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Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327160/what-constitutes-problematic-khat-use-an-exploratory-mixed-methods-study-in-ethiopia
#1
Awoke Mihretu, Solomon Teferra, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUND: Khat is a psycho-stimulant herb, which has been in use in traditional societies in East Africa and the Middle East over many centuries. Although khat is reported to cause various health problems, what constitutes problematic khat use has never been systematically investigated. This study explored the acceptable and problematic uses of khat from the perspective of users. METHODS: The study used a mixed methods design (exploratory sequential) in which qualitative (emic) data were collected to develop a framework to define problematic khat use...
March 21, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320448/sleep-disturbance-and-its-associations-with-severity-of-dependence-depression-and-quality-of-life-among-heroin-dependent-patients-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#2
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Hua Ting, Meng-Huan Wu, Tsang-Yaw Lin, Michael Gossop
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is common and may adversely affect treatment outcome, mental health, and quality of life in heroin-dependent patients. Previous studies have focused upon patients receiving treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to explore the 1-month prevalence of sleep disturbance and its associations with socio-demographic, substance-related characteristics, severity of dependence, severity of depression, and quality of life among heroin-dependent patients before entering treatment program...
March 20, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302153/students-as-effective-harm-reductionists-and-needle-exchange-organizers
#3
EDITORIAL
Kyle Barbour, Miriam McQuade, Brandon Brown
BACKGROUND: Needle exchange programs are safe, highly effective programs for promoting health among people who inject drugs. However, they remain poorly funded, and often illegal, in many places worldwide due to fear and stigma surrounding drug use. Continued advocacy, education, and implementation of new needle exchanges are thus essential to improve public health and reduce structural inequality. COMMENTARY: We argue that students, and especially professional and graduate students, have the potential to play an important role in advancing harm reduction...
March 17, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298221/post-operative-opioid-pain-management-patterns-for-patients-who-receive-hip-surgery
#4
Chad E Cook, Daniel I Rhon, Brian D Lewis, Steven Z George
BACKGROUND: Identifying optimal, post-operative opioid management strategies is a priority of health providers and government agencies. At present, there are no studies we are aware of that have formally investigated opioid prescribing patterns for post-operative non-arthroplasty orthopedic conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement, nor has any study investigated the influence of opioid prescription patterns on health care costs and utilization. We aimed to investigate a subgrouping scheme associated with post-operative opioid prescription strategies and measure the subgroups' direct and indirect health care utilization and costs in individuals undergoing non-arthroplasty orthopedic hip surgery...
March 16, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270218/harm-reduction-and-tensions-in-trust-and-distrust-in-a-mental-health-service-a-qualitative-approach
#5
Rozilaine Redi Lago, Elizabeth Peter, Cláudia Maria Bógus
BACKGROUND: People seeking care for substance use (PSCSU) experience deep social and health inequities. Harm reduction can be a moral imperative to approach these persons. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among users, health care providers, relatives, and society regarding harm reduction in mental health care, using a trust approach rooted in feminist ethics. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in a mental health service for PSCSU, and included fifteen participants who were health care providers, users, and their relatives...
March 8, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279177/stronger-declines-in-youth-alcohol-consumption-thanks-to-stronger-integrated-alcohol-policies-a-qualitative-comparison-of-ten-dutch-municipalities
#6
Moniek C M de Goeij, Janneke Harting, Anton E Kunst
BACKGROUND: Little detailed evidence is available on how integrated policies could impact population health and under what conditions such policies could be realized. The aim of this study was to assess how youth alcohol consumption trends in the province of Noord-Brabant, The Netherlands, were related to the development and implementation of integrated policies. METHODS: In a retrospective multiple case study, alcohol policies of six municipalities with stronger declines in youth alcohol consumption between 2007 and 2011 (cases) were compared to four municipalities with weaker declines (controls)...
