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Current Cardiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799029/strain-imaging-echocardiography-what-imaging-cardiologists-should-know
#1
Dagmar Fredy Hernandez-Suarez, Angel López-Candales
Despite recent advances in clinical imaging, echocardiography remains as the most accessible and reliable noninvasive imaging modality to assess the left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Since knowledge of LV function remains so critically important in determining prognosis; every effort should be made to prevent subjective estimations. The advent of strain imaging echocardiography now offers a readily available and portable imaging tool that not only offers an objective characterization of myocardial dynamics; but also allows for early detection of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction...
October 28, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799028/right-heart-catheterization-through-persistent-left-superior-vena-cava-an-extremely-rare-procedure-and-review-of-current-literature
#2
Abdel Rahman Al Emam, Ahmed Abuzaid, Mohammad Chamsi Pasha
Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is encountered occasionally during angiographic procedures. It usually coexists with right superior vena cava and drains to the right atrium through the coronary sinus, but multiple variations are described. Although PLSVC is extensively reported in the literature, there are very few articles addressing right heart catheterization in patients with isolated PLSVC. We present a patient with absent right superior vena cava and PLSVC draining to a dilated coronary sinus diagnosed during right heart catheterization in the setting of pulmonary hypertension...
October 28, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758696/immune-inflammatory-activation-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-look-into-the-heart-of-unstable-coronary-plaque
#3
Giovanni Cimmino, Francesco S Loffredo, Alberto Morello, Saverio D Elia, Raffaele De Palma, Plinio Cirillo, Paolo Golino
In the last twenty years, our comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved in formation, progression and complication of atherosclerotic plaque has advanced significantly and the main role of inflammation and immunity in this phenomenon is now largely accepted. Accumulating evidence highlight the crucial role of different inflammatory and immune cells, such as monocytes and T-lymphocytes, in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion, particularly in contributing to its complications, such as rupture or ulceration...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758695/what-s-old-is-new-again-a-review-of-the-current-evidence-of-colchicine-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#4
Guang-Ming Tan, Bryan P Yan
Colchicine is a well-established drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention and treatment of gout. It processes unique anti-inflammatory properties. Interests in the usage of colchicine in cardiovascular medicine have been rekindled recently with several large trials been carried out to investigate its efficacy in treatment of various cardiac conditions including pericarditis, postpericardiotomy syndrome, atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease. In this review, the basic pharmacological properties of colchicine will be discussed, and the evidences of its benefits for different applications in cardiovascular medicine will be reviewed...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758694/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells-a-novel-regulator-of-vascular-disease
#5
Malgorzata Furmanik, Catherine M Shanahan
Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633073/considerations-in-understanding-the-coronary-blood-flow-left-ventricular-mass-relationship-in-patients-with-hypertension
#6
Simon W Rabkin
BACKGROUND: Coronary blood flow (CBF) is essential for optimal cardiac performance and to maintain myocardial viability. There is considerable ambiguity concerning CBF in hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To investigates the relationship between CBF and left ventricular (LV) mass in persons with hypertension. Methods OvidSP Medline was systematically searched. Eligible articles assessed CBF, and LV mass in adults with and without hypertension (HTN). Results Eleven studies met the entry criteria...
September 8, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586023/endotoxin-toll-like-receptor-4-and-atherosclerotic-heart-disease
#7
Michael Allen Horseman, Salim Surani, John D Bowman
BACKGROUND: Endotoxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constituent of the outer membrane of most gram negative bacteria. Ubiquitous in the environment, it has been implicated as a cause or contributing factor in several disparate disorders from sepsis to heatstroke and Type II diabetes mellitus. Starting at birth, the innate immune system develops cellular defense mechanisms against environmental microbes that are in part modulated through a series of receptors known as toll-like receptors...
September 1, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492228/helminth-infections-and-cardiovascular-diseases-toxocara-species-is-contributing-to-the-disease
#8
Mohammad Zibaei
Toxocariasis is the clinical term used to describe human infection with either the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or the feline ascarid Toxocara cati. As with other helminths zoonoses, the infective larvae of these Toxocara species cannot mature into adults in the human host. Instead, the worms wander through organs and tissues, mainly the liver, lungs, myocardium, kidney and central nervous system, in a vain attempt to find that, which they need to mature into adults. The migration of these immature nematode larvae causes local and systemic inflammation, resulting in the "larva migrans" syndrome...
August 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492227/cardiac-imaging-in-heart-failure-with-comorbidities
#9
Pupalan Iyngkaran, Chiew Wong, Sylvia Chen
Imaging modalities stand at the frontiers for progress in congestive heart failure (CHF) screening, risk stratification and monitoring. Advancements in echocardiography (ECHO) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have allowed for improved tissue characterizations, cardiac motion analysis, and cardiac performance under stress. Common cardiac comorbidities such as hypertension, metabolic syndromes and chronic renal failure contribute to cardiac remodeling, sharing similar pathophysiological mechanisms starting with interstitial changes, structural changes and finally clinical CHF...
August 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492229/imaging-subclinical-atherosclerosis-where-do-we-stand
#10
Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Alexandros Briasoulis, Emmanuel Androulakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
The age of initiation and the rate of progression of atherosclerosis vary markedly among individuals and have been difficult to predict with traditional cardiovascular risk assessment models. Although these risk models provide good discrimination and calibration in certain populations, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk may not be accurately estimated in low- and intermediate risk individuals. Therefore, imaging techniques such Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), Coronary Artery Calcium score (CAC), carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT), flow mediated dilation (FMD) and Positron emission Tomography (PET) have been developed and used to reclassify these individuals...
