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Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524772/effects-of-stereoscopic-disparity-on-early-erp-components-during-classification-of-three-dimensional-objects
#1
Alan J Pegna, Alexandre Darque, Mark V Roberts, E Charles Leek
This study investigates the effects of stereo disparity on the perception of three-dimensional (3D) object shape. We tested the hypothesis that stereo input modulates the brain activity related to perceptual analyses of 3D shape configuration during image classification. High-density (256-channel) EEG was used to record the temporal dynamics of visual shape processing under conditions of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visual presentation. On each trial, observers made image classification judgements ('Same'/'Different') to two briefly presented, multi-part, novel objects...
May 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513322/people-with-and-without-prosopagnosia-have-insight-into-their-face-recognition-ability
#2
Lucy Anne Livingston, Punit Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508716/neural-correlates-of-individual-differences-in-fixation-duration-during-natural-reading
#3
John M Henderson, Wonil Choi, Steven G Luke, Joseph Schmidt
Reading requires integration of language and cognitive processes with attention and eye movement control. Individuals differ in their reading ability, but little is known about the neurocognitive processes associated with these individual differences. To investigate this issue, we combined eyetracking and fMRI, simultaneously recording eye movements and BOLD activity while subjects read text passages. We found that the variability and skew of fixation duration distributions across individuals, as assessed by ex-Gaussian analyses, decreased with increasing neural activity in regions associated with the cortical eye movement control network (Left FEF, Left IPS, Left IFG, and Right IFG)...
May 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490290/high-confidence-in-falsely-recognizing-prototypical-faces
#4
Cristina Sampaio, Victoria Reinke, Jeffrey Mathews, Alexandra Swart, Stephen Wallinger
We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes, thus it was contingent on the nature of the items used...
May 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490274/masked-primes-evoke-partial-responses
#5
Jennifer McBride, Petroc Sumner, Masud Husain
Backward-masked primes presented outside conscious awareness can affect responses to subsequently presented target stimuli. Differences in response times have been used to infer a pattern of sub-threshold activation and subsequent inhibition of motor plans associated with the primes. However, it is unclear whether competition between alternative responses is fully resolved in the brain, or whether activated responses can begin being executed before the final decision to act has been made. Here, we investigate the dynamics of responses evoked by masked primes using a continuous measure - voltage change in force sensing resistors simultaneously in both hands...
May 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490247/effects-of-valent-image-based-secondary-tasks-on-verbal-working-memory
#6
Phillip L Morgan, Craig Williams, Fay M Ings, Nia C Hughes
Two experiments examined if exposure to emotionally valent image-based secondary tasks introduced at different points of a free recall working memory (WM) task impair memory performance. Images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS: Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008) varied in the degree of negative or positive valance (mild, moderate, strong) and were positioned at low, moderate, and high WM load points with participants rating them based upon perceived valence. As predicted, and based on previous research and theory, the higher the degree of negative (Experiment 1) and positive (Experiment 2) valence and the higher the WM load when a secondary task was introduced, the greater the impairment to recall...
May 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486055/self-or-familiar-face-recognition-advantage-new-insight-using-ambient-images
#7
Catherine Bortolon, Siméon Lorieux, Stéphane Raffard
Self-face recognition has been widely explored in the last few years. Nevertheless, the current literature relies on the use of standardized photographs, which do not represent daily life face recognition. Therefore, we aim for the first time to evaluate self-face processing in healthy individuals using natural/ambient images, which contain variations in the environment and in the face itself. Forty undergraduate and graduate students performed a forced delayed-matching task including images of one's own face, friend, famous and unknown individuals...
May 9, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426352/the-risky-reading-strategy-revisited-new-simulations-using-e-z-reader
#8
Victoria A McGowan, Erik D Reichle
Eye-movement studies have demonstrated that, relative to college-aged readers, older readers of alphabetic languages like English and German tend to read more slowly, making more frequent and longer fixations and longer saccades, and skipping more words, but also making more frequent regressions. These findings have led to suggestions that older readers either adopt a "risky" strategy of using context to "guess" words as a way of compensating for slower rates of lexical processing, or have a smaller and more asymmetrical perceptual span...
