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Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy

Kristiina Kivimies, Eila Repo-Tiihonen, Hannu Kautiainen, Jari Tiihonen
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with poorer clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. There is no specific treatment for amphetamine or cannabis use disorder, but methadone and buprenorphine are used as replacement therapy in the treatment of opioid dependence. Our aim was to study whether patients with schizophrenia have received opioid replacement therapy for their opioid use disorder. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 148 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia who were in involuntary psychiatric treatment as forensic patients in Finland in 2012...
November 6, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Hanna Dauber, Oliver Pogarell, Ludwig Kraus, Barbara Braun
BACKGROUND: In western countries demographic changes are leading to an ageing society. Consequently, the number of older adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) will rise and the demand of treatment is likely to increase. However, thus far not many older adults with an AUD are seeking treatment and little is known about the efficacy of treatment for older adults. The present study aimed at determining the proportion of older adults with an AUD in addiction treatment, particular characteristics and treatment outcomes of this clientele...
November 6, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Maryam Khazaee-Pool, Leila Jahangiry, Tahereh Pashaei, Farhad Ramezani-Badr, Haidar Nadrian, Koen Ponnet
BACKGROUND: Drug misuse is a major problem that has an extreme negative effect on people's health. Methamphetamine (MA) is frequently used by young adults, despite its harmful consequences. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has been known to be very effective in explaining both the achievement and cessation of several health-related behaviors. Therefore, in this study, the TTM was used toward the domain of immoderate MA use among young adults. This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of a decisional balance scale for MA use in young adults...
October 29, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Christiana Bagusat, Angela Kunzler, Jennifer Schlecht, Andreas G Franke, Andrea Chmitorz, Klaus Lieb
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PNE) refers to the use of psychoactive substances without doctor's prescription to enhance cognitive performance or to improve mood. Although some studies have reported that drugs for PNE are also being used to cope with stressful life situations, nothing is known about the relationship of PNE and resilience, i.e. the ability to recover from stress. This study aimed at investigating the relationship of PNE and resilience in the first representative population sample...
October 22, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Carmela Martínez-Vispo, Úrsula Martínez, Ana López-Durán, Elena Fernández Del Río, Elisardo Becoña
INTRODUCTION: Substance use and depression co-occurrence is a frequent phenomenon and an important public health concern. Given the clinical implications and the high prevalence of both disorders, effective interventions are needed. METHODS: The aim of this study is to review Behavioural Activation (BA) intervention effects to improve substance use behaviour and depression. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP) was used to assess the methodological quality of included studies...
September 29, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Mandy Stokes, Peter Schultz, Assim Alpaslan
BACKGROUND: The reported high rate of relapse in the context of an ever-increasing rate of substance abuse internationally and in South Africa together with the fact that the topic of sustained recovery from Substance Use Disorder (SUD) appears to be totally neglected in extant literature and research agendas motivated the researchers to conduct this investigation. The aim was to obtain an in-depth understanding of how individuals recovering from a SUD experience and sustain their recovery in order to fill the gap in the knowledge base...
September 27, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Nicola C Newton, Maree Teesson, Marius Mather, Katrina E Champion, Emma L Barrett, Lexine Stapinski, Natacha Carragher, Erin Kelly, Patricia J Conrod, Tim Slade
BACKGROUND: The Climate and Preventure (CAP) study was the first trial to assess and demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined universal and selective approach for preventing alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. The current paper reports universal effects from the CAP study on cannabis-related outcomes over three years. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 2190 students from twenty-six Australian high schools (mean age: 13...
September 25, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Michael Harley, Sabrina Winona Pit, Trent Rees, Susan Thomas
BACKGROUND: Program attrition is a major problem in substance use treatment. It is not clear which client and treatment variables are related to successful completion. This study aimed to identify client variables associated with Therapeutic Community (TC) completion. A secondary aim was to investigate changes in entry and exit scores on psychosocial outcome measures. METHODS: Retrospective quantitative analysis of data collected from 193 Australian TC residents, over 3...
September 24, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Dennis P Watson, Emily Q Ahonen, Valery Shuman, Molly Brown, Sam Tsemberis, Philip Huynh, Fangqian Ouyang, Huiping Xu
BACKGROUND: This paper discusses the initial testing of the Housing First Training and Technical Assistance (HFTAT) Program, a multifaceted, distance-based strategy for the implementation of the Housing First (HF) supportive housing model. HF is a complex housing intervention for serving people living with serious mental illness and a substance use disorder that requires significant individual- and structural-level changes to implement. As such, the HFTAT employs a combined training and consultation approach to target different levels of the organization...
September 21, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Hicham El Kazdouh, Abdelghaffar El-Ammari, Siham Bouftini, Samira El Fakir, Youness El Achhab
BACKGROUND: Substance use in adolescents is a global public health concern that continues to draw attention from academics, policy experts, and government officials. In Morocco, few studies have investigated the influencing factors of substance use in adolescents. Here, we aimed to fill this gap and to better understand factors that protect or influence substance use in adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions. The semi-structured interview guides were based on the socio-ecological model as a theoretical framework to explore perceptions of students, parents, and teachers regarding substance use risks and protective factors in adolescents...
September 10, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Nicholas D Lawson, J Wesley Boyd
BACKGROUND: Physician health program websites in 23 states provide many descriptions of possible physician impairment. This study sought to determine whether these descriptions are so broad that almost everyone might potentially be suspected of being impaired given these descriptions. METHODS: The authors randomly selected 25 descriptions of impairment and then presented them anonymously online to members of the general population in full-time employment through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 199)...
