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Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837406/b-lymphocytes-express-pomc-mrna-processing-enzymes-and-%C3%AE-endorphin-in-painful-inflammation
#1
Santhosh Chandar Maddila, Melanie Busch-Dienstfertig, Christoph Stein
Immune cell-derived beta-endorphin (END) and other opioid peptides elicit potent and clinically relevant inhibition of pain (analgesia) in inflamed tissue by activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is the polypeptide precursor of END and is processed by prohormone convertases (PCs). This study aims to decipher the processing of POMC in lymphocyte subsets in a rat model of unilateral painful hindpaw inflammation. Lymphocytes, isolated from popliteal lymph nodes, were separated into B-cells, T-cells, T-helper cells and cytotoxic T-cells using magnetic cell sorting, and were examined by polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832402/phenotype-of-antigen-unexperienced-th-cells-in-the-inflamed-central-nervous-system-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#2
Sophia Franck, Magdalena Paterka, Jerome Birkenstock, Frauke Zipp, Volker Siffrin, Esther Witsch
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, disseminated inflammation of the central nervous system which is thought to be driven by autoimmune T cells. Genetic association studies in multiple sclerosis and a large number of studies in the animal model of the disease support a role for effector/memory T helper cells. However, the mechanisms underlying relapses, remission and chronic progression in multiple sclerosis or the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are not clear. In particular, there is only scarce information on the role of central nervous system-invading naive T helper cells in these processes...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832401/nanoformulated-antiretrovirals-for-penetration-of-the-central-nervous-system-state-of-the-art
#3
REVIEW
Luisa Fiandra, Amedeo Capetti, Luca Sorrentino, Fabio Corsi
The central nervous system is a very challenging HIV-1 sanctuary. But, despite complete suppression of plasmatic viral replication with current antiretroviral therapy, signs of HIV-1 replication can still be found in the cerebrospinal fluid in some patients. The main limitation to achieving HIV-1 eradication from the brain is related to the suboptimal concentrations of antiretrovirals within this site, due to their low permeation across the blood-brain barrier. In recent years, a number of reliable nanotechnological strategies have been developed with the aim of enhancing antiretroviral drug penetration across the blood-brain barrier...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826896/blood-brain-barrier-impairment-in-hiv-positive-na%C3%A3-ve-and-effectively-treated-patients-immune-activation-versus-astrocytosis
#4
A Calcagno, A Romito, C Atzori, V Ghisetti, C Cardellino, S Audagnotto, E Scarvaglieri, F Lipani, D Imperiale, G Di Perri, S Bonora
Blood brain barrier (BBB) damage is a common feature in central nervous system infections by HIV and it may persist despite effective antiretroviral therapy. Astrocyte involvement has not been studied in this setting. Patients were enrolled in an ongoing prospective study and subjects with central nervous system-affecting disorders were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups: treated subjects with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA <50 copies/mL (CSF-controllers) and in late-presenters CD4+ T lymphocytes <100/uL...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743291/erratum-to-atorvastatin-modulates-regulatory-t-cells-and-attenuates-cerebral-damage-in-a-model-of-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#5
Ana Lucía Rodríguez-Perea, Johanna Gutierrez-Vargas, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez, Carlos Julio Montoya Guarin, Mauricio Rojas, Paula Andrea Velilla Hernández
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734267/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-pge2-ep4-signaling-in-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Suraj S Pradhan, Kirstie Salinas, Alexis C Garduno, Jenny U Johansson, Qian Wang, Amy Manning-Bog, Katrin I Andreasson
Inflammation is a ubiquitous factor accompanying normal aging and neurodegeneration, and recent studies indicate a major contribution of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and its downstream prostaglandin signaling pathways in modulating neuroinflammatory responses and neuronal function. We have previously shown that the prostaglandin PGE2 receptor EP4 suppresses innate immune responses in models of systemic inflammation. Here we investigated the role of the EP4 receptor in models of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730347/targeting-oxidative-stress-cytokines-and-serotonin-interactions-via-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-by-coenzyme-q10-role-in-suppressing-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats
#7
Sally A Abuelezz, Nevien Hendawy, Yosra Magdy
Depression is a major health problem in which oxidative stress and inflammation are inextricably connected in its pathophysiology. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an important anti-oxidant compound with anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective properties. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that CoQ10 by its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials can alleviate depressive- like behavior by restoring the balance of the tryptophan catabolites kynurenine/serotonin toward the serotonin pathway by down-regulation of hippocampal indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726055/hiv-1-viral-protein-r-activates-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-microglia-implications-for-hiv-1-associated-neuroinflammation
