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Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP

Jukka Hyönä, Ming Yan, Seppo Vainio
The preferred viewing location in words (Rayner, 1979) during reading is near the word center. Parafoveal word length information is utilized to guide the eyes toward it. A recent study of Yan et al. (2014) demonstrated that the word's morphological structure may also be used in saccadic targeting. The study was conducted in a morphologically rich language, Uighur. The present study aimed at replicating their main findings in another morphologically rich language, Finnish. Similarly to Yan et al., it was found that the initial fixation landed closer to the word beginning for morphologically complex than monomorphemic words...
December 1, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Omar Pérez-Riveros, Michael R F Aitken, Peter Zhukovsky, Fabián A Soto, Gonzalo P Urcelay, Anthony Dickinson
Associative learning theories regard the probability of reinforcement as the critical factor determining responding. However, the role of this factor in instrumental conditioning is not completely clear. In fact, a wealth of evidence from instrumental free-operant experiments has shown that participants respond at a higher rate on variable ratio than on variable interval schedules even though the reinforcement probability on the interval schedule is the same as or greater than that on the ratio schedule. This difference has been attributed to the differential reinforcement of long inter-response times (IRT) by interval schedules, which acts to slow responding...
November 29, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Maria P Henriksson, Tommy Enkvist
This multiple-cue judgment study investigates whether we can manipulate the judgment strategy and increase accuracy in linear and nonlinear cue-criterion environments just by changing the training mode. Three experiments show that accuracy in simple linear additive task environments are improved with feedback training and intervention training, while accuracy in complex multiplicative tasks are improved with observational training. The observed interaction effect suggests that the training mode invites different strategies that are adjusted as a function of experience to the demands from the underlying cue-criterion structure...
November 24, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Anne E Cook, Erinn K Walsh, Margaret A A Bills, John C Kircher, Edward J O'Brien
Several theorists have argued that readers fail to detect semantic anomalies during reading, and that these effects are indicative of "shallow processing" behaviors. Previous studies of semantic anomalies such as the Moses Illusion have focused primarily on explicit detection tasks. In the present study, we examined participants' eye movements as they read true/false statements that were non-anomalous, or contained a semantic anomaly that was either high- or low-related to the correct information. Analyses of reading behaviors revealed: only low-related detected anomalies resulted in initial processing difficulty, but both detected and undetected anomalies, regardless of whether they were high- or low-related, resulted in delayed processing difficulty...
November 24, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Natalie Berger, Margot Crossman, Karen R Brandt
Research indicates that people can intentionally forget, but it is less clear how ageing and emotion interact with this ability. The present research investigated item-method directed forgetting of negative, neutral, and positive words in young (20-35 years), young-old (60-74 years), and old-old (75-89 years) adults. Although old-old adults showed overall reduced memory compared to young and young-old adults, all three age groups showed intentional forgetting. Moreover, intentional forgetting was not affected by the valence of the word in any of the three age groups...
November 24, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Eduard Berndt, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
According to the experiential-simulations view of cognition, words automatically activate experiential traces that stem from the reader's interactions with their referents. In the present study, we focused on the corresponding influence in the opposite direction. By means of an anagram-solving task we investigated whether activating spatial experiential traces would activate corresponding concepts, which in turn would facilitate access to words associated with them. Participants solved anagrams of nouns associated with the ocean or the sky (e...
November 24, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Mike Corke, Jason Bell, Stephanie C Goodhew, Michael Smithson, Mark Edwards
Previous psychophysical studies at durations greater than 1,000ms have confirmed the anecdotal reports of an increase in the perceived duration of both positively and negatively-valenced emotive stimuli; however, the results of studies at durations less than 1,000ms have been inconsistent. This study further investigated the effect of valence on the perception of durations less than 1,000ms. We used both positively and negatively-valenced stimuli in order to compare their effects on the distortion of duration and we tested multiple data points within the sub-one second range...
November 23, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
David Luque, Miguel A Vadillo, María J Gutiérrez-Cobo, Mike E Le Pelley
Blocking refers to the finding that less is learned about the relationship between a stimulus and an outcome if pairings are conducted in the presence of a second stimulus that has previously been established (via pretraining) as a reliable predictor of that outcome. Attentional models of associative learning suggest that blocking reflects a reduction in the attention paid to the blocked cue. We tested this idea in three experiments in which participants were trained in an associative learning task using a blocking procedure...
November 22, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Fiona McNab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Krista M Matthews-Saugstad, Erik P Raymakers, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Gesture during speech can promote or diminish recall for conversation content. We explored effects of cognitive load on this relationship, manipulating it at two scales: individual-word abstractness and social constraints to prohibit gestures. Prohibited gestures can diminish recall but more so for abstract-word recall. Insofar as movement planning adds to cognitive load, movement amplitude may moderate gesture effects on memory, with greater permitted-and prohibited-gesture movements reducing abstract-word recall and concrete-word recall, respectively...
