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Neuroscience Bulletin

Xiaotao Li, Xiang Li
Observations from clinical trials have frequently demonstrated that light therapy can be an effective therapy for seasonal and non-seasonal major depression. Despite the fact that light therapy is known to have several advantages over antidepressant drugs like a low cost, minimal side-effects, and fast onset of therapeutic effect, the mechanism underlying light therapy remains unclear. So far, it is known that light therapy modulates mood states and cognitive functions, involving circadian and non-circadian pathways from retinas into brain...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Jieyun Shi, Qian Li, Tieqiao Wen
The visual system plays an important role in our daily life. In this study, we found that loss of dendritic cell factor 1 (DCF1) in the primary visual cortex (V1) caused a sight deficit in mice and induced an abnormal increase in glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to gamma aminobutyric acid and CO2, particularly in layer 5. In vivo electrophysiological recordings confirmed a decrease in delta, theta, and beta oscillation power in DCF1-knockout mice. This study presents a previously unknown function of DCF1 in V1, suggests an unknown contact between DCF1 and GABA systems, and provides insight into the mechanism and treatment of visual deficits...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yanqing Shi, Qi Shao, Zhenghao Li, Ginez A Gonzalez, Fengfeng Lu, Dan Wang, Yingyan Pu, Aijun Huang, Chao Zhao, Cheng He, Li Cao
The differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) is essential for myelination and remyelination in the CNS. The failure of OPCs to achieve terminal differentiation in demyelinating lesions often results in unsuccessful remyelination in a variety of human demyelinating diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling OPC differentiation under pathological conditions remain largely unknown. Myt1L (myelin transcription factor 1-like), mainly expressed in neurons, has been associated with intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and depression...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Renli Qi, Jinghui Li, Xujun Wu, Xin Geng, Nanhui Chen, Hualin Yu
Gamma band oscillation (GBO) and sensory gating (SG) are associated with many cognitive functions. Ketamine induces deficits of GBO and SG in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the time-courses of the effects of different doses of ketamine on GBO power and SG are poorly understood. Studies have indicated that GBO power and SG have a common substrate for their generation and abnormalities. In this study, we found that (1) ketamine administration increased GBO power in the PFC in rats differently in the low- and high-dose groups; (2) auditory SG was significantly lower than baseline in the 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg groups, but not in the 15 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg groups; and (3) changes in SG and basal GBO power were significantly correlated in awake rats...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ning Song, Junxia Xie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Wen-Yuan Li, Wei-Ting Zhang, Yong-Xia Cheng, Yan-Cui Liu, Feng-Guo Zhai, Ping Sun, Hui-Ting Li, Ling-Xiao Deng, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Ying Wang
A previous study has indicated that Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7), a transcription factor that stimulates Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, is a promising therapeutic transcription factor in nerve injury. We aimed to identify whether inhibition of microRNA-146b (miR-146b) affected SC proliferation, migration, and myelinated axon regeneration following sciatic nerve injury by regulating its direct target KLF7. SCs were transfected with miRNA lentivirus, miRNA inhibitor lentivirus, or KLF7 siRNA lentivirus in vitro...
January 22, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Qiongdan Liang, Jia Lin, Jiemin Yang, Xiang Li, Yijiang Chen, Xianxin Meng, Jiajin Yuan
Behavioral adjustment plays an important role in the treatment and relapse of drug addiction. Nonetheless, few studies have examined behavioral adjustment and its plasticity following error commission in methamphetamine (METH) dependence, which is detrimental to human health. Thus, we investigated the behavioral adjustment performance following error commission in long-term METH addicts and how it varied with the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
January 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ru-Rong Ji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Sangsu Bang, Jiho Yoo, Xingrui Gong, Di Liu, Qingjian Han, Xin Luo, Wonseok Chang, Gang Chen, Sang-Taek Im, Yong Ho Kim, Judith A Strong, Ma-Zhong Zhang, Jun-Ming Zhang, Seok-Yong Lee, Ru-Rong Ji
The voltage-gated Na+ channel subtype Nav1.7 is important for pain and itch in rodents and humans. We previously showed that a Nav1.7-targeting monoclonal antibody (SVmab) reduces Na+ currents and pain and itch responses in mice. Here, we investigated whether recombinant SVmab (rSVmab) binds to and blocks Nav1.7 similar to SVmab. ELISA tests revealed that SVmab was capable of binding to Nav1.7-expressing HEK293 cells, mouse DRG neurons, human nerve tissue, and the voltage-sensor domain II of Nav1.7. In contrast, rSVmab showed no or weak binding to Nav1...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Zhen-Yang Liu, Feng-Tao Liu, Chuan-Tao Zuo, James B Koprich, Jian Wang
Advances in radionuclide tracers have allowed for more accurate imaging that reflects the actions of numerous neurotransmitters, energy metabolism utilization, inflammation, and pathological protein accumulation. All of these achievements in molecular brain imaging have broadened our understanding of brain function in Parkinson's disease (PD). The implementation of molecular imaging has supported more accurate PD diagnosis as well as assessment of therapeutic outcome and disease progression. Moreover, molecular imaging is well suited for the detection of preclinical or prodromal PD cases...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Carlene Moore, Rupali Gupta, Sven-Eric Jordt, Yong Chen, Wolfgang B Liedtke
Nociception is an important physiological process that detects harmful signals and results in pain perception. In this review, we discuss important experimental evidence involving some TRP ion channels as molecular sensors of chemical, thermal, and mechanical noxious stimuli to evoke the pain and itch sensations. Among them are the TRPA1 channel, members of the vanilloid subfamily (TRPV1, TRPV3, and TRPV4), and finally members of the melastatin group (TRPM2, TRPM3, and TRPM8). Given that pain and itch are pro-survival, evolutionarily-honed protective mechanisms, care has to be exercised when developing inhibitory/modulatory compounds targeting specific pain/itch-TRPs so that physiological protective mechanisms are not disabled to a degree that stimulus-mediated injury can occur...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Fatima Javed Mirza, Saadia Zahid
Synapsins serve as flagships among the presynaptic proteins due to their abundance on synaptic vesicles and contribution to synaptic communication. Several studies have emphasized the importance of this multi-gene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins in maintaining brain physiology. In the recent times, increasing evidence has established the relevance of alterations in synapsins as a major determinant in many neurological disorders. Here, we give a comprehensive description of the diverse roles of the synapsin family and the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to several neurological disorders...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Jian-Kun Dai, Shu-Xia Wang, Dai Shan, Hai-Chen Niu, Hao Lei
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used to study white and gray matter (GM) micro-organization and structural connectivity in the brain. Super-resolution track-density imaging (TDI) is an image reconstruction method for dMRI data, which is capable of providing spatial resolution beyond the acquired data, as well as novel and meaningful anatomical contrast that cannot be obtained with conventional reconstruction methods. TDI has been used to reveal anatomical features in human and animal brains...
