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Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy

Pia-Maria Wippert, Michael Fließer
BACKGROUND: Doping presents a potential health risk for young athletes. Prevention programs are intended to prevent doping by educating athletes about banned substances. However, such programs have their limitations in practice. This led Germany to introduce the National Doping Prevention Plan (NDPP), in hopes of ameliorating the situation among young elite athletes. Two studies examined 1) the degree to which the NDPP led to improved prevention efforts in elite sport schools, and 2) the extent to which newly developed prevention activities of the national anti-doping agency (NADA) based on the NDPP have improved knowledge among young athletes within elite sports schools...
October 10, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Ling-Yi Feng, Wen-Jing Yu, Wei-Ting Chang, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
BACKGROUND: Illegal drug use has long been a global concern. Taiwan and Korea are geographically adjacent and both countries have experienced the illegal use problems of methamphetamine, a predominant prototype of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). NPS, a term coined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in recent years, have not been scrutinized for their safety and may become a new threat to public health and security worldwide. To conduct evidence-based drug policy, it is imperative to estimate the trend and pattern of illegal drug use...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Andreas G Franke, Sophie Lehmberg, Michael Soyka
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) is a topic of increasing importance. Its prevalence rates range from 1 % to more than 20 %. Students are a group that shows exceptionally high prevalence rates. However, little is known about teachers' knowledge, management, attitudes and ethical judgements regarding PN. METHODS: A web-based survey containing 40 closed questions was developed. All teachers working at all private and public schools in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a state in northeastern Germany, were invited to participate after their respective school offices were contacted by telephone, email and mail...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Joseph K Eibl, Kristen A Morin-Taus, David C Marsh
Prescription opioid (PO) misuse is a major health concern across North America, and it is the primary cause of preventable death for the 18-35 year old demographic. Medication assisted therapy including methadone and buprenorphine, is the standard of care for patients with opioid-dependence. Moreover, both of these medications are recognized as essential medicines by World Health Organization. In Ontario Canada, the availability of medication assisted therapy has expanded substantially, with almost a ten-fold increase number of patients accessing methadone in Ontario in the past decade...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Nadine Harker Burnhams, Ria Laubscher, Simon Howell, Mark Shaw, Jodilee Erasmus, Loraine Townsend
BACKGROUND: South Africa continues to witness an increase in illicit poly-substance use, although a precise measurement continues to be compounded by difficulties in accessing users. In a pilot attempt to use respondent-driven sampling (RDS)-a chain referral sampling method used to access populations of individuals who are 'hard-to-reach'-this article documents the feasibility of the method as recorded in a simultaneously run, multisite, poly-substance study in Cape Town. Here we aim to a) document the piloting of RDS among poly-substance users in the three socio-economic disparate communities targeted; b) briefly document the results; and c) review the utility of RDS as a research tool...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Hendrika Laetitia Hattingh, Janki Varsani, Leila Ataei Kachouei, Richard Parsons
BACKGROUND: A community pharmacy real-time electronic recording program, ProjectSTOP, enables Australian community pharmacists to verify pseudoephedrine requests. In Western Australia the program was available for voluntary use from April 2007 and became mandatory November 2010. This case study explores the effectiveness of the program by reviewing the total requests for pseudoephedrine products, and the proportion of requests which were classified as 'denied sales' before and after mandatory implementation...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Yan Zhang, Bing Feng, Wenxiu Geng, Laurence Owens, Juzhe Xi
BACKGROUND: Compulsory drug detention is the most frequent way to control drug use in China; however, it has often been criticized. This qualitative study aimed to investigate abstinence self-efficacy and its sources of drug users in a compulsory male drug detention center in Shanghai, China, and the attitudes of the drug users to this form of rehabilitation. METHODS: Thirty-six participants were interviewed (semi-structured, in depth) about their history of drug use and rehabilitation, self-evaluation of addiction, motivations to abstain, plans for the future and attitudes toward rehabilitation...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Anju Poudel, Chandrakala Sharma, Sital Gautam, Amrit Poudel
BACKGROUND: Substance use is associated with numerous undesirable short and long term consequences. The individual not only suffer from physical and psychological problems but also loses the ability to interact with family, peers and society. The present study aims to identify the psychosocial problems and associated factors among individuals with substance use disorders. METHODS: The study was conducted using descriptive cross sectional research design in different drug rehabilitation centers of Nepal...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
An influential study from the United States generated considerable discussion and debate. This study documented rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century, with clear linkages of all-cause mortality to increasing rates of poisonings, suicides and chronic liver disease deaths. All of these causes of deaths are strongly related to the use of legal and illegal substances, but the study stressed the importance of prescription opioids. Given the similarities between the United States and Canada in prescription opioid use, the assessment of similar all-cause mortality trends is relevant for Canada...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Rickard Ahlberg, Kurt Skårberg, Ole Brus, Lars Kjellin
BACKGROUND: A common alternative treatment for substance abuse is auricular acupuncture. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and long-term effect of auricular acupuncture on anxiety, sleep, drug use and addiction treatment utilization in adults with substance abuse. METHOD: Of the patients included, 280 adults with substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity, 80 were randomly assigned to auricular acupuncture according to the NADA protocol, 80 to auricular acupuncture according to a local protocol (LP), and 120 to relaxation (controls)...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Stephanie Dugdale, Jonathan Ward, Jan Hernen, Sarah Elison, Glyn Davies, Daniel Donkor
