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Neuroscience Bulletin

Weili Zhu, Zengbo Ding, Yinan Zhang, Jie Shi, Kenji Hashimoto, Lin Lu
Major depression is a serious psychiatric disorder and remains a leading cause of disability worldwide. Conventional antidepressants take at least several weeks to achieve a therapeutic response and this lag period has hindered their ability to attain beneficial effects in depressed individuals at high risk of suicide. The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine has been shown to have rapid antidepressant effects in both rodents and humans. The emergence of ketamine as a fast-acting antidepressant provides promising new insights into the development of a rapid treatment response in patients with clinical depression...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Lin Lu, Wenhua Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Fang Su, An-Chen Guo, Wei-Wei Li, Yi-Long Zhao, Zheng-Yi Qu, Yong-Jun Wang, Qun Wang, Yu-Lan Zhu
Increasing evidence suggests that low to moderate ethanol ingestion protects against the deleterious effects of subsequent ischemia/reperfusion; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In the present study, we showed that expression of the neuronal large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BKCa) α-subunit was upregulated in cultured neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) compared with controls. Preconditioning with low-dose ethanol (10 mmol/L) increased cell survival rate in neurons subjected to OGD/R, attenuated the OGD/R-induced elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons...
November 16, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Kai Yuan, Ying Han, Kenji Hashimoto, Lin Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Dongsheng Zhou, Feng Pang, Shiyan Liu, Ying Shen, Lingjiang Liu, Zezhong Fang, Chuang Wang, Zhenyu Hu, Ti-Fei Yuan
Patients with schizophrenia undergo changes in brain plasticity. In the present study, we characterized motor cortical-striatal plasticity in such patients. Compared with the potentiation following high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the control group, the patients demonstrated impaired plasticity of corticostriatal motor-evoked potentials recorded from hand muscles. Notably, the loss of cortical plasticity was correlated with impaired motor learning in a rotary pursuit task. Moreover, the loss of plasticity was correlated with the symptoms of schizophrenia...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Bei Bu, Luoying Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Eunwoo Kim, HyunWook Park
The multi-voxel pattern analysis technique is applied to fMRI data for classification of high-level brain functions using pattern information distributed over multiple voxels. In this paper, we propose a classifier ensemble for multiclass classification in fMRI analysis, exploiting the fact that specific neighboring voxels can contain spatial pattern information. The proposed method converts the multiclass classification to a pairwise classifier ensemble, and each pairwise classifier consists of multiple sub-classifiers using an adaptive feature set for each class-pair...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Wesley A Leigh, Yong Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Shunling Guo, Brad A Palanski, Cornelius Kloeck, Chaitan Khosla, Bianxiao Cui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Feng-Ming Zhou, Ruo-Xiao Cheng, Shuai Wang, Ya Huang, Yong-Jing Gao, Yan Zhou, Teng-Teng Liu, Xue-Long Wang, Li-Hua Chen, Tong Liu
Itch (pruritus) is one of the most disabling syndromes in patients suffering from skin, liver, or kidney diseases. Our previous study highlighted a key role of oxidative stress in acute itch. Here, we evaluated the effects of antioxidants in mouse models of acute and chronic itch and explored the potential mechanisms. The effects of systemic administration of the antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) were determined by behavioral tests in mouse models of acute itch induced by compound 48/80 or chloroquine, and chronic itch by treatment with a mixture of acetone-diethyl-ether-water...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Benfu Wang, Xiaowei Yang, Anna Sun, Lanman Xu, Sicong Wang, Wenxuan Lin, Miaojun Lai, Huaqiang Zhu, Wenhua Zhou, Qingquan Lian
Clinical and animal studies have indicated that propofol has potential for abuse, but the specific neurobiological mechanism underlying propofol reward is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathways in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in propofol self-administration. We tested the expression of p-ERK in the NAc following the maintenance of propofol self-administration in rats. We also assessed the effect of administration of SCH23390, an antagonist of the D1 dopamine receptor, on the expression of p-ERK in the NAc in propofol self-administering rats, and examined the effects of intra-NAc injection of U0126, an MEK inhibitor, on propofol reinforcement in rats...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Fan Wang, Yanlong Liu, Song Guo, Dafang Chen, Hongqiang Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yu-Chao Zuo, Hong-Lian Li, Nan-Xiang Xiong, Jian-Ying Shen, Yi-Zhi Huang, Peng Fu, Hong-Yang Zhao
Nogo-66 plays a central role in the myelin-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Tau is a microtubule-associated protein involved in microtubule assembly and stabilization. It remains unverified whether tau interacts directly with growth factor receptors, or engages in cross-talk with regeneration inhibitors like Nogo-66. Here, we report that plasmid overexpression of tau significantly elevated the protein levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau, and microtubule-affinity regulating kinase (MARK). Nogo-66 transiently elevated the total tau protein level and persistently reduced the level of p-S262 tau (tau phosphorylated at serine 262), whereas it had little influence on the level of p-T205 tau (tau phosphorylated at threonine 205)...
