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Global Public Health

Karin Friederic, Brian J Burke
Under President Rafael Correa (2007-2017), Ecuador's Ministry of Health established a state-centred health care regime that incorporates elements of Latin American social medicine into post-neoliberalism. These initiatives - which are part of 'The National Plan for Good Living (Buen Vivir)' - include free healthcare, greater attention to social determinants of health, a focus on equity and inclusion, and increased coordination across welfare, health, and development sectors. However, the reforms also use health services to build a sense of inclusive, participatory citizenship, with the Ecuadorean state as the central figure in service provision...
June 5, 2018: Global Public Health
Unni Gopinathan, Nick Watts, Alexandre Lefebvre, Arthur Cheung, Steven J Hoffman, John-Arne Røttingen
This comparative case study investigated how two intergovernmental organisations without formal health mandates - the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) - have engaged with global health issues. Triangulating insights from key institutional documents, ten semi-structured interviews with senior officials, and scholarly books tracing the history of both organisations, the study identified an evolving and broadened engagement with global health issues in UNDP and WTO...
May 31, 2018: Global Public Health
Sebastian Kevany
In the twenty-first Century, the developed world attempts to provide global health assistance, to poorer countries - at least in part in the pursuit and maintenance of world order and stability. Rarely, however - and in most cases, then on an ad hoc basis - are related foreign policy tools deployed in combination with each other. Nonetheless, there is currently greater openness than ever before to such interdigitation. Not least this reflects the unprecedented challenges of modern political and security conditions - struggling to operate amidst a broader culture of global adverserialism, and conflict which conventional systems of intervention have struggled to successfully resolve...
May 21, 2018: Global Public Health
João Biehl, Mariana P Socal, Varun Gauri, Debora Diniz, Marcelo Medeiros, Gabriela Rondon, Joseph J Amon
Over the past two decades, debate over the whys, the hows, and the effects of the ever-expanding phenomenon of right-to-health litigation ('judicialization') throughout Latin America have been marked by polarised arguments and limited information. In contrast to claims of judicialization as a positive or negative trend, less attention has been paid to ways to better understand the phenomenon in real time. In this article, we propose a new approach-Judicialization 2.0-that recognises judicialization as an integral part of democratic life...
May 21, 2018: Global Public Health
Lesley Hoggart
This paper scrutinises the concepts of moral reasoning and personal reasoning, problematising the binary model by looking at young women's pregnancy decision-making. Data from two UK empirical studies are subjected to theoretically driven qualitative secondary analysis, and illustrative cases show how complex decision-making is characterised by an intertwining of the personal and the moral, and is thus best understood by drawing on moral relativism.
May 21, 2018: Global Public Health
Lalita Kumari Sah, Rochelle Ann Burgess, Rajeeb Kumar Sah
The mental health of migrant communities is an important public health concern. A growing body of literature suggests that social and cultural determinants of health significantly contribute to the mental health and wellbeing of older migrants in their host countries. Despite the increasing population of older Nepalese migrants in the UK, there is little research exploring the mental health needs of this community. This article explores older Nepalese women's experiences of drivers of mental distress in London...
May 15, 2018: Global Public Health
Judith-Ann Walker, Yahaya Hashim, Nelson Oranye
Expanding access to maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) services in traditional societies is a public health challenge, often complicated by cultural and religious beliefs about what is permitted or not permitted within a faith group. This is particularly true in the Muslim majority North of Nigeria, where deep suspicions of Western public health programmes, coupled with failing and underfunded health system, have led to the emergence of a new generation of Muslim Opinion Leaders (MOLs) with counter-narratives against family planning, immunisation and nutrition programmes...
May 15, 2018: Global Public Health
Neil Krishan Aggarwal
Since the start of the global War on Terror, governments have used the mental health system for counterintelligence purposes. A recent manifestation of this trend is the call from policymakers and mental health researchers to screen individuals at risk for violent extremism through the public health system. Civil rights organisations have raised alarms that Muslims are being disproportionately referred to law enforcement agencies and that Muslim communities are being selected for surveillance despite government assurances that violent extremism is not exclusive to any ideology...
May 11, 2018: Global Public Health
Kyung-Bok Son, Chang-Yup Kim, Tae-Jin Lee
When pharmaceuticals are not fully available mainly due to the high cost of medicines, a government can issue compulsory licensing (CL). It is well documented that Brazil and Thailand have notably attempted CL. A realist review was undertaken to understand the identical social interventions in comparative settings, and to draw practical implications for attempting CL relevant for middle-income countries in the era of high-cost medicines. CL is not only a politically well-devised measure to achieve universal health coverage, but also a tentative commitment, which is determined both at the country level and at the global level...
May 8, 2018: Global Public Health
Said Ahmad Maisam Najafizada, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault, Ronald Labonté
Gender equity can be a neglected issue in health system reforms. This paper explores the multiple layered gender dynamics of the Afghan Community Health Worker (CHW) Program within broader health system reforms in Afghanistan using a qualitative research design. We interviewed policy makers, health managers, CHWs and community members in 16 sites in 2013 and 2014. We found that gendered societal norms interact and influence the Afghan CHW program in a dynamic way. Gendered social norms around the division of labour tend to privilege women in terms of access to resources at the community level, but it is men who hold leadership positions that ultimately decide how the resources are to be distributed...
