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PET Clinics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576174/novel-pet-radiotracers-with-potential-clinical-applications
#1
EDITORIAL
Neil Vasdev, Abass Alavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576173/novel-phenotypes-detectable-with-pet-in-mood-disorders-elevated-monoamine-oxidase-a-and-translocator-protein-level
#2
REVIEW
Jeffrey Meyer
As a result of high prevalence and high rates of treatment resistance, major depressive disorder has become the leading cause of death and disability in moderate-income to high-income nations. Poor targeting of phenotypes is a plausible reason for treatment resistance and PET imaging offers a unique role to identify phenotypes. Both increased monoamine oxidase A binding and greater translocator protein 18 kDa binding occur throughout the gray matter during major depressive episodes, including affect-modulating brain regions such as the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, and are detectable with advanced radioligand technology for both of these targets...
July 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576172/multimodal-pet-imaging-of-amyloid-and-tau-pathology-in-alzheimer-disease-and-non-alzheimer-disease-dementias
#3
REVIEW
Chenjie Xia, Bradford C Dickerson
Biomarkers of the molecular pathology underpinning dementia syndromes are increasingly recognized as crucial for diagnosis and development of disease-modifying treatments. Amyloid PET imaging is an integral part of the diagnostic assessment of Alzheimer disease. Its use has also deepened understanding of the role of amyloid pathology in Lewy body disorders and aging. Tau PET imaging is an imaging biomarker that will likely play an important role in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment in dementias. Using tau PET imaging to examine how tau pathology relates to amyloid and other markers of neurodegeneration will serve to better understand the pathophysiologic cascade that leads to dementia...
July 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576171/pet-imaging-for-early-detection-of-alzheimer-s-disease-from-pathologic-to-physiologic-biomarkers
#4
REVIEW
Weiqi Bao, Hongmei Jia, Sjoerd Finnema, Zhengxin Cai, Richard E Carson, Yiyun Henry Huang
This article describes the application of various PET imaging agents in the investigation and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including radiotracers for pathologic biomarkers of AD such as β-amyloid deposits and tau protein aggregates, and the neuroinflammation biomarker 18 kDa translocator protein, as well as physiologic biomarkers, such as cholinergic receptors, glucose metabolism, and the synaptic density biomarker synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A. Potential of these biomarkers for early AD diagnosis is also assessed...
July 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576170/magnetic-resonance-based-motion-correction-for-quantitative-pet-in-simultaneous-pet-mr-imaging
#5
REVIEW
Yothin Rakvongthai, Georges El Fakhri
Motion degrades image quality and quantitation of PET images, and is an obstacle to quantitative PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR offers a tool that can be used for correcting the motion in PET images by using anatomic information from MR imaging acquired concurrently. Motion correction can be performed by transforming a set of reconstructed PET images into the same frame or by incorporating the transformation into the system model and reconstructing the motion-corrected image. Several phantom and patient studies have validated that MR-based motion correction strategies have great promise for quantitative PET imaging in simultaneous PET-MR...
July 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576169/urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-pet-with-68-ga-nota-ae105-first-clinical-experience-with-a-novel-pet-ligand
#6
REVIEW
Dorthe Skovgaard, Morten Persson, Andreas Kjaer
Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a key component in proteolysis and extracellular matrix degradation during cancer invasion and metastasis. uPAR overexpression is an important biomarker for aggressiveness in several solid tumors and provides independent clinical information. A recent major breakthrough was obtained with human translation of uPAR PET using (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105. Clinical results are encouraging and several large-scale clinical trials are now ongoing. This review focuses on uPAR PET with (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 as a new broadly applicable diagnostic and prognostic imaging biomarker in cancer...
July 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576168/theranostic-prospects-of-gastrin-releasing-peptide-receptor-radioantagonists-in-oncology
#7
REVIEW
Theodosia Maina, Berthold A Nock, Harshad Kulkarni, Aviral Singh, Richard P Baum
Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) represent attractive targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy owing to their overexpression in widespread human tumors. Bombesin (BBN) analogues coupled to suitable chelators for stable radiometal binding have been proposed for diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy (theranostics) of GRPR-positive tumors. Recently, interest has shifted from BBN-like receptor agonists to GRPR-radioantagonists, because radioantagonists do not induce adverse effects after injection to patients and display superior pharmacokinetic in vivo profiles...
