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Neuroscience Bulletin

Juanning Si, Yuanyuan Dang, Yujin Zhang, Yaxin Li, Wenyue Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Cui, Xiaoping Lou, Jianghong He, Tianzi Jiang
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a promising technique for treating disorders of consciousness (DOCs). However, differences in the spatio-temporal responsiveness of the brain under varied SCS parameters remain unclear. In this pilot study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure the hemodynamic responses of 10 DOC patients to different SCS frequencies (5 Hz, 10 Hz, 50 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz). In the prefrontal cortex, a key area in consciousness circuits, we found significantly increased hemodynamic responses at 70 Hz and 100 Hz, and significantly different hemodynamic responses between 50 Hz and 70 Hz/100 Hz...
July 11, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yasuhide Mitsumoto, Atsushi Mori
As an environmental risk factor, psychological stress may trigger the onset or accelerate the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we evaluated the effects of acute restraint stress on striatal dopaminergic terminals and the brain metabolism of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which has been widely used for creating a mouse model of PD. Exposure to 2 h of restraint stress immediately after injection of a low dose of MPTP caused a severe loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals as indicated by decreases in the dopamine transporter protein and dopamine levels compared with MPTP administration alone...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xuehai Wu, Jiaying Zhang, Zaixu Cui, Weijun Tang, Chunhong Shao, Jin Hu, Jianhong Zhu, Yao Zhao, Lu Lu, Gang Chen, Georg Northoff, Gaolang Gong, Ying Mao, Yong He
In this study, we aimed to (1) identify white matter (WM) deficits underlying the consciousness level in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and (2) evaluate the relationship between DTI metrics and clinical measures of the consciousness level in DOC patients. With a cohort of 8 comatose, 8 unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and 14 minimally conscious state patients and 25 patient controls, we performed group comparisons of the DTI metrics in 48 core WM regions of interest (ROIs), and examined the clinical relevance using correlation analysis...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Huanhuan Li, Jiujiang Zeng, Liang Huang, Dandan Wu, Lifen Liu, Yutong Liu, Qionglan Yuan
Neuroplastin 65 (Np65) is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule involved in synaptic formation and plasticity. Our recent study showed that Np65-knockout (KO) mice exhibit abnormal cognition and emotional disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found 588 differentially-expressed genes in Np65-KO mice by microarray analysis. RT-PCR analysis also revealed the altered expression of genes associated with development and synaptic structure, such as Cdh1, Htr3a, and Kcnj9...
July 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ping Chen, Qiuyou Xie, Xiaoyan Wu, Huiyuan Huang, Wei Lv, Lixiang Chen, Yequn Guo, Shufei Zhang, Huiqing Hu, You Wang, Yangang Nie, Ronghao Yu, Ruiwang Huang
A number of studies have indicated that disorders of consciousness result from multifocal injuries as well as from the impaired functional and anatomical connectivity between various anterior forebrain regions. However, the specific causal mechanism linking these regions remains unclear. In this study, we used spectral dynamic causal modeling to assess how the effective connections (ECs) between various regions differ between individuals. Next, we used connectome-based predictive modeling to evaluate the performance of the ECs in predicting the clinical scores of DOC patients...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Bin-Lu Sun, Wei-Wei Li, Chi Zhu, Wang-Sheng Jin, Fan Zeng, Yu-Hui Liu, Xian-Le Bu, Jie Zhu, Xiu-Qing Yao, Yan-Jiang Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of dementia, is becoming a major challenge for global health and social care. However, the current understanding of AD pathogenesis is limited, and no early diagnosis and disease-modifying therapy are currently available. During the past year, significant progress has been made in clinical research on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of AD. In this review, we summarize the latest achievements, including diagnostic biomarkers, polygenic hazard score, amyloid and tau PET imaging, clinical trials targeting amyloid-beta (Aβ), tau, and neurotransmitters, early intervention, and primary prevention and systemic intervention approaches, and provide novel perspectives for further efforts to understand and cure the disease...
June 28, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yue Fei, Dikai Zhu, Yixuan Sun, Caixia Gong, Shenyang Huang, Zhefeng Gong
Animals always seek rewards and the related neural basis has been well studied. However, what happens when animals fail to get a reward is largely unknown, although this is commonly seen in behaviors such as predation. Here, we set up a behavioral model of repeated failure in reward pursuit (RFRP) in Drosophila larvae. In this model, the larvae were repeatedly prevented from reaching attractants such as yeast and butyl acetate, before finally abandoning further attempts. After giving up, they usually showed a decreased locomotor speed and impaired performance in light avoidance and sugar preference, which were named as phenotypes of RFRP states...
June 27, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Minjin Wang, Shuo Guo, Wencong Yao, Jun Wang, Jianxia Tao, Yanbing Zhou, Binwu Ying
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Qiaoqiao Chang, Hua Yang, Min Wang, Hongen Wei, Fengyun Hu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, along with repetitive and restrictive patterns of behaviors or interests. Normal brain development is crucial to behavior and cognition in adulthood. Abnormal brain development, such as synaptic and myelin dysfunction, is involved in the pathogenesis of ASD. Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are important in regulating the processes of brain development, including neuron production and synaptic formation, as well as myelination...
