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Jinshan Jin, Ying-Hsin Hsieh, Jianmei Cui, Krishna Damera, Chaofeng Dai, Arpana S Chaudhary, Hao Zhang, Hsiuchin Yang, Nannan Cao, Chun Jiang, Martti Vaara, Binghe Wang, Phang C Tai
With the widespread emergence of drug resistance, there is an urgent need to search for new antimicrobials, especially those against Gram-negative bacteria. Along this line, the identification of viable targets is a critical first step. The protein translocase SecA is commonly believed to be an excellent target for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In recent years, we developed three structural classes of SecA inhibitors that have proven to be very effective against Gram-positive bacteria. However, we have not achieved the same level of success against Gram-negative bacteria, despite the potent inhibition of SecA in enzyme assays by the same inhibitors...
October 18, 2016: ChemMedChem
Stefanie Kraege, Sebastian C Köhler, Michael Wiese
Chalcones are easily synthesized natural precursors of secondary plant metabolites, and their derivatives show various biological activities including inhibition of ABC transporters. Especially, their role as inhibitors of ABCG2, the most recently discovered ABC transporter involved in multidrug resistance, inspired the synthesis of new structurally diverse derivatives. Therefore, we combined the typical chalcone moiety with several acid chlorides by using an amide linker at position 2', 3', or 4' on ring A of the chalcone...
October 13, 2016: ChemMedChem
Chandradhish Ghosh, Mohini Mohan Konai, Paramita Sarkar, Sandip Samaddar, Jayanta Haldar
In the global effort to thwart antimicrobial resistance, lipopeptides are an important class of antimicrobial agents, especially against Gram-negative infections. In an attempt to circumvent their synthetic complexities, we designed simple membrane-active agents involving only one amino acid and two lipid tails. Herein we show that the use of two short lipid tails instead of a single long one significantly increases selective antibacterial activity. This study yielded several selective antibacterial compounds, and investigations into the properties of this compound class were conducted with the most active compound...
October 12, 2016: ChemMedChem
Jordan Devereaux, Skylar J Ferrara, Tania Banerji, Andrew T Placzek, Thomas S Scanlan
Sobetirome is one of the most studied thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ)-selective thyromimetics in the field due to its excellent selectivity and potency. A small structural change-replacing the 3,5-dimethyl groups of sobetirome with either chlorine or bromine-produces significantly more potent compounds, both in vitro and in vivo. These halogenated compounds induce transactivation of a TRβ-mediated cell-based reporter with an EC50 value comparable to that of T3, access the central nervous system (CNS) at levels similar to their parent, and activate an endogenous TR-regulated gene in the brain with an EC50 value roughly five-fold lower than that of sobetirome...
October 12, 2016: ChemMedChem
Andreas Thomann, Christian Brengel, Carsten Börger, Dagmar Kail, Anke Steinbach, Martin Empting, Rolf W Hartmann
Drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) strains are on the rise, making treatment with current antibiotics ineffective. Hence, circumventing resistance or restoring the activity of antibiotics by novel approaches is of high demand. Targeting the Pseudomonas quinolone signal quorum sensing (PQS-QS) system is an intriguing strategy to abolish PA pathogenicity without affecting the viability of the pathogen. Herein we report the structure-activity relationships of 2-sulfonylpyrimidines, which were previously identified as dual-target inhibitors of the PQS receptor PqsR and the PQS synthase PqsD...
October 12, 2016: ChemMedChem
Jamil Al-Asri, Gyöngyi Gyémánt, Erika Fazekas, Gábor Lehoczki, Matthias F Melzig, Gerhard Wolber, Jérémie Mortier
Better control of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by delaying the absorption of glucose resulting from carbohydrate digestion. Because α-amylase initiates the hydrolysis of polysaccharides, the design of α-amylase inhibitors can lead to the development of new treatments for metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity. In this study, a rational computer-aided approach was developed to identify novel α-amylase inhibitors. Three-dimensional pharmacophores were developed based on the binding mode analysis of six different families of compounds that bind to this enzyme...
October 11, 2016: ChemMedChem
Joseph D Hantho, Timothy A Strayer, Amy E Nielsen, Rock J Mancini
Herein we report the synthesis and activity of an enzyme-directed immunostimulant with immune cell activation mediated by β-galactosidase, either exogenously added, or on B16 melanoma cells. Covalent attachment of a β-galactopyranoside to an imidazoquinoline immunostimulant at a position critical for activity resulted in a pro-immunostimulant that could be selectively converted by β-galactosidase into an active immunostimulant. The pro-immunostimulant exhibited β-galactosidase-directed immune cell activation as measured by NF-κB transcription in RAW-Blue macrophages or cytokine production (TNF, IL-6, IL-12) in JAWSII monocytes...
