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Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737717/informed-consent-for-the-diagnosis-of-brain-death-a-conceptual-argument
#1
Osamu Muramoto
BACKGROUND: This essay provides an ethical and conceptual argument for the use of informed consent prior to the diagnosis of brain death. It is meant to enable the family to make critical end-of-life decisions, particularly withdrawal of life support system and organ donation, before brain death is diagnosed, as opposed to the current practice of making such decisions after the diagnosis of death. The recent tragic case of a 13-year-old brain-dead patient in California who was maintained on a ventilator for over 2 years illustrates how such a consent would have made a crucial difference...
October 13, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769311/failed-surrogate-conceptions-social-and-ethical-aspects-of-preconception-disruptions-during-commercial-surrogacy-in-india
#2
Sayani Mitra, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: During a commercial surrogacy arrangement, the event of embryo transfer can be seen as the formal starting point of the arrangement. However, it is common for surrogates to undergo a failed attempt at pregnancy conception or missed conception after an embryo transfer. This paper attempts to argue that such failed attempts can be understood as a loss. It aims to reconstruct the experiences of loss and grief of the surrogates and the intended parents as a consequence of their collective failure to conceive a surrogate pregnancy...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646569/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-3-second-tradition-neuroethics-ethical-issues-in-neuroscience
#3
EDITORIAL
Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." METHODS: To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624701/varsity-medical-ethics-debate-2015-should-nootropic-drugs-be-available-under-prescription-on-the-nhs
#4
Emma Thorley, Isaac Kang, Stephanie D'Costa, Myrto Vlazaki, Olaoluwa Ayeko, Edward H Arbe-Barnes, Casey B Swerner
The 2015 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: "This house believes nootropic drugs should be available under prescription". This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its seventh year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the current usage of nootropic drugs, their safety and whether it would be beneficial to individuals and society as a whole for them to be available under prescription...
September 13, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550215/programs-of-religious-spiritual-support-in-hospitals-five-whies-and-five-hows
#5
EDITORIAL
Marcelo Saad, Roberta de Medeiros
A contemporary orientation of the hospital experience model must encompass the clients' religious-spiritual dimension. The objective of this paper is to share a previous experience, highlighting at least five reasons hospitals should invest in this direction, and an equal number of steps required to achieve it. In the first part, the text discourses about five reasons to invest in religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Religious-spiritual wellbeing is related to better health; 2. Religious-spiritual appreciation is a standard for hospital accreditation; 3...
2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491390/the-wizard-behind-the-curtain-programmers-as-providers
#6
Mark A Graber, Olivia Bailey
It is almost universally accepted that traditional provider-patient relationships should be governed, at least in part, by the ethical principles set forth by Beauchamp and Childress (Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of biomedical ethics, 1979). These principles include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice (Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of biomedical ethics, 1979). Recently, however, the nature of medial practice has changed. The pervasive presence of computer technology in medicine raises interesting ethical questions...
2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435596/maternal-participant-experience-in-a-south-african-birth-cohort-study-enrolling-healthy-pregnant-women-and-their-infants
#7
Whitney Barnett, Kirsty Brittain, Katherine Sorsdahl, Heather J Zar, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Critical to conducting high quality research is the ability to attract and retain participants, especially for longitudinal studies. Understanding participant experiences and motivators or barriers to participating in clinical research is crucial. There are limited data on healthy participant experiences in longitudinal research, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to investigate quantitatively participant experiences in a South African birth cohort study...
2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27060909/establishing-the-first-institutional-animal-care-and-use-committee-in-egypt
#8
Sohair R Fahmy, Khadiga Gaafar
BACKGROUND: Although animal research ethics committees (AREC) are well established in Western countries, this field is weakly developed and its concept is poorly understood in the Middle East and North Africa region. OBJECTIVE: Our main objective was to introduce the concept and requirements of ethical approaches in dealing with experimental animal in research and teaching in Egypt. METHODS: Due to its very recent inception, Cairo University, Faculty of Science IACUC decided to operate in accordance with Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals 8th Edition 2011 (the Guide) since Egypt has not yet compiled its own guide...
2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26062729/-trust-my-doctor-trust-my-pancreas-trust-as-an-emergent-quality-of-social-practice
#9
Simon Cohn
BACKGROUND: Growing attention is being paid to the importance of trust, and its corollaries such as mistrust and distrust, in health service and the central place they have in assessments of quality of care. Although initially focussing on doctor-patient relationships, more recent literature has broadened its remit to include trust held in more abstract entities, such as organisations and institutions. There has consequently been growing interest to develop rigorous and universal measures of trust...
