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Clinical Genitourinary Cancer

Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Current staging paradigms from the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for upper urinary tract carcinomas treat locoregionally advanced (T4 and N+) and metastatic (M1) patients as a single entity (stage IV). The current study proposes a modification of the AJCC staging system where these 2 entities are separated. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2014) was accessed through SEER*Stat program...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Jacopo Giuliani, Andrea Bonetti
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of active new agents, such as small molecules and checkpoint inhibitors, for the treatment of metastatic renal-cell cancer (mRCC) is associated with a relevant increase in costs, and it is therefore important to strike a balance between the costs of treatment and the added value represented by the improvement of the clinical parameters of interest such as progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). METHODS: This analysis was conducted to assess the pharmacologic costs of second-line treatments for mRCC and was restricted to pivotal phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) used as second-line therapy...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Manish K Thakur, Lance Heilbrun, Kimberlee Dobson, Julie Boerner, Karri Stark, Jing Li, Daryn Smith, Elisabeth Heath, Joseph Fontana, Ulka Vaishampayan
BACKGROUND: Pasireotide (SOM230; Novartis Inc, Basel, Switzerland) is a multitargeted somatostatin receptor analogue likely to treat the neuroendocrine, and docetaxel resistant components within metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This phase I trial tested the combination of pasireotide, docetaxel, and prednisone in pretreated mCRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy naive mCRPC patients received docetaxel 75 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 days and pasireotide intramuscularly every 28 days at escalating dose levels of 40, 60, and 80 mg...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Ken Batai, Andrew Bergersen, Elinora Price, Kieran Hynes, Nathan A Ellis, Benjamin R Lee
Cancer disparities in Native Americans (NAs) and Hispanic Americans (HAs) vary significantly in terms of cancer incidence and mortality rates across geographic regions. This review reports that kidney and renal pelvis cancers are unevenly affecting HAs and NAs compared to European Americans of non-Hispanic origin, and that currently there is significant need for improved data and reporting to be able to advance toward genomic-based precision medicine for the assessment of such cancers in these medically underserved populations...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Leslie K Ballas, Ryan Kraus, Lingyun Ji, Susan Groshen, Mariana C Stern, Inderbir Gill, David I Quinn, Eugene Chung, Andre Abreu, Ann S Hamilton
INTRODUCTION: Active surveillance (AS) is one recommended option for low-risk prostate cancer and involves close follow-up and monitoring. Our objective was to determine whether non-clinical trial patients adhere to AS protocols and how many are lost to follow-up (LTFU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed for patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer who initiated AS at Los Angeles County Hospital (LAC) and University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (Norris) between January 1, 2008, and January 1, 2015...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Darren R Feldman, Shirin Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard, Patrick Monahan, Howard D Sesso, Chunkit Fung, Annalynn M Williams, Robert J Hamilton, David J Vaughn, Clair J Beard, Ryan Cook, Mohammad Abu Zaid, Steven E Lipshultz, Lawrence H Einhorn, Kevin C Oeffinger, Lois B Travis, Sophie D Fossa
BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CBCT). Identifying at-risk survivors would allow early intervention, but risk prediction tools such as the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) have not been applied to TCSs given modern chemotherapy. METHODS: TCSs > 1 year post-CBCT were evaluated. Associations between FRS and clinical, socioeconomic, and lifestyle measures and treatment regimen (4 cycles, etoposide and cisplatin [EP × 4]); 3 or 4 cycles, bleomycin plus EP (BEP × 3, BEP × 4) were analyzed with general linear multivariable models...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Brendan M Browne, Kristian D Stensland, Matthew J Moynihan, David Canes
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze contemporary trends for diagnosis and treatment of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all cases of UTUC in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) between 2004 and 2013. Data comprising tumor, patient, and facility factors were extracted. Treatment data for surgery and chemotherapy were also collected. Comparisons used χ2 testing. RESULTS: Over this 10-year period, the sex and age distribution of UTUC was stable at 60% male and median age of 72 years...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Annelies Verbiest, Diether Lambrechts, Thomas Van Brussel, Gabrielle Couchy, Agnieszka Wozniak, Arnaud Méjean, Evelyne Lerut, Stéphane Oudard, Virginie Verkarre, Sylvie Job, Aurélien de Reynies, Jean-Pascal Machiels, Jean-Jacques Patard, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Benoit Beuselinck
BACKGROUND: Clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by loss of a functional Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein. We investigated the potential of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VHL as biomarkers in metastatic ccRCC (m-ccRCC) patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped 3 VHL SNPs in 199 m-ccRCC patients: rs1642742 T > C, rs1642743 A > G, and rs1678607 C > A...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Andres F Correa, Amir Toussi, Milon Amin, Ronald L Hrebinko, Bishoy A Gayed, Anil V Parwani, Jodi K Maranchie
INTRODUCTION: Recent reports show a correlation between renal tumor radiographic characteristics and pathologic features. We hypothesize that a more central location within the relatively hypoxic renal medulla might confer a more aggressive tumor phenotype. To test this, radiographic tumor characteristics were compared with tumor grade and histology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed renal masses <4 cm in diameter that underwent resection between 2008 and 2013...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Mayur Virarkar, Silvana de Castro Faria, Madhavi Patnana, Miao Zhang, Tara Sagebiel