May 7, 2018: Global Public Health
Alexander Wamboldt, Shamus R Khan, Claude Ann Mellins, Jennifer S Hirsch
Sexual assault is a part of many students' experiences in higher education. In U.S. universities, one in four women and one in ten men report being sexually assaulted before graduation. Bystander training programmes have been shown to modestly reduce campus sexual assault. Like all public health interventions, however, they have unintended social consequences; this research examines how undergraduate men on one campus understand bystander interventions and how those understandings shape their actual practices...
May 7, 2018: Global Public Health
Maria Dulce F Natividad
This study examines the relationship between state policies, religion, reproductive politics, and competing understandings of embodied sexual and reproductive morality. Using ethnographic and life history interviews, this study looks at the lives of Filipino urban poor women and how they interpret, follow and resist Catholic Church doctrines and practices as these relate to sexuality and reproduction. Taking everyday morality as embedded in social practice, this paper argues that women's subjective reinterpretations of Catholic teachings regarding contraception and abortion render religion pliant in a way that restores moral equilibrium in women's lives...
May 7, 2018: Global Public Health
Deven Gray, Joanna Mishtal
Implementing effective health interventions in recent epidemics has been difficult due to the potentially global nature of their spread and sociocultural dynamics, raising questions concerning how to develop culturally-appropriate preventive measures, and how these health threats are understood locally. In Belize, health policy makers have only been marginally effective in managing infections and mosquito vectors, and Zika has been declared endemic in certain regions, particularly on the island of Caye Caulker...
May 7, 2018: Global Public Health
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
Research funders from high-income countries have an ethical obligation to support health research in low and middle-income countries that promotes justice in global health. Conceptual work from bioethics proposes funders should do so through their design of grants programs, investments, and grants management. That work has begun to specify the content of funders' ethical responsibility with regards to health systems research, but it has thus far not been informed by their practice. As a first step to bridge that gap, this paper focuses on health systems research funders' design of grants programs...
May 4, 2018: Global Public Health
Robert Marten
Since 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provided the framework for global development efforts transforming the field now known as global health. The MDGs both reflected and contributed to shaping a normative global health agenda. In the field of global health, the role of the state is largely considered to have diminished; however, this paper reasserts states as actors in the conceptualisation and institutionalisation of the MDGs, and illustrates how states exerted power and engaged in the MDG process...
April 26, 2018: Global Public Health
Maria A Carrasco, Jessica Wilkinson, Benjamin Kasdan, Paul Fleming
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an effective biomedical HIV prevention strategy. There is a need to identify key barriers and facilitators to VMMC uptake in priority countries to improve uptake. In this paper, we report findings from a systematic review of the barriers and facilitators of VMMC uptake, comparing them across countries in order to provide programmers critical information to design effective VMMC uptake interventions. Our review followed PRISMA protocol. Twenty three articles from 10 of the 14 priority countries were included...
April 26, 2018: Global Public Health
Radhika Gore
Studies of power in health care settings in low- and middle-income countries largely describe providers' exercise of discretionary power in frontline roles, leaving under-specified the macro-institutions and mechanisms of power that drive health care outcomes. In this study I conceptualise providers' actions not in terms of discretionary power but as obligatory responses to 'authority' over them. Authority denotes an actor's rightfully held social power over others, who accept to follow that actor's directives...
April 26, 2018: Global Public Health
Giulietta Luul Balestra, Jashodhara Dasgupta, Yatirajula Kanaka Sandhya, Jenevieve Mannell
Community-Based Monitoring (CBM) is a participatory process in which citizens gather evidence on services to hold governments accountable to their commitments. Research on CBM for health in developing countries has mostly measured its impact on service performance. Overall, these studies have produced mixed evidence of CBM's effectiveness. This has led some authors to question the role of civic engagement, especially in communities where expectations from public services and power to demand for change are low...
April 19, 2018: Global Public Health
David Michael Callender
Less than half a century ago infectious diseases appeared to be destined to be extinguished via as a culmination of medical triumphs. As focus turned towards combating non-communicable diseases, emerging and re-emerging diseases (EIDs) have bloomed from those ashes. Five epidemic mosquito-borne arboviruses (Yellow Fever virus (YFV), Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus) have emerged in the recent past. Arboviruses are of the utmost importance with respect to EIDs due to intensive growth of globalisation, arthropod urban fitness/adaption, and environmental changes...
April 17, 2018: Global Public Health
Neiloy R Sircar, Eric A Friedman
Inadequate financial resources are a major driver for poor health. Financial insecurity contributes to health inequities in mutually reinforcing ways, with some effects lasting years. Fostering financial security to reduce the likelihood or magnitude of such pressures would have significant present and future health benefits. We review several models for bolstering financial security to determine which have the most significant health contributions based on current evidence and their theoretical potential. We hypothesise that basic income guarantees might have the greatest positive health impact for beneficiaries, though this is heavily contingent on programme design and how financing affects other social welfare programmes...
April 6, 2018: Global Public Health
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