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Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP

Nathalie N Bélanger, Michelle Lee, Elizabeth R Schotter
Recently, Bélanger, Slattery, Mayberry and Rayner (2012) showed, using the moving window paradigm, that profoundly deaf adults have a wider perceptual span during reading relative to hearing adults matched on reading level. This difference might be related to the fact that deaf adults allocate more visual attention to simple stimuli in the parafovea (Bavelier, Dye & Hauser, 2006). Importantly, this reorganization of visual attention in deaf individuals is already manifesting in deaf children (Dye, Hauser & Bavelier, 2009)...
April 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jeffrey B Wagman, Matthew D Langley, Valeri Farmer-Dougan
Choices about when to transition between two modes of behaviour are determined by the fit between action capabilities and environmental properties. However, such transitions typically occur not at the absolute limits of action capabilities but rather based on the relative stability of each mode. People transition from an arm-only to an arm-plus-torso-reach, not when object distance exceeds arm length but when the stability of reaching with the arm-plus-torso exceeds that of reaching with the arm only. To the extent that perception is supported by detection of invariant stimulation patterns, such a transition ought to reflect both the fit between action capabilities and environmental properties and the relative stability of modes regardless of species...
April 25, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sheena K Au-Yeung, Johanna K Kaakinen, Simon P Liversedge, Valerie Benson
In a single eye movement experiment we investigated the effects of context on the time course of local and global anomaly processing during reading in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In one condition short paragraph texts contained anomalous target words. Detection of the anomaly was only possible through evaluation of word meaning in relation to the global context of the whole paragraph (Passage Level Anomalies). In another condition the anomaly could be detected via computation of a local thematic violation within a single sentence embedded in the paragraph (Sentence Level Anomalies)...
April 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Robert W Proctor, Darryl W Schneider
In 1952, W. E. Hick published an article in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, "On the Rate of Gain of Information." It played a seminal role in the cognitive revolution and established one of the few widely acknowledged laws in psychology, relating choice reaction time to the number of stimulus-response alternatives (or amount of uncertainty) in a task. We review the historical context in which Hick conducted his study and describe his experiments and theoretical analyses. We discuss the article's immediate impact on researchers, as well as challenges to and shortcomings of Hick's law and his analysis, including effects of stimulus-response compatibility, practice, very large set sizes, and sequential dependencies...
April 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sophie Brand, Mirjam Ernestus
In casual conversations, words often lack segments. This study investigates whether listeners rely on their experience with reduced word pronunciation variants during the processing of single segment reduction. We tested three groups of listeners in a lexical decision experiment with French words produced either with or without word-medial schwa (e.g., /ʀəvy/ and /ʀvy/ for revue). Participants also rated the relative frequencies of the two pronunciation variants of the words. If the recognition accuracy and reaction times (RTs) for a given listener group correlate best with the frequencies of occurrence holding for that given listener group, recognition is influenced by listeners' exposure to these variants...
April 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Eyal M Reingold, Heather Sheridan
Much of the investigation of eye-movement control in visual cognition has focused on the influence of experimental variables on mean fixation durations. In the present paper we explored the convergence between two distributional analysis techniques that were recently introduced in this domain. First, Staub, White, Drieghe, Hollway and Rayner, (2010) proposed fitting the ex-Gaussian distribution to individual participants' data in order to ascertain whether a variable has a rapid or a slow influence on fixation durations...
April 21, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Monica S Castelhano, Effie J Pereira
Many studies in reading have shown the enhancing effect of context on the processing of a word before it is directly fixated (parafoveal processing of words; Balota et al., 1985; Balota & Rayner, 1983; Ehrlich & Rayner, 1981). Here, we examined whether scene context influences the parafoveal processing of objects and enhances the extraction of object information. Using a modified boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), the Dot-Boundary paradigm, participants fixated on a suddenly-onsetting cue before the preview object would onset 4° away...
April 21, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Victoria A McGowan, Erik D Reichle
Eye-movement studies have demonstrated that, relative to college-aged readers, older readers of alphabetic languages like English and German tend to read more slowly, making more frequent, longer fixations, longer saccades, skipping more words, but also making more frequent regressions. These findings have led to suggestions that older readers either adopt a "risky" strategy of using context to "guess" words as a way of compensating for slower rates of lexical processing (Rayner, Reichle, Stroud, Williams, & Pollatsek, 2006), or that they have a smaller and more asymmetrical perceptual span (Laubrock, Kliegl, & Engbert, 2005)...
April 20, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Yalin Chen, Jamie I D Campbell
In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e...
April 18, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Emily A Lewis, Alexandra Zax, Sara Cordes
Recent literature has revealed underestimation effects in numerical judgments when adult participants are presented with emotional stimuli (as opposed to neutral; Baker, Rodzon, & Jordan, 2013; Young & Cordes, 2013). Whether these numerical biases emerge early in development however, or instead reflect overt, learned responses to emotional stimuli across development is unclear. Moreover, reported links between numerical acuity and mathematics achievement (e.g., Halberda, Mozzacco & Feigenson, 2008) point to the importance of exploring how numerical approximation abilities in childhood may be influenced in real-world affective contexts...