November 22, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Mariëtte J J van Maarseveen, Raôul R D Oudejans, David L Mann, Geert J P Savelsbergh
Many studies have shown that experts possess better perceptual-cognitive skills than novices (e.g., in anticipation, decision making, pattern recall), but it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between performance on those tests of perceptual-cognitive skill and actual on-field performance. In this study, we assessed the in situ performance of skilled soccer players and related the outcomes to measures of anticipation, decision making, and pattern recall. In addition, we examined gaze behaviour when performing the perceptual-cognitive tests to better understand whether the underlying processes were related when those perceptual-cognitive tasks were performed...
November 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Chi T Ngo, Marianne E Lloyd
Remembering arbitrary associations, such as unrelated word pairs or object-background pairs, appears to depend on recollection. However, for cases in which the components of an association share pre-existing semantic relations, can familiarity support associative recognition? In two experiments with congruent object-background pairings, we found that participants were successful at direct and indirect associative recognition in both 1000 ms time restriction (speeded) and unlimited response time (non-speeded) test conditions...
November 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Samantha E Tuft, Conor T MᶜLennan, Maura L Krestar
Previous spoken word recognition research using the long-term repetition-priming paradigm found performance costs for stimuli mismatching in talker identity. That is, when words were repeated across the two blocks, and the identity of the talker changed reaction times (RTs) were slower than when the repeated words were spoken by the same talker. Such performance costs, or talker effects, followed a time course, occurring only when processing was relatively slow. More recent research suggests that increased explicit and implicit attention towards the talkers can result in talker effects even during relatively fast processing...
November 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Kayleigh L Warrington, Sarah J White, Kevin B Paterson
Research with lexical neighbours (words that differ by a single letter while the number and order of letters are preserved) indicates that readers frequently misperceive a word as its higher frequency neighbour (HFN) even during normal reading. But how this lexical influence on word identification changes across the adult lifespan is largely unknown, although slower lexical processing and reduced visual abilities in later adulthood may lead to an increased incidence of word misperception errors. In particular, older adults may be more likely than younger adults to misidentify a word as its HFN, especially when the HFN is congruent with prior sentence context, although this has not been investigated...
November 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Lucy V Justice, Catriona M Morrison, Martin A Conway
Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs...
November 17, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Thao B Nguyen, Kathy Pezdek, John T Wixted
Discrimination accuracy is usually higher for same- than for cross-race faces, a phenomenon known as the cross-race effect (CRE). According to prior research, the CRE occurs because memories for same- and cross-race faces rely on qualitatively different processes. However, according to a continuous dual-process model of recognition memory, memories that rely on qualitatively different processes do not differ in recognition accuracy when confidence is equated. Thus, although there are differences in overall same- and cross-race discrimination accuracy, confidence-specific accuracy (i...
November 5, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
David B Etchells, Joseph L Brooks, Robert A Johnston
Many models of face recognition incorporate the idea of a face recognition unit (FRU), an abstracted representation formed from each experience of a face which aids recognition under novel viewing conditions. Some previous studies have failed to find evidence of this FRU representation. Here, we report three experiments which investigated this theoretical construct by modifying the face learning procedure from that in previous work. During learning, one or two views of previously unfamiliar faces were shown to participants in a serial matching task...
November 4, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jerwen Jou, Eric E Escamilla, Mario L Arredondo, Liann Pena, Richard Zuniga, Martin Perez, Clarissa Garcia
How much of the DRM false memory is attributable to decision criterion is so far a controversial issue. Previous studies typically used explicit warnings against accepting the critical lure to investigate this issue. The assumption is that if the false memory results from using a liberally biased criterion, it should be greatly reduced or eliminated by an explicit warning against accepting the critical lure. Results showed that warning was generally ineffective. We asked the question of whether subjects can substantially reduce false recognition without being warned when the test forces them to make a distinction between true and false memories...
November 3, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Barbara J Juhasz
Recording eye movements provides information on the time-course of word recognition during reading. Juhasz and Rayner (2003) examined the impact of five word recognition variables, including familiarity and age-of-acquisition (AoA), on fixation durations. All variables impacted fixation durations, but the time-course differed. However, the study focused on relatively short, morphologically simple words. Eye movements are also informative for examining the processing of morphologically complex words such as compound words (e...
October 28, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Mackenzie G Glaholt, Eyal M Reingold
Prior research has demonstrated that task instructions can influence the locations and durations of eye fixations during scene viewing. These task-related changes in gaze patterns are likely to be associated with a top-down influence of attention. In the present study we applied a saccadic-inhibition manipulation in order to detect another expected manifestation of top-down attention: perceptual enhancement. Participants viewed eight-item arrays containing colour photographs from two categories of scenes. Four of the eight photos depicted natural landscapes ("nature" scenes) and the other four depicted urban environments ("buildings" scenes)...
October 27, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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