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Neuroscience Bulletin

Feng-Ming Zhou, Ruo-Xiao Cheng, Shuai Wang, Ya Huang, Yong-Jing Gao, Yan Zhou, Teng-Teng Liu, Xue-Long Wang, Li-Hua Chen, Tong Liu
Itch (pruritus) is one of the most disabling syndromes in patients suffering from skin, liver, or kidney diseases. Our previous study highlighted a key role of oxidative stress in acute itch. Here, we evaluated the effects of antioxidants in mouse models of acute and chronic itch and explored the potential mechanisms. The effects of systemic administration of the antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) were determined by behavioral tests in mouse models of acute itch induced by compound 48/80 or chloroquine, and chronic itch by treatment with a mixture of acetone-diethyl-ether-water...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Benfu Wang, Xiaowei Yang, Anna Sun, Lanman Xu, Sicong Wang, Wenxuan Lin, Miaojun Lai, Huaqiang Zhu, Wenhua Zhou, Qingquan Lian
Clinical and animal studies have indicated that propofol has potential for abuse, but the specific neurobiological mechanism underlying propofol reward is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathways in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in propofol self-administration. We tested the expression of p-ERK in the NAc following the maintenance of propofol self-administration in rats. We also assessed the effect of administration of SCH23390, an antagonist of the D1 dopamine receptor, on the expression of p-ERK in the NAc in propofol self-administering rats, and examined the effects of intra-NAc injection of U0126, an MEK inhibitor, on propofol reinforcement in rats...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Fan Wang, Yanlong Liu, Song Guo, Dafang Chen, Hongqiang Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yu-Chao Zuo, Hong-Lian Li, Nan-Xiang Xiong, Jian-Ying Shen, Yi-Zhi Huang, Peng Fu, Hong-Yang Zhao
Nogo-66 plays a central role in the myelin-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Tau is a microtubule-associated protein involved in microtubule assembly and stabilization. It remains unverified whether tau interacts directly with growth factor receptors, or engages in cross-talk with regeneration inhibitors like Nogo-66. Here, we report that plasmid overexpression of tau significantly elevated the protein levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau, and microtubule-affinity regulating kinase (MARK). Nogo-66 transiently elevated the total tau protein level and persistently reduced the level of p-S262 tau (tau phosphorylated at serine 262), whereas it had little influence on the level of p-T205 tau (tau phosphorylated at threonine 205)...
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Zhaoxia Mu, Shuqiang Zhang, Chunjiao He, Haitao Hou, Dong Liu, Nan Hu, Hui Xu
The SoxC transcription factors (Sox4, Sox11, and Sox12) play important roles in the development of the vertebrate eye and retina. However, their expression and function during retinal and optic nerve regeneration remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression and possible functions of the SoxC genes after retinal and optic nerve injury in adult zebrafish. We found that among the five SoxC members, Sox11b was strongly induced in BrdU-positive cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) after retinal injury, and morpholino-mediated Sox11b-knockdown significantly reduced the number of proliferating cells in the INL at 4 days post-injury...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Shenzhao Lu, Jiawei Zhou
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, but its cause and pathogenesis are still not fully understood. Earlier studies have shown that SNCA, which encodes α-synuclein, is one of the key genes associated with PD. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants of SNCA are thought to be correlated with disease onset. The underlying mechanisms however are enigmatic. A recent study published in Nature revealed that one of the SNP variants in the SNCA non-coding element elevated α-synuclein expression in human neurons by reducing the binding efficiency of transcription factors, demonstrating a previously uncharted role for SNPs in the pathogenesis of PD...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Margaret S Ho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ying Wang, Wen-Yuan Li, Zhi-Gang Li, Li-Xin Guan, Ling-Xiao Deng
Injury to the nervous system induces localized damage in neural structures and neuronal death through the primary insult, as well as delayed atrophy and impaired plasticity of the delicate dendritic fields necessary for interneuronal communication. Excitotoxicity and other secondary biochemical events contribute to morphological changes in neurons following injury. Evidence suggests that various transcription factors are involved in the dendritic response to injury and potential therapies. Transcription factors play critical roles in the intracellular regulation of neuronal morphological plasticity and dendritic growth and patterning...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ming Cao, Zhu-Qin Gu, Yuan Li, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Juan Dan, Shan-Shan Cen, Da-Wei Li, Piu Chan
Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying the LRRK2 G2019S variant in Caucasians but rarely in those with the LRRK2 G2385R variant. In this study, we performed genotyping for the LRRK2 G2385R variant in PD patients recruited from the Movement Disorder Clinic of Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing and in healthy controls randomly selected from the Beijing Longitudinal Study on Aging cohort. The "five-odor olfactory detection array", an olfactory threshold test, was used to assess olfactory function...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Feng Yue, Sien Zeng, Rongping Tang, Guoxian Tao, Piu Chan
In this study, we developed a systemic PD model in middle-aged cynomolgus monkeys using individualized low-dose MPTP, to explore effective indicators for the early prediction of clinical outcomes. MPTP was not stopped until the animals showed typical PD motor symptoms on days 10 to 13 after MPTP administration when the Kurlan score reached 10; this abrogated the differences in individual susceptibility to MPTP. The clinical symptoms persisted, peaking on days 3 to 12 after MPTP withdrawal (rapid progress stage), and then the Kurlan score plateaued...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xiaoli Pan, Zhichun Chen, Guoqiang Fei, Shumei Pan, Weiqi Bao, Shuhua Ren, Yihui Guan, Chunjiu Zhong
