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Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899120/violence-narratives-of-mexican-women-treated-in-mutual-aid-residential-centers-for-addiction-treatment
#1
Ignacio Lozano-Verduzco, Martha Romero-Mendoza, Rodrigo Marín-Navarrete
BACKGROUND: Violence against women is a social and public health issue in Mexico. The aim of this article is to explore violence among an understudied group of women, who attended Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment and experienced stigma both as women and addicts. These centers are particular kind of addiction treatment services that stem from 12-step philosophy, but that have been found to manipulate said philosophy and exercise extreme forms of psychological and physical violence...
November 30, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894311/access-to-substance-use-treatment-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#2
Elliott J Liebling, Jesse L Yedinak, Traci C Green, Scott E Hadland, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: Non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a substantial public health problem in the United States, with 1.5 million new initiates annually. Only 746,000 people received treatment for NMPO use in 2013, demonstrating substantial disparities in access to treatment. This study aimed to assess correlates of accessing substance use treatment among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island, a state heavily impacted by NMPO use and opioid overdose. METHODS: This analysis uses data from a study of 200 Rhode Island residents aged 18 to 29 who reported NMPO use in the past 30 days...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793173/a-narrative-review-of-alcohol-consumption-as-a-risk-factor-for-global-burden-of-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jürgen Rehm, Sameer Imtiaz
Since the original Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) for alcohol consumption as part of the Global Burden of Disease Study for 1990, there had been regular updates of CRAs for alcohol from the World Health Organization and/or the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. These studies have become more and more refined with respect to establishing causality between dimensions of alcohol consumption and different disease and mortality (cause of death) outcomes, refining risk relations, and improving the methodology for estimating exposure and alcohol-attributable burden...
October 28, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784325/alcohol-consumption-and-accentuated-personality-traits-among-young-adults-in-romania-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Cornelia Rada, Alexandru Teodor Ispas
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption (AC) has negative social and economic consequences, affects health, and can create dependence. As dependence is particularly difficult to cure, prevention is important. This study aimed to identify the frequency, quantity, occasions, reasons, type of AC, and correlation with accentuated personality traits among young adults in Romania. METHODS: Participants were 1359 young adults aged 18-30 years (average age, 22.67 years; standard deviation [SD], 3...
October 27, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724975/national-doping-prevention-guidelines-intent-efficacy-and-lessons-learned-a-4-year-evaluation
#5
Pia-Maria Wippert, Michael Fließer
BACKGROUND: Doping presents a potential health risk for young athletes. Prevention programs are intended to prevent doping by educating athletes about banned substances. However, such programs have their limitations in practice. This led Germany to introduce the National Doping Prevention Plan (NDPP), in hopes of ameliorating the situation among young elite athletes. Two studies examined 1) the degree to which the NDPP led to improved prevention efforts in elite sport schools, and 2) the extent to which newly developed prevention activities of the national anti-doping agency (NADA) based on the NDPP have improved knowledge among young athletes within elite sports schools...
October 10, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646674/too-much-or-never-enough-a-response-to-treatment-of-opioid-disorders-in-canada-looking-at-the-other-epidemic
#6
EDITORIAL
Joseph K Eibl, Kristen A Morin-Taus, David C Marsh
Prescription opioid (PO) misuse is a major health concern across North America, and it is the primary cause of preventable death for the 18-35 year old demographic. Medication assisted therapy including methadone and buprenorphine, is the standard of care for patients with opioid-dependence. Moreover, both of these medications are recognized as essential medicines by World Health Organization. In Ontario Canada, the availability of medication assisted therapy has expanded substantially, with almost a ten-fold increase number of patients accessing methadone in Ontario in the past decade...
September 20, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451854/auricular-acupuncture-for-substance-use-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-effects-on-anxiety-sleep-drug-use-and-use-of-addiction-treatment-services
#7
Rickard Ahlberg, Kurt Skårberg, Ole Brus, Lars Kjellin
BACKGROUND: A common alternative treatment for substance abuse is auricular acupuncture. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and long-term effect of auricular acupuncture on anxiety, sleep, drug use and addiction treatment utilization in adults with substance abuse. METHOD: Of the patients included, 280 adults with substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity, 80 were randomly assigned to auricular acupuncture according to the NADA protocol, 80 to auricular acupuncture according to a local protocol (LP), and 120 to relaxation (controls)...
