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Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP

Julia C Seibold, Sophie Nolden, Josefa Oberem, Janina Fels, Iring Koch
In an auditory attention-switching paradigm, participants heard two simultaneously spoken number-words, each presented to one ear, and decided if the target number was smaller or larger than five by pressing a left or right key. An instructional cue in each trial indicated which feature had to be used to identify the target-number (e.g. female voice). Auditory attention-switch costs were found when this feature changed compared to when it repeated in two consecutive trials. Earlier studies employing this paradigm showed mixed results when they examined whether such cued auditory attention-switches can be prepared actively during the cue-stimulus-interval...
June 20, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Mitchell Rabinowitz, Jaclin Gerstel-Friedman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The current study used a triad judgment task to assess whether blocking by comparison type in a triad judgment task could lead people to pay less attention to surface level (irrelevant) features and pay more attention to deep (structural) features of information. SAMPLE: A sample of 313 participants recruited through Mechanical Turk participated in this study. METHOD: On each triad, participants were asked to evaluate which of two source scenarios went best with the target scenario...
June 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Martyn C Quigley, Carla J Eatherington, Mark Haselgrove
When a cue reliably predicts an outcome, the associability of that cue will change. Associative theories of learning propose this change will persist even when the same cue is paired with a different outcome. These theories, however, do not extend the same privilege to an outcome; an outcome's learning history is deemed to have no bearing on subsequent new learning involving that outcome. Two experiments were conducted which sought to investigate this assumption inherent in these theories using a serial letter-prediction task...
June 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Caroline Catmur, Cecilia Heyes
Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions...
June 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Daniel E Alarcón, Charlotte Bonardi, Andrew R Delamater
Four experiments compared the effect of forward and backward conditioning procedures on the ability of conditioned stimuli (CSs) to elevate instrumental responding in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task. Two responses were each trained with one distinct outcome (R1->O1, R2->O2), either concurrently (Experiment 1) or separately (Experiments 2, 3 and 4). Then, in Experiments 1 and 2, four CSs were either followed or preceded by one outcome (A-->O1, B->O2,O1->C, O2->D). In Experiment 3 each CS was preceded and followed by an outcome: for one group of participants both outcomes were identical (e...
June 14, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Geoffrey Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Guoli Yan, Zhu Meng, Nina Liu, Liyuan He, Kevin B Paterson
The irrelevant speech effect (ISE) refers to the impairment of visual information processing by background speech. Prior research on the ISE has focused on short-term memory for visually-presented word lists. The present research extends this work by using measurements of eye movements to examine effects of irrelevant background speech during Chinese reading. This enabled an examination of the ISE for a language in which access to semantic representations is not strongly mediated by phonology. Participants read sentences while exposed to meaningful irrelevant speech, meaningless speech (scrambled meaningful speech) or silence...
June 7, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Geoffrey Hall, Gabriel Rodríguez
Mackintosh and his collaborators (e.g., McLaren, Kaye, & Mackintosh, 1989) put forward an account of perceptual learning effects based, in part, on learned changes in stimulus salience. In the workshop held to mark Mackintosh's retirement, and published as a special issue of this journal, Hall (2003) discussed Mackintosh's theory, and proposed his own alternative account. We now want to take the story forward in the light of findings and theoretical perspectives that have emerged since then. Specifically, we will argue that neither Mackintosh nor Hall was correct in his account of the principles that govern how changes in salience occur...
June 7, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jennifer MacRitchie, Steffen A Herff, Andrea Procopio, Peter E Keller
Successful joint action requires negotiation, especially in the event of goal incongruence. This paper addresses goal incongruence in joint musical performance by manipulating the congruence of score instructions (congruent/incongruent) regarding tempo (speed) and dynamics (sound intensity) given to piano duos. The aim is to investigate how co-performers negotiate incongruent instructions for tempo and dynamics by balancing the prioritisation of individual goals versus the joint outcome, and how this negotiation is modulated by musical expertise and personality (locus of control)...
June 6, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Charles Clifton, Lyn Frazier
Language users are sensitive to their language's grammatical requirements, the plausibility of the situation described, and the information shared by speaker and listener. We propose that they are also sensitive to whether an author is likely to be in a state of knowledge that actually supports the assertion being made. Failure to be in such a state reduces the naturalness of the assertion. Consistent with this proposal, sentences with a disjoined noun phrase are judged to be less natural than their conjunctive counterparts (Clifton & Frazier, 2016), presumably because the author of a disjunctive sentence must know that an event took place but not know which of two individuals was the agent...