December 16, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Shao-Ling Han, Tian-Le Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Zhi-Jing Hu, Wei Han, Chang-Qing Cao, Qi-Liang Mao-Ying, Wen-Li Mi, Yan-Qing Wang
Accumulating evidence suggests that obesity is associated with chronic pain. However, whether obesity is associated with acute inflammatory pain is unknown. Using a well-established obese mouse model induced by a high-fat diet, we found that: (1) the acute thermal pain sensory threshold did not change in obese mice; (2) the model obese mice had fewer nociceptive responses in formalin-induced inflammatory pain tests; restoring the obese mice to a chow diet for three weeks partly recovered their pain sensation; (3) leptin injection induced significant phosphorylation of STAT3 in control mice but not in obese mice, indicating the dysmodulation of topical leptin-leptin receptor signaling in these mice; and (4) leptin-leptin receptor signaling-deficient mice (ob/ob and db/db) or leptin-leptin receptor pathway blockade with a leptin receptor antagonist and the JAK2 inhibitor AG 490 in wild-type mice reduced their nociceptive responses in formalin tests...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xiangpeng Kong, Jinrong Wei, Diyu Wang, Xiaoju Zhu, Youlang Zhou, Shusheng Wang, Guang-Yin Xu, Guo-Qin Jiang
Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) is thought to contribute to the progression of tumor development. However, whether VDAC1 contributes to bone cancer pain remains unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of VDAC1 was upregulated in the L2-5 segments of the spinal dorsal horn at 2 and 3 weeks after injection of tumor cells into the tibial cavity. Intrathecal injection of a VDAC1 inhibitor significantly reversed the pain hypersensitivity and reduced the over-expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yun-Jian Dai, Zheng-Hao Xu, Bo Feng, Ceng-Lin Xu, Hua-Wei Zhao, Deng-Chang Wu, Wei-Wei Hu, Zhong Chen
In the original publication of the article, the representative EEG of female rat pups with FS in Figure 1 C and D was incorrectly intercepted from that of male rat pups. This correction does not affect the conclusions of the paper. Figure 1 has been corrected on the online PDF version and displayed below.
November 28, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Kai Fu, Yanfei Wang, Dongkai Guo, Guanghui Wang, Haigang Ren
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Mutations in the DJ-1, including L166P, are responsible for recessive early-onset PD. Many lines of evidence have shown that L166P is not only a loss-of-function mutant, but also a pro-apoptotic-like protein that results in mitochondrial dysfunction. L166P has been reported to be unstable and to mislocalize to mitochondria. However, the mechanisms underlying the instability of L166P compared to wild-type DJ-1 remain largely unknown...
November 24, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Qiujian Yu, Chunjiu Zhong
Our previous studies proposed that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a metabolic disorder and hypothesized that abnormal brain glucose metabolism inducing multiple pathophysiological cascades contributes to AD pathogenesis. Aging is one of the great significant risk factors for AD. Membrane aging is first prone to affect the function and structure of the brain by impairing glucose metabolism. We presume that risk factors of AD, including genetic factors (e.g., the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and genetic mutations) and non-genetic factors (such as fat, diabetes, and cardiac failure) accelerate biomembrane aging and lead to the onset and development of the disease...
November 24, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Qing-Hua Wang, Xin Wang, Xian-Le Bu, Yan Lian, Yang Xiang, Hong-Bo Luo, Hai-Qiang Zou, Jie Pu, Zhong-He Zhou, Xiao-Ping Cui, Qing-Song Wang, Xiang-Qun Shi, Wei Han, Qiang Wu, Hui-Sheng Chen, Hang Lin, Chang-Yue Gao, Li-Li Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Xu, Meng Zhang, Hua-Dong Zhou, Yan-Jiang Wang
Dementia is increasing dramatically and imposes a huge burden on society. To date, there is a lack of data on the health status of patients with dementia in China. In an attempt to investigate the comorbidity burden of dementia patients in China at the national level, we enrolled 2,938 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or other types of dementia, who were admitted to tertiary hospitals in seven regions of China from January 2003 to December 2012. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used to evaluate the comorbidity burden of the patients with dementia...
November 13, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
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