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Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP

Léo Dutriaux, Xavière Dahiez, Valérie Gyselinck
According to grounded cognition, the format of representation of knowledge is sensorimotor. This means that long-term memory shares processing resources with the sensorimotor system. The main objective of this work is to provide new evidence in favour of two claims from the embodied cognition framework: (1) memory is grounded on the sensorimotor system, that is, memory shares processing resources with the sensorimotor system, and (2) memory serves at least in part to support action. For this purpose, the present experiment aimed to show that the action context modulates the motor simulation and, consequently, the memory of manipulable objects...
July 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jeffrey B Wagman, Vincent T Cialdella, Thomas A Stoffregen
Affordances are available behaviours emerging from relations between properties of animals and their environment. In any situation, multiple behaviours are available, that is, multiple affordances exist. We asked whether participants could detect means-ends relations among affordances (i.e., higher order affordances) in the context of reaching to a maximum height. We both assessed perceived affordances and evaluated actual reaching ability. In Experiment 1, we co-varied higher order goals (reaching to touch vs reaching to grasp) and the lower order effectors used to achieve the goals (fingertips vs a hand-held tool)...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Karolina Moutsopoulou, Christina Pfeuffer, Andrea Kiesel, Qing Yang, Florian Waszak
Previous research has shown that stimulus-response associations comprise associations between the stimulus and the task (a classification task in particular) and the stimulus and the action performed as a response. These associations, contributing to the phenomenon of priming, affect behaviour after a delay of hundreds of trials and they are resistant against overwriting. Here, we investigate their longevity, testing their effects in short-term (seconds after priming) and long-term (24 hr and 1 week after priming) memory...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Dejan Draschkow, Saliha Reinecke, Corbin A Cunningham, Melissa L-H Võ
Visual long-term memory capacity appears massive and detailed when probed explicitly. In the real world, however, memories are usually built from chance encounters. Therefore, we investigated the capacity and detail of incidental memory in a novel encoding task, instructing participants to detect visually distorted objects among intact objects. In a subsequent surprise recognition memory test, lures of a novel category, another exemplar, the same object in a different state, or exactly the same object were presented...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Hagit Magen
The Dimension-Action model maintains that response selection in the visual system is modular, such that response selection based on a target's feature occurs within modules. This study suggests that response selection processes based on a target's spatial location occur within modules as well, where spatial locations are coded along with the feature information. From this perspective, the typical Simon effect, in which interference occurs between a target's feature and its spatial location, occurs within modules...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Hirofumi Ida, Kazunobu Fukuhara, Motonobu Ishii, Tetsuri Inoue
This study was aimed at determining how the visual information of an end-effector (racket) and the intermediate extremity (arm) of a tennis server contribute to the receiver's anticipatory judgement of ball direction. In all, 15 experienced tennis players and 15 novice counterparts viewed a spatially occluded computer graphics animation of a tennis serve (no-occlusion, racket-occlusion, and body-occlusion) and made anticipatory judgements of ball direction on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The patterns of the serve motions were generated by a simulation technique that computationally perturbs the rotation speed of the selected racket-arm joint (forearm pronation and elbow extension) on a captured serve motion...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Chaoyi Wang, Charles H Shea
Two tasks (A and B) were designed which required participants to sequentially move through four target positions in a Lissajous display. Task A was designed so that participants could complete the task using either unimanual or bimanual control strategies. Task B was designed so that participants could complete the task using relatively simple or more complex bimanual control strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine which control strategy the participant utilises to complete the two tasks when Lissajous displays are provided and to determine the degree to which the size of the targets influences the control strategy chosen under these conditions...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Kiyofumi Miyoshi, Hiroshi Ashida
Using different types of stimuli, such as pictures, horizontally written Japanese words, and vertically written Japanese words, this study investigated the spatial patterns of the sense of familiarity within the visual field. The perceptual asymmetry theory predicted that stimuli in the lower visual field would be processed more fluently and would therefore be perceived as more familiar. The working memory theory, originally proposed in space-number research, envisaged type-specific spatial patterns for different stimuli...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Paul Miller, Batel Hazan-Liran, Danielle Cohen
Previous studies have shown that task-irrelevant information impedes learning by creating extraneous cognitive load. But still open is whether such intrusion reflects a purely semantic phenomenon or whether it also stands for sheer perceptual interference. Using Cognitive Load Theory as a framework, this study aimed to answer this question by examining whether and how task-irrelevant colour information modifies extraneous cognitive load in relation to a new code-learning paradigm. For this purpose, university students were asked to learn, based on an example, associations between colour-related and colour-unrelated words and digits presented in black or in a mismatched ink colour...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Lela Ivaz, Kim L Griffin, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia
Foreign language contexts impose a relative psychological and emotional distance in bilinguals. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that the use of a foreign language changes the strength of the seemingly automatic emotional responses in the self-paradigm, showing a robust asymmetry in the self-bias effect in a native and a foreign language context. Namely, larger effects were found in the native language, suggesting an emotional blunting in the foreign language context. In the present study, we investigated the source of these effects by directly comparing whether they stem from a language's foreignness versus its non-nativeness...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Antoine Pasquali, Axel Cleeremans, Vinciane Gaillard