June 11, 2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26684455/doctor-can-i-buy-a-new-kidney-i-ve-heard-it-isn-t-forbidden-what-is-the-role-of-the-nephrologist-when-dealing-with-a-patient-who-wants-to-buy-a-kidney
#10
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Laura Sacchetti, Laura Verzè, Franco Cavallo
Organ trafficking is officially banned in several countries and by the main Nephrology Societies. However, this practice is widespread and is allowed or tolerated in many countries, hence, in the absence of a universal law, the caregiver may be asked for advice, placing him/her in a difficult balance between legal aspects, moral principles and ethical judgments.In spite of the Istanbul declaration, which is a widely shared position statement against organ trafficking, the controversy on mercenary organ donation is still open and some experts argue against taking a negative stance...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26567128/a-charter-for-biomedical-research-ethics-in-a-progressive-caring-society
#11
Sylvie Vandoolaeghe, Alessandra Blaizot, Danie Boudiguet, Valérie Bougault, Eduardo Dei Cas, Benoît Foligne, Anne Goffard, Hélène Lefranc, Bénédicte Oxombre, Thomas Trentesaux, Bernard Vandenbunder, Isabelle Wolowczuk, Laurence Delhaes
BACKGROUND: Given that advances in research continuously raise new ethical issues, a multidisciplinary working group of investigators involved in biomedical research has gathered to discuss and compare ethical viewpoints in their daily practice. METHODS: The working group has drafted a Charter for Ethics in Biomedical Research that encompasses all the steps in the research process, i.e. from the initial idea to analysis and publication of the results. RESULTS: Based on key principles for ethically responsible research, the Charter may serve as a tool for performing research, discussing research issues and training researchers...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26395575/this-house-believes-the-nhs-should-be-privatised-1st-southwest-medical-debate
#12
K Naguleswaran, T Tribedi, J Fenn, S B Patel
The inaugural southwest medical debate, between Exeter and Plymouth medical schools and respective health services, was held on the 3rd December 2014. Plymouth proposed the motion "This house believes the NHS should be privatised?" In an increasingly political climate, the National Health Service (NHS) has become a constant topic for discussion in the media. On this occasion, all those debating were involved in the medical profession with roles encompassing clinical medicine, education, ethics, economics and policy...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26122270/medical-professionalism-what-the-study-of-literature-can-contribute-to-the-conversation
#13
Johanna Shapiro, Lois L Nixon, Stephen E Wear, David J Doukas
Medical school curricula, although traditionally and historically dominated by science, have generally accepted, appreciated, and welcomed the inclusion of literature over the past several decades. Recent concerns about medical professional formation have led to discussions about the specific role and contribution of literature and stories. In this article, we demonstrate how professionalism and the study of literature can be brought into relationship through critical and interrogative interactions based in the literary skill of close reading...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25990024/the-2014-varsity-medical-ethics-debate-should-we-allow-genetic-information-to-be-patented
#14
Kiloran H M Metcalfe, Calum A Worsley, Casey B Swerner, Devan Sinha, Ravi Solanki, Krithi Ravi, Raj S Dattani
The 2014 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: "This house believes that genetic information should not be commoditised". This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its sixth year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the circumstances under which genetic material should be considered patentable, the possible effects of this on the research and development of novel therapeutics, and the need for clear guidelines within this rapidly developing field...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25903168/-arm-in-arm-with-righteousness
#15
Iona Heath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25890378/an-explanation-and-analysis-of-how-world-religions-formulate-their-ethical-decisions-on-withdrawing-treatment-and-determining-death
#16
Susan M Setta, Sam D Shemie
INTRODUCTION: This paper explores definitions of death from the perspectives of several world and indigenous religions, with practical application for health care providers in relation to end of life decisions and organ and tissue donation after death. It provides background material on several traditions and explains how different religions derive their conclusions for end of life decisions from the ethical guidelines they proffer. METHODS: Research took several forms beginning with a review of books and articles written by ethicists and observers of Bön, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Indigenous Traditions, Islam, Judaism, Shinto and Taoism...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25890310/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-2-neuroscientific-studies-of-morality-and-ethics
#17
Martina Darragh, Liana Buniak, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Moral philosophy and psychology have sought to define the nature of right and wrong, and good and evil. The industrial turn of the twentieth century fostered increasingly technological approaches that conjoined philosophy to psychology, and psychology to the natural sciences. Thus, moral philosophy and psychology became ever more vested to investigations of the anatomic structures and physiologic processes involved in cognition, emotion and behavior--ultimately falling under the rubric of the neurosciences...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25888753/explaining-and-responding-to-the-ebola-epidemic
#18
Solomon Benatar
The Ebola epidemic in West Africa is not merely a biomedical problem that can be seen in isolation and dealt with only through emergency medical rescue processes. The ethical dilemmas surfaced by this epidemic are also not confined to the usual micro-ethical problems associated with medical care and medical research. The pandemic, as one of many manifestations of failed human and social development that has brought the world to dangerous 'tipping points', requires deep introspection and action to address upstream causal processes...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25886206/luria-revisited-cognitive-research-in-schizophrenia-past-implications-and-future-challenges
#19
Yuliya Zaytseva, Raymond C K Chan, Ernst Pöppel, Andreas Heinz
Contemporary psychiatry is becoming more biologically oriented in the attempt to elicit a biological rationale of mental diseases. Although mental disorders comprise mostly functional abnormalities, there is a substantial overlap between neurology and psychiatry in addressing cognitive disturbances. In schizophrenia, the presence of cognitive impairment prior to the onset of psychosis and early after its manifestation suggests that some neurocognitive abnormalities precede the onset of psychosis and may represent a trait marker...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25886065/the-right-to-health-health-systems-development-and-public-health-policy-challenges-in-chad
#20
Jacquineau Azétsop, Michael Ochieng
BACKGROUND: There is increasing consensus that the right to health can provide ethical, policy and practical groundings for health systems development. The goals of the right to health are congruent with those of health systems development, which are about strengthening health promotion organizations and actions so as to improve public health. The poor shape and performance of health systems in Chad question the extent of realization of the right to health. Due to its comprehensiveness and inclusiveness, the right to health has the potential of being an organizational and a normative backbone for public health policy and practice...
2015: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
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