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Neuroscience Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022224/prepulse-inhibition-of-auditory-cortical-responses-in-the-caudolateral-superior-temporal-gyrus-in-macaca-mulatta
#1
Zuyue Chen, Lauri Parkkonen, Jingkuan Wei, Jin-Run Dong, Yuanye Ma, Synnöve Carlson
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a decreased response to a startling stimulus when another weaker stimulus precedes it. Most PPI studies have focused on the physiological startle reflex and fewer have reported the PPI of cortical responses. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in four monkeys and investigated whether the PPI of auditory cortical responses (alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations and evoked potentials) can be demonstrated in the caudolateral belt of the superior temporal gyrus (STGcb). We also investigated whether the presence of a conspecific, which draws attention away from the auditory stimuli, affects the PPI of auditory cortical responses...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936779/a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-transplanted-stem-cell-derived-human-neurons
#2
Yuankai Zhu, Hong Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936771/functional-investigation-of-a-grin2a-variant-associated-with-rolandic-epilepsy
#3
Xing-Xing Xu, Xiao-Rong Liu, Cui-Ying Fan, Jin-Xing Lai, Yi-Wu Shi, Wei Yang, Tao Su, Jun-Yu Xu, Jian-Hong Luo, Wei-Ping Liao
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels, play a central role in epileptogenesis. Recent studies have identified an increasing number of GRIN2A (a gene encoding the NMDAR GluN2A subunit) mutations in patients with epilepsy. Phenotypes of GRIN2A mutations include epilepsy-aphasia disorders and other epileptic encephalopathies, which pose challenges in clinical treatment. Here we identified a heterozygous GRIN2A mutation (c.1341T>A, p.N447K) from a boy with Rolandic epilepsy by whole-exome sequencing...
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936761/biomarkers-for-parkinson-s-disease-recent-advancement
#4
REVIEW
Sharvari Lotankar, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
As a multi-factorial degenerative disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to tremor, gait rigidity, and hypokinesia, thus hampering normal living. As this disease is usually detected in the later stages when neurons have degenerated completely, cure is on hold, ultimately leading to death due to the lack of early diagnostic techniques. Thus, biomarkers are required to detect the disease in the early stages when prevention is possible. Various biomarkers providing early diagnosis of the disease include those of imaging, cerebrospinal fluid, oxidative stress, neuroprotection, and inflammation...
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936754/biomarker-discovery-in-parkinson-s-disease-present-challenges-and-future-opportunities
#5
EDITORIAL
Song Li, Weidong Le
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924920/age-dependent-alpha-synuclein-accumulation-and-phosphorylation-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Chong-Bin Zhong, Qian-Qian Chen, Caroline Haikal, Wen Li, Alexander Svanbergsson, Meike Diepenbroek, Jia-Yi Li
The enteric nervous system (ENS) controls the function of the gastrointestinal tract and has been implicated in various diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenerative disease with Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs) as the main pathological features. In addition to the typical motor symptoms in PD, attention has been drawn to non-motor symptoms, such as constipation, implying dysfunction of the ENS. In the present study, we characterized the age-dependent morphological alterations and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn), the primary protein component in LBs and LNs, in the ENS in an α-syn transgenic mouse model...