In sequence learning tasks, participants' sensitivity to the sequential structure of a series of events often overshoots their ability to express relevant knowledge intentionally, as in generation tasks that require participants to produce either the next element of a sequence (inclusion) or a different element (exclusion). Comparing generation performance under inclusion and exclusion conditions makes it possible to assess the respective influences of conscious and unconscious learning. Recently, two main concerns have been expressed concerning such tasks...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Daniele Nardi, Brian J Anzures, Josie M Clark, Brittany V Griffith
Among the environmental stimuli that can guide navigation in space, most attention has been dedicated to visual information. The process of determining where you are and which direction you are facing (called reorientation) has been extensively examined by providing the navigator with two sources of information-typically the shape of the environment and its features-with an interest in the extent to which they are used. Similar questions with non-visual cues are lacking. Here, blindfolded sighted participants had to learn the location of a target in a real-world, circular search space...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Paul E Engelhardt, Mhairi Eg McMullon, Martin Corley
Recent work has begun to focus on the role that individual differences in executive function and intelligence have on the production of fluent speech. However, isolating the underlying causes of different types of disfluency has been difficult given the speed and complexity of language production. In this study, we focused on the role of memory abilities and verbal intelligence, and we chose a task that relied heavily on memory for successful performance. Given the task demands, we hypothesised that a substantial proportion of disfluencies would be due to memory retrieval problems...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Kevin Dent, Geoff G Cole
The "visual cocktail party effect" refers to superior report of a participant's own name, under conditions of inattention. An early selection account suggests this advantage stems from enhanced visual processing. A late selection account suggests the advantage occurs when semantic information allowing identification as one's own name is retrieved. In the context of inattentional blindness (IB), Mack and Rock showed that the advantage does not generalise to a minor modification of a participant's own name, despite extensive visual similarity, supporting the late selection account...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Markus Janczyk, Glyn W Humphreys, Jie Sui
Self-related information is under many circumstances processed in a preferred and biased way, leading to what has been termed the self-prioritisation effect (SPE). The SPE has been demonstrated with arbitrary stimuli assigned to self and others, thereby controlling the influence of familiarity, and originally been attributed to facilitated perceptual processing of self-related stimuli. Subsequent studies, however, casted doubts on this interpretation and suggested further possible sources for the SPE. In the present four experiments, we used the well-established psychological refractory period paradigm together with the locus of slack and the effect propagation logic to pinpoint the source of the SPE...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sarah D Creer, Anne E Cook, Edward J O'Brien
Readers do not always adopt the perspective of the protagonist; however, they will under certain conditions. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that readers will take the perspective of the protagonist from the third-person point of view, but only when explicitly instructed to do so. Experiment 2 demonstrated that reading from the first-person point of view is a text-based manipulation that encourages readers to adopt the perspective of the protagonist. The results of Experiments 3a and 3b replicated the findings of Experiments 1a and 2...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sheri Reichelson, Alexandra Zax, Andrea L Patalano, Hilary C Barth
The grouping of options into arbitrary categories influences adults' decisions about allocating choices or resources among those options; this is called "partition dependence." Partition dependence has been demonstrated in a wide range of contexts in adults and is often presented as a technique for designing choice architectures that nudge people towards better decisions. Whether children also make partition dependent decisions is unknown, as are potential patterns of developmental change. In this experiment ( N = 159), we examined whether children exhibit partition dependence using a novel resource allocation task...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Freya Crosby, Frouke Hermens
Studies of fear of crime often focus on demographic and social factors, but these can be difficult to change. Studies of visual aspects have suggested that features reflecting incivilities, such as litter, graffiti, and vandalism increase fear of crime, but methods often rely on participants actively mentioning such aspects, and more subtle, less conscious aspects may be overlooked. To address these concerns, this study examined people's eye movements while they judged scenes for safety. In total, 40 current and former university students were asked to rate images of day-time and night-time scenes of Lincoln, UK (where they studied) and Egham, UK (unfamiliar location) for safety, maintenance, and familiarity while their eye movements were recorded...
June 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jade Eloise Norris, Sarah Clayton, Camilla Gilmore, Matthew Inglis, Julie Castronovo
Recent studies have highlighted the influence of visual cues such as dot size and cumulative surface area on the measurement of the approximate number system (ANS). Previous studies assessing ANS acuity in ageing have all applied stimuli generated by the Panamath protocol, which does not control nor measure the influence of convex hull. Crucially, convex hull has recently been identified as an influential visual cue present in dot arrays, with its impact on older adults' ANS acuity yet to be investigated. The current study therefore investigated the manipulation of convex hull by the Panamath protocol, and its effect on the measurement of ANS acuity in younger and older participants...
May 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Gabriel Rodríguez, Manuel Aranzubia-Olasolo, Unai Liberal, Fernando Rodríguez-San Juan, Geoffrey Hall
Two experiments made use of a procedure known to generate latent inhibition in human associative learning. Participants received training consisting of exposure to a list of actions performed by a fictitious Mr. X. For most of his actions, an outcome was described, but some were not followed by any outcome. The last action performed by Mr. X was novel for participants in the NOVEL condition. For participants in the EXPOSED condition, Mr. X had performed that target action on repeated occasions, without it producing any outcome...
May 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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