BACKGROUND: In recent years, research within the field of health psychology has made significant progress in terms of advancing and standardizing the science of developing, evaluating and reporting complex behavioral change interventions. A major part of this work has involved the development of an evidence-based Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1), as a means of describing the active components contained within such complex interventions. To date, however, this standardized approach derived from health psychology research has not been applied to the development of complex interventions for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD)...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Paula Cristina Gomes Alves, Célia Maria Dias Sales, Mark Ashworth
BACKGROUND: The involvement of service users in health care provision in general, and specifically in substance use disorder treatment, is of growing importance. This paper explores the views of patients in a therapeutic community for alcohol dependence about clinical assessment, including general aspects about the evaluation process, and the specific characteristics of four measures: two individualised and two standardised. METHODS: A focus group was conducted and data were analysed using a framework synthesis approach...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Bodil Monwell, Per Bülow, Arne Gerdner
BACKGROUND: The study explores differences and similarities in background and problem severity among those seeking Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST), comparing those who primarily had misused "opiates", e.g. heroin, morphine and opium, with those who primarily had misused other opioids. METHODS: Patients (n = 127) assessed for possible admittance in OST are compared based on the Addiction Severity Index. Two groups based on primary type of opioid misused are compared (opiates vs...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
David C Spangler, Catherine M Loyd, Emily E Skor
BACKGROUND: Dextromethorphan is a safe, effective cough suppressant, available without a prescription in the United States since 1958. Due to a perceived prevalence of abuse of dextromethorphan by teens, in 2007 the Drug Enforcement Administration requested the Food and Drug Administration evaluate whether dextromethorphan should be recommended for scheduling under the Controlled Substances Act. The Food and Drug Administration held an Advisory Committee meeting in 2010 to provide a scientific and medical evaluation of dextromethorphan and its abuse potential...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
David Otiashvili, Alisher Latypov, Irma Kirtadze, Umedjon Ibragimov, William Zule
BACKGROUND: Sharing injection equipment remains an important rout of transmission of HIV and HCV infections in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Tajikistan is one of the most affected countries with high rates of injection drug use and related epidemics.The aim of this qualitative study was to describe drug use practices and related behaviors in two Tajik cities - Kulob and Khorog. METHODS: Twelve focus group discussions (6 per city) with 100 people who inject drugs recruited through needle and syringe program (NSP) outreach in May 2014...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Julia Dickson-Gomez, Timothy McAuliffe, Chinekwu Obidoa, Katherine Quinn, Margaret Weeks
BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the dominant model for U.S. federal housing policy has shifted from unit-based programs to tenant-based vouchers and certificates. Because housing vouchers allow recipients to move to apartments and neighborhoods of their choice, such programs were designed to improve the ability of poor families to move into neighborhoods with less concentrated poverty. However, little research has examined whether housing voucher recipients live in less distressed neighborhoods than those without housing vouchers...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Hiba Alblooshi, Gary K Hulse, Ahmed El Kashef, Hanan Al Hashmi, Mansour Shawky, Hamad Al Ghaferi, Habiba Al Safar, Guan K Tay
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) is a global problem with no boundaries, which also afflicts individuals from countries of the Arabian Peninsula. Data from this region is limited. In an effort to develop targeted prevention and intervention initiatives in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), it was necessary to identify the nature of substance use by describing the characteristics of those using different substances. Consequently, this study in the UAE was conceived to describe the pattern of SUD in a first-ever cohort that was systematically recruited from the country's National Rehabilitation Centre (NRC) in Abu Dhabi...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Mowaffaq Awad Sallam, Kamaludin Ahmed Sheikh, Ronald Baxendale, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Maged El-Setouhy
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha Edulis Forsk) is a natural psychoactive substance that contains addictive substances such as Cathine and Cathinone which have similar structure and action to amphetamine. This substance has been suggested that it can decrease perceived exertion and thus improve performance. There is no study in the literature regarding the effect of khat on exercise performance. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out whether khat leaves can decrease perceived exertion in humans...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Emma Aguila, Erick G Guerrero, William A Vega
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing concern about the quality of life of older adults, little is known about characteristics associated with health risk behaviors among older adults in middle-income countries. This study relied on unique longitudinal data to examine the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use among low-income older adults, one of the fastest-growing populations worldwide. METHODS: This multilevel longitudinal analysis involved three waves of data (2008-2010) from 2,351 adults aged 70 or older in Yucatán, Mexico...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Eva Ladekjær Larsen, Gitte Andsager Smorawski, Katrine Lund Kragbak, Christiane Stock
BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies. The aim of this study is to explore students' perceptions of alcohol policies on campus in relation to attitudes and practices of alcohol consumption. METHODS: We conducted six focus group interviews with students from the University of Southern Denmark at two different campuses...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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