Leiomyomas can develop in any organ containing smooth muscles. They most commonly occur in the gastrointestinal and the female genital tracts. Leiomyoma of the prostate is a rare, benign tumor. We report 3 cases of rare prostatic leiomyomas. The paucity of literature describing prostatic leiomyoma increases the chance for misdiagnosis. Fewer than 30 cases in the English literature, with none including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, positron emission tomography-CT, and pathological findings together were found...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Raffaele Ratta, Elena Verzoni, Massimo Di Maio, Paolo Grassi, Maurizio Colecchia, Giovanni Fucà, Filippo de Braud, Giuseppe Procopio
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present retrospective analysis was to describe the trends in exposure to multiple lines of treatment and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who started therapy in 2 different periods (period 1, 2004-2010; and period 2, 2011-2017). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The proportion of patients who received subsequent lines of treatment after disease progression was compared between the 2 groups. OS was measured from the start of first-line treatment for metastatic disease to death or the last follow-up examination...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Johannes Breyer, Ralph M Wirtz, Philipp Erben, Thomas S Worst, Robert Stoehr, Markus Eckstein, Simone Bertz, Danijel Sikic, Stefan Denzinger, Maximilian Burger, Arndt Hartmann, Wolfgang Otto
BACKGROUND: A recent study on the comprehensive genomic profile of advanced urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) showed cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) as the most often clinically relevant genomic alterations. Therefore, the prognostic role of FGFR3 and CDKN2A/p16 for pT1 UBC was studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of pT1 UBC treated with an organ-preserving approach was analyzed retrospectively...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Nadja Sandmeier, Sacha I Rothschild, Christian Rothermundt, Richard Cathomas, Julian Schardt, Dominik Berthold, Philippe von Burg, Beat Müller, Jörg Beyer, Deborah R Vogt, Frank Stenner
INTRODUCTION: In metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC), physicians have a plethora of therapeutic choices, with the latest addition of checkpoint inhibitors. However, many questions regarding the best use of the respective drugs remain unanswered. Therefore, it is important to examine and summarize the outcome of real-world experiences to understand the practical value of the various drugs in daily use and foster optimal treatment algorithms for patients with renal-cell carcinoma. We sought to describe the pattern of care in mRCC under circumstances with access to all therapeutic options for patients...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Lubomir Bodnar, Rafał Stec, Szczepan Cierniak, Agnieszka Synowiec, Gabriel Wcisło, Marzena Jesiotr, Robert Koktysz, Paweł Chrom, Cezary Szczylik
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to search for predictive and prognostic factors in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with everolimus among the components of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective, single-arm, phase II study, patients with mRCC received everolimus (10 mg/d) in a 30-day cycle. We performed a prospectively planned evaluation of the potential biomarkers of the WNT/β-catenin pathway...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
C Adam Lorentz, Kirven Gilbert, Mehrdad Alemozaffar, Dattatraya Patil, Christopher P Filson
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery pathways after radical cystectomy attempt to decrease length of hospitalization, but might increase risk of readmission after discharge. We evaluated the relationship between length of stay and readmission after uncomplicated hospitalization for bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we identified bladder cancer patients who were treated with radical cystectomy from 2011 to 2015...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Aleksandra Semeniuk-Wojtaś, Arkadiusz Lubas, Rafał Stec, Tomasz Syryło, Stanisław Niemczyk, Cezary Szczylik
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a crucial role in cancer development. In this study, we evaluate the prognostic values of systemic inflammation markers such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) for the progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for published studies on the effect of NLR, PLR, and CRP in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Mélanie Claps, Fausto Petrelli, Orazio Caffo, Vito Amoroso, Elisa Roca, Alessandra Mosca, Francesca Maines, Sandro Barni, Alfredo Berruti
Androgen receptor is the major driver of and testosterone the natural growth factor of prostate cancer (PC). Studies exploring the relationship among circulating testosterone levels, PC aggressiveness, and patient prognosis showed contradictory results. We performed a comprehensive literature search for studies reporting the independent relationship between serum testosterone and prognosis of PC patients. Meta-analyses using random effects models were conducted to estimate pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Shearwood McClelland, Kiri A Sandler, Catherine Degnin, Yiyi Chen, Timur Mitin
INTRODUCTION: Three randomized clinical trials have established brachytherapy (BT) boost in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as superior to definitive EBRT and ADT alone in terms of biochemical control (but not overall survival) at the expense of increased toxicity in men with high-risk (HR) prostate cancer (PCa). The current view regarding these 2 treatment algorithms among North American genitourinary (GU) experts is not known...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Marco Bandini, Ariane Smith, Michele Marchioni, Raisa S Pompe, Tristan F Martel, Luca Cindolo, Francesco Montorsi, Shahrokh F Shariat, Alberto Briganti, Anil Kapoor, Umberto Capitanio, Pierre I Karakiewicz
To conduct a review of literature on adjuvant therapy in nonmetastatic renal-cell carcinoma (nmRCC) treated with nephrectomy and to describe the efficacy of adjuvant agents on cancer control outcomes. A review of the literature was performed in January 2018 to identify all studies evaluating adjuvant therapy in patients with nmRCC treated with nephrectomy using PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. The following keywords were used: adjuvant therapy, renal-cell carcinoma, nonmetastatic, targeted molecular therapy, kidney cancer...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Alejandro Abello, Anurag K Das
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
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