August 2, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450450/novel-oral-anticoagulants-in-atrial-fibrillation-update-on-apixaban
#11
Kenechukwu Mezue, Chukwudi Obiagwu, Jinu John, Abhishek Sharma, Felix Yang, Jacob Shani
Almost 800,000 new or recurrent strokes happen every year. Atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is a major risk factor for stroke, accounting for 15-20% of ischemic strokes. Apixaban is a direct inhibitor of Factor Xa that was approved in December 2012 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. It is part of a family of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) which have the advantage over warfarin of less dosing variability, rapid onset of action and no INR monitoring required...
July 19, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411342/incremental-value-of-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-in-the-functional-assessment-and-characterization-of-subclinical-left-ventricular-dysfunction
#12
Prasad Gunasekaran, Sidakpal Panaich, Alexandros Briasoulis, Shaun Cardozo, Luis Afonso
Subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction refers to subtle abnormalities in the LV function that typically precede a reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The assessment of myocardial function using LVEF, a radial metric of function, is subject to load dependence, intra-observer and inter-observer variability. Reductions in LVEF typically manifest late in the disease process thus compromising the ability to intervene before irreversible impairment of systolic performance sets in. 2-Dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE), a novel strain imaging modality has shown promise as a sensitive indicator of myocardial contractility...
July 11, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225893/the-role-of-pkr-as-a-potential-target-for-treating-cardiovascular-diseases
#13
Arti Dhar
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally with limited treatment options. Despite improved pharmacological therapy, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases are still not fully understood. It is well known that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and controlling this inflammatory pathway may inhibit the progression of this chronic disease. Protein Kinase R (PKR), a serine threonine kinase is activated during various pathological conditions...
May 26, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142050/adherence-to-cardiac-practice-guidelines-in-the-management-of-non-st-elevation-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
Josien Engel, Nikki L Damen, Ineke van der Wulp, Martine C de Bruijne, Cordula Wagner
BACKGROUND: In the management of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NST-ACS) a gap between guideline-recommended care and actual practice has been reported. A systematic overview of the actual extent of this gap, its potential impact on patient-outcomes, and influential factors is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent of guideline adherence, to study associations with the occurrence of adverse cardiac events, and to identify factors associated with guideline adherence...
May 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498676/editorial-optimizing-chronic-heart-failure-care-beyond-randomised-controlled-trials-what-are-the-problem-areas-and-potential-solutions
#15
EDITORIAL
Pupalan Iyngkaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397492/self-managing-heart-failure-in-remote-australia-translating-concepts-into-clinical-practice
#16
REVIEW
Pupalan Iyngkaran, Samia R Toukhsati, Melanie Harris, Christine Connors, Nadarajan Kangaharan, Marcus Ilton, Tricia Nagel, Debra K Moser, Malcolm Battersby
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an ambulatory health care condition characterized by episodes of decompensation and is usually without cure. It is a leading cause for morbidity and mortality and the lead cause for hospital admissions in older patients in the developed world. The long-term requirement for medical care and pharmaceuticals contributes to significant health care costs. CHF management follows a hierarchy from physician prescription to allied health, predominately nurse-led, delivery of care. Health services are easier to access in urban compared to rural settings...
2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338867/heart-failure-pharmacotherapy-and-supports-in-the-elderly-a-short-review
#17
REVIEW
Sepehr Shakib, Robyn A Clark
Heart failure is predominantly a disease of the elderly with an increasing prevalence with increasing age. Increasing age is also associated with increased multi-morbidity such that elderly heart failure patients typically have five to six comorbidities in addition to heart failure. Elderly patients are also more likely to have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and there are fewer evidence-based treatments with proven efficacy in HFpEF. Hence the management of heart failure in these patients is largely about managing the symptoms of heart failure, along with the other cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities...
2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280307/heart-failure-in-minority-populations-impediments-to-optimal-treatment-in-australian-aborigines
#18
REVIEW
Pupalan Iyngkaran, Nadarajan Kangaharan, Hendrik Zimmet, Margaret Arstall, Rob Minson, Merlin C Thomas, Peter Bergin, John Atherton, Peter MacDonald, David L Hare, John D Horowitz, Marcus Ilton
Chronic heart failure (CHF) among Aboriginal/Indigenous Australians is endemic. There are also grave concerns for outcomes once acquired. This point is compounded by a lack of prospective and objective studies to plan care. To capture the essence of the presented topic it is essential to broadly understand Indigenous health. Key words such as 'worsening', 'gaps', 'need to do more', 'poorly studied', or 'future studies should inform' occur frequently in contrast to CHF research for almost all other groups. This narrative styled opinion piece attempts to discuss future directions for CHF care for Indigenous Australians...
2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280306/contextualizing-genetics-for-regional-heart-failure-care
#19
REVIEW
Pupalan Iyngkaran, Merlin C Thomas, Renee Johnson, John French, Marcus Ilton, Peter McDonald, David L Hare, Diane Fatkin
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic and often devastating cardiovascular disorder with no cure. There has been much advancement in the last two decades that has seen improvements in morbidity and mortality. Clinicians have also noted variations in the responses to therapies. More detailed observations also point to clusters of diseases, phenotypic groupings, unusual severity and the rates at which CHF occurs. Medical genetics is playing an increasingly important role in answering some of these observations...
2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280305/towards-optimal-heart-failure-care-couples-oriented-strategies-to-improve-patient-adherence-and-health-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Samia R Toukhsati, David L Hare
Psychosocial factors play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as chronic heart failure (CHF). In particular, psycho-cognitive disturbance is common in CHF, which presents additional challenges to secondary prevention and management strategies. This review provides a summary of the contemporary psycho-cardiology literature, including coverage of common mood and cognitive symptoms, and explores some of the pathophysiologic evidence linking psycho-cognition to CHF, with particular emphasis on sympathetic nervous system activation and neuroendocrine functioning...
2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
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