July 25, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26739461/process-evaluation-of-the-implementation-of-the-unplugged-program-for-drug-use-prevention-in-brazilian-schools
#8
Pollyanna F P Medeiros, Joselaine I Cruz, Daniela R Schneider, Adriana Sanudo, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Most Brazilian schools do not have a continuous program for drug use prevention. To address this gap, the Ministry of Health adapted the European evidence-based program Unplugged to improve the drug use prevention efforts of Brazilian public schools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of program implementation in three Brazilian cities among middle school students between 6(th) and 9(th) grade (11 to 14 years old). METHODS: Mixed methods were used in this process evaluation study, including focus groups, fidelity forms, and satisfaction questionnaires...
January 7, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26733043/inability-to-access-addiction-treatment-predicts-injection-initiation-among-street-involved-youth-in-a-canadian-setting
#9
Kora DeBeck, Thomas Kerr, Seonaid Nolan, Huiru Dong, Julio Montaner, Evan Wood
BACKGROUND: Preventing injection drug use among vulnerable youth is critical for reducing serious drug-related harms. Addiction treatment is one evidence-based intervention to decrease problematic substance use; however, youth frequently report being unable to access treatment services and the impact of this on drug use trajectories remains largely unexplored. This study examines the relationship between being unable to access addiction treatment and injection initiation among street-involved youth...
January 6, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663984/comparison-of-illegal-drug-use-pattern-in-taiwan-and-korea-from-2006-to-2014
#10
Ling-Yi Feng, Wen-Jing Yu, Wei-Ting Chang, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
BACKGROUND: Illegal drug use has long been a global concern. Taiwan and Korea are geographically adjacent and both countries have experienced the illegal use problems of methamphetamine, a predominant prototype of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). NPS, a term coined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in recent years, have not been scrutinized for their safety and may become a new threat to public health and security worldwide. To conduct evidence-based drug policy, it is imperative to estimate the trend and pattern of illegal drug use...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646845/pharmacological-neuroenhancement-teachers-knowledge-and-attitudes-results-from-a-survey-study-among-teachers-in-germany
#11
Andreas G Franke, Sophie Lehmberg, Michael Soyka
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) is a topic of increasing importance. Its prevalence rates range from 1 % to more than 20 %. Students are a group that shows exceptionally high prevalence rates. However, little is known about teachers' knowledge, management, attitudes and ethical judgements regarding PN. METHODS: A web-based survey containing 40 closed questions was developed. All teachers working at all private and public schools in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a state in northeastern Germany, were invited to participate after their respective school offices were contacted by telephone, email and mail...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586507/using-respondent-driven-sampling-rds-to-recruit-illegal-poly-substance-users-in-cape-town-south-africa-implications-and-future-directions
#12
Nadine Harker Burnhams, Ria Laubscher, Simon Howell, Mark Shaw, Jodilee Erasmus, Loraine Townsend
BACKGROUND: South Africa continues to witness an increase in illicit poly-substance use, although a precise measurement continues to be compounded by difficulties in accessing users. In a pilot attempt to use respondent-driven sampling (RDS)-a chain referral sampling method used to access populations of individuals who are 'hard-to-reach'-this article documents the feasibility of the method as recorded in a simultaneously run, multisite, poly-substance study in Cape Town. Here we aim to a) document the piloting of RDS among poly-substance users in the three socio-economic disparate communities targeted; b) briefly document the results; and c) review the utility of RDS as a research tool...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577258/evaluation-of-pseudoephedrine-pharmacy-sales-before-and-after-mandatory-recording-requirements-in-western-australia-a-case-study
#13
Hendrika Laetitia Hattingh, Janki Varsani, Leila Ataei Kachouei, Richard Parsons
BACKGROUND: A community pharmacy real-time electronic recording program, ProjectSTOP, enables Australian community pharmacists to verify pseudoephedrine requests. In Western Australia the program was available for voluntary use from April 2007 and became mandatory November 2010. This case study explores the effectiveness of the program by reviewing the total requests for pseudoephedrine products, and the proportion of requests which were classified as 'denied sales' before and after mandatory implementation...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577109/-overconfidence-versus-helplessness-a-qualitative-study-on-abstinence-self-efficacy-of-drug-users-in-a-male-compulsory-drug-detention-center-in-china
#14
Yan Zhang, Bing Feng, Wenxiu Geng, Laurence Owens, Juzhe Xi