#8
Manmeet K Mamik, Elizabeth Hui, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Jesse Chisholm, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain soon after seroconversion and induces chronic neuroinflammation by infecting and activating brain macrophages. Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that mediate caspase-1 activation and ensuing cleavage and release of IL-1β and -18 by macrophages. Our group recently showed that HIV-1 infection of human microglia induced inflammasome activation in NLRP3-dependent manner. The HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein that is released from HIV-infected cells, although its effects on neuroinflammation are undefined...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699630/a-gap-in-time-extending-our-knowledge-of-temporal-processing-deficits-in-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat
#9
Kristen A McLaurin, Landhing M Moran, Hailong Li, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Approximately 50 % of HIV-1 seropositive individuals develop HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which commonly include alterations in executive functions, such as inhibition, set shifting, and complex problem solving. Executive function deficits in HIV-1 are fairly well characterized, however, relatively few studies have explored the elemental dimensions of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1. Deficits in temporal processing, caused by HIV-1, may underlie the symptoms of impairment in higher level cognitive processes...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640211/complexes-of-peptide-blockers-with-kv1-6-pore-domain-molecular-modeling-and-studies-with-kcsa-kv1-6-channel
#10
O V Nekrasova, A D Volyntseva, K S Kudryashova, V N Novoseletsky, E A Lyapina, A V Illarionova, S A Yakimov, Yu V Korolkova, K V Shaitan, M P Kirpichnikov, A V Feofanov
Potassium voltage-gated Kv1.6 channel, which is distributed primarily in neurons of central and peripheral nervous systems, is of significant physiological importance. To date, several high-affinity Kv1.6-channel blockers are known, but the lack of selective ones among them hampers the studies of tissue localization and functioning of Kv1.6 channels. Here we present an approach to advanced understanding of interactions of peptide toxin blockers with a Kv1.6 pore. It combines molecular modeling studies and an application of a new bioengineering system based on a KcsA-Kv1...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640210/modulation-of-binge-like-ethanol-consumption-by-il-10-signaling-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#11
S Alex Marshall, Kyle H McKnight, Allyson K Blose, Donald T Lysle, Todd E Thiele
Excessive ethanol consumption alters the neuroimmune system and particularly impacts the cytokine milieu of the CNS. Cytokine dysregulation has been shown to underlie addictive-like behaviors including alcohol abuse; however, many studies focus primarily on the proinflammatory cytokine profile during alcohol dependence. The current study furthers this research by determining the impact of excessive ethanol consumption on interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) activity in a model of non-dependent binge consumption called the "drinking in the dark" (DID) paradigm...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629410/caffeine-blocks-hiv-1-tat-induced-amyloid-beta-production-and-tau-phosphorylation
#12
Mahmoud L Soliman, Jonathan D Geiger, Xuesong Chen
The increased life expectancy of people living with HIV-1 who are taking effective anti-retroviral therapeutics is now accompanied by increased Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurocognitive problems and neuropathological features such as increased levels of amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau proteins. Others and we have shown that HIV-1 Tat promotes the development of AD-like pathology. Indeed, HIV-1 Tat once endocytosed into neurons can alter morphological features and functions of endolysosomes as well as increase Aβ generation...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614888/atorvastatin-modulates-regulatory-t-cells-and-attenuates-cerebral-damage-in-a-model-of-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#13
Ana Lucía Rodríguez-Perea, Johanna Gutierrez-Vargas, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez, Carlos Julio Montoya Guarin, Mauricio Rojas, Paula Andrea Velilla Hernández
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit the activation of the immune response which could down-regulate the systemic and focal activation observed during ischemic stroke. In fact, in animal models, Tregs infiltrate the infarcted brain and reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and infarct volume, mainly in late stages of ischemia. Recently, an expansion and greater suppressive capacity of circulating Tregs after treatment with statins was observed, in addition to their cardio- and neuroprotective actions demonstrated previously...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613024/bacterial-meningitis-in-patients-using-immunosuppressive-medication-a-population-based-prospective-nationwide-study
#14
Kiril E B van Veen, Matthijs C Brouwer, Arie van der Ende, Diederik van de Beek