March 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231843/high-prevalence-of-quasi-legal-psychoactive-substance-use-among-male-patients-in-hiv-care-in-japan-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Kanna Hayashi, Chihiro Wakabayashi, Yuzuru Ikushima, Masayoshi Tarui
BACKGROUND: Syndemics of illicit drug use and HIV remain as significant public health issues around the world. There has been increasing concern regarding the rapidly growing market of new psychoactive substances, particularly in Asia. In response, the Japanese government has increasingly banned such substances in recent years. We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of use of quasi-legal psychoactive substances among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Japan. METHODS: Data were derived from a nationwide survey of PLHIV conducted at nine leading HIV/AIDS care hospitals between July and December 2013...
February 23, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222753/evaluation-of-blood-lead-level-in-methamphetamine-users-in-tehran
#8
Babak Mostafazadeh, Shahin Shadnia, Mohammad Ali Tavakkoli, Hamid Reza Khoddami Vishteh
BACKGROUND: Given the increasing number of lead poisoning in opioids users and since no study has been conducted so far to review lead poisoning in methamphetamine (crystal) users, this study aimed to investigate blood lead level in methamphetamine addicts. METHODS: This study was conducted on 20 patients with methamphetamine poisoning and their blood lead level was measured. The subjects were selected from among patients with a history of continuous use of methamphetamine, without a history of using opiates in the past 6 months confirmed by a negative urine tests, and without a history of heavy metal poisoning...
February 22, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202070/social-capital-and-job-satisfaction-among-substance-abuse-treatment-employees
#9
Andreas Tsounis, Dimitris Niakas, Pavlos Sarafis
BACKGROUND: Job satisfaction is an important predictor for management and clinical ratios. Although it is accepted that is affected by many aspects, the influence of social capital remains to be determined. The main purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and individual social capital for employees offering services in the treatment of addiction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 employees from 14 therapeutic programs at KETEA (Therapy Center for Dependent Individuals in Greece) (KETHEA)...
February 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196542/korean-national-athletes-knowledge-practices-and-attitudes-of-doping-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Taegyu Kim, Young Hoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Despite the efforts of the World Anti-Doping Agency and national anti-doping agencies at the international level, a relatively low and steady rate of positive doping tests still persists all over the world. Evidence on adolescents using doping substances exists, and the proportion of adolescents engaging in doping practices is small but significant. In relation to the international research trends on anti-doping, this study aims to evaluate doping knowledge, practices, and attitudes among Korean adult and adolescent elite athletes to provide effective information on anti-doping policies and education programs...
February 14, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153037/global-cocaine-intoxication-research-trends-during-1975-2015-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-web-of-science-publications
#11
Sa'ed H Zyoud, W Stephen Waring, Samah W Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Cocaine is subject to recreational abuse as a stimulant and psychoactive agent, which poses a major worldwide health problem. The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of publication related to cocaine intoxication an insight of the research trends at a global level to enable recommendations for future research strategies in this field. METHODS: Publications about cocaine intoxication were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database on December 28, 2016, and analysed regarding the following bibliometric indicators: research trends, document types, languages, countries/territories with their h-index, collaboration patterns, journals with their impact factors (IF), and institutions...
February 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109189/parents-and-peers-normative-influence-on-adolescents-smoking-results-from-a-swiss-italian-sample-of-middle-schools-students
#12
Francesca Scalici, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND AND METHOD: Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking...
January 21, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107824/implementation-of-methadone-therapy-for-opioid-use-disorder-in-russia-a-modeled-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#13
Bulat Idrisov, Sean M Murphy, Tyler Morrill, Mayada Saadoun, Karsten Lunze, Donald Shepard
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy using methadone, an effective treatment of opioid use disorders (OUD) for people who inject drugs (PWID), is recommended by the World Health Organization as essential to curtail the growing HIV epidemic. Yet, despite increasing prevalence of OUD and HIV, methadone therapy has not yet been implemented in Russia. The aim of this modeling study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of methadone therapy for Russian adults with a diagnosed OUD. METHODS/DESIGN: We modeled the projected program implementation costs and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted over a 10-year period, associated with the provision of methadone therapy for a hypothetical, unreplenished cohort of Russian adults with an OUD (n = 249,000), in comparison to the current therapies at existing addiction treatment facilities...