September 18, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900900/mapping-the-information-trace-in-local-field-potentials-by-a-computational-method-of-two-dimensional-time-shifting-synchronization-likelihood-based-on-graphic-processing-unit-acceleration
#7
Zi-Fang Zhao, Xue-Zhu Li, You Wan
The local field potential (LFP) is a signal reflecting the electrical activity of neurons surrounding the electrode tip. Synchronization between LFP signals provides important details about how neural networks are organized. Synchronization between two distant brain regions is hard to detect using linear synchronization algorithms like correlation and coherence. Synchronization likelihood (SL) is a non-linear synchronization-detecting algorithm widely used in studies of neural signals from two distant brain areas...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895075/milestones-of-parkinson-s-disease-research-200%C3%A2-years-of-history-and-beyond
#8
Song Li, Weidong Le
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884460/potassium-channels-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Xiaoyan Chen, Bao Xue, Jun Wang, Haixia Liu, Limin Shi, Junxia Xie
The pathogenesis of the second major neurodegenerative disorder, Parkinson's disease (PD), is closely associated with the dysfunction of potassium (K(+)) channels. Therefore, PD is also considered to be an ion channel disease or neuronal channelopathy. Mounting evidence has shown that K(+) channels play crucial roles in the regulations of neurotransmitter release, neuronal excitability, and cell volume. Inhibition of K(+) channels enhances the spontaneous firing frequency of nigral dopamine (DA) neurons, induces a transition from tonic firing to burst discharge, and promotes the release of DA in the striatum...
September 7, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866850/can-biomarkers-help-the-early-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Weidong Le, Jie Dong, Song Li, Amos D Korczyn
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with progressive loss of dopamine neurons. PD patients usually manifest a series of motor and non-motor symptoms. In order to provide better early diagnosis and subsequent disease-modifying therapies for PD patients, there is an urgent need to identify sensitive and specific biomarkers. Biomarkers can be divided into four categories: clinical, imaging, biochemical, and genetic. Ideal biomarkers not only improve our understanding of PD pathogenesis and progression, but also provide benefits for early risk evaluation and clinical diagnosis of PD...
September 2, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866849/association-of-msi2-gene-polymorphism-with-age-at-onset-of-schizophrenia-in-a-chinese-population
#11
LETTER
Zhi-Lin Luan, Xiao-Hui Cui, Hu Xu, He-Yuan Lu, Yu-Yuan Li, Tian-Lan Lu, Dai Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866769/an-efficient-and-reliable-assay-for-investigating-the-effects-of-hypoxia-anoxia-on-drosophila
#12
Yiling Xia, Wangchao Xu, Shiquan Meng, Nastasia K H Lim, Wenan Wang, Fu-De Huang
Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. Up to one thousand potential drugs or interventions have been developed to treat stroke, out of which ~160 have gone on to clinical trials. However, none of them has been successful. New insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ischemia-induced injury are needed for discovering new therapeutic targets. Recently, Drosophila has been used to uncover new hypoxia-related genes. In this study, we describe an efficient and reliable assay with a sophisticated apparatus for studying the effects of oxygen deprivation on flies...
September 2, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861724/role-of-the-hippocampus-in-distinct-memory-traces-timing-of-match-and-mismatch-enhancement-revealed-by-intracranial-recording
#13
Bing Ni, Ruijie Wu, Tao Yu, Hongwei Zhu, Yongjie Li, Zuxiang Liu
A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study reported evidence for parallel memory traces in the hippocampus: a controlled match signal detecting matches to internally-generated goal states and an automatic mismatch signal identifying unpredicted perceptual novelty. However, the timing information in this process is unknown. In the current study, facilitated by the high spatial and temporal resolution of intracranial recording from human patients, we confirmed that the left posterior hippocampus played an important role in the goal match enhancement effect, in which combinations of object identity and location were involved...
August 31, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831680/olfactory-dysfunction-as-an-early-biomarker-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Michelle E Fullard, James F Morley, John E Duda
Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often predates the diagnosis by years, reflecting early deposition of Lewy pathology, the histologic hallmark of PD, in the olfactory bulb. Clinical tests are available that allow for the rapid characterization of olfactory dysfunction, including tests of odor identification, discrimination, detection, and recognition thresholds, memory, and tests assessing the build-up of odor intensity across increasing suprathreshold stimulus concentrations...