We studied occurrence, presentation, disease course, effect of adjunctive dexamethasone, and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in patients using immunosuppressive medication. Patients were selected from our nationwide, prospective cohort on community-acquired bacterial meningitis performed from March 1, 2006 through October 31, 2014. Eighty-seven of 1447 episodes (6 %) of bacterial meningitis occurred in patients using immunosuppressive medication, and consisted of corticosteroids in 82 %. Patients with bacterial meningitis using immunosuppressive medication were less likely to present with headache (P = 0...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562848/extracellular-mitochondria-and-mitochondrial-components-act-as-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-molecules-in-the-mouse-brain
#15
Heather M Wilkins, Scott J Koppel, Ian W Weidling, Nairita Roy, Lauren N Ryan, John A Stanford, Russell H Swerdlow
Mitochondria and mitochondrial debris are found in the brain's extracellular space, and extracellular mitochondrial components can act as damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. To characterize the effects of potential mitochondrial DAMP molecules on neuroinflammation, we injected either isolated mitochondria or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into hippocampi of C57BL/6 mice and seven days later measured markers of inflammation. Brains injected with whole mitochondria showed increased Tnfα and decreased Trem2 mRNA, increased GFAP protein, and increased NFκB phosphorylation...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539642/dynamic-modulation-of-microglia-macrophage-polarization-by-mir-124-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Somayyeh Hamzei Taj, Widuri Kho, Markus Aswendt, Franziska M Collmann, Claudia Green, Joanna Adamczak, Annette Tennstaedt, Mathias Hoehn
Mononuclear phagocytes respond to ischemic stroke dynamically, undergoing an early anti-inflammatory and protective phenotype followed by the pro-inflammatory and detrimental type. These dual roles of microglia/macrophages suggest the need of subtle adjustment of their polarization state instead of broad suppression. The most abundant brain-specific miRNA, miR-124, promotes neuronal differentiation but can also modulate microglia activation and keeps them in a quiescent state. We addressed whether the intracerebral injection of miR-124 in a mouse model of ischemic stroke before or after the peak phase of the pro-inflammatory polarization modifies the pro-/anti- inflammatory balance...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342118/cinnamon-converts-poor-learning-mice-to-good-learners-implications-for-memory-improvement
#17
Khushbu K Modi, Suresh B Rangasamy, Sridevi Dasarathi, Avik Roy, Kalipada Pahan
This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in converting poor learning mice to good learning ones. NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to upregulate plasticity-related molecules, stimulate NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive calcium influx and increase of spine density in cultured hippocampal neurons. NaB induced the activation of CREB in hippocampal neurons via protein kinase A (PKA), which was responsible for the upregulation of plasticity-related molecules...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137937/mitochondrial-quality-control-proteases-in-neuronal-welfare
#18
REVIEW
Roman M Levytskyy, Edward M Germany, Oleh Khalimonchuk
The functional integrity of mitochondria is a critical determinant of neuronal health and compromised mitochondrial function is a commonly recognized factor that underlies a plethora of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Metabolic demands of neural cells require high bioenergetic outputs that are often associated with enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Unopposed accumulation of these respiratory byproducts over time leads to oxidative damage and imbalanced protein homeostasis within mitochondrial subcompartments, which in turn may result in cellular demise...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484319/promoting-global-health-prevention-and-treatment-of-substance-abuse-and-hiv-in-asia
#19
Ming D Li, Yih-Ing Hser, Zhiwei Chen, Linda Chang
This special issue contains 20 papers including 3 Perspectives, 1 Brief Report, 6 Invited Reviews, and 10 Original Articles, which highlight the work by presenters at the second meeting of the biennial Conference Series to Promote Global Health held on April 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. These papers focused on the prevalent substance misuse of amphetamine-type-stimulants and opioids, and the increasing prevalence of HIV-infection in Asian countries. The Conference Series is sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the U...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484318/effects-of-hiv-and-methamphetamine-on-brain-and-behavior-evidence-from-human-studies-and-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
Virawudh Soontornniyomkij, James P Kesby, Erin E Morgan, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Arpi Minassian, Gregory G Brown, Igor Grant
Methamphetamine (Meth) use is frequent among HIV-infected persons. Combined HIV and Meth insults may exacerbate neural injury in vulnerable neuroanatomic structures or circuitries in the brain, leading to increased behavioral disturbance and cognitive impairment. While acute and chronic effects of Meth in humans and animal models have been studied for decades, the neurobehavioral effects of Meth in the context of HIV infection are much less explored. In-depth understanding of the scope of neurobehavioral phenotypes and mechanisms in HIV/Meth intersection is needed...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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