickramarachchi, Alisdair Ryding, Simon Eccleshall, Vassilios S Vassiliou
BACKGROUND: Balloon angioplasty revolutionised percutaneous treatment for coronary artery disease four decades ago, but vessel-threatening dissections, elastic recoil and restenosis were major drawbacks to an otherwise successful long-lasting intervention. Subsequent advances with bare metal stents and then drug eluting stents followed, aiming to mitigate the risks of acute vessel closure and restenosis. However, stent implantation often necessitates dual antiplatelet therapy for a prolonged period of time, which in itself can lead to adverse outcomes, especially in the frail elderly population at higher risk of bleeding...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189172/cardiovascular-disease-in-the-setting-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Daniela Sofia Martins Pinto, Manuel Joaquim Lopes Vaz da Silva
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), the life expectancy and health quality for patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have significantly improved. Nevertheless, as a result of not only the deleterious effects of the virus itself and prolonged ART, but also the effects of aging, cardiovascular diseases have emerged as one of the most common causes of death among these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to explore the new insights on the spectrum of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in HIV infection, with emphasis on the factors that contribute to the atherosclerotic process and its role in the development of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of infection...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189171/challenges-in-treatment-of-inappropriate-sinus-tachycardia
#20
REVIEW
Mohammed Ruzieh, Abdelmoniem Moustafa, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Mohammad M Karim, Saima Karim
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a sinus heart rate inexplicably higher than one hundred beats per minute at rest that is associated with symptoms like palpitations, dyspnea or dizziness in the absence of primary causes of tachycardia. The diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of tachycardia including medications/substances (such as anti-cholinergic, beta-blocker withdrawal, caffeine, and alcohol) or medical conditions (such as panic attacks, pulmonary embolism, fever, hyperthyroidism, hypovolemia, anemia, and pain)...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
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