July 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576167/imaging-of-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-using-18-f-dcfpyl
#8
REVIEW
Steven P Rowe, Michael A Gorin, Martin G Pomper
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been explored as a target for molecular imaging of prostate cancer and other malignancies that express PSMA in their tumor-associated neovasculature. Although several PSMA-targeted radiotracers labeled with a variety of radionuclides have been reported, positron-emitting radiotracers labeled with (18)F are of particular interest. One such compound, the small molecule PSMA inhibitor [(18)F]DCFPyL, has demonstrated initial success. This article reviews the literature on this radiotracer, including radiosynthetic approaches to the molecule, data that are available from preclinical experiments, and evidence to date of the clinical utility of this agent in prostate cancer and clear cell renal cell carcinoma...
July 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576166/human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-targeted-pet-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-imaging-of-breast-cancer-noninvasive-measurement-of-a-biomarker-integral-to-tumor-treatment-and-prognosis
#9
REVIEW
Kelly E Henry, Gary A Ulaner, Jason S Lewis
Increased human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression is a hallmark of aggressive breast cancer. Imaging modalities have the potential to diagnose HER2-positive breast cancer and detect distant metastases. The heterogeneity of HER2 expression between primary and metastatic disease sites limits the value of tumor biopsies. Molecular imaging is a noninvasive tool to assess HER2-positive primary lesions and metastases. Radiolabeled antibodies, antibody fragments, and affibody molecules devise a reliable and quantitative method for detecting HER2-positive cancer using PET...
July 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267459/prostate-cancer-imaging-in-the-era-of-molecular-medicine
#10
EDITORIAL
Richard P Baum, Cristina Nanni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267458/pet-computed-tomography-for-radiation-therapy-planning-of-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Kalevi J A Kairemo
This article is a short review of PET tracers, which have been used in clinical routine in single institutions. Preliminary anecdotal research supports the use of PET techniques in therapy planning of prostate cancer. The existing literature is discussed. For external beam radiation therapy, the biological target volume definition can only be based on PET imaging. There are not yet any prospective and randomized trials available; therefore, single-institution experiences cannot yet be recommended as clinical routine...
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267457/imaging-of-prostate-cancer-using-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-pet
#12
REVIEW
Dorthe Skovgaard, Morten Persson, Andreas Kjaer
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) overexpression is an important biomarker for aggressiveness in cancer including prostate cancer (PC) and provides independent clinical information in addition to prostate-specific antigen and Gleason score. This article focuses on uPAR PET as a new diagnostic and prognostic imaging biomarker in PC. Many preclinical uPAR-targeted PET imaging studies using AE105 in cancer models have been undertaken with promising results. A major breakthrough was obtained with the recent human translation of uPAR PET in using (64)Cu- and (68)Ga-labelled versions of AE105, respectively...
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267456/clinical-experience-with-18-f-labeled-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen
#13
REVIEW
Steven P Rowe, Michael A Gorin, Roberto A Salas Fragomeni, Alexander Drzezga, Martin G Pomper
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous malignancy diagnosed in men. Despite the large number of men who will suffer from PCa at some point during their lives, conventional imaging modalities for this important disease (contrast-enhanced computed tomography, bone scan, and MR imaging) have provided only marginal to moderate success in appropriately guiding patient management in certain clinical contexts. In this review, the authors discuss radiofluorinated small molecule radiotracers that have been developed to bind to the transmembrane glycoprotein prostate-specific membrane antigen, a target that is nearly universally overexpressed on PCa epithelial cells...
