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Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326995/multipic-a-standardized-set-of-750-drawings-with-norms-for-six-european-languages
#1
Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Davide Crepaldi, Antje S Meyer, Boris New, Christos Pliatsikas, Eva Smolka, Marc Brysbaert
Numerous studies in psychology, cognitive neuroscience and psycholinguistics have used pictures of objects as stimulus materials. Currently, authors engaged in cross-linguistic work or wishing to run parallel studies at multiple sites where different languages are spoken must rely on rather small sets of black-and-white or colored line drawings. These sets are increasingly experienced as being too limited. Therefore, we constructed a new set of 750 colored pictures of concrete concepts. This set, MultiPic, constitutes a new valuable tool for cognitive scientists investigating language, visual perception, memory and/or attention in monolingual or multilingual populations...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326968/item-method-directed-forgetting-and-working-memory-capacity-a-hierarchical-multinomial-modeling-approach
#2
Ivan Marevic, Nina R Arnold, Jan Rummel
Intentional forgetting of information that has recently been encoded is regarded an active and adaptive process and is widely studied using the item-method or the list-method directed forgetting (DF) paradigm. In the present research, we tested whether inter-individual differences in working-memory capacity (WMC), that have been identified as a relevant predictor of DF within the list-method, are also related to stronger DF effects within the item-method. Furthermore, we investigated relationships between WMC and item-method DF at different processing stages by applying the multinomial storage-retrieval model (Riefer & Rouder, 1992) hierarchically to our data...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326966/cognitive-load-during-route-selection-increases-reliance-on-spatial-heuristics
#3
Tad T Brunyé, Shaina B Martis, Holly A Taylor
Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326947/change-deafness-dual-task-performance-and-domain-specific-expertise
#4
John G Neuhoff, Katharina S Bochtler
In a change deafness manipulation using radio broadcasts of sporting events, we show that change deafness to a switch in talker increases when listeners are asked to monitor both lexical and indexical information for change. We held semantic content constant and demonstrated a change deafness rate of 85% when participants listened to the home team broadcast of a hockey game that switched midway to the away team broadcast with a different announcer. In Study 2 participants were asked to monitor either the indexical characteristics (listen for a change in announcer) or both the indexical and semantic components (listen for a change in announcer or a goal scored)...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326893/psycholinguistic-norms-for-320-fixed-expressions-idioms-and-proverbs-in-french
#5
Patrick Bonin, Alain Méot, Jean-Michel Boucheix, Aurélia Bugaiska
We provide psycholinguistic norms for a new set of 160 French idiomatic expressions and 160 proverbs: knowledge, predictability, literality, compositionality, subjective and objective frequency, familiarity, age of acquisition (AoA), and length. Different analyses (reliability, descriptive statistics, correlations) performed on the norms are reported and discussed. The norms can be downloaded as supplemental material.
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326888/peripersonal-versus-extrapersonal-visual-scene-information-for-egocentric-direction-and-position-perception
#6
Ryoichi Nakashima, Takatsune Kumada
When perceiving the visual environment, people simultaneously perceive their own direction and position in the environment (i.e., egocentric spatial perception). This study investigated what visual information in a scene is necessary for egocentric spatial perceptions. In two perception tasks (the egocentric direction and position perception tasks), observers viewed two static road images presented sequentially. In Experiment 1, the critical manipulation involved an occluded region in the road image; an extrapersonal region (far-occlusion) and a peripersonal region (near-occlusion)...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322110/the-preferred-viewing-location-in-top-to-bottom-sentence-reading
#7
Rebecca L Johnson, Emma L Starr
The preferred viewing location (PVL) is a robust finding in research on reading that when fixating on a word during normal sentence reading, readers tend to land slightly to the left of the center of the word. This is in contrast to the optimal viewing location (OVL) in single word recognition, which falls at the center of the word. The current study outlines the history of the PVL in eye-tracking since Rayner's 1979 original study, documenting the origins of these conflicting theoretical explanations. In addition, a new study is reported examining whether the PVL can be attributed solely to oculomotor error or a processing advantage by using an experimental manipulation that separates tracking direction (left-to-right reading) and landing position (left-to-right within a word)...