June 5, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Steffen A Herff, Kirk N Olsen, Roger T Dean, Jon Prince
In a continuous recognition paradigm, most stimuli elicit superior recognition performance when the item to be recognised is the most recent stimulus (a recency-in-memory effect). Furthermore, increasing the number of intervening items cumulatively disrupts memory in most domains. Memory for melodies composed in familiar tuning systems also shows superior recognition for the most recent melody, but no disruptive effects from the number of intervening melodies. A possible explanation has been offered in a novel regenerative multiple representations (RMR) conjecture...
May 26, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Thomas Gallagher-Mitchell, Victoria Simms, Damien Litchfield
In this paper we present an investigation into the use of visual cues during number line estimation, and their influence on cognitive processes for reducing number line estimation error. Participants completed a 0-1000 number line estimation task pre and post a brief intervention in which they observed static-visual or dynamic-visual cues (control, anchor, gaze cursor, mouse cursor) and also made estimation marks to test effective number-target estimation. Results indicated that a significant pre-test to post-test reduction in estimation error was present for dynamic visual cues of modelled eye-gaze and mouse-cursor...
May 25, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Péter Pongrácz, András Péter, Ádám Miklósi
A central problem of behavioural studies providing artificial visual stimuli for non-human animals is to determine how subjects perceive and process these stimuli. Especially in the case of videos it is important to ascertain that animals perceive the actual content of the images and are not just reacting to the motion cues in the presentation. In the current study we set out to investigate how dogs process life-sized videos. We aimed to find out whether dogs perceive the actual content of video images or whether they only react to the videos as a set of dynamic visual elements...
May 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Alan J Pegna, Alexandre Darque, Mark V Roberts, E Charles Leek
This study investigates the effects of stereo disparity on the perception of three-dimensional (3D) object shape. We tested the hypothesis that stereo input modulates the brain activity related to perceptual analyses of 3D shape configuration during image classification. High-density (256-channel) EEG was used to record the temporal dynamics of visual shape processing under conditions of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visual presentation. On each trial, observers made image classification judgements ('Same'/'Different') to two briefly presented, multi-part, novel objects...
May 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Lucy Anne Livingston, Punit Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
John M Henderson, Wonil Choi, Steven G Luke, Joseph Schmidt
Reading requires integration of language and cognitive processes with attention and eye movement control. Individuals differ in their reading ability, but little is known about the neurocognitive processes associated with these individual differences. To investigate this issue, we combined eyetracking and fMRI, simultaneously recording eye movements and BOLD activity while subjects read text passages. We found that the variability and skew of fixation duration distributions across individuals, as assessed by ex-Gaussian analyses, decreased with increasing neural activity in regions associated with the cortical eye movement control network (Left FEF, Left IPS, Left IFG, and Right IFG)...
May 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Cristina Sampaio, Victoria Reinke, Jeffrey Mathews, Alexandra Swart, Stephen Wallinger
We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes, thus it was contingent on the nature of the items used...
May 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jennifer McBride, Petroc Sumner, Masud Husain
Backward-masked primes presented outside conscious awareness can affect responses to subsequently presented target stimuli. Differences in response times have been used to infer a pattern of sub-threshold activation and subsequent inhibition of motor plans associated with the primes. However, it is unclear whether competition between alternative responses is fully resolved in the brain, or whether activated responses can begin being executed before the final decision to act has been made. Here, we investigate the dynamics of responses evoked by masked primes using a continuous measure - voltage change in force sensing resistors simultaneously in both hands...
May 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Phillip L Morgan, Craig Williams, Fay M Ings, Nia C Hughes
Two experiments examined if exposure to emotionally valent image-based secondary tasks introduced at different points of a free recall working memory (WM) task impair memory performance. Images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS: Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008) varied in the degree of negative or positive valance (mild, moderate, strong) and were positioned at low, moderate, and high WM load points with participants rating them based upon perceived valence. As predicted, and based on previous research and theory, the higher the degree of negative (Experiment 1) and positive (Experiment 2) valence and the higher the WM load when a secondary task was introduced, the greater the impairment to recall...
May 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Catherine Bortolon, Siméon Lorieux, Stéphane Raffard
Self-face recognition has been widely explored in the last few years. Nevertheless, the current literature relies on the use of standardized photographs, which do not represent daily life face recognition. Therefore, we aim for the first time to evaluate self-face processing in healthy individuals using natural/ambient images, which contain variations in the environment and in the face itself. Forty undergraduate and graduate students performed a forced delayed-matching task including images of one's own face, friend, famous and unknown individuals...
May 9, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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