To date, we still lack disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report that long-term administration of benfotiamine improved the cognitive ability of patients with AD. Five patients with mild to moderate AD received oral benfotiamine (300 mg daily) over 18 months. All patients were examined by positron emission tomography with Pittsburgh compound B (PiB-PET) and exhibited positive imaging with β-amyloid deposition, and three received PiB-PET imaging at follow-up. The five patients exhibited cognitive improvement as assayed by the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) with an average increase of 3...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Lijun Chen, Chuanfu Li, Jian Zhai, Anqin Wang, Qin Song, Ying Liu, Ru Ma, Long Han, Yamikani Ndasauka, Xiaoming Li, Hai Li, Xiaochu Zhang
Previous studies have suggested that cortical functional reorganization is associated with motor recovery after stroke and that normal afferent sensory information is very important in that process. In this study, we selected patients who had a stroke in or under the thalamus, with potentially impaired afferent sensory information and analyzed the differences between these patients and healthy controls at three levels: brain regions, the functional connectivity between brain areas, and the whole-brain functional network...
September 23, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xiaojian Jia, Feng Wang, Ying Han, Xuewen Geng, Minghua Li, Yu Shi, Lin Lu, Yun Chen
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is involved in the regulation of extracellular dopamine levels. A 40-bp variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of the DAT has been reported to be associated with various phenotypes that are involved in the aberrant regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. In the present study, we found that miR-137 and miR-491 caused a marked reduction of DAT expression, thereby influencing neuronal dopamine transport. Moreover, the regulation of miR-137 and miR-491 on this transport disappeared after the DAT was silenced...
September 15, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Haifeng Jiang, Maureen Hillhouse, Jiang Du, Shujun Pan, Ang Alfonso, Jun Wang, Zhirong Zhou, Weijun Yuan, Walter Ling, Min Zhao
The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood levels of methadone in participants receiving methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence. After stabilization on methadone for four weeks, blood samples from 95 participants were collected between treatment weeks 4 and 12, before and after receiving doses of methadone, and its blood levels were measured. A multiple linear regression model was used to examine the association between methadone blood levels and the outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT)...
September 10, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Li-Zhuang Yang, Zhiyu Yang, Xiaochu Zhang
Tobacco consumption is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. However, it is difficult to give up smoking by relying on the help of traditional treatments only. Recent years have witnessed emerging positive evidence that non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct-current stimulation, can reduce smoking-related behaviors. Although their potential has been implied by advances in research, several methodological issues restrict the clinical application of NIBS to treating nicotine dependence...
September 2, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xinpei Zhu, Yanfang Xia, Xuecen Wang, Ke Si, Wei Gong
As the control center of organisms, the brain remains little understood due to its complexity. Taking advantage of imaging methods, scientists have found an accessible approach to unraveling the mystery of neuroscience. Among these methods, optical imaging techniques are widely used due to their high molecular specificity and single-molecule sensitivity. Here, we overview several optical imaging techniques in neuroscience of recent years, including brain clearing, the micro-optical sectioning tomography system, and deep tissue imaging...
August 17, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ying Han, Lin Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Hai-Li Pan, Ben-Long Liu, Wei Lin, Yu-Qiu Zhang
Given that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and the tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel Nav1.8 are both involved in bone cancer pain, the present study was designed to investigate whether crosstalk between the LPA receptor LPA1 (also known as EDG2) and Nav1.8 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contributes to the induction of bone cancer pain. We showed that the EDG2 antagonist Ki16198 blocked the mechanical allodynia induced by intrathecal LPA in naïve rats and attenuated mechanical allodynia in a rat model of bone cancer...
October 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Kai-Wen Geng, Ting He, Rui-Rui Wang, Chun-Li Li, Wen-Jun Luo, Fang-Fang Wu, Yan Wang, Zhen Li, Yun-Fei Lu, Su-Min Guan, Jun Chen
Ethanol is widely known for its ability to cause dramatic changes in emotion, social cognition, and behavior following systemic administration in humans. Human neuroimaging studies suggest that alcohol dependence and chronic pain may share common mechanisms through amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interactions. However, whether acute administration of ethanol in the mPFC can modulate pain perception is unknown. Here we showed that bilateral microinjections of ethanol into the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the mPFC lowered the bilateral mechanical pain threshold for 48 h without influencing thermal pain sensitivity in adult rats...
October 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yufeng Pan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
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