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267455/gallium-68-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-pet-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Michael S Hofman, Amir Iravani
The role of gallium-68 ((68)Ga) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET imaging is evolving and finding its place in the imaging armamentarium for prostate cancer (PCa). Despite the progress of conventional imaging strategies, significant limitations remain, including identification of small-volume disease and assessment of bone. Clinical studies have demonstrated that (68)Ga-PSMA is a promising tracer for detection of PCa metastases, even in patients with low prostate-specific antigen. To provide an accurate interpretation of (68)Ga-PSMA PET/computed tomography, nuclear medicine specialists and radiologists should be familiar with physiologic (68)Ga-PSMA uptake, common variants, patterns of locoregional and distant spread of PCa, and inherent pitfalls...
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267454/from-bench-to-bed-new-gastrin-releasing-peptide-receptor-directed-radioligands-and-their-use-in-prostate-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Theodosia Maina, Berthold A Nock
Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) are overexpressed in prostate and breast cancer, and are therefore attractive molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy with radiolabeled GRPR-directed peptide probes. The amphibian tetradecapeptide bombesin or the mammalian gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin C have been modified with a variety of chelators. As a result, labeling with radiometals attractive for SPECT or PET imaging and for radionuclide therapy has led to the development of peptide radioligands suitable for in vivo targeting of prostate cancer...
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267453/imaging-of-prostate-cancer-using-64-cu-labeled-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-ligand
#16
REVIEW
Aviral Singh, Harshad R Kulkarni, Richard P Baum
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer among men, rendering the diagnosis and staging of significant medical and public interest. One of the most interesting developments in the application of nuclear oncology has been the development of novel diagnostic agents that are able to facilitate targeted therapies using the concept of theranostics. This review summarizes the current and emerging molecular imaging techniques for the investigation of patients with prostate cancer with emphasis on the potential of (64)Cu-PSMA PET/CT in staging, restaging, and the application of theranostics...
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267452/clinical-applications-of-molecular-imaging-in-the-management-of-prostate-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Michael A Gorin, Steven P Rowe, Samuel R Denmeade
At the heart of selecting an optimal management strategy for men with prostate cancer is accurately determining a given patient's clinical stage and extent of disease. Molecular imaging with PET using properly selected radiotracers offers the opportunity for improved contrast resolution over conventional imaging and thus increased sensativity for detecting sites of disease. In addition, molecular imaging provides the prospect of obtaining functional or biological information regarding a patient's cancer. To date, several PET radiotracers have been developed for prostate cancer imaging...
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267451/imaging-of-prostate-cancer-using-18-f-choline-pet-computed-tomography
#18
REVIEW
Marina Hodolič
(18)F-fluorocholine (FCH) PET/computed tomography (CT) is a valuable imaging modality in prostate cancer disease. Probably, its main role is restaging of patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy. (18)F-FCH PET/CT is strengthening its position in the initial staging, biopsy target definition, radiotherapy planning, and therapy monitoring. Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen value, doubling time, and velocity can influence positivity of (18)F-FCH PET/CT...
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267450/imaging-of-prostate-cancer-using-gallium-68-labeled-bombesin
#19
REVIEW
Ida Sonni, Lucia Baratto, Andrei Iagaru
Nuclear medicine can play an important role in evaluating prostate cancer combining anatomical and functional information with hybrid techniques. Various PET radiopharmaceuticals have been used for targeting specific biological markers in prostate cancer. Research is ideally oriented towards the development of radiopharmaceuticals targeting antigens overexpressed in prostate cancer, as opposed to normal prostate tissue. In this regard, gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) are excellent candidates. Bombesin analogues targeting the GRPR have been investigated...
April 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267449/imaging-of-prostate-cancer-using-fluciclovine
#20
REVIEW
Bital Savir-Baruch, Lucia Zanoni, David M Schuster
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Despite high disease prevalence, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease with conventional imaging are limited typically because of indolent biology. Functional imaging with advanced molecular techniques improves the ability to detect disease. Amino acids are building blocks of proteins, and intracellular transport of amino acids is upregulated in prostate cancer. This review provides a detailed overview of the use of F-18 fluciclovine PET in prostate cancer imaging...
April 2017: PET Clinics
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