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Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP

Elvis W S Tan, Stephen Wee Hun Lim, Emmanuel Manalo
Research has shown that academic risk taking-the selection of school tasks with varying difficulty levels-affords important implications for educational outcomes. In two experiments, we explored the role of cognitive processes-specifically, global versus local processing styles-in students' academic risk-taking tendencies. Participants first read a short passage, which provided the context for their subsequent academic risk-taking decisions. Following which, participants undertook the Navon's task and attended to either global letters or local letters only, i...
October 25, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Naoto Sakuma, Eiji Kimura, Ken Goryo
When viewing briefly presented two arrays of Arabic numerals, observers could accurately indicate which array contained the larger number of a target numeral (Corbett, Oriet, & Rensink, 2006). This study investigated whether this rapid proportion comparison can be extended to other symbols that represent non-numerical meaning but share some of notable properties of Arabic numerals. We mainly tested several Japanese Kanji letters, each of which represents a meaning and can work as a word. Using physically identical stimulus sets that could be interpreted as different types of letters, we first confirmed the rapid proportion comparison with Arabic numerals for Japanese participants in Experiment 1...
October 24, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
John Turri
This paper addresses a fundamental question in folk metaphysics: how do we ordinarily view human agency? According to the transcendence account, we view human agency as standing outside of the causal order and imbued with exceptional powers. According to a naturalistic account, we view human agency as subject to the same physical laws as other objects and completely open to scientific investigation. According to exceptionalist naturalism, the truth lies somewhere in between: we view human agency as fitting broadly within the causal order while still being exceptional in important respects...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jennifer Wiley, Tim George, Keith Rayner
Two experiments investigated the effects of domain knowledge on the resolution of ambiguous words with dominant meanings related to baseball. When placed in a sentence context that strongly biased toward the non-baseball meaning (positive evidence), or excluded the baseball meaning (negative evidence), baseball experts had more difficulty than non-experts resolving the ambiguity. Sentence contexts containing positive evidence supported earlier resolution than did the negative evidence condition for both experts and non-experts...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Laurence Questienne, Filip Van Opstal, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Wim Gevers
Cognitive control allows adapting our behaviour to improve performance. A behavioural signature of cognitive control is the Gratton effect. This effect is observed in conflict tasks and indicates smaller congruency effects after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. Metacognitive experience may play a role in this effect: when participants introspect on their conflict experience, the Gratton effect follows the conflict introspection instead of the stimulus congruency (Desender, Van Opstal, & Van den Bussche, 2014)...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Xiaoqian Yan, Andrew W Young, Timothy J Andrews
The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of the own-race advantage in facial expression perception. In Experiment 1, we investigated Western Caucasian and Chinese participants' perception and categorization of facial expressions of six basic emotions that included two pairs of confusable expressions (fear and surprise; anger and disgust). People were slightly better at identifying facial expressions posed by own-race members (mainly in anger and disgust). In Experiment 2, we asked whether the own-race advantage was due to differences in the holistic processing of facial expressions...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sarah J White, Denis Drieghe, Simon P Liversedge, Adrian Staub
The effect of word frequency on eye movement behaviour during reading has been reported in many experimental studies. However, the vast majority of these studies compared only two levels of word frequency (high and low). Here we assess whether the effect of log word frequency on eye movement measures is linear, in an experiment in which a critical target word in each sentence was at one of three approximately equally spaced log frequency levels. Separate analyses treated log frequency as a categorical or a continuous predictor...
October 20, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Avital Deutsch, Hadas Velan, Tamar Michaly
Complex words in Hebrew are composed of two non-concatenated morphemes: a consonantal root embedded in a nominal or verbal word-pattern morpho-phonological unit made up of vowels or vowels and consonants. The root carries the core meaning of the word, whereas the word-pattern creates variations on this meaning, determines the word's grammatical characteristics, and carries segmental and suprasegmental information about the word's structure. Research on written-word recognition has revealed a robust effect of the roots and the verbal-patterns, but not of the nominal-patterns, on word recognition...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Rebecca A Gilbert, Graham J Hitch, Tom Hartley
The capacity of serially ordered auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) is sensitive to the timing of the material to be stored, and both temporal processing and AVSTM capacity are implicated in the development of language. We developed a novel "rehearsal-probe" task to investigate the relationship between temporal precision and the capacity to remember serial order. Participants listened to a sub-span sequence of spoken digits and silently rehearsed the items and their timing during an unfilled retention interval...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Matthias Hartmann, Jochen Laubrock, Martin H Fischer
In the domain of language research, the simultaneous presentation of a visual scene and its auditory description (i.e., the visual world paradigm) has been used to reveal the timing of mental mechanisms. Here we apply this rationale to the domain of numerical cognition in order to explore the differences between fast and slow arithmetic performance, and to further study the role of spatial-numerical associations during mental arithmetic. We presented 30 healthy adults simultaneously with visual displays containing four numbers and with auditory addition and subtraction problems...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Daniel R L Forrest, Marius Mather, Justin A Harris
Repeated presentation of a to-be-conditioned stimulus (CS) on its own results in an impairment in learning to respond to that CS when it is later paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). Evidence for this latent inhibition (LI) effect in humans is said to require a so-called masking task which diverts attention from the CS during preexposure. We present three experiments investigating whether LI can be demonstrated in humans without masking. In a computer-based task, subjects responded as quickly as possible to an imperative cue (the US) presented within a continuous stimulus stream...
