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Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy

Adel Elkbuli, Valerie Polcz, Brianna Dowd, Mark McKenney, Guillermo Prado
BACKGROUND: Behavioral Interventions are needed to prevent HIV in substance users, which is associated with higher risk for contracting HIV via unprotected sexual intercourse or syringe-based exposure. We reviewed universal HIV prevention interventions targeting intravenous drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs (NIDUs) to identify which prevention interventions are the most effective at reducing HIV transmission risk among IDU's and NIDU's and identify gaps in the literature. METHODS: A PubMed literature review (1998-2017), limiting studies to universal HIV prevention interventions targeting adult HIV-negative substance users...
January 3, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Lisa Strada, Christiane Sybille Schmidt, Moritz Rosenkranz, Uwe Verthein, Norbert Scherbaum, Jens Reimer, Bernd Schulte
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST) is limited and fragmented. The present study examines the HRQOL of a large national sample of OST patients in Germany and sociodemographic and clinical correlates. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on the HRQOL of 2176 OST patients was compared with German general population norms. Patients were recruited from 63 OST practices across Germany. To identify correlates of HRQOL, as measured with the SF-12, we performed bi- and multivariate analyses with sociodemographic and clinical variables, including patient- and clinician-reported outcomes on physical and mental health...
January 3, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Liang-Jen Wang, Mei-Yen Chen, Chin-Yin Lin, Mian-Yoon Chong, Wen-Jiun Chou, Yu-Han You, Chih-Pu Tsai, Yi-Syuan Chen, Shing-Fang Lu
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relapse risk among different illicit drugs is vital for developing an adequate relapse prevention policy. Therefore, the current study aims to explore the potential difference in long-term relapse rates between youths who use ketamine and those who use stimulants (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA] or methamphetamine). METHODS: The study's participants included 92 youths with ketamine use (ketamine group, mean age: 16.0 years) and 43 youths with MDMA/methamphetamine use (stimulants group, mean age: 16...
December 22, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Sarah Wadd, Maureen Dutton
BACKGROUND: Whilst alcohol misuse is decreasing amongst younger adults in many countries, it is increasing in older adults. Residential rehabilitation (rehab) is a vital component of the alcohol treatment system, particularly for those with relatively complex needs and entrenched alcohol problems. In this study, we sought to find out to what extent rehabs in England have upper age limits that exclude older adults, whether rehabs are responsive to older adults' age-related needs and how older adults experience these services...
December 13, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
E Meijer, M Kampman, M S Geisler, N H Chavannes
BACKGROUND: Little research has investigated in-depth how physicians perceive their role in smoking cessation care. This qualitative study sought to understand physicians' perceptions of responsibility for smoking cessation. METHODS: Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews between June and November 2017 in The Netherlands. We interviewed 5 addiction specialists, 5 anesthesiologist, 4 cardiologists, 8 GPs, 5 internists, 5 neurologists, 2 pediatricians, 6 pulmonologists, 7 surgeons, and 8 youth healthcare physicians (N = 55)...
December 12, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes, Lisa Dannatt
BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorders (PWSUDs) are a clearly delineated group at high risk for suicidal behaviour. Expert consensus is that suicide prevention strategies should be culturally sensitive and specific to particular populations and socio-cultural and economic contexts. The aim of this study was to explore mental health care providers' context- and population-specific suggestions for suicide prevention when providing services for PWSUDs in the Western Cape, South Africa...
December 7, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Gholamhossein Shahraki, Zahra Sedaghat, Mohammad Fararouei
BACKGROUND: Substance dependence is considered as an important health disorder with a wide and serious range of psychosocial effects. With regard to the large number of people with substance dependency in Iran and high failure rate of quitting attempts, the aim of this study was to identify contributing factors to quitting substance dependency among patients in Yasuj the capital of Kohgilooyeh and Boyerahmad province. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted on 150 current substance users (as control group) and 187 patients who voluntarily introduced themselves to governmental and private residential treatment camps (as case group)...
December 6, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Farhad Taremian, Hamid Yaghubi, Hamid Pairavi, Seyed Ruhollah Hosseini, Masoud Zafar, Reza Moloodi
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a major mental health concern among university students. It may result in behavioral and academic problems, psychiatric disorders, and infectious diseases. Thus, this study investigated the risk and protective factors of substance use among Iranian university students. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A number of 7330 students were selected from 30 universities in Iran. The participants completed a researcher-designed questionnaire...
December 6, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Pamela J Trangenstein, Neo K Morojele, Carl Lombard, David H Jernigan, Charles D H Parry
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the potential individual-level and contextual drivers of heavy drinking in South Africa. This study aimed to identify risk factors for heavy drinking in Tshwane, South Africa. METHODS: A household survey using a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling design. Complete consumption and income data were available on 713 adults. Heavy drinking was defined as consuming ≥120 ml (96 g) of absolute alcohol (AA) for men and ≥ 90 ml (72 g) AA for women at any location at least monthly...
December 5, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Yuka Murofushi, Yujiro Kawata, Akari Kamimura, Masataka Hirosawa, Nobuto Shibata
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the anti-doping (AD) education, doping control experience, and AD knowledge according to the World Anti-doping Code (Code) of Japanese university athletes. METHODS: We collected data from 514 male athletes (Mage  = 19.53 years, SD = 1.13) and 629 female athletes (Mage  = 20.99 years, SD = 1.07). We asked them about their experience undergoing doping control and the AD education they had received...