August 23, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Melike Küçükkarapınar, Hale Yapici Eser, Vahap Ozan Kotan, Merve Yalcinay-Inan, Rifat Tarhan, Zehra Arikan
BACKGROUND: Cognitions associated with craving and substance use are important contributors for the psychological theories of Substance use disorders (SUD), as they may affect the course and treatment. In this study, we aimed to validate Turkish version of two major scales 'Beliefs About Substance Use'(BSU) and 'Craving Beliefs Questionnaire'(CBQ) in patients with heroin use disorder and define the interaction of these beliefs with patient profile, depression and anxiety symptoms, with an aim to use these thoughts as targets for treatment...
August 22, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Barbara Tempalski, Charles M Cleland, Leslie D Williams, Hannah L F Cooper, Samuel R Friedman
BACKGROUND: Our previous research has found low and stable mean drug treatment coverage among people who inject drugs (PWID) across 90 large US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during 1993-2002. This manuscript updates previous estimates of change in drug treatment coverage for PWID in 90 MSAs during 1993-2007. METHODS: Our drug treatment sample for calculating treatment coverage includes clients enrolled in residential or ambulatory inpatient/outpatient care, detoxification services, and methadone maintenance therapy at publicly- and privately-funded substance abuse agencies receiving public funds...
August 9, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Sharon Vipler, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Evan Wood, Ekaterina Nosova, Thomas Kerr, Lianping Ti
BACKGROUND: For many individuals with substance use disorders, the entry point for addiction treatment can be through withdrawal management (e.g. detoxification) services. However, little is known about the factors that predict withdrawal management service use among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). Using data derived from two prospective cohorts of PWUD, we conducted a longitudinal data analysis of factors associated with use of withdrawal management services. METHODS: Individuals participating in two cohorts of PWUD were prospectively followed between December 2005 and May 2016 in Vancouver, Canada...
July 5, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Megan A Moreno, Aubrey D Gower, Marina C Jenkins, Bradley Kerr, Jesse Gritton
BACKGROUND: Youth exposure to positive marijuana messages increases their risk of marijuana use. Since Washington State legalized recreational marijuana in 2012, marijuana businesses have used social media business pages to promote their products. Regulations to prevent youth access and targeting by marijuana businesses on social media in Washington State are absent. The purpose of this study was to engage youth in conceptualizing prevention approaches to limit youth exposure to marijuana business promotions on social media...
July 2, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Sharon Green-Hennessy
Recently the United States Assistant Secretary of Mental Health and Substance Use disclosed having suspended the National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices, stating it was so deficient in both rigor and breadth that it must be replaced. However, a closer examination of her claims about the Registry indicates many of them to be inaccurate. Contrary to her assertions, the Registry is not devoid of medication-assisted treatments for opioid use; nor does it contain but a scant few interventions related to schizophrenia and psychosis...
June 22, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Mario Fernando, Johanna Buckland, Prashina Melwani, Vanessa Tent, Philip Preston, Sabrina Winona Pit
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes remain a significant and costly public health issue globally. Particularly young people are over-represented in these incidents. This study set out to explore the factors that influence individuals' perceptions of their safety to drive, and the factors related to a change in intention to drive. METHODS: Four hundred nine young people aged 18-40 attending an Australian multi-day music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, alcohol use, amount of sleep obtained the previous night, intention to drive, number of passengers, perceived safety to drive, estimated BAC (measured in g/210 L) and change in intention to drive following a BAC measurement via breathalysers...
June 20, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Beatrice Wamuyu Muchiri, Monika M L Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: An increasingly recognised prevention approach for substance use entails a reduction in risk factors, and the enhancement of promotive, or protective factors in individuals and the environment surrounding them during their growth and development. METHODS: This exploratory study evaluated the effect of potential risk and protective factors associated with family management relating to adolescent substance use in South Africa. Exploratory analysis and cumulative odds ordinal logistic regression modelling was performed on the data, while controlling for the influence of demographic and socio-economic characteristics on adolescent substance use...
June 19, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Johan Kakko, Charlotte Gedeon, Mikael Sandell, Henrik Grelz, Inge Birkemose, Thomas Clausen, Valgerður Rúnarsdóttir, Kaarlo Simojoki, Richard Littlewood, Hannu Alho, Fred Nyberg
BACKGROUND: Long-term use of opioid analgesics (OA) for chronic pain may result in opioid use disorder (OUD). This is associated with adverse outcomes for individuals, families and society. Treatment needs of people with OUD related to chronic pain are different compared to dependence related to use, and also injection, of illicit opioids. In Nordic countries, day-to-day practical advice to assist clinical decision-making is insufficient. AIM: To develop principles based on expert clinical insights for treatment of OUD related to the long-term use of OA in the context of chronic pain...
June 1, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
E K Erevik, S Pallesen, Ø Vedaa, C S Andreassen, T Torsheim
BACKGROUND: "Freshman's week" (FW) is a Norwegian initiation ritual to higher education. Previous research has suggested that FW-participation is associated with better social adjustment to the student setting, as well as heavy alcohol use both during and after the event. In this study, we aimed to identify characteristics associated with participation in FW and characteristics associated with experiencing adverse effects of alcohol use during FW. METHODS: Students in the city of Bergen, Norway participated in a survey during fall 2015, shortly after FW...
May 29, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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