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Current Protocols in Microbiology

Shin-Hee Kim, Siba K Samal
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an economically important pathogen in the poultry industry worldwide. Recovery of infectious NDV from cDNA using reverse genetics has made it possible to manipulate the genome of NDV. This has greatly contributed to our understanding of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of NDV. Furthermore, NDV has modular genome and accommodates insertion of a foreign gene as a transcriptional unit, thus enabling NDV as a vaccine vector against diseases of humans and animals. Avirulent NDV strains (e...
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Lindsey O'Neal, Tanmoy Mukherjee, Gladys Alexandre
Bacteria of the genus A. brasilense are motile and capable of chemotaxis and aerotaxis (taxis in gradient of oxygen) using a single polar flagellum that propels the cells in aqueous environments. Responses to attractants and repellents have been described and spatial gradient assays that permit the visualization of these responses are detailed in this unit. These assays are simple and can be readily implemented with minimum set ups. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Osama S Mahdi, Nathan A Fisher
Paenibacillus larvae is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium and the causative agent of American foulbrood disease (AFB), a highly contagious, fatal disease affecting managed honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies. As the etiological agent of American foulbrood disease, P. larvae is the most economically significant bacterial pathogen infecting honeybees. This unit includes protocols for the in vitro growth and laboratory maintenance of P. larvae. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Osama S Mahdi, Nathan A Fisher
Endospores are metabolically dormant cells formed by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes in response to nutrient limiting or otherwise unfavorable growth conditions. American foulbrood disease (AFB) is a serious disease of honeybees that is caused by the introduction of Paenibacillus larvae endospores into a honeybee colony. Progression to fulminant disease and eventual collapse of the colony requires multiple rounds of endospore germination, vegetative replication, endospore formation, and subsequent spread within the colony...
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Shaoli Lin, Liping Yang, Yan-Jin Zhang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) predominantly causes acute liver disease in humans and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. HEV infection in pregnant women can result in grave consequences, with up to 30% fatality. The HEV strains infecting humans mainly belong to four genotypes. Genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to human infection, while genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic. HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) can cause both acute and chronic liver diseases. Several cell lines (mainly hepatocytes) have been developed for HEV propagation and biological study...
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Ekaterina G Viktorova, Sunil Khattar, Siba Samal, George A Belov
Poliovirus is a prototype member of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family of small positive strand RNA viruses, which include important human and animal pathogens. Quantitative assessment of viral replication is very important for investigation of the virus biology and the development of anti-viral strategies. The poliovirus genome structure allows replacement of structural genes with a reporter protein, such as a luciferase or a fluorescent protein, whose signals can be detected and quantified in vivo, thus permitting observation of replication kinetics in live cells...
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Zexu Ma, Liping Yang, Yan-Jin Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a member of the family Arteriviridae, order Nidovirale. PRRSV is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus with a genome around 15 kb in length. For propagation of PRRSV in vitro, the MARC-145 cell line is the most often used in a laboratory setting. Infectious cDNA clones of many PRRSV strains have been established, from which these viruses can be recovered. PRRSV titration is generally done in MARC-145 cells. PRRSV RNA copy numbers can be assessed by reverse transcription and real-time PCR...
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Daniel K Howe, Michelle Yeargan, Landon Simpson, Sriveny Dangoudoubiyam
Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the important phylum Apicomplexa and the primary cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Moreover, S. neurona is the best-studied species in the genus Sarcocystis, one of the most successful parasite taxa, as virtually all vertebrate animals may be infected by at least one species. Consequently, scientific investigation of S. neurona will aid in the control of EPM and neurologic disease in sea mammals, while also improving our understanding of a prominent branch on the apicomplexan phylogenetic tree...
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Gladys Alexandre
Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum comprise 15 species to date, with A. brasilense the best studied species in the genus. Azospirillum are soil bacteria able to promote the growth of plants from 113 species spanning 35 botanical families. These non-pathogenic and beneficial bacteria are ubiquitous in soils and inhabit the roots of diverse plants. These bacteria are microaerophilic, able to fix nitrogen under free-living conditions, motile, and able to navigate in gradients of various chemicals, including oxygen...
November 9, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Matthieu J Miossec, Sandro L Valenzuela, Katterinne N Mendez, Eduardo Castro-Nallar
As the field of microbiomics advances, the burden of computational work that scientists need to perform in order to extract biological insight has grown accordingly. Likewise, while human microbiome analyses are increasingly shifting toward a greater integration of various high-throughput data types, a core number of methods form the basis of nearly every study. In this unit, we present step-by-step protocols for five core stages of human microbiome research. The protocols presented in this unit provide a base case for human microbiome analysis, complete with sufficient detail for researchers to tailor certain aspects of the protocols to the specificities of their data...