June 23, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ming Song, Yujin Zhang, Yue Cui, Yi Yang, Tianzi Jiang
Neuroimaging has opened new opportunities to study the neural correlates of consciousness, and provided additional information concerning diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic interventions in patients with disorders of consciousness. Here, we aim to review neuroimaging studies in chronic disorders of consciousness from the viewpoint of the brain network, focusing on positron emission tomography, functional MRI, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, electrophysiology, and diffusion MRI. To accelerate basic research on disorders of consciousness and provide a panoramic view of unconsciousness, we propose that it is urgent to integrate different techniques at various spatiotemporal scales, and to merge fragmented findings into a uniform "Brainnetome" (Brain-net-ome) research framework...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xiaoyu Xia, Yi Yang, Yongkun Guo, Yang Bai, Yuanyuan Dang, Ruxiang Xu, Jianghong He
Treatment for disorders of consciousness (DOCs) is still a Gordian knot. Evidence-based guidelines on the treatment of DOC patients are not currently available, while neuromodulation techniques are seen as a potential treatment. Multiple neuromodulation therapies have been applied. This article reviews the most relevant studies in the literature in order to describe a clear picture of the current state of neuromodulation therapies that could be used to treat DOC patients. Both invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation is discussed...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Leilei Chen, Junxia Xie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Li-Chuan Yang, Ping Ren, Yuan-Ye Ma
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is considered to play a crucial role in many high-level functions, such as cognitive control and emotional regulation. Many studies have reported that the DLPFC can be activated during the processing of emotional information in tasks requiring working memory. However, it is still not clear whether modulating the activity of the DLPFC influences emotional perception in a detection task. In the present study, using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS), we investigated (1) whether modulating the right DLPFC influences emotional face processing in a detection task, and (2) whether the DLPFC plays equal roles in processing positive and negative emotional faces...
June 14, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yan Li, Jie Xu, Yun Xu, Xiao-Yun Zhao, Ye Liu, Jie Wang, Guang-Ming Wang, Yan-Tian Lv, Qiong-Yao Tang, Zhe Zhang
General anesthesia is an unconscious state induced by anesthetics for surgery. The molecular targets and cellular mechanisms of general anesthetics in the mammalian nervous system have been investigated during past decades. In recent years, K+ channels have been identified as important targets of both volatile and intravenous anesthetics. This review covers achievements that have been made both on the regulatory effect of general anesthetics on the activity of K+ channels and their underlying mechanisms. Advances in research on the modulation of K+ channels by general anesthetics are summarized and categorized according to four large K+ channel families based on their amino-acid sequence homology...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Mingyu Xu, Yiting Ji, Ting Zhang, Xiaodong Jiang, Yun Fan, Juan Geng, Fei Li
Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) is a cost-effective molecular cytogenetic technique that has been used as a first-line diagnostic test in neurodevelopmental disorders in the USA since 2011. The impact of CMA results on clinical practice in China is not yet well studied, so we aimed to better evaluate this phenomenon. We analyzed the CMA results from 434 patients in our clinic, and characterized their molecular diagnoses, clinical features, and follow-up clinical actions based on these results. The overall diagnostic yield for our patients was 13...
June 9, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Wendong You, Qilin Tang, Xiang Wu, Junfeng Feng, Qing Mao, Guoyi Gao, Jiyao Jiang
Prognostication of coma patients after brain injury is important, yet challenging. In this study, we evaluated the predictive value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) for neurological outcomes in coma patients. From January 2013 to January 2016, 128 coma patients after acute brain injury were prospectively enrolled and monitored with aEEG. The 6-month neurological outcome was evaluated using the Cerebral Performance Category Scale. aEEG monitoring commenced at a median of 7.5 days after coma onset...
June 9, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Binbin Nie, Shengxiang Liang, Xiaofeng Jiang, Shaofeng Duan, Qi Huang, Tianhao Zhang, Panlong Li, Hua Liu, Baoci Shan
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of functional metabolism has been widely used to investigate functional recovery and to evaluate therapeutic efficacy after stroke. The voxel intensity of a PET image is the most important indicator of cellular activity, but is affected by other factors such as the basal metabolic ratio of each subject. In order to locate dysfunctional regions accurately, intensity normalization by a scale factor is a prerequisite in the data analysis, for which the global mean value is most widely used...
June 7, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Chunpei Li, Hao Zhou, Tianqi Wang, Shasha Long, Xiaonan Du, Xiu Xu, Weili Yan, Yi Wang
The Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (ASRS) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) have been widely used for screening autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the general population during epidemiological studies, but studies of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are quite limited. Therefore, we recruited the parents/caregivers of 204 ASD cases, 71 ID cases aged 6-18 years from special education schools, and 402 typically developing (TD) children in the same age span from a community-based population to complete the ASRS and SRS...
May 28, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Wei Tang, Yan Chen, Xinyu Fang, Yewei Wang, Weixing Fan, Chen Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xiuya Yu, Liyuan Hu, Xu Liu, Guodong Zhan, Mei Mei, Huijun Wang, Xiaohua Zhang, Zilong Qiu, Wenhao Zhou, Lin Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
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