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Neuroscience Bulletin

Guiyou Liu, Yi Zhao, Jing-Yi Sun, Bao-Liang Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ying Han, Tong Zhao, Xiang Cheng, Ming Zhao, Sheng-Hui Gong, Yong-Qi Zhao, Hai-Tao Wu, Ming Fan, Ling-Ling Zhu
While inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) might be a risk factor in the development of brain dysfunctions, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, mice were treated with 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water and sacrificed on day 7. The serum level of IL-6 increased, accompanied by elevation of the IL-6 and TNF-α levels in cortical tissue. However, the endotoxin concentration in plasma and brain of mice with DSS-induced colitis showed a rising trend, but with no significant difference...
September 17, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ali Sazci, Nihal Uren, Halil Atilla Idrisoglu, Emel Ergul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Mingzhu Tang, Liqun Lu, Feng Xie, Linxi Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Longzhu Liu, Ming Zhao, Xiaojiang Yu, Weijin Zang
Cardiovascular diseases are life-threatening illnesses with high morbidity and mortality. Suppressed vagal (parasympathetic) activity and increased sympathetic activity are involved in these diseases. Currently, pharmacological interventions primarily aim to inhibit over-excitation of sympathetic nerves, while vagal modulation has been largely neglected. Many studies have demonstrated that increased vagal activity reduces cardiovascular risk factors in both animal models and human patients. Therefore, the improvement of vagal activity may be an alternate approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases...
September 14, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yiqian Shi, Yangyang Chen, Yun Wang
Neuropathic pain is a chronic debilitating symptom characterized by spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia. It occurs in distinct forms, including brush-evoked dynamic and filament-evoked punctate mechanical allodynia. Potassium channel 2.1 (Kir2.1), which exhibits strong inward rectification, is and regulates the activity of lamina I projection neurons. However, the relationship between Kir2.1 channels and mechanical allodynia is still unclear. In this study, we first found that pretreatment with ML133, a selective Kir2...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Fei-Fei Xu, Zi-Bin Zhang, Yang-Yang Wang, Ting-Hua Wang
Brain damage can cause lung injury. To explore the mechanism underlying the lung injury induced by acute cerebral ischemia (ACI), we established a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We focused on glia maturation factor β (GMFB) based on quantitative analysis of the global rat serum proteome. Polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence revealed that GMFB was over-expressed in astrocytes in the brains of rats subjected to MCAO. We cultured rat primary astrocytes and confirmed that GMFB was also up-regulated in primary astrocytes after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)...
September 6, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Wenxuan Zhang, Chao Guo, Dandan Chen, Qionglin Peng, Yufeng Pan
Animals choose among sleep, courtship, and feeding behaviors based on the integration of both external sensory cues and internal states; such choices are essential for survival and reproduction. These competing behaviors are closely related and controlled by distinct neural circuits, but whether they are also regulated by shared neural nodes is unclear. Here, we investigated how a set of male-specific P1 neurons controls sleep, courtship, and feeding behaviors in Drosophila males. We found that mild activation of P1 neurons was sufficient to affect sleep, but not courtship or feeding, while stronger activation of P1 neurons labeled by four out of five independent drivers induced courtship, but only the driver that targeted the largest number of P1 neurons affected feeding...
September 4, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Lingchi Xu, Yalan Wan, Longyu Ma, Jie Zheng, Bingxuan Han, Feng-Yu Liu, Ming Yi, You Wan
Cognition and pain share common neural substrates and interact reciprocally: chronic pain compromises cognitive performance, whereas cognitive processes modulate pain perception. In the present study, we established a non-drug-dependent rat model of context-based analgesia, where two different contexts (dark and bright) were matched with a high (52°C) or low (48°C) temperature in the hot-plate test during training. Before and after training, we set the temperature to the high level in both contexts. Rats showed longer paw licking latencies in trials with the context originally matched to a low temperature than those to a high temperature, indicating successful establishment of a context-based analgesic effect in rats...
September 3, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Jian Guan, Miao Zhao, Chao He, Xue Li, Ying Li, Jie Sun, Wei Wang, Ya-Li Cui, Qing Zhang, Bai-Yan Li, Guo-Fen Qiao
Fenofibrate, an agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), lowers blood pressure, but whether this action is mediated via baroreflex afferents has not been elucidated. In this study, the distribution of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ was assessed in the nodose ganglion (NG) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Hypertension induced by drinking high fructose (HFD) was reduced, along with complete restoration of impaired baroreceptor sensitivity, by chronic treatment with fenofibrate...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Di-Shi Liu, Tian-Le Xu
The autonomic nervous system controls various internal organs and executes crucial functions through sophisticated neural connectivity and circuits. Its dysfunction causes an imbalance of homeostasis and numerous human disorders. In the past decades, great efforts have been made to study the structure and functions of this system, but so far, our understanding of the classification of autonomic neuronal subpopulations remains limited and a precise map of their connectivity has not been achieved. One of the major challenges that hinder rapid progress in these areas is the complexity and heterogeneity of autonomic neurons...