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Zhaoxia Mu, Shuqiang Zhang, Chunjiao He, Haitao Hou, Dong Liu, Nan Hu, Hui Xu
The SoxC transcription factors (Sox4, Sox11, and Sox12) play important roles in the development of the vertebrate eye and retina. However, their expression and function during retinal and optic nerve regeneration remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression and possible functions of the SoxC genes after retinal and optic nerve injury in adult zebrafish. We found that among the five SoxC members, Sox11b was strongly induced in BrdU-positive cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) after retinal injury, and morpholino-mediated Sox11b-knockdown significantly reduced the number of proliferating cells in the INL at 4 days post-injury...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Shenzhao Lu, Jiawei Zhou
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, but its cause and pathogenesis are still not fully understood. Earlier studies have shown that SNCA, which encodes α-synuclein, is one of the key genes associated with PD. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants of SNCA are thought to be correlated with disease onset. The underlying mechanisms however are enigmatic. A recent study published in Nature revealed that one of the SNP variants in the SNCA non-coding element elevated α-synuclein expression in human neurons by reducing the binding efficiency of transcription factors, demonstrating a previously uncharted role for SNPs in the pathogenesis of PD...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Margaret S Ho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ying Wang, Wen-Yuan Li, Zhi-Gang Li, Li-Xin Guan, Ling-Xiao Deng
Injury to the nervous system induces localized damage in neural structures and neuronal death through the primary insult, as well as delayed atrophy and impaired plasticity of the delicate dendritic fields necessary for interneuronal communication. Excitotoxicity and other secondary biochemical events contribute to morphological changes in neurons following injury. Evidence suggests that various transcription factors are involved in the dendritic response to injury and potential therapies. Transcription factors play critical roles in the intracellular regulation of neuronal morphological plasticity and dendritic growth and patterning...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ming Cao, Zhu-Qin Gu, Yuan Li, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Juan Dan, Shan-Shan Cen, Da-Wei Li, Piu Chan
Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying the LRRK2 G2019S variant in Caucasians but rarely in those with the LRRK2 G2385R variant. In this study, we performed genotyping for the LRRK2 G2385R variant in PD patients recruited from the Movement Disorder Clinic of Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing and in healthy controls randomly selected from the Beijing Longitudinal Study on Aging cohort. The "five-odor olfactory detection array", an olfactory threshold test, was used to assess olfactory function...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Feng Yue, Sien Zeng, Rongping Tang, Guoxian Tao, Piu Chan
In this study, we developed a systemic PD model in middle-aged cynomolgus monkeys using individualized low-dose MPTP, to explore effective indicators for the early prediction of clinical outcomes. MPTP was not stopped until the animals showed typical PD motor symptoms on days 10 to 13 after MPTP administration when the Kurlan score reached 10; this abrogated the differences in individual susceptibility to MPTP. The clinical symptoms persisted, peaking on days 3 to 12 after MPTP withdrawal (rapid progress stage), and then the Kurlan score plateaued...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xiaoli Pan, Zhichun Chen, Guoqiang Fei, Shumei Pan, Weiqi Bao, Shuhua Ren, Yihui Guan, Chunjiu Zhong
To date, we still lack disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report that long-term administration of benfotiamine improved the cognitive ability of patients with AD. Five patients with mild to moderate AD received oral benfotiamine (300 mg daily) over 18 months. All patients were examined by positron emission tomography with Pittsburgh compound B (PiB-PET) and exhibited positive imaging with β-amyloid deposition, and three received PiB-PET imaging at follow-up. The five patients exhibited cognitive improvement as assayed by the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) with an average increase of 3...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
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