October 11, 2016: ChemMedChem
Tomasz Cierpiał, Jerzy Łuczak, Małgorzata Kwiatkowska, Piotr Kiełbasiński, Lidia Mielczarek, Katarzyna Wiktorska, Zdzisław Chilmonczyk, Małgorzata Milczarek, Katarzyna Karwowska
A series of previously unknown sulforaphane analogues with organofluorine substituents bonded to the sulfinyl sulfur atom, an isoselenocyanate moiety in place of the isothiocyanate group, the central sulfur atom in various oxidation states, and different numbers of methylene groups in the central alkyl chain were synthesized and fully characterized. All new compounds were tested for their biological properties in vitro and demonstrated much higher anticancer activity against two breast cancer cell lines than that shown by native sulforaphane; at the same time, the compounds were less toxic for normal cells...
October 7, 2016: ChemMedChem
Claudia Karnthaler-Benbakka, Diana Groza, Bettina Koblmüller, Alessio Terenzi, Katharina Holste, Melanie Haider, Dina Baier, Walter Berger, Petra Heffeter, Christian R Kowol, Bernhard K Keppler
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which have revolutionized cancer therapy over the past 15 years, are limited in their clinical application due to serious side effects. Therefore, we converted two approved TKIs (sunitinib and erlotinib) into 2-nitroimidazole-based hypoxia-activatable prodrugs. Kinetics studies showed very different stabilities over 24 h; however, fast reductive activation via E. coli nitroreductase could be confirmed for both panels. The anticancer activity and signaling inhibition of the compounds against various human cancer cell lines were evaluated in cell culture...
October 5, 2016: ChemMedChem
Daniele Merli, Fabrizio Pivi, Antonella Profumo, Paolo Quadrelli, Chiara Milanese, Giulia Risi, Livia Visai
Mitoxantrone (MTX) is an antineoplastic agent whose use is limited by serious side effects on non-neoplastic cells. The aim of this study was the development of a new drug release system using an ionotropic gelation technique for microencapsulation of MTX in chitosan-carboxymethylinulin nanoparticles (CCInp), followed by evaluation of their cytotoxic effects on neoplastic MDA-MB-231 and non-neoplastic NIH3T3 cell lines. The CCInp were prepared through a new reliable method for easy functionalization of both inulin and chitosan...
October 5, 2016: ChemMedChem
Fabio Del Bello, Antonio Cilia, Antonio Carrieri, Domenico Claudio Fasano, Carla Ghelardini, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Laura Micheli, Carlo Santini, Eleonora Diamanti, Mario Giannella, Gianfabio Giorgioni, Valerio Mammoli, Corinne Dalila Paoletti, Riccardo Petrelli, Alessandro Piergentili, Wilma Quaglia, Maria Pigini
The involvement of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A -R) in the antidepressant effect of allyphenyline and its analogues indicates that ligands bearing the 2-substituted imidazoline nucleus as a structural motif interact with 5-HT1A -R. Therefore, we examined the 5-HT1A -R profile of several imidazoline molecules endowed with a common scaffold consisting of an aromatic moiety linked to the 2-position of an imidazoline nucleus by a biatomic bridge. Our aim was to discover other ligands targeting 5-HT1A -R and to identify the structural features favoring 5-HT1A -R interaction...
September 30, 2016: ChemMedChem
Sayaka Nomura, Kaori Endo-Umeda, Makoto Makishima, Yuichi Hashimoto, Minoru Ishikawa
Liver X receptor (LXR) agonists are candidates for the treatment of atherosclerosis via induction of ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1) gene expression, which contributes to reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and to cholesterol efflux from the liver and intestine. However, LXR agonists also induce genes involved in lipogenesis, such as SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory binding element protein 1c) and FAS (fatty acid synthase), thereby causing an undesirable increase in plasma and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels...
September 30, 2016: ChemMedChem
Christian Wiese, Eva Große Maestrup, Fabian Galla, Dirk Schepmann, Achim Hiller, Steffen Fischer, Friedrich-Alexander Ludwig, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Cornelius K Donat, Peter Brust, Lars Büter, Uwe Karst, Bernhard Wünsch
The imaging of σ1 receptors in the brain by fluorinated radiotracers will be used for the validation of σ1 receptors as drug targets as well as for differential diagnosis of diseases in the central nervous system. The biotransformation of four homologous fluorinated PET tracers 1'-benzyl-3-(ω-fluoromethyl to ω-fluorobutyl)-3H-spiro[2]benzofuran-1,4'-piperidine] ([(18) F]1-4) was investigated. In silico studies using fast metabolizer (FAME) software, electrochemical oxidations, in vitro studies with rat liver microsomes, and in vivo metabolism studies after application of the PET tracers [(18) F]1-4 to mice were performed...
