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Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP

Michael B Wolfe, Todd J Williams
When people change beliefs as a result of reading a text, are they aware of these changes? This question was examined for beliefs about spanking as an effective means of discipline. In two experiments, subjects reported beliefs about spanking effectiveness during a prescreening session. In a subsequent experimental session, subjects read a one-sided text that advocated a belief consistent or inconsistent position on the topic. After reading, subjects reported their current beliefs and attempted to recollect their initial beliefs...
September 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Kyle R Cave, Tamaryn Menneer, Mohammad S Nomani, Michael J Stroud, Nick Donnelly
Previous research shows that visual search for two different targets is less efficient than search for a single target. Stroud, Menneer, Cave and Donnelly (2012) concluded that two target colours are represented separately based on modeling the fixation patterns. Although those analyses provide evidence for two separate target representations, they do not show whether participants search simultaneously for both targets, or first search for one target and then the other. Some studies suggest that multiple target representations are simultaneously active, while others indicate that search can be voluntarily simultaneous, or switching, or a mixture of both...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Irina Baetu, A G Baker
Perceptions of the effectiveness of a moderate probabilistic cause are influenced by the presence of stronger alternative causes. One important idea is that this influence occurs because the strong cause renders the weaker one statistically redundant. Alternatively, the causes might be contrasted to each other, so the stronger cause may simply overpower perceptions of the weaker one. Causes may have the same polarity (e.g., two generative/excitatory causes or two preventive/inhibitory causes) or be of opposite polarity (e...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Timothy J Slattery, Mark Yates
Readers eyes often skip over words as they read. Skipping rates are largely determined by word length; short words are skipped more than long words. However, the predictability of a word in context also impacts skipping rates. Rayner, Slattery, Drieghe and Liversedge (2011) reported an effect of predictability on word skipping for even long words (10-13 characters) that extend beyond the word identification span. Recent research suggests that better readers and spellers have an enhanced perceptual span (Veldre & Andrews, 2014)...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Stephan G Boehm, Ciaran Smith, Niklas Muench, Kirsty Noble, Catherine Atherton
Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Simon P Liversedge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Karlos Luna, Beatriz Martín-Luengo, Pedro B Albuquerque
Past research has shown that the perceptual characteristics of studied items (e.g., font size) leads to a metamemory illusion, and that delayed JOLs are better predictors of memory performance than immediate JOLs. Here, we tested whether delayed JOLs could reduce or eliminate the effect of perceptual characteristics on JOLs and restudy decisions. We adopted a meta-analytic approach and analysed the results of 28 experiments in which participants studied items presented in either large or small font. JOLs and, sometimes, restudy decisions, were collected either immediately or after a delay...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Kanji Tanaka, Katsumi Watanabe
This study investigated whether implicit learning of sequence by observation occurred in a serial reaction time task and if the learning effects were modulated by model behavioral type. In Experiment 1, we let 20 participants perform a sequence for 12 blocks and chose the best and worst performance models based on reaction time and errors. In Experiment 2, new observers viewed a movie clip chosen from the following three: the best model performing the sequential task in the first (the first six blocks) or second session (the last six blocks), or the worst model performing the task in the first session...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Tao Zeng, Wen Mao, Rongfeng Liu
This paper explores structural integration between arithmetic and language by investigating whether the structure of an arithmetic equation influences the way children and adults interpret Chinese sentences in the form of NP1+VP1+NP2+VP2, where the VP2 can attach high as a predicate of NP1 or attach low as a predicate of NP2. Participants first solved an arithmetic problem where the last number was to be attached high (e.g., (5+1+2)x3) or low (e.g., 5+(1+2×3)) and then provided a completion to a preamble in the form of NP1+VP1+NP2+HEN 'very' … , or decided on the meaning of an ambiguous sentence...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Dorothy W S Kwok, Robert A Boakes
In a serial overshadowing procedure a target stimulus, A, is followed after an interval by a potentially interfering stimulus, B, and this is then followed by an unconditioned stimulus, US. Revusky (1977) proposed that the degree to which B overshadows conditioning of A depends on whether or not the two events take place in the same context. To test this proposal two experiments used a 1-trial long-delay conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure; sucrose served as the target taste (A) and dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the overshadowing taste (B), with lithium chloride injection providing the US...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Viktória Havas, J S H Taylor, Lucía Vaquero, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Matthew H Davis