August 31, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Qiyu Zhu, Wei Ke, Quansheng He, Xiongfei Wang, Rui Zheng, Tianfu Li, Guoming Luan, Yue-Sheng Long, Wei-Ping Liao, Yousheng Shu
Inhibitory GABAergic interneurons are fundamental elements of cortical circuits and play critical roles in shaping network activity. Dysfunction of interneurons can lead to various brain disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and anxiety. Based on the electrophysiological properties, cell morphology, and molecular identity, interneurons could be classified into various subgroups. In this study, we investigated the density and laminar distribution of different interneuron types and the co-expression of molecular markers in epileptic human cortex...
August 31, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Feng He, Hongbin Ai, Min Wang, Xiusong Wang, Xiwen Geng
Restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS), a compound stress model, has been widely used to induce acute gastric ulceration in rats. A wealth of evidence suggests that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) is a focal region for mediating the biological response to stress. Different stressors induce distinct alterations of neuronal activity in the CEA; however, few studies have reported the characteristics of CEA neuronal activity induced by RWIS. Therefore, we explored this issue using immunohistochemistry and in vivo extracellular single-unit recording...
August 31, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Huiyin Tu, Dongze Zhang, Yu-Long Li
Clinical trials and animal experimental studies have demonstrated an association of arterial baroreflex impairment with the prognosis and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. As a primary part of the arterial baroreflex arc, the pressure sensitivity of arterial baroreceptors is blunted and involved in arterial baroreflex dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Changes in the arterial vascular walls, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-gated ion channels contribute to the attenuation of arterial baroreceptor sensitivity...
August 27, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Miao-Jin Ji, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Xiao-Chun Peng, Yang-Xun Zhang, Zi Chen, Lei Yu, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
The ventral pallidum (VP) is a crucial component of the limbic loop of the basal ganglia and participates in the regulation of reward, motivation, and emotion. Although the VP receives afferent inputs from the central histaminergic system, little is known about the effect of histamine on the VP and the underlying receptor mechanism. Here, we showed that histamine, a hypothalamic-derived neuromodulator, directly depolarized and excited the GABAergic VP neurons which comprise a major cell type in the VP and are responsible for encoding cues of incentive salience and reward hedonics...
August 25, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Dan Wu, Zongbing Hao, Haigang Ren, Guanghui Wang
Autophagy is an evolutionarily-conserved self-degradative process that maintains cellular homeostasis by eliminating protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Recently, vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB), which is associated with the familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, has been shown to regulate autophagy. In the present study, we demonstrated that knockdown of VAPB induced the up-regulation of beclin 1 expression, which promoted LC3 (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3) conversion and the formation of LC3 puncta, whereas overexpression of VAPB inhibited these processes...
August 24, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xinqi Zhou, Xu Lei
The default mode network (DMN) is associated with the occurrence of mind-wandering or task-unrelated thought. In contrast, the frontal-parietal network (FPN) and visual network (VS) are involved in tasks with external stimuli. However, it is not clear how these functional network interactions support these two different processes - mind-wandering and on-task - especially with regard to individual variation in the mind-wandering experience. In this study, we investigated the functional connectivity and modular structure among the DMN, FPN, and VS...
August 22, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yan-Yan Chang, Xin-Wei Gong, Hai-Qing Gong, Pei-Ji Liang, Pu-Ming Zhang, Qin-Chi Lu
Exploring the transition from inter-ictal to ictal epileptiform discharges (IDs) and how GABAA receptor-mediated action affects the onset of IDs will enrich our understanding of epileptogenesis and epilepsy treatment. We used Mg2+ -free artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) to induce epileptiform discharges in juvenile mouse hippocampal slices and used a micro-electrode array to record the discharges. After the slices were exposed to Mg2+ -free ACSF for 10 min-20 min, synchronous recurrent seizure-like events were recorded across the slices, and each event evolved from inter-ictal epileptiform discharges (IIDs) to pre-ictal epileptiform discharges (PIDs), and then to IDs...
August 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Wei Su, Jian Guo, Yun Zhang, Jie Zhou, Ning Chen, Muke Zhou, Rong Li, Huafu Chen, Li He
In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate longitudinal changes in brain activation during a verbal working memory (VWM) task performed by patients who had experienced a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Twenty-five first-ever TIA patients without visible lesions in conventional MRI and 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled. VWM task-related fMRI was conducted 1 week and 3 months post-TIA. The brain activity evoked by the task and changes over time were assessed. We found that, compared with controls, patients exhibited an increased activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, inferior parietal lobe (IPL), and cerebellum during the task performed 1 week post-TIA...
August 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xi-Yu Wang, Meihua Qu, Rui Duan, Dengping Shi, Ling Jin, Jinping Gao, Jackie D Wood, Junhua Li, Guo-Du Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
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