November 9, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Dhritiman Samanta, Stacey D Gilk
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of human Q fever, a zoonotic disease that can cause a debilitating, flu-like illness in acute cases, or a life-threatening endocarditis in chronic patients. An obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, Coxiella survives and multiplies in a large lysosome-like vacuole known as the Coxiella parasitophorous vacuole (CPV). A unique characteristic of the CPV is the acidic environment (pH ∼5.0), which is required to activate Coxiella metabolism and the Coxiella type 4 secretion system (T4SS), a major virulence factor required for intracellular survival...
November 9, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Subuhi Sherwani, Mohammed Chowdhury, Joachim J Bugert
Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a common skin pathogen of children and young adults. Infection with MCV causes benign skin tumors in children and young adults and is mostly self-limiting. In contrast to orthopoxviruses, MCV infections tend to take a subacute clinical course but may persist for up to 12 months. Current numbers for MCV seroprevalence in different geographical areas are based on a variety of historical serological methods from complement fixation assays to MCV ELISAs based on purified MCV virions and MC133 antigen expressed in a Semliki Forest Virus expression system...
November 9, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Jessica Gullett, Lindsey O'Neal, Tanmoy Mukherjee, Gladys Alexandre
Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum, including the most comprehensively studied Azospirillum brasilense, are non-pathogenic soil bacteria that promote the growth of diverse plants, making them an attractive model to understand non-symbiotic, beneficial plant-bacteria associations. Research into the physiology and genetics of these organisms spans decades and a range of molecular tools and protocols have been developed for allelic exchange mutagenesis, in trans expression of genes, and fusions to reporter genes...
November 9, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Brittney Beigel, Ashutosh Verma
This protocol describes a method for the rapid detection of leptospiral DNA in environmental water. In summary, the DNA is extracted from water samples and tested in a TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the presence of lipl32, a gene that is present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp. The gene target used in this assay is important in that it only detects pathogenic leptospires and not the saprophytic leptospires that may be present in environmental samples. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc...
November 9, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Greg Harris, Rhonda KuoLee, H Howard Xu, Wangxue Chen
This unit describes basic protocols for infecting mice through intranasal and intraperitoneal routes with Acinetobacter baumannii to induce associated pneumonia and sepsis, the two most common manifestations of clinical infections with this pathogen. By selecting the appropriate protocols and bacterial strains of different virulence, these mouse models provide an opportunity to study the infection pathogenesis and host-immune responses, and to evaluate the efficacies of prophylactic and therapeutic anti-A. baumannii candidates...
August 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Benjamin Allen, Meghan Drake, Nomi Harris, Tarah Sullivan
The DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase, is an open-access bioinformatics software and data platform for analyzing plants, microbes, and their communities. KBase enables scientists to create, execute, collaborate on, and share reproducible analyses of their biological data in the context of public data and private collaborator data. For microbiologists researching prokaryotes, KBase offers analysis tools for performing quality control and assessment of Next-Generation Sequencing reads, de novo assembly, genome annotation, and tools for analyzing structural and functional features of genomes...
August 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Mattie C Pawlowic, Sumiti Vinayak, Adam Sateriale, Carrie F Brooks, Boris Striepen
The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of diarrheal disease and an important contributor to overall global child mortality. We currently lack effective treatment and immune prophylaxis. Recent advances now permit genetic modification of this important pathogen. We expect this to produce rapid advances in fundamental as well as translational research on cryptosporidiosis. Here we outline genetic engineering for Cryptosporidium in sufficient detail to establish transfection in any laboratory that requires access to this key technology...
August 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Seth Winfree, Stacey D Gilk
The gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii causes human Q fever, a disease characterized by a debilitating flu-like illness in acute cases and endocarditis in chronic patients. An obligate intracellular pathogen, Coxiella burnetii survives within a large, lysosome-like vacuole inside the host cell. A unique feature of the Coxiella parasitophorous vacuole (PV) is high levels of fusion with the host endocytic pathway, with PV-endosome fusion critical for Coxiella survival within the host cell. This unit describes quantitating PV-endosome fusion by measuring delivery of the fluid phase endosome marker dextran to the PV using live cell imaging...
August 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Lata Balakrishnan, Barry Milavetz
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is one of the best-characterized members of the polyomavirus family of small DNA tumor viruses. It has a small genome of 5243 bp and utilizes cellular proteins for its molecular biology, with the exception of the T-antigen protein, which is coded by the virus and is involved in regulating transcription and directing replication. Importantly, SV40 exists as chromatin in both the virus particle and intracellular minichromosomes. These facts, combined with high yields of virus and minichromosomes following infection and ease of manipulation, have made SV40 an extremely useful model to study all aspects of eukaryotic molecular biology...
August 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Mélanie J Boileau, Rinosh Mani, Kenneth D Clinkenbeard
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J is a Gram-negative predatory bacterium with obligate host dependency on other Gram-negative bacteria. This bacteriolytic predator collides with, enters, and establishes growth within the prey (host) periplasm, eventually lysing the prey cell wall to release fresh, motile B. bacteriovorus progeny. Laboratory maintenance of B. bacteriovorus has been previously described by other investigators. The protocols included in this unit deal with the technique required to lyophilize or freeze dry host-dependent B...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
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