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Global Public Health

Shamshad Khan, Robert Lorway, Claudyne Chevrier, Sumit Dutta, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, Anu Roy, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Sharmistha Mishra, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard, Marissa Becker
Decades of research have documented how sex workers worldwide, particularly female sex workers (FSWs), shoulder a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. In India, although a substantial progress has been made in controlling the epidemic, its prevalence among FSWs and the Devadasis (also called traditional sex workers) in northern Karnataka is still significantly high. On the other hand, much of the HIV prevention research has focused on their mapping and size estimation, typologies, bio-behavioural surveillance, condom use and other prevention technologies...
January 19, 2017: Global Public Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Global Public Health
Karen Morrison, Sandra Tomsons, Angela Gomez, Martin Forde
Although a substantial body of literature exists that details how to address ethical issues and provide oversight for traditional research study designs, there currently is very little guidance available to researchers on how to deal with the unique and novel challenges that arise when conducting research that goes outside of these well-defined boundaries. One such example is North-South (N-S) team-based global population health (GPH) research. This paper presents a Network of Ethical Relationships (NER) model which can allow GPH researchers better understand and resolve ethical issues that arise in N-S collaborative research efforts...
January 12, 2017: Global Public Health
Emily Mendenhall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Global Public Health
Victor Agadjanian, Sarah R Hayford
Provision of effective contraception to HIV-positive women of reproductive age is critical to effective management of HIV infection and prevention of both vertical and horizontal HIV transmission in developing countries. This exploratory retrospective study examines contraceptive use during the prolonged post-partum period in a sample of 285 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who gave birth at four rural maternity clinics in a high HIV-prevalence region in Mozambique. Multivariate analyses show no significant variations by HIV status in contraceptive timing (mean time to first contraceptive use of 7...
December 29, 2016: Global Public Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Global Public Health
Paul Mkandawire
Despite being at high risk of HIV/AIDS, most young people do not know their HIV status. Using survey data (n = 2428) and applying multilevel models, this paper assesses factors associated with HIV testing among adolescents in Northern Malawi. The results show that among both boys (OR = 0.39) and girls (OR = 0.47), orphan status is associated with low likelihood of HIV testing. Correct knowledge about HIV/AIDS (OR = 2.55) and having secondary education (OR = 3.24) are associated with HIV testing among boys and girls, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Global Public Health
Kelley Lee, Jappe Eckhardt
With 30% of the world's smokers, two million deaths annually from tobacco use, and rising levels of tobacco consumption, the Asian region is recognised as central to the future of global tobacco control. There is less understanding, however, of how Asian tobacco companies with regional and global aspirations are contributing to the global burden of tobacco-related disease and death. This introductory article sets out the background and rationale for this special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'...
November 25, 2016: Global Public Health
George L Wehby, Mariela Pawluk, Kwame A Nyarko, Jorge S López-Camelo
Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; <37 gestational weeks) rate between infants of Native only ancestry and those of European only ancestry in Argentina and Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador...
November 22, 2016: Global Public Health
Hazel V J Moir, Brigitte Tenni, Deborah Gleeson, Ruth Lopert
In the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement negotiations, the USA successfully pursued intellectual property (IP) provisions that will affect the affordability of medicines, including anti-retrovirals (ARV) for HIV. Vietnam has the lowest GDP per capita of the 12 TPP countries and in 2013 provided ARVs for only 68% of eligible people living with HIV. Using the current Vietnamese IP regime as our base case, we analysed the potential impact of a regime making full use of legal IP flexibilities, and one based on the IP provisions of the final, agreed TPP text...
November 14, 2016: Global Public Health
James C Thomas
At the turn of the century, several major efforts were initiated to combat HIV/AIDS and other major epidemics affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). They were accompanied by initiatives to enable recipient countries to collect and use data to guide their public health programmes. These health information systems (HIS) typify systems in that they have multiple interacting components, and they are embedded within larger systems. Components of a larger system act as the context for all lower-level systems...