October 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Agnieszka W Kowalczyk, James A Grange
The n - 2 repetition cost seen in task switching is the effect of slower response times performing a recently completed task (e.g. an ABA sequence) compared to performing a task that was not recently completed (e.g. a CBA sequence). This cost is thought to reflect cognitive inhibition of task representations and as such, the n - 2 repetition cost has begun to be used as an assessment of individual differences in inhibitory control; however, the reliability of this measure has not been investigated in a systematic manner...
October 17, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Manuel Perea, Ana Marcet, Beatriz Uixera, Marta Vergara-Martínez
The examination of how we read handwritten words (i.e., the original form of writing) has typically been disregarded in the literature on reading. Previous research using word recognition tasks has shown that lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) are magnified when reading difficult handwritten words. To examine this issue in a more ecological scenario, we registered the participants' eye movements when reading handwritten sentences that varied in the degree of legibility (i.e., sentences composed of words in easy vs...
October 17, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Alla Yankouskaya, Diahann Palmer, Moritz Stolte, Jie Sui, G W Humphreys
We present novel data on the role of attention in eliciting enhanced processing of stimuli associated with self. Participants were required to make pro- or anti-saccades according to whether learned shape-label pairings matched or mismatched. When stimuli matched participants were required to make an anti-saccade and when the stimuli mismatched a pro-saccade was required. We found that anti-saccades were difficult to make to stimuli associated with self when compared to stimuli associated with a friend and a stranger...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Matthew D Hilchey, Jay Pratt, John Christie
Decades of research using Posner's classic spatial cueing paradigm has uncovered at least two forms of inhibition of return (IOR) in the aftermath of an exogenous, peripheral orienting cue. One prominent dissociation concerns the role of covert and overt orienting in generating IOR effects that relate to perception- and action- oriented processes, respectively. Another prominent dissociation concerns the role of covert and overt orienting in generating IOR effects that depend on object- and space- based representation, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Scott Cole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Xenia Schmalz, Alexander Porshnev, Eva Marinus
Word reading partly depends on the activation of sublexical letter clusters. Previous research has studied which types of letters clusters have psychological saliency, but less is known about cognitive mechanisms of letter string parsing. Here, we take advantage of the high degree of context-dependency of the Russian orthography to examine whether CV clusters are treated as units in two stages of sublexical processing. In two experiments using a nonword reading task, we use two orthogonal manipulations: (1) insertion of a visual disruptor (#) to assess whether CV clusters are kept intact during the early visual parsing stage, and (2) presence of context-dependent GPCs (e...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Christina B Reimer, Tilo Strobach, Torsten Schubert
Both visual attention and response selection are limited in capacity. In the present study, we investigated whether visual attention requires the same bottleneck mechanism as response selection in a dual-task of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm. The dual-task consisted of an auditory two-choice discrimination Task 1 and a conjunction search Task 2, which were presented at variable temporal intervals (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA). In the conjunction search task, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind the item features resulting in a serial search process...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Aaron Veldre, Sally Andrews
Recent studies using the boundary paradigm have shown that readers benefit from a parafoveal preview of a plausible continuation of the sentence. This plausibility preview effect occurs irrespective of the semantic or orthographic relatedness of the preview and target word, suggesting that it depends on the degree to which a preview word fits the preceding context. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining the impact of contextual constraint on processing a plausible word in the parafovea. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences in which a target word was either highly predictable or unpredictable...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ferenc Kemény, Kornél Németh
A central issue in sequence learning is whether learning operates on stimulus independent abstract elements, or whether participants integrate surface features of ordered stimuli, resulting in stimulus dependent learning. Using the Serial Reaction-Time Task (SRT), the current study tests whether a previously presented sequence is transferrable from one source domain to another. Contrary to previous studies with Artificial Grammar Learning, there is a mapping between pre- and post-transfer stimuli, but contrary to previous studies using SRT the mapping is not obvious...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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