March 21, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318415/is-the-hebb-repetition-task-a-reliable-measure-of-individual-differences-in-sequence-learning
#8
Louisa Bogaerts, Noam Siegelman, Tali Ben-Porat, Ram Frost
The Hebb repetition task, an operationalization of long-term sequence learning through repetition, is the focus of renewed interest, as it is taken to provide a laboratory analogue for naturalistic vocabulary acquisition. Indeed, recent studies have consistently related performance in the Hebb repetition task with a range of linguistic (dis)abilities. However, in spite of the growing interest in the Hebb repetition effect as a theoretical construct, no previous research has ever tested whether the task used to assess Hebb learning offers a stable and reliable measure of individual performance in sequence learning...
March 20, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303756/the-cognitive-underpinnings-of-mental-model-construction-in-l1-and-l2
#9
Polly O'Rourke, Michael F Bunting
The current study investigated the ability to create mental models and the role of working memory in mental model ability in the first and second language with English-Spanish bilinguals using L1 and L2 versions of the Spatial Integration Task. Participants showed effects of continuity in accuracy in L1 and L2 but only in L1 did they show effects in the reading times. In L1, working memory capacity predicted identification accuracy for discontinuous descriptions in L1 as well as reading time for the critical discontinuous sentence...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303749/-spontaneous-visual-perspective-taking-mediated-by-attention-orienting-that-is-voluntary-and-not-reflexive
#10
Mark R Gardner, Zainabb Hull, Donna Taylor, Caroline J Edmonds
Experiments revealing 'spontaneous' visual perspective-taking are conventionally interpreted as demonstrating that adults have the capacity to track simple mental states in a fast and efficient manner ('implicit mentalising'). A rival account suggests that these experiments can be explained by the general purpose mechanisms responsible for reflexive attentional orienting. Here, we report two experiments designed to distinguish between these competing accounts. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether reflexive attention orienting was sufficient to yield findings interpreted as spontaneous perspective taking in the 'avatar task' (Samson et al...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303748/do-animacy-effects-persist-in-memory-for-context
#11
Margaux Gelin, Patrick Bonin, Alain Méot, Aurélia Bugaiska
The adaptive view of human memory (Nairne, 2010) assumes that animates (e.g., rabbit) are remembered better than inanimates (e.g., glass) because animates are ultimately more important for fitness than inanimates. Previous studies provided evidence for this view by showing that animates were recalled or recognized better than inanimates (e.g., Nairne, VanArsdall, Pandeirada, Cogdill, & LeBreton, 2013), but they did not assess memory for contextual details (e.g., where animates vs. inanimates occurred). In this study, we tested recollection of spatial information (Study 1) and temporal information (Study 2) associated with animate versus inanimate words...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303743/incremental-comprehension-of-pitch-relationships-in-written-music-evidence-from-eye-movements
#12
Lauren V Hadley, Patrick Sturt, Tuomas Eerola, Martin J Pickering
To investigate how proficient pianists comprehend pitch relationships in written music when they first encounter it we conducted two experiments in which proficient pianists' eyes were tracked while they read and played single-line melodies. In Experiment 1, participants played at their own speed; in Experiment 2 they played with an external metronome. The melodies were either congruent or anomalous, with the anomaly involving one bar being shifted in pitch to alter the implied harmonic structure (e.g., non-resolution of a dominant)...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303742/attentional-bias-to-threat-in-the-general-population-is-contingent-on-target-competition-not-on-attentional-control-settings
#13
Benedikt Emanuel Wirth, Dirk Wentura
Dot-probe studies usually find an attentional bias towards threatening stimuli only in anxious participants. Here, we investigated under what conditions such a bias occurs in unselected samples. According to contingent-capture theory, an irrelevant cue only captures attention if it matches an attentional control setting. Therefore, we first tested the hypothesis that an attentional control setting tuned to threat must be activated in (non-anxious) individuals. In Experiment 1, we used a dot-probe task with a manipulation of attentional control settings ("threat"-set vs...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303739/the-virtual-maze-a-behavioural-tool-for-measuring-trust
#14
Joanna Hale, Madeleine E M Payne, Kathryn M Taylor, Davide Paoletti, Antonia F De C Hamilton
