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Neuroscience Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097612/wip1-phosphatase-plays-a-critical-neuroprotective-role-in-brain-injury-induced-by-high-altitude-hypoxic-inflammation
#1
Dahu Li, Lijun Zhang, Xin Huang, Lili Liu, Yunling He, Lun Xu, Yiyao Zhang, Tong Zhao, Liying Wu, Yongqi Zhao, Kuiwu Wu, Yan Wu, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
The hypobaric hypoxic environment in high-altitude areas often aggravates the severity of inflammation and induces brain injury as a consequence. However, the critical genes regulating this process remain largely unknown. The phosphatase wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including the regulation of inflammation in normoxia, but its functions in hypoxic inflammation-induced brain injury remain unclear. Here, we established a mouse model of this type of injury and found that WIP1 deficiency augmented the release of inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral circulation and brain tissue, increased the numbers of activated microglia/macrophages in the brain, aggravated cerebral histological lesions, and exacerbated the impairment of motor and cognitive abilities...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074441/activation-of-parvalbumin-positive-neurons-in-both-retina-and-primary-visual-cortex-improves-the-feature-selectivity-of-primary-visual-cortex-neurons
#2
Jinggang Duan, Hang Fu, Jiayi Zhang
Several recent studies using either viral or transgenic mouse models have shown different results on whether the activation of parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the primary visual cortex (V1) improves the orientation- and direction-selectivity of V1 neurons. Although this discrepancy was thoroughly discussed in a follow-up communication, the issue of using different models to express ChR2 in V1 was not mentioned. We found that ChR2 was expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and V1 neurons in ChR2(fl/+); PV-Cre mice...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032314/potential-mechanisms-underlying-the-therapeutic-effects-of-electroconvulsive-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Jiangling Jiang, Jijun Wang, Chunbo Li
In spite of the extensive application of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), how it works remains unclear. So far, researchers have made great efforts in figuring out the mechanisms underlying the effect of ECT treatment via determining the levels of neurotransmitters and cytokines and using genetic and epigenetic tools, as well as structural and functional neuroimaging. To help address this question and provide implications for future research, relevant clinical trials and animal experiments are reviewed.
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032313/development-of-research-on-huntington-disease-in-china
#4
REVIEW
Hong-Lei Li, Yan-Bin Zhang, Zhi-Ying Wu
Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized with the typical manifestations of involuntary movements, cognitive dysfunction, and psychiatric or behavioral disturbance. It results from an expansion in the number of CAG repeats in the first exon of the huntingtin (HTT) gene. In China, since the first case report in 1959, the knowledge of this disorder has been involving a lot, especially in the latest decade. In this review, we meta-analysis and summarize the research reports that were published by Chinese researchers since 1959, so that researchers whose native language were not Chinese can get a general idea of the research development of HD in China...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025780/exosomes-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Xiaoqing Wu, Tingting Zheng, Baorong Zhang
Exosomes, nano-sized extracellular vesicles secreted by most cell types, are found in all kinds of biological fluids and tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS). The proposed functions of these vesicles include roles in cell-cell signaling, removal of cellular debris, and transfer of pathogens between cells. Many studies have revealed that exosomes derived from the CNS occur in the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral body fluids, and their contents are altered during disease, making them an appealing target for biomarker development in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
December 26, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995568/expression-of-phospho-mecp2s-in-the-developing-rat-brain-and-function-of-postnatal-mecp2-in-cerebellar-neural-cell-development
#6
Fang Liu, Jing-Jing Ni, Feng-Yan Sun
Abnormal expression and dysfunction of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause Rett syndrome (RTT). The diverse phosphorylation modifications modulate MeCP2 function in neural cells. Using western blot and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression patterns of MeCP2 and three phospho-MeCP2s (pMeCP2s) in the developing rat brain. The expression of MeCP2 and phospho-S80 (pS80) MeCP2 increased while pS421 MeCP2 and pS292 MeCP2 decreased with brain maturation. In contrast to the nuclear localization of MeCP2 and pS80 MeCP2, pS421 MeCP2 and pS292 MeCP2 were mainly expressed in the cytoplasmic compartment...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995567/associations-between-ppp1r1b-gene-polymorphisms-and-anxiety-levels-in-the-chinese-population
#7
LETTER
Hui Ma, Xin Li, Ailu Lin, Zhen Yuan, Jing Zhou, Xueping Yang, Zhengtu Cong, Yinglin Huang, Gang Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995566/glial-activation-a-common-mechanism-underlying-spinal-synaptic-plasticity
#8
Li-Jun Zhou, Xian-Guo Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995565/a-new-perspective-for-parkinson-s-disease-circadian-rhythm
#9
REVIEW
Siyue Li, Yali Wang, Fen Wang, Li-Fang Hu, Chun-Feng Liu
Circadian rhythm is manifested by the behavioral and physiological changes from day to night, which is controlled by the pacemaker and its regulator. The former is located at the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the anterior hypothalamus, while the latter is composed of clock genes present in all tissues. Circadian desynchronization influences normal patterns of day-night rhythms such as sleep and alertness cycles, rest and activity cycles. Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibits diurnal fluctuations. Circadian dysfunction has been observed in PD patients and animal models, which may result in negative consequences to the homeostasis and even exacerbate the disease progression...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995564/a-review-of-the-functional-and-anatomical-default-mode-network-in-schizophrenia
#10
REVIEW
Mao-Lin Hu, Xiao-Fen Zong, J John Mann, Jun-Jie Zheng, Yan-Hui Liao, Zong-Chang Li, Ying He, Xiao-Gang Chen, Jin-Song Tang