December 5, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Maria Nowak, Malgorzata Papiernik, Alicja Mikulska, Bozena Czarkowska-Paczek
BACKGROUND: The use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances typically first occurs in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol, cigarette, and illicit substance use among adolescents in Poland, including the age of initiation, frequency of use, methods of access, location of use, and parental knowledge and attitude. METHODS: An author-derived questionnaire was used to cross-sectionally survey 541 participants aged 13-17 years old. Due to the fact that some answers were lacking, the number of questionnaires analysed was 538 in case of smoking and illicit substances use, and 535 in case of alcohol drinking...
November 29, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Tessa Cheng, Will Small, Huiru Dong, Ekaterina Nosova, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) is a serious public health problem in North America. At a population-level, previous research has identified differences in the prevalence and correlates of NMPOU among younger versus older age groups; however, less is known about age-related differences in NMPOU among people who use illegal drugs. METHODS: Data were collected between 2013 and 2015 from two linked prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada: the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS) and the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS)...
November 27, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Kristiina Kivimies, Eila Repo-Tiihonen, Hannu Kautiainen, Jari Tiihonen
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with poorer clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. There is no specific treatment for amphetamine or cannabis use disorder, but methadone and buprenorphine are used as replacement therapy in the treatment of opioid dependence. Our aim was to study whether patients with schizophrenia have received opioid replacement therapy for their opioid use disorder. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 148 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia who were in involuntary psychiatric treatment as forensic patients in Finland in 2012...
November 6, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Hanna Dauber, Oliver Pogarell, Ludwig Kraus, Barbara Braun
BACKGROUND: In western countries demographic changes are leading to an ageing society. Consequently, the number of older adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) will rise and the demand of treatment is likely to increase. However, thus far not many older adults with an AUD are seeking treatment and little is known about the efficacy of treatment for older adults. The present study aimed at determining the proportion of older adults with an AUD in addiction treatment, particular characteristics and treatment outcomes of this clientele...
November 6, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Maryam Khazaee-Pool, Leila Jahangiry, Tahereh Pashaei, Farhad Ramezani-Badr, Haidar Nadrian, Koen Ponnet
BACKGROUND: Drug misuse is a major problem that has an extreme negative effect on people's health. Methamphetamine (MA) is frequently used by young adults, despite its harmful consequences. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has been known to be very effective in explaining both the achievement and cessation of several health-related behaviors. Therefore, in this study, the TTM was used toward the domain of immoderate MA use among young adults. This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of a decisional balance scale for MA use in young adults...
October 29, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Christiana Bagusat, Angela Kunzler, Jennifer Schlecht, Andreas G Franke, Andrea Chmitorz, Klaus Lieb
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PNE) refers to the use of psychoactive substances without doctor's prescription to enhance cognitive performance or to improve mood. Although some studies have reported that drugs for PNE are also being used to cope with stressful life situations, nothing is known about the relationship of PNE and resilience, i.e. the ability to recover from stress. This study aimed at investigating the relationship of PNE and resilience in the first representative population sample...
October 22, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Carmela Martínez-Vispo, Úrsula Martínez, Ana López-Durán, Elena Fernández Del Río, Elisardo Becoña
INTRODUCTION: Substance use and depression co-occurrence is a frequent phenomenon and an important public health concern. Given the clinical implications and the high prevalence of both disorders, effective interventions are needed. METHODS: The aim of this study is to review Behavioural Activation (BA) intervention effects to improve substance use behaviour and depression. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP) was used to assess the methodological quality of included studies...
September 29, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Mandy Stokes, Peter Schultz, Assim Alpaslan
BACKGROUND: The reported high rate of relapse in the context of an ever-increasing rate of substance abuse internationally and in South Africa together with the fact that the topic of sustained recovery from Substance Use Disorder (SUD) appears to be totally neglected in extant literature and research agendas motivated the researchers to conduct this investigation. The aim was to obtain an in-depth understanding of how individuals recovering from a SUD experience and sustain their recovery in order to fill the gap in the knowledge base...
September 27, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Nicola C Newton, Maree Teesson, Marius Mather, Katrina E Champion, Emma L Barrett, Lexine Stapinski, Natacha Carragher, Erin Kelly, Patricia J Conrod, Tim Slade
BACKGROUND: The Climate and Preventure (CAP) study was the first trial to assess and demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined universal and selective approach for preventing alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. The current paper reports universal effects from the CAP study on cannabis-related outcomes over three years. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 2190 students from twenty-six Australian high schools (mean age: 13...
September 25, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Michael Harley, Sabrina Winona Pit, Trent Rees, Susan Thomas
BACKGROUND: Program attrition is a major problem in substance use treatment. It is not clear which client and treatment variables are related to successful completion. This study aimed to identify client variables associated with Therapeutic Community (TC) completion. A secondary aim was to investigate changes in entry and exit scores on psychosocial outcome measures. METHODS: Retrospective quantitative analysis of data collected from 193 Australian TC residents, over 3...
September 24, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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