May 9, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481189/testing-the-limits-of-contextual-constraint-interactions-with-word-frequency-and-parafoveal-preview-during-fluent-reading
#9
Sara C Sereno, Christopher J Hand, Aisha Shahid, Bo Yao, Patrick J O'Donnell
Contextual constraint is a key factor affecting a word's fixation duration and its likelihood of being fixated during reading. Previous research has generally demonstrated additive effects of predictability and frequency in fixation times. Studies examining the role of parafoveal preview have shown that greater preview benefit is obtained from more predictable and higher frequency words versus less predictable and lower frequency words. In two experiments, we investigated effects of target word predictability, frequency, and parafoveal preview...
May 8, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478742/-it-s-hard-to-write-a-good-article-the-online-comprehension-of-excuses-as-indirect-replies
#10
Andrew J Stewart, Jeffrey S Wood, Elizabeth Le-Luan, Bo Yao, Matthew Haigh
In an eye-tracking experiment we examined how readers comprehend indirect replies when they are uttered in reply to a direct question. Participants read vignettes that described two characters engaged in dialogue. Each dialogue contained a direct question (e.g., How are you doing in Chemistry?) answered with an excuse (e.g., The exams are not fair). In response to direct questions, such indirect replies are typically used to avoid a face-threatening disclosure (e.g., doing badly on the Chemistry course). Our goal was to determine whether readers are sensitive during reading to the indirect meaning communicated by such replies...
May 8, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478710/position-preference-and-position-change-of-hiders-in-the-game-of-hide-and-seek
#11
Yasmine B Sanderson
We study common tendencies adult hiders have in choosing and changing positions in the game of hide-and-seek. In our case, the game takes the form of commercial and home-made advent calendars in which the creator has hidden the numbers 1, 2, … , 24 in a seemingly random way. By comparing the numberings in the 332 human generated calendars with those from random numberings, we identify common tendencies that hiders share. We observe that hiders hide things far apart and spread out from each other, behavior which is consistent with, but concurrently extends previous research on hiding and its connection with subjective randomness...
May 8, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471296/map-learning-and-working-memory-multimodal-learning-strategies
#12
Matthew James Knight, Michael Tlauka
The current research investigated whether learning spatial information from a map involves different modalities, which are managed by discrete components in working memory. In four experiments, participants studied a map either while performing a simultaneous interference task (high cognitive load) or without interference (low cognitive load). The modality of interference varied between experiments. Experiment 1 used a tapping task (visuospatial), Experiment 2 a backwards counting task (verbal), Experiment 3 an articulatory suppression task (verbal) and Experiment 4 an n-back task (central executive)...
May 4, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447500/young-skilled-deaf-readers-have-an-enhanced-perceptual-span-in-reading
#13
Nathalie N Bélanger, Michelle Lee, Elizabeth R Schotter
Recently, Bélanger, Slattery, Mayberry and Rayner (2012) showed, using the moving window paradigm, that profoundly deaf adults have a wider perceptual span during reading relative to hearing adults matched on reading level. This difference might be related to the fact that deaf adults allocate more visual attention to simple stimuli in the parafovea (Bavelier, Dye & Hauser, 2006). Importantly, this reorganization of visual attention in deaf individuals is already manifesting in deaf children (Dye, Hauser & Bavelier, 2009)...
