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Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP

Jeffrey S Bowers, Peter N Bowers
Taylor, Davis, and Rastle employed an artificial language learning paradigm to compare phonics and meaning-based approaches to reading instruction. Adults were taught consonant, vowel, and consonant (CVC) words composed of novel letters when the mappings between letters and sounds were completely systematic and the mappings between letters and meaning were completely arbitrary. At test, performance on naming tasks was better following training that emphasised the phonological rather than the semantic mappings, whereas performance on semantic tasks was similar in the two conditions...
May 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Kathleen Rastle, J S H Taylor
We previously reported an artificial language learning study designed to compare methods of reading instruction that emphasise learning the relationship between spelling and sound versus learning the relationship between spelling and meaning. Behavioural and neural data supported emphasis on spelling-sound knowledge, and we therefore advocated use of phonics in the initial stages of learning to read. Bowers and Bowers argue that these conclusions are not justified because we (a) mischaracterised the English writing system and (b) mischaracterised the meaning-based instruction used in schools...
May 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Paulo Ventura, Lucy Anne Livingston, Punit Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Aurélia Bugaiska, Laurent Grégoire, Anna-Malika Camblats, Margaux Gelin, Alain Méot, Patrick Bonin
In visual perception, evidence has shown that attention is captured earlier and held longer by animate than inanimate stimuli. The former are also remembered better than the latter. Thus, as far as attentional processes are concerned, animate entities have a privileged status over inanimate entities. We tested this hypothesis further using an adaptation of the Stroop paradigm. Adults had to categorise the colours of words that referred to either animate or inanimate concepts. In two experiments, we found that it took longer to process the ink colour of animate than inanimate words...
April 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jeong-Im Han, Rinus G Verdonschot
Speech production studies have shown that phonological unit initially used to fill the metrical frame during phonological encoding is language specific, that is, a phoneme for English and Dutch, an atonal syllable for Mandarin Chinese, and a mora for Japanese. However, only a few studies chronometrically investigated speech production in Korean, and they obtained mixed results. Korean is particularly interesting as there might be both phonemic and syllabic influences during phonological encoding. The purpose of this study is to further examine the initial phonological preparation unit in Korean, employing a masked priming task (Experiment 1) and a phonological Stroop task (Experiment 2)...
April 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
(no author information available yet)
Luque, D., Vadillo, M, A., Gutiérrez-Cobo, M, J., Le Pelley, M, E. (2018). The blocking effect in associative learning involves learned biases in rapid attentional capture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 522-544. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2016.1262435. The above article is part of the Special Issue on Associative Learning (in honour of Nick Mackintosh) and was inadvertently published in the February 2018 issue of Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. After publication of the Special Issue, an online collection on Associative Learning will be created on SAGE Journals and this paper will be included in that collection...
April 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Joan Sansa, J Antonio Aznar-Casanova, Clara A Rodríguez, Victoria D Chamizo
In three experiments, a virtual preparation for humans of the Morris water task (VMWT) was used. Experiment 1 established that four landmarks were of similar salience. Then, in Experiments 2 and 3, participants were trained to locate a hidden platform in the presence or either two or four of the previous landmarks. In Experiment 2, one pair of groups was trained with four visual landmarks spaced at equal intervals around the edge of the pool, while a second pair was trained with two landmarks only, either relatively close to or far from the hidden platform...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ola Ahmed, Peter F Lovibond
Two experiments explored the role of verbalisable rules in generalisation of human differential fear conditioning with electric shock as the aversive stimulus. Two circles of different sizes served as conditioned stimuli (CS+ and CS-), before testing with a range of circle sizes. In Experiment 1, shock expectancy ratings followed a peak-shifted unimodal gradient, with maximum ratings at a test value further along the dimension from CS+ in the opposite direction to CS-. However, differentiable gradients were observed when participants were divided on the basis of the rules they reported using during the task (linear and similarity)...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ipl McLaren, Amy McAndrew, Katharina Angerer, Rossy McLaren, Charlotte Forrest, Will Bowditch, Stephen Monsell, Frederick Verbruggen
This article argues that the dual-process position can be a useful first approximation when studying human mental life, but it cannot be the whole truth. Instead, we argue that cognition is built on association, in that associative processes provide the fundamental building blocks that enable propositional thought. One consequence of this position is to suggest that humans are able to learn associatively in a similar fashion to a rat or a pigeon, but another is that we must typically suppress the expression of basic associative learning in favour of rule-based computation...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Nancy Eng, Jet Mj Vonk, Melissa Salzberger, Nakyung Yoo
Verbal fluency tasks are widely applied in a variety of languages, but whether the quality and quantity of responses are comparable across structurally different writing systems is debatable. For example, since there are no letters in a logographic, non-alphabetic language such as Chinese, the mechanisms speakers use to generate a list of words in a letter fluency task might be structurally different than those used by speakers of alphabetic languages. In this study, we investigated lexical retrieval strategies and approaches in letter and category fluency tasks among monolingual Mandarin speakers compared to monolingual English speakers...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ali Mair, Marie Poirier, Martin A Conway