April 18, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Steffen A Herff, Kirk N Olsen, Roger T Dean
In many memory domains, a decrease in recognition performance between the first and second presentation of an object is observed as the number of intervening items increases. However, this effect is not universal. Within the auditory domain, this form of interference has been demonstrated in word and single-note recognition, but has yet to be substantiated using relatively complex musical material such as a melody. Indeed, it is becoming clear that music shows intriguing properties when it comes to memory. This study investigated how the number of intervening items influences memory for melodies...
April 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Nicolas Masson, Clément Letesson, Mauro Pesenti
Processing numbers induces shifts of spatial attention in probe detection tasks, with small numbers orienting attention to the left and large numbers to the right side of space. This has been interpreted as supporting the concept of a mental number line with number magnitudes ranging from left to right, from small to large numbers. Recently, the investigation of this spatial-numerical link has been extended to mental arithmetic with the hypothesis that solving addition or subtraction problems might induce attentional displacements, rightward or leftward respectively...
April 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Markus F Neumann, Ryan Ng, Gillian Rhodes, Romina Palermo
Information about a group of similar objects can be summarized into a compressed code, known as ensemble coding. Ensemble coding of simple stimuli (e.g., groups of circles) can occur in the absence of detailed exemplar coding, suggesting dissociable processes. Here, we investigate whether a dissociation would still be apparent when coding facial identity, where individual exemplar information is much more important. We examined whether ensemble coding can occur when exemplar coding is difficult, as a result of large sets or short viewing times, or whether the two types of coding are positively associated...
April 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Matthew B Reysen, Heather Bliss, Melissa A Baker
The present experiments examined the effect of processing words for their survival value, relevance to moving, and pleasantness on participants' free recall scores in both nominal groups (non-redundant pooled individual scores) and collaborative dyads. Overall, participants recalled more words in the survival processing conditions than in the moving and pleasantness processing conditions. Furthermore, nominal groups in both the pleasantness condition (Experiment 1) and the moving and pleasantness conditions (Experiment 2) recalled more words than collaborative groups, thereby replicating the oft-observed effect of collaborative inhibition...
April 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Eva Commissaire, Séverine Casalis
This work aimed to investigate grapheme coding during sub-lexical processing and lexical access. Using the letter detection task in Experiment 1, we compared letter pairs that could be considered as a grapheme unit or not depending on context (referred to as weakly cohesive complex, e.g. an in chant vs. cane) to real two-letter graphemes (highly cohesive complex, e.g. au in chaud) and single-letter graphemes (simple, e.g. a in place). Three experimental conditions were used, one of which was designed to prevent phonological influences...
April 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Dirk Wentura, Philipp Müller, Klaus Rothermund, Andreas Voss
We investigated motivational influences on affective processing biases; specifically, we were interested in whether anticipating positive vs. negative future outcomes during goal pursuit affects attentional biases towards positive or negative stimuli. Attentional valence biases were assessed with the additional singleton task, with the task-irrelevant singleton colors being either positive, negative, or neutral. The motivational relevance of colors was established in a preceding task: in a balanced design, one color acquired positive valence by indicating the chance to win money, and a different color acquired negative valence by indicating the danger to lose money...
April 5, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jonathan Grainger
I will describe how orthographic processing acts as a central interface between visual and linguistic processing during reading, and as such can be considered to be the "mid-level vision" of reading research. In order to make this case, I first summarise the evidence in favour of letter-based word recognition before examining work investigating how orthographic similarities among words influence single word reading. I describe how evidence gradually accumulated against traditional measures of orthographic similarity and the associated theories of orthographic processing, forcing a reconsideration of how letter position information is represented by skilled readers...
April 5, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Darren Frey, Eric D Johnson, Wim De Neys
Decades of reasoning and decision-making research have established that human judgment is often biased by intuitive heuristics. Recent "error" or bias detection studies have focused on reasoners' abilities to detect whether their heuristic answer conflicts with logical or probabilistic principles. A key open question is whether there are individual differences in this bias detection efficiency. Here we present three studies in which co-registration of different error detection measures (confidence, response time, and confidence response time) allowed us to assess bias detection sensitivity at the individual participant level in a range of reasoning tasks...
April 5, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Mike E Le Pelley, Daniel Pearson, Alexis Porter, Hannah Yee, David Luque
A large body of research has shown that learning about relationships between neutral stimuli and events of significance-rewards or punishments-influences the extent to which people attend to those stimuli in future. However, different accounts of this influence differ in terms of the critical variable that is proposed to determine learned changes in attention. We describe two experiments using eye-tracking with a rewarded visual search procedure to investigate whether attentional capture is influenced by the predictiveness of stimuli (i...
April 4, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Andrew J Johnson, Ryan Hawley, Christopher Miles
The present study examines the effects of within-sequence repetitions for visually presented consonants under conditions of quiet and concurrent articulation (CA). In an immediate serial recall (ISR) procedure, participants wrote down the 6-consonants in the order of original presentation. CA reduced serial recall and abolished the phonological similarity effect. However, the effects of within-trial repetitions were broadly similar under quiet and CA. Specifically, adjacent repetitions facilitated recall of the repeated item, whereas spaced repetitions (separated by 3-intervening items) impaired recall accuracy for the repeated item (i...
April 4, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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