November 14, 2016: Global Public Health
Tim F Liao, Cuntong Wang
The phenomenon of elderly patients staying in hospital emergency department observation units for extended time in urban China poses a challenge to China's healthcare system and presents a social problem of inequality. In this paper, we analyse statistics collected from 16 major public hospitals in Beijing to assess the extent and intensity of the problem and examine interviews of medical professionals to understand the mechanisms linking the issue to the Chinese healthcare system. We study the issue with the literature on market transition theory and on China's recent healthcare reforms and view this age-based inequality as an outcome of the economic and social transformations in China...
November 10, 2016: Global Public Health
Johanna T Crane, Theresa M Rossouw
In 2013, physician-researchers announced that a baby in Mississippi had been 'functionally cured' of HIV [Persaud, D., Gay, H., Ziemniak, C. F., Chen, Y. H., Piatak, M., Chun, T.-W., … Luzuriaga, K. (2013b, March). Functional HIV cure after very early ART of an infected infant. Paper presented at the 20th conference on retroviruses and opportunistic infections, Atlanta, GA]. Though the child later developed a detectable viral load, the case remains unprecedented, and trials to build on the findings are planned [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...
February 2017: Global Public Health
Gaëtan Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Global Public Health
Dilshad Kassam, Nicole S Berry, Jaffer Dharsee
Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are similar in low resource settings like Tanzania. Structural and sociocultural barriers make late presentation typical in such settings where treatment options for advanced stage disease are limited. In the absence of national programmes, stand-alone screening campaigns tend to employ clinical models of delivery focused on individual behaviour and through a disease specific lens. This paper describes a case study of a 2010 stand-alone campaign in Tanzania to argue that exclusively clinical approaches can undermine screening efforts by premising that women will act outside their social and cultural domain when responding to screening services...
February 2017: Global Public Health
Stephanie Pell
Palestinian women have one of the highest fertility rates in the world, averaging 4.38 births per woman. However, Palestinian fertility patterns are distinct from those of other developing nations, in that high fertility rates coexist alongside high levels of education and low levels of infant mortality - both of which have been established elsewhere as predictors of low total fertility rates. This study explores the dimensions and context of the contradictions between fertility predictors and rates, isolating main factors that shape Palestinian reproductive behaviour...
February 2017: Global Public Health
Monique M Hennink, Bonnie N Kaiser, Swathi Sekar, Emily P Griswold, Mohammed K Ali
We aimed to describe how qualitative methods are used in global research on diabetes and identify opportunities whereby qualitative methods could further benefit our understanding of the human experience of diabetes and interventions to address it. We conducted a systematic review of National Library of Medicine, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic databases to identify original research articles that used qualitative methods to study diabetes between 1980 and 2011. We identified 554 eligible articles and categorised these by geographic region, year of publication, study population, study design, research question, qualitative data collection methods, and journal type...
February 2017: Global Public Health
Divya Parmar, Tiziana Leone, Ernestina Coast, Susan Fairley Murray, Eleanor Hukin, Bellington Vwalika
Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of maternal mortality. Although induced abortion has been legal in Zambia since 1972, many women still face logistical, financial, social, and legal obstacles to access safe abortion services, and undergo unsafe abortion instead. This study provides the first estimates of costs of post abortion care (PAC) after an unsafe abortion and the cost of safe abortion in Zambia. In the absence of routinely collected data on abortions, we used multiple data sources: key informant interviews, medical records and hospital logbooks...
February 2017: Global Public Health
Ariel Albertie, Christine Bourey, Rob Stephenson, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo
Research from high-income countries suggests that prison populations are affected disproportionately by mental illness. However, little research has examined mental health among prisoners in low- and middle-income countries or associations between mental health and contextual factors surrounding the prison experience among susceptible first-time inmates in these settings. The current study examines associations between connectivity, prison environment and mental health (major depression and substance use) among novice male inmates (n = 593) in three Mexico City prisons...
February 2017: Global Public Health
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