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by impaired perception, delusions, thought disorder, abnormal emotion regulation, altered motor function, and impaired drive. The default mode network (DMN), since it was first proposed in 2001, has become a central research theme in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. In this review, first we define the DMN and describe its functional activity, functional and anatomical connectivity, heritability, and inverse correlation with the task positive network...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995563/feeling-hot-and-cold-thermal-sensation-in-drosophila
#11
REVIEW
Kun Li, Zhefeng Gong
Sensing environmental temperature is crucial for animal life. The model animal, Drosophila melanogaster, can be investigated with a large number of genetic tools, which have greatly facilitated studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of thermal sensing. At the molecular level, a group of proteins, including Transient Receptor Potential channels and ionotropic receptors, have been characterized as potential thermal sensors in both larval and adult Drosophila. At the cellular and circuit levels, peripheral and central thermosensory neurons have been identified...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909971/gastrodin-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-by-modulating-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-associated-inflammatory-responses-in-mice
#12
Liming Chen, Xinan Liu, Hua Wang, Min Qu
Gastrodin, the major component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata ("Tianma"), has a long history in the treatment of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Here, we found that gastrodin ameliorated pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures with improvement of the electroencephalographic pattern in mice. Further studies demonstrated that gastrodin decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α while increasing interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine in the brain...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854008/low-dose-ethanol-preconditioning-protects-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-induced-neuronal-injury-by-activating-large-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channels-in-vitro
#13
Fang Su, An-Chen Guo, Wei-Wei Li, Yi-Long Zhao, Zheng-Yi Qu, Yong-Jun Wang, Qun Wang, Yu-Lan Zhu
Increasing evidence suggests that low to moderate ethanol ingestion protects against the deleterious effects of subsequent ischemia/reperfusion; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In the present study, we showed that expression of the neuronal large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BKCa) α-subunit was upregulated in cultured neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) compared with controls. Preconditioning with low-dose ethanol (10 mmol/L) increased cell survival rate in neurons subjected to OGD/R, attenuated the OGD/R-induced elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons...
November 16, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838828/altered-motor-striatal-plasticity-and-cortical-functioning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Dongsheng Zhou, Feng Pang, Shiyan Liu, Ying Shen, Lingjiang Liu, Zezhong Fang, Chuang Wang, Zhenyu Hu, Ti-Fei Yuan
Patients with schizophrenia undergo changes in brain plasticity. In the present study, we characterized motor cortical-striatal plasticity in such patients. Compared with the potentiation following high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the control group, the patients demonstrated impaired plasticity of corticostriatal motor-evoked potentials recorded from hand muscles. Notably, the loss of cortical plasticity was correlated with impaired motor learning in a rotary pursuit task. Moreover, the loss of plasticity was correlated with the symptoms of schizophrenia...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838827/a-new-link-between-insulin-signaling-and-fragile-x-syndrome
#15
Bei Bu, Luoying Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838826/pairwise-classifier-ensemble-with-adaptive-sub-classifiers-for-fmri-pattern-analysis
#16
Eunwoo Kim, HyunWook Park
The multi-voxel pattern analysis technique is applied to fMRI data for classification of high-level brain functions using pattern information distributed over multiple voxels. In this paper, we propose a classifier ensemble for multiclass classification in fMRI analysis, exploiting the fact that specific neighboring voxels can contain spatial pattern information. The proposed method converts the multiclass classification to a pairwise classifier ensemble, and each pairwise classifier consists of multiple sub-classifiers using an adaptive feature set for each class-pair...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817175/a-longer-siesta-dn1s-in-control
#17
Wesley A Leigh, Yong Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815680/intracellular-tg2-activity-increases-microtubule-stability-but-is-not-sufficient-to-prompt-neurite-growth
#18
LETTER
Shunling Guo, Brad A Palanski, Cornelius Kloeck, Chaitan Khosla, Bianxiao Cui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783328/antioxidants-attenuate-acute-and-chronic-itch-peripheral-and-central-mechanisms-of-oxidative-stress-in-pruritus
#19
Feng-Ming Zhou, Ruo-Xiao Cheng, Shuai Wang, Ya Huang, Yong-Jing Gao, Yan Zhou, Teng-Teng Liu, Xue-Long Wang, Li-Hua Chen, Tong Liu
Itch (pruritus) is one of the most disabling syndromes in patients suffering from skin, liver, or kidney diseases. Our previous study highlighted a key role of oxidative stress in acute itch. Here, we evaluated the effects of antioxidants in mouse models of acute and chronic itch and explored the potential mechanisms. The effects of systemic administration of the antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) were determined by behavioral tests in mouse models of acute itch induced by compound 48/80 or chloroquine, and chronic itch by treatment with a mixture of acetone-diethyl-ether-water...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878517/risks-associated-with-misuse-of-ketamine-as-a-rapid-acting-antidepressant
#20
Weili Zhu, Zengbo Ding, Yinan Zhang, Jie Shi, Kenji Hashimoto, Lin Lu
Major depression is a serious psychiatric disorder and remains a leading cause of disability worldwide. Conventional antidepressants take at least several weeks to achieve a therapeutic response and this lag period has hindered their ability to attain beneficial effects in depressed individuals at high risk of suicide. The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine has been shown to have rapid antidepressant effects in both rodents and humans. The emergence of ketamine as a fast-acting antidepressant provides promising new insights into the development of a rapid treatment response in patients with clinical depression...
December 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
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