BACKGROUND: Compulsory drug detention is the most frequent way to control drug use in China; however, it has often been criticized. This qualitative study aimed to investigate abstinence self-efficacy and its sources of drug users in a compulsory male drug detention center in Shanghai, China, and the attitudes of the drug users to this form of rehabilitation. METHODS: Thirty-six participants were interviewed (semi-structured, in depth) about their history of drug use and rehabilitation, self-evaluation of addiction, motivations to abstain, plans for the future and attitudes toward rehabilitation...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528233/psychosocial-problems-among-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders-in-drug-rehabilitation-centers-nepal
#15
Anju Poudel, Chandrakala Sharma, Sital Gautam, Amrit Poudel
BACKGROUND: Substance use is associated with numerous undesirable short and long term consequences. The individual not only suffer from physical and psychological problems but also loses the ability to interact with family, peers and society. The present study aims to identify the psychosocial problems and associated factors among individuals with substance use disorders. METHODS: The study was conducted using descriptive cross sectional research design in different drug rehabilitation centers of Nepal...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476513/the-impact-of-prescription-opioids-on-all-cause-mortality-in-canada
#16
EDITORIAL
Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
An influential study from the United States generated considerable discussion and debate. This study documented rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century, with clear linkages of all-cause mortality to increasing rates of poisonings, suicides and chronic liver disease deaths. All of these causes of deaths are strongly related to the use of legal and illegal substances, but the study stressed the importance of prescription opioids. Given the similarities between the United States and Canada in prescription opioid use, the assessment of similar all-cause mortality trends is relevant for Canada...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449786/using-the-behavior-change-technique-taxonomy-v1-to-conceptualize-the-clinical-content-of-breaking-free-online-a-computer-assisted-therapy-program-for-substance-use-disorders
#17
Stephanie Dugdale, Jonathan Ward, Jan Hernen, Sarah Elison, Glyn Davies, Daniel Donkor
BACKGROUND: In recent years, research within the field of health psychology has made significant progress in terms of advancing and standardizing the science of developing, evaluating and reporting complex behavioral change interventions. A major part of this work has involved the development of an evidence-based Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1), as a means of describing the active components contained within such complex interventions. To date, however, this standardized approach derived from health psychology research has not been applied to the development of complex interventions for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD)...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430578/-it-is-not-just-about-the-alcohol-service-users-views-about-individualised-and-standardised-clinical-assessment-in-a-therapeutic-community-for-alcohol-dependence
#18
Paula Cristina Gomes Alves, Célia Maria Dias Sales, Mark Ashworth
BACKGROUND: The involvement of service users in health care provision in general, and specifically in substance use disorder treatment, is of growing importance. This paper explores the views of patients in a therapeutic community for alcohol dependence about clinical assessment, including general aspects about the evaluation process, and the specific characteristics of four measures: two individualised and two standardised. METHODS: A focus group was conducted and data were analysed using a framework synthesis approach...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401680/type-of-opioid-dependence-among-patients-seeking-opioid-substitution-treatment-are-there-differences-in-background-and-severity-of-problems
#19
Bodil Monwell, Per Bülow, Arne Gerdner
BACKGROUND: The study explores differences and similarities in background and problem severity among those seeking Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST), comparing those who primarily had misused "opiates", e.g. heroin, morphine and opium, with those who primarily had misused other opioids. METHODS: Patients (n = 127) assessed for possible admittance in OST are compared based on the Addiction Severity Index. Two groups based on primary type of opioid misused are compared (opiates vs...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333886/dextromethorphan-a-case-study-on-addressing-abuse-of-a-safe-and-effective-drug
#20
David C Spangler, Catherine M Loyd, Emily E Skor
BACKGROUND: Dextromethorphan is a safe, effective cough suppressant, available without a prescription in the United States since 1958. Due to a perceived prevalence of abuse of dextromethorphan by teens, in 2007 the Drug Enforcement Administration requested the Food and Drug Administration evaluate whether dextromethorphan should be recommended for scheduling under the Controlled Substances Act. The Food and Drug Administration held an Advisory Committee meeting in 2010 to provide a scientific and medical evaluation of dextromethorphan and its abuse potential...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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