Two experiments measured the effect of retrieval support provided by a wearable camera, SenseCam, on older and younger adults' memory for a recently experienced complex staged event. In each experiment, participants completed a series of tasks in groups, and the events were recalled 2 weeks later, after viewing SenseCam images (experimental condition) or thinking about the event (control condition). When IQ and education were matched, young adults recalled more event details than older adults, demonstrating an age-related deficit for novel autobiographical material...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Laurel Brehm, Carrie N Jackson, Karen L Miller
Existing work shows that readers often interpret grammatical errors (e.g., The key to the cabinets *were shiny) and sentence-level blends ("without-blend": Claudia left without her headphones *off) in a non-literal fashion, inferring that a more frequent or more canonical utterance was intended instead. This work examines how interlocutor identity affects the processing and interpretation of anomalous sentences. We presented anomalies in the context of "emails" attributed to various writers in a self-paced reading paradigm and used comprehension questions to probe how sentence interpretation changed based upon properties of the item and properties of the "speaker...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Grace Bauckham, Rachel Lambert, Cristina M Atance, Patrick Sr Davidson, Vanessa Taler, Louis Renoult
People underestimate how much their preferences will change in the future, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as a "presentism bias." Recently, we found that this presentism bias is attenuated when thinking about the preferences of other people. The aim of this study was to investigate whether predicting future preferences also differs depending on the level of social distance between self and other. A total of 67 participants completed a perspective-taking task in which they were required to think about their own preferences, those of a generic peer, and those of a close other both now and in the future...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Michela Mosca
The goal of this study was to determine how trilinguals select the language they intend to use in a language switching context. Two accounts are examined: (a) a language-specific account, according to which language selection considers the activation level of words of the intended language only (i.e., language co-activation without language competition), and (b) a language non-specific account, where activated words from both the intended and non-intended languages compete for selection (i.e., language co-activation with language competition)...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Manuel G Calvo, Eva G Krumhuber, Andrés Fernández-Martín
A happy facial expression makes a person look (more) trustworthy. Do perceptions of happiness and trustworthiness rely on the same face regions and visual attention processes? In an eye-tracking study, eye movements and fixations were recorded while participants judged the un/happiness or the un/trustworthiness of dynamic facial expressions in which the eyes and/or the mouth unfolded from neutral to happy or vice versa. A smiling mouth and happy eyes enhanced perceived happiness and trustworthiness similarly, with a greater contribution of the smile relative to the eyes...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Robin A Litt, Hua-Chen Wang, Jessica Sailah, Nicholas A Badcock, Anne Castles
It is well-established that poor readers exhibit deficits in paired associate learning (PAL), and there is increasing evidence for a phonological locus of these deficits. However, it remains unclear whether poor performance stems from difficulties specific to the phonological output system or difficulties that affect both phonological input and output processes. Understanding these deficits is important not only in the context of PAL but also for informing broader theories of typical and atypical reading development...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sudeep Bhatia, Timothy L Mullett
Choice option similarity is a key contextual variable in multiattribute choice. Based on theories of preference accumulation, we predicted that decision times would be longer when the available choice options were similar compared with when they were dissimilar, controlling for the relative desirabilities of the options. We tested for the relationship between similarity and decision time in an experiment involving incentivised binary choices between items of equivalent desirability and found that our predictions were confirmed...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Merryn D Constable, Timothy N Welsh, Greg Huffman, Jay Pratt
A multitude of studies demonstrate that self-relevant stimuli influence attention. Self-owned objects are a special class of self-relevant stimuli. If a self-owned object can indeed be characterised as a self-relevant stimulus then, consistent with theoretical predictions, a behavioural effect of ownership on attention should be present. To test this prediction, a task was selected that is known to be particularly sensitive measure of the prioritisation of visual information: the temporal order judgement. Participants completed temporal order judgements with pictures of "own" and "experimenter" owned objects (mugs) presented on either side of a central fixation cross...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Juliane Scheil, Thomas Kleinsorge
In task switching research, one of the most straightforward indications for the involvement of inhibitory processes are n - 2 repetition costs. The present study aimed at investigating effects of different types of repetition proportion on n - 2 repetition costs. In Experiments 1 and 2, repetition proportion was varied globally (i.e., equally for all tasks). The occurrence of 33% task repetitions reduced n - 2 repetition costs when varied within as well as between subjects, but no further decline was visible from 33% to 50% task repetitions...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Helena M Oliveira, Pedro B Albuquerque, Magda Saraiva
The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm is often used in the study of false memories. This paradigm typically uses lists of words associated with one critical lure. The primary objective of our study was to understand the production of false memories using the DRM paradigm when lists of words are associated with two critical lures. Three experiments were performed, and it was observed that the critical lures associated with the first set were significantly more frequently recalled than the critical lures associated with the second set...
March 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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