August 22, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828757/longitudinal-alterations-of-local-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Qiaoling Zeng, Xiaojun Guan, Jason C F Law Yan Lun, Zhujing Shen, Tao Guo, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Xiaojun Xu, Min Chen, Minming Zhang
We used resting-state fMRI to evaluate longitudinal alterations in local spontaneous brain activity in Parkinson's disease (PD) over a 2-year period. Data were acquired from 23 PD patients at baseline and follow-up, and 27 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) were used to identify differences in local spontaneous brain activity and grey matter volume. With disease progression, we observed a progressive decrease in ReHo in the sensorimotor cortex, default-mode network, and left cerebellum, but increased ReHo in the supplementary motor area, bilateral temporal gyrus, and hippocampus...
August 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828584/neurons-with-multiple-axons-have-functional-axon-initial-segments
#16
Yu Guo, Zhuo Liu, Yi-Kun Chen, Zhen Chai, Chen Zhou, Yan Zhang
Neurons grow multiple axons after treatment with glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors. However, whether they are electrically active is not known. Here, we examined the role of multiple axons as electrophysiological components during neuronal firing. Combining pharmacological, immunofluorescence, and electrophysiological methods, we found that more neurons had multiple axon initial segments (AISs) after inhibition of GSK-3 activity with SB415286. The multiple AISs induced by GSK-3 inhibition were enriched with voltage-gated sodium channels...
August 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795356/drosophila-studies-on-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Yao Tian, Zi Chao Zhang, Junhai Han
In the past decade, numerous genes associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been identified. These genes encode key regulators of synaptogenesis, synaptic function, and synaptic plasticity. Drosophila is a prominent model system for ASD studies to define novel genes linked to ASDs and decipher their molecular roles in synaptogenesis, synaptic function, synaptic plasticity, and neural circuit assembly and consolidation. Here, we review Drosophila studies on ASD genes that regulate synaptogenesis, synaptic function, and synaptic plasticity through modulating chromatin remodeling, transcription, protein synthesis and degradation, cytoskeleton dynamics, and synaptic scaffolding...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791585/transcription-factors-potential-cell-death-markers-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ronglin Wang, Shaosong Yang, Tiejian Nie, Gang Zhu, Dayun Feng, Qian Yang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a long preclinical phase. The continuous loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is one of the pathogenic hallmarks of PD. Diagnosis largely depends on clinical observation, but motor dysfunctions do not emerge until 70%-80% of the nigrostriatal nerve terminals have been destroyed. Therefore, a biomarker that indicates the degeneration of DA neurons is urgently needed. Transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate RNA synthesis from a DNA template...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791571/peripheral-lymphocyte-subsets-as-a-marker-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-a-chinese-population
#19
Luan Cen, Chaohao Yang, Shuxuan Huang, Miaomiao Zhou, Xiaolu Tang, Kaiping Li, Wenyuan Guo, Zhuohua Wu, Mingshu Mo, Yousheng Xiao, Xiang Chen, Xinling Yang, Qinhui Huang, Chaojun Chen, Shaogang Qu, Pingyi Xu
In this study, we conducted a clinical analysis of lymphocyte subtypes in 268 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to assess their clinical impact as a potential marker of advanced PD in Chinese patients. The participants comprised 268 sporadic PD patients and 268 healthy controls. The numbers of natural killer (NK) cells and CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, and CD19+ lymphocytes from peripheral blood were determined by immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis and the percentages of these CD+ T cells were calculated...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786074/akt-inhibitor-perifosine-prevents-epileptogenesis-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Feng Zhu, Jiejing Kai, Linglin Chen, Meiling Wu, Jingyin Dong, Qingmei Wang, Ling-Hui Zeng
Accumulating data have revealed that abnormal activity of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway plays an important role in epileptogenesis triggered by various factors. We previously reported that pretreatment with perifosine, an inhibitor of Akt (also called protein kinase B), abolishes the rapamycin-induced paradoxical increase of S6 phosphorylation in a rat model induced by kainic acid (KA). Since Akt is an upstream target in the mTOR signaling pathway, we set out to determine whether perifosine has a preventive effect on epileptogenesis...
August 7, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
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