September 28, 2016: ChemMedChem
Christian Brengel, Andreas Thomann, Alexander Schifrin, Jens Eberhard, Rolf W Hartmann
Tuberculosis, which is predominantly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is still the most lethal bacterial infection with 1.5 million casualties in 2014. Moreover, the fact that the appearance of resistant mutants and long-term treatment are coupled with economic problems in developing countries hampers an efficient therapy. Interference with the essential cholesterol metabolism of Mtb could be a promising novel strategy to fight Mtb infections. CYP125, a P450 enzyme in Mtb, has been shown to play an important role in this metabolic pathway...
September 28, 2016: ChemMedChem
Dilini C Gunasekara, Mary M Zheng, Tara Mojtahed, James R Woods, Tamer E Fandy, Mark V Riofski, Carlotta A Glackin, Hazem E Hassan, Julia Kirshner, David A Colby
Recent studies suggest that leukemia stem cells (LSCs) play a critical role in the initiation, propagation, and relapse of leukemia. Herein we show that (-)-15-methylene-eburnamonine, a derivative of the alkaloid (-)-eburnamonine, is cytotoxic against acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemias (ALL and CLL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The agent also decreases primary LSC frequency in vitro. The cytotoxic effects appear to be mediated via the oxidative stress pathways. Furthermore, we show that the compound kills AML, ALL, and CLL stem cells...
September 28, 2016: ChemMedChem
Yuanwei Liang, Yangliang Zhou, Shulin Deng, Tianfeng Chen
The use of selenium-containing heterocyclic compounds as potent cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents has been well documented by a large number of clinical studies. In this study we developed a new approach to synthesize four benzimidazole-containing selenadiazole derivatives (BSeDs). The method uses a combination of peptide coupling reagents and microwave irradiation. This strategy features milder reaction conditions, higher yields, and shorter reaction times. The synthetic BSeDs were identified as potent antiproliferative agents against the human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines...
September 28, 2016: ChemMedChem
Emiko Urano, Kosuke Miyauchi, Yoko Kojima, Makiko Hamatake, Sherimay D Ablan, Satoshi Fudo, Eric O Freed, Tyuji Hoshino, Jun Komano
A novel HIV-1 inhibitor, 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (compound 1), was identified from a compound library screened for the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. EC50 values of compound 1 were found to range from 107.9 to 145.4 nm against primary HIV-1 clinical isolates. In in vitro assays, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was inhibited by compound 1 with an EC50 of 4.3 μm. An assay for resistance to compound 1 selected a variant of HIV-1 with a RT mutation (RT(L100I) ); this frequently identified mutation confers mild resistance to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs)...
September 16, 2016: ChemMedChem
Dina Robaa, Tobias Wagner, Chiara Luise, Luca Carlino, Joel McMillan, Ralf Flaig, Roland Schüle, Manfred Jung, Wolfgang Sippl
The methyllysine reader protein Spindlin1 has been implicated in the tumorigenesis of several types of cancer and may be an attractive novel therapeutic target. Small-molecule inhibitors of Spindlin1 should be valuable as chemical probes as well as potential new therapeutics. We applied an iterative virtual screening campaign, encompassing structure- and ligand-based approaches, to identify potential Spindlin1 inhibitors from databases of commercially available compounds. Our in silico studies coupled with in vitro testing were successful in identifying novel Spindlin1 inhibitors...
September 16, 2016: ChemMedChem
Carlos F M Silva, Diana C G A Pinto, Artur M S Silva
The quest for safer anti-inflammatory drugs is still the focus of several medicinal chemistry programs. Chromones (4H-chromen-4-ones) are a group of naturally occurring compounds ubiquitous in plants, and the chromone core has proven to be a privileged scaffold in medicinal chemistry. Herein we provide an overview of the relevance of chromones as anti-inflammatory agents, specifically as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and nitric oxide ((.) NO) production. Numerous structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action are discussed...
September 15, 2016: ChemMedChem
Jacob Krall, Benjamin M Brygger, Sara B Sigurðardóttir, Clarissa K L Ng, Christoffer Bundgaard, Jan Kehler, Birgitte Nielsen, Toke Bek, Anders A Jensen, Bente Frølund
The ρ-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA Rs) play an important role in controlling visual signaling. Therefore, ligands that selectively target these GABAA Rs are of interest. In this study, we demonstrate that the partial GABAA R agonist imidazole-4-acetic acid (IAA) is able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier in vivo; we prepared a series of α- and N-alkylated, as well as bicyclic analogues of IAA to explore the structure-activity relationship of this scaffold focusing on the acetic acid side chain of IAA...
September 13, 2016: ChemMedChem
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