Trusting another person may depend on our level of generalised trust in others, as well as perceptions of that specific person's trustworthiness. However, many studies measuring trust outcomes have not discussed generalised versus specific trust. To measure specific trust in others, we developed a novel behavioural task. Participants navigate a virtual maze and make a series of decisions about how to proceed. Before each decision, they may ask for advice from two virtual characters they have briefly interviewed earlier...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300478/step-by-step-harvesting-the-dynamics-of-delay-discounting-decisions
#15
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
People show a tendency to devalue rewards when they are delayed in time. This so-called delay discounting often happens to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. Research studying outcomes of delay discounting decisions has successfully derived descriptive models for such choice preferences. However, this outcome-based approach faces limitations in integrating the influence of contextual factors on the decision. Recently, this outcome-centred perspective on delay discounting has been complemented by a focus on the process dynamics leading to delay discounting decisions...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300468/comprehension-demands-modulate-re-reading-but-not-first-pass-reading-behavior
#16
Anna Fiona Weiss, Franziska Kretzschmar, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Adrian Staub
Several studies have examined effects of explicit task demands on eye movements in reading. However, there is relatively little prior research investigating the influence of implicit processing demands. In the present study, processing demands were manipulated by means of a between-subject manipulation of comprehension question difficulty. Consistent with previous results from Wotschack and Kliegl (2013), the question difficulty manipulation influenced the probability of regressing from late in sentences and re-reading earlier regions; readers who expected difficult comprehension questions were more likely to re-read...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300007/the-consistency-of-the-subjective-concept-of-randomness
#17
Ru Qi Yu, Jordan Gunn, Daniel Osherson, Jiaying Zhao
A pervasive bias in the subjective concept of randomness is that people often expect random sequences to exhibit more alternations than produced by genuine random processes. What is less known is the stability of this bias. Here we examine two important aspects of the over-alternation bias: first, whether this bias is present in stimuli that vary across feature dimensions, sensory modalities, presentation modes, and probing methods; and second, how consistent the bias is across these stimulus variations. In Experiment 1, participants adjusted sequences until they looked maximally random...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294703/the-morphosyntactic-structure-of-compound-words-influences-parafoveal-processing-in-chinese-reading
#18
Denis Drieghe, Lei Cui, Guoli Yan, Xuejun Bai, Hui Chi, Simon P Liversedge
In an eye movement experiment employing the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) we compared parafoveal preview benefit during the reading of Chinese sentences. The target word was a 2-character compound that had either a noun-noun or an adjective-noun structure each sharing an identical noun as the second character. The boundary was located between the two characters of the compound word. Prior to the eyes crossing the boundary the preview of the second character was presented either normally or was replaced by a pseudo-character...
March 15, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293982/visual-versus-auditory-simon-effect-a-behavioural-and-physiological-investigation
#19
Stefania D'Ascenzo, Luisa Lugli, Giulia Baroni, Roberto Guidotti, Sandro Rubichi, Cristina Iani, Roberto Nicoletti
The present study investigated whether the visual and auditory Simon effects could be accounted for by the same mechanism. In a single experiment we performed a detailed comparison of the visual and the auditory Simon effects arising in behavioural responses and in pupil dilation, a psychophysiological measure considered as a marker of the cognitive effort induced by conflict processing. To address our question, we performed sequential and distributional analyses on both reaction times and pupil dilation. Results confirmed that the mechanisms underlying the visual and auditory Simon effects are functionally equivalent in terms of the interaction between unconditional and conditional response processes...
March 15, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293981/examining-theories-of-cognitive-ageing-using-the-false-memory-paradigm
#20
Charlotte Askey, David Playfoot
Changes in memory performance with advancing age have been well-documented, even in the absence of brain injury or dementia. The mechanisms underlying cognitive ageing are still a matter of debate. The current paper describes a comparison between young (18-25 year old) and older (60+ years) adults using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm and manipulating the number of words included in the memory lists. Two key theories of cognitive ageing (the Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis and the Transmission Deficit Hypothesis) predict opposing patterns on this task...
March 15, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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