We studied the initial acquisition and overnight consolidation of new spoken words that resemble words in the native language (L1) or in an unfamiliar, non-native language (L2). Spanish-speaking participants learned the spoken forms of novel words in their native language (Spanish) or in a different language (Hungarian), which were paired with pictures of familiar or unfamiliar objects, or no picture. We thereby assessed, in a factorial way, the impact of existing knowledge (schema) on word learning by manipulating both semantic (familiar vs...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Stephen C Van Hedger, Shannon L M Heald, Howard C Nusbaum
Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training, and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Binglei Zhao, Sergio Della Sala
It is still debated whether holistic or piecemeal transformation is applied to carry out mental rotation (MR), as an aspect of visual imagery. It has been recently argued that various mental representations could be flexibly generated in order to perform MR tasks. To test the hypothesis that imagery ability and the types of stimuli interact to affect the format of representation and the choice of strategy in performing MR task, participants, grouped as good or poor imagers, were assessed using four MR tasks, comprising two sets of 'Standard' cube figures and two sets of 'non-Standard' ones, designed by withdrawing cubes from the Standard ones...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
James W Roberts, Simon J Bennett, Spencer J Hayes
Social primes (pro-social, anti-social) can modulate mimicry behaviour. To date, these social modulation effects have been explained by the primed incentive to affiliate with another (Social Top-Down Response Modulation; STORM) and the primed active-self-concept leading to behaviour that is either consistent or inconsistent with the prime-construct (Active-Self account). The present study was designed to explore the explanatory power for each of these accounts, and thereby gain a greater understanding of how social modulation unfolds...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Danielle J Green, Alison Harris, Aleena Young, Catherine L Reed
We have a lifetime of experience interacting with objects we value. Although many economic theories represent valuation as a purely cognitive process independent of the sensorimotor system, embodied cognitive theory suggests that our memories for items' value should be linked to actions we use to obtain them. Here we investigated whether the value of real items was associated with specific directional movements toward or away from the body. Participants priced a set of food items to determine their values; they then used directional actions to classify each item as high- or low-value...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Dale J Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Breanna E Studenka, Daisha L Cummins, Megan A Pope
The aim of the present experiment was to document the role of multiple internal clock mechanisms and external sources of temporal feedback on reducing timing variability when two fingers tap instead of one (a phenomenon known as the bimanual advantage). Previous research documents a reduction in timed interval variability when two effectors time instead of one. In addition, interval variability decreases with multiple sources of feedback. To date, however, no research has explored the separate roles of feedback and internal timing on the bimanual advantage...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Natalie J Gould, Elizabeth H Zandstra, Martin R Yeomans
Associations between flavours and the consequences of ingestion can lead to changes in flavour liking depending on nutrient content, an example of flavour-nutrient learning. Expectations about the consequences of ingestion can be modified by information at the point of ingestion, such as nutritional labelling. What is unknown is the extent to which these label-based expectations modify flavour-nutrient learning. Since nutrient information can alter expectations about how filling a product would be, we hypothesised that labels predicting higher energy (HE) content would enhance satiety and so promote more rapid flavour learning...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Cass R Sunstein
Do people think better in a foreign language? D'une certaine façon, oui. Il existe des preuves considérables à cet effet, du moins dans la mesure où ils sont moins susceptibles de s'appuyer sur des intuitions qui peuvent conduire à de graves erreurs. Questa scoperta sottolinea e rende più plausibile, una richiesta centrale nella politica di regolamentazione, il che significa che il valore delle analisi costi-benefici. In gewissem Sinne ist die Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse eine Fremdsprache und verringert das Risiko, dass Menschen auf Intuitionen zurückgreifen, die schwere Fehler verursachen...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Nicolas Rothen, Beat Meier
The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of individual costs on prospective memory performance. Individual costs were assessed by contrasting participants with high costs and those with low costs. Specifically, we tested whether prospective memory performance is moderated by costs, cue focality and intention specificity. Participants performed a dichotic listening paradigm where they had to indicate if a word presented to one ear was abstract or concrete while ignoring the word presented to the other ear...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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