April 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440711/carrying-their-own-weight-dogs-perceive-changing-affordances-for-reaching
#14
Jeffrey B Wagman, Matthew D Langley, Valeri Farmer-Dougan
Choices about when to transition between two modes of behaviour are determined by the fit between action capabilities and environmental properties. However, such transitions typically occur not at the absolute limits of action capabilities but rather based on the relative stability of each mode. People transition from an arm-only to an arm-plus-torso-reach, not when object distance exceeds arm length but when the stability of reaching with the arm-plus-torso exceeds that of reaching with the arm only. To the extent that perception is supported by detection of invariant stimulation patterns, such a transition ought to reflect both the fit between action capabilities and environmental properties and the relative stability of modes regardless of species...
April 25, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434395/would-adults-with-autism-be-less-likely-to-bury-the-survivors-an-eye-movement-study-of-anomalous-text-reading
#15
Sheena K Au-Yeung, Johanna K Kaakinen, Simon P Liversedge, Valerie Benson
In a single eye movement experiment we investigated the effects of context on the time course of local and global anomaly processing during reading in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In one condition short paragraph texts contained anomalous target words. Detection of the anomaly was only possible through evaluation of word meaning in relation to the global context of the whole paragraph (Passage Level Anomalies). In another condition the anomaly could be detected via computation of a local thematic violation within a single sentence embedded in the paragraph (Sentence Level Anomalies)...
April 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434379/hick-s-law-for-choice-reaction-time-a-review
#16
Robert W Proctor, Darryl W Schneider
In 1952, W. E. Hick published an article in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, "On the Rate of Gain of Information." It played a seminal role in the cognitive revolution and established one of the few widely acknowledged laws in psychology, relating choice reaction time to the number of stimulus-response alternatives (or amount of uncertainty) in a task. We review the historical context in which Hick conducted his study and describe his experiments and theoretical analyses. We discuss the article's immediate impact on researchers, as well as challenges to and shortcomings of Hick's law and his analysis, including effects of stimulus-response compatibility, practice, very large set sizes, and sequential dependencies...
April 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374635/listeners-processing-of-a-given-reduced-word-pronunciation-variant-directly-reflects-their-exposure-to-this-variant-evidence-from-native-listeners-and-learners-of-french
#17
Sophie Brand, Mirjam Ernestus
In casual conversations, words often lack segments. This study investigates whether listeners rely on their experience with reduced word pronunciation variants during the processing of single segment reduction. We tested three groups of listeners in a lexical decision experiment with French words produced either with or without word-medial schwa (e.g., /ʀəvy/ and /ʀvy/ for revue). Participants also rated the relative frequencies of the two pronunciation variants of the words. If the recognition accuracy and reaction times (RTs) for a given listener group correlate best with the frequencies of occurrence holding for that given listener group, recognition is influenced by listeners' exposure to these variants...
April 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430076/on-using-distributional-analysis-techniques-for-determining-the-onset-of-the-influence-of-experimental-variables
#18
Eyal M Reingold, Heather Sheridan
Much of the investigation of eye-movement control in visual cognition has focused on the influence of experimental variables on mean fixation durations. In the present paper we explored the convergence between two distributional analysis techniques that were recently introduced in this domain. First, Staub, White, Drieghe, Hollway and Rayner, (2010) proposed fitting the ex-Gaussian distribution to individual participants' data in order to ascertain whether a variable has a rapid or a slow influence on fixation durations...
April 21, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429648/-the-influence-of-scene-context-on-parafoveal-processing-of-objects
#19
Monica S Castelhano, Effie J Pereira
Many studies in reading have shown the enhancing effect of context on the processing of a word before it is directly fixated (parafoveal processing of words; Balota et al., 1985; Balota & Rayner, 1983; Ehrlich & Rayner, 1981). Here, we examined whether scene context influences the parafoveal processing of objects and enhances the extraction of object information. Using a modified boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), the Dot-Boundary paradigm, participants fixated on a suddenly-onsetting cue before the preview object would onset 4° away...
April 21, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415910/transfer-of-training-in-simple-addition
#20
Yalin Chen, Jamie I D Campbell
In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e...
April 18, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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