January 20, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100243/combating-substance-misuse-competences-and-preparation-of-special-education-department-students
#14
Eman Al-Zboon
BACKGROUND: This study examines Jordanian special education department students' competences and preparation relating to combating substance misuse (SM). METHOD: Thematic analysis was performed on data from interviews with 150 students. RESULTS: Some participants denied the possibility of addiction among students with disabilities, and presented negative attitudes toward their role in combating SM. In general, the participants displayed low levels of professionalism relating to combating SM, and the results revealed that they felt that their preparation programme had been inadequate and they desired more courses that related to combating SM...
January 14, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086837/systemic-and-individual-factors-in-the-buprenorphine-treatment-seeking-process-a-qualitative-study
#15
Valerie M Hewell, Angel R Vasquez, Inna D Rivkin
BACKGROUND: Opioid use is a significant problem in Alaska. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use, including buprenorphine, reduces withdrawal symptoms and the harm associated with opioid abuse. Understanding consumers' treatment-seeking process is important for addressing barriers to treatment, facilitating effective service utilization, and informing policy. METHODS: To understand treatment-seeking behavior, we examined the attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of those who would benefit from the medication-assisted treatment (MAT) buprenorphine...
January 11, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938383/drug-related-celebrity-deaths-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Johannes M Just, Markus Bleckwenn, Rieke Schnakenberg, Philipp Skatulla, Klaus Weckbecker
BACKGROUND: Celebrities are at risk for premature mortality as well as drug-related death. Despite being a vulnerable patient group, celebrities influence people's health behaviours through biological, psychological and social processes. Therefore, celebrity endorsement of the topic could be one way to challenge the current "opioid endemic". Our aim was to better understand the factors surrounding drug-related celebrity deaths by investigating the incidence as well as substances used between 1970 and 2015 using a cross-sectional study design...
December 9, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899120/violence-narratives-of-mexican-women-treated-in-mutual-aid-residential-centers-for-addiction-treatment
#17
Ignacio Lozano-Verduzco, Martha Romero-Mendoza, Rodrigo Marín-Navarrete
BACKGROUND: Violence against women is a social and public health issue in Mexico. The aim of this article is to explore violence among an understudied group of women, who attended Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment and experienced stigma both as women and addicts. These centers are particular kind of addiction treatment services that stem from 12-step philosophy, but that have been found to manipulate said philosophy and exercise extreme forms of psychological and physical violence...
November 30, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894311/access-to-substance-use-treatment-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#18
Elliott J Liebling, Jesse L Yedinak, Traci C Green, Scott E Hadland, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: Non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a substantial public health problem in the United States, with 1.5 million new initiates annually. Only 746,000 people received treatment for NMPO use in 2013, demonstrating substantial disparities in access to treatment. This study aimed to assess correlates of accessing substance use treatment among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island, a state heavily impacted by NMPO use and opioid overdose. METHODS: This analysis uses data from a study of 200 Rhode Island residents aged 18 to 29 who reported NMPO use in the past 30 days...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793173/a-narrative-review-of-alcohol-consumption-as-a-risk-factor-for-global-burden-of-disease
#19
REVIEW
Jürgen Rehm, Sameer Imtiaz
Since the original Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) for alcohol consumption as part of the Global Burden of Disease Study for 1990, there had been regular updates of CRAs for alcohol from the World Health Organization and/or the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. These studies have become more and more refined with respect to establishing causality between dimensions of alcohol consumption and different disease and mortality (cause of death) outcomes, refining risk relations, and improving the methodology for estimating exposure and alcohol-attributable burden...
October 28, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784325/alcohol-consumption-and-accentuated-personality-traits-among-young-adults-in-romania-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Cornelia Rada, Alexandru Teodor Ispas
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption (AC) has negative social and economic consequences, affects health, and can create dependence. As dependence is particularly difficult to cure, prevention is important. This study aimed to identify the frequency, quantity, occasions, reasons, type of AC, and correlation with accentuated personality traits among young adults in Romania. METHODS: Participants were 1359 young adults aged 18-30 years (average age, 22.67 years; standard deviation [SD], 3...
October 27, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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