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Global Public Health

Solomon Benatar, Terrence Sullivan, Adalsteinn Brown
Health and access to health care vary strikingly across the globe, and debates about this have been pervasive and controversial. Some comparative data in Canada and South Africa illustrate the complexity of achieving greater equity anywhere, even in a wealthy country like Canada. Potential bi-directional lessons relevant both to local and global public health are identified. Both countries should consider the implications of lost opportunity costs associated with lack of explicit resource allocation policies...
December 4, 2017: Global Public Health
Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala, Lorie Broomhall, John Fieno
Efforts are currently underway by major orchestrators and funders of the global AIDS response to realise the vision of achieving an end to AIDS by 2030. Unlike previous efforts to provide policy guidance or to encourage 'best practice' approaches for combatting AIDS, the end of AIDS project involves the promotion of a clear set of targets, tools, and interventions for a final biomedical solution to the epidemic. In this paper, we examine the bureaucratic procedures of one major AIDS funder that helped to foster a common vision and mission amongst a global AIDS community with widely divergent views on how best to address the epidemic...
December 4, 2017: Global Public Health
Clare Barrington, Anisha Gandhi, Adrienne Gill, Laura Villa Torres, Maria Priscila Brietzke, Lisa Hightow-Weidman
Latinos in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV and are more likely than non-Latinos to present with a late diagnosis, which delays engagement in HIV care and treatment. Social networks may provide normative influence and social support for HIV testing, but a contextualised understanding of networks is needed in order to maximise these social resources. We conducted qualitative interviews with foreign-born Latino men and transgender women (n = 17) in a new immigrant destination to explore their social networks...
December 3, 2017: Global Public Health
Kyung-Bok Son, Tae-Jin Lee
To examine patterns and trends in attempts, distinguished from issuance, to issue compulsory licensing of pharmaceuticals and to assess related implications in the era of high-cost medicines. Documents from various civil society organisations were primarily used to search attempts, as well as published literature. The identified attempts were analysed by pharmaceutical level, national level, claimers, and the outcomes of the attempts. There have been 108 attempts to issue compulsory licensing for 40 pharmaceuticals in 27 countries since 1995...
November 28, 2017: Global Public Health
Guanyang Zou, Xiaolin Wei
Two common public models of community health centres (CHCs) exist in China, i.e. the 'government-owned and government-managed' CHCs (G-CHCs) and the 'government-owned and hospital-managed' CHCs (H-CHCs). Shanghai and Shenzhen are two Chinese megacities that lead the primary care development on the G-CHC and H-CHC models, respectively. Using a qualitative case study design, this study compares the management of the G-CHC model in Shanghai and H-CHC model in Shenzhen, through perspectives of a range of health providers...
November 28, 2017: Global Public Health
Joanne Klevens, Katie A Ports, Chelsea Austin, Ivan J Ludlow, Jacqueline Hurd
Children around the world experience violence at the hands of their caregivers at alarming rates. A recent review estimates that a minimum of 50% of children in Asia, Africa, and North America experienced severe physical violence by caregivers in the past year, with large variations between countries. Identifying modifiable country-level factors driving these geographic variations has great potential for achieving population-level reductions in rates of child maltreatment. This study builds on previous research by focusing on caregiver-reported physical abuse and neglect victimisation, examining 22 societal factors representing 11 different constructs among 42 countries from 5 continents at different stages of development...
November 28, 2017: Global Public Health
Purnima Mane, Peter Aggleton
At a point in history when the future of sexual and reproductive health including HIV looks particularly uncertain, it is helpful to recognise that many of the challenges currently faced are neither new nor insurmountable. Reflecting on past achievements and lessons learned helps us to have confidence that positive change is feasible. This paper reflects on some of the changes observed in countries like India and Mozambique and identifies a range of factors which need to coalesce to enable these developments, along with specific contextual factors...
November 16, 2017: Global Public Health
Maria Lidola, Fabiano Tonaco Borges
For more than 50 years, Cuba has been one of the most important players in the field of international medical cooperation in the Global South. Between 2013 and 2016, Cuba maintained one of its largest cooperations with Brazil: nearly 11,400 Cuban physicians were sent to work within the framework of the Brazilian health programme 'More-Doctors-for-Brazil', which was implemented to improve Brazil's precarious public health sector. This paper inquires into the manifold challenges of horizontal connectivity in this medical South-South cooperation...
November 13, 2017: Global Public Health
Benjamin Mason Meier, Marlous De Milliano, Averi Chakrabarti, Yuna Kim
Employing novel coding methods to evaluate human rights monitoring, this article examines the influence of United Nations (UN) treaty bodies on national implementation of the human right to health. The advancement of the right to health in the UN human rights system has shifted over the past 20 years from the development of norms under international law to the implementation of those norms through national policy. Facilitating accountability for this rights-based policy implementation under the right to health, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) monitors state implementation by reviewing periodic reports from state parties, engaging in formal sessions of 'constructive dialogue' with state representatives, and issuing concluding observations for state response...
November 4, 2017: Global Public Health
Omar Dewachi, Anthony Rizk, Neil V Singh
The proliferation of conflicts across borders of Middle Eastern States has transformed the landscapes of health and healthcare across the region. In the case of Iraq, state healthcare has collapsed under the strain of protracted conflicts. Meanwhile, Lebanon's post-war healthcare system is booming, and becoming more privatised. In this paper, we build on an ethnographic study on the movements and experiences of Iraqi patients in Lebanon to show how one of the consequences of war is the rise of alternative forms of healthcare-seeking practices and survival strategies - a therapeutic geography that is embedded in regional economies and geopolitical relations and reconfigurations...
November 3, 2017: Global Public Health
Elize Massard da Fonseca
The global health community is increasingly advocating for the local production of pharmaceuticals in developing countries as a way to promote technology transfer, capacity building and improve access to medicines. However, efforts to advance drug manufacturing in these countries revive an old dilemma of fostering technological development versus granting access to social services, such as healthcare. This paper explores the case of Brazil, a country that has developed large-scale health-inspired industrial policies, but is, yet, little understood...
November 3, 2017: Global Public Health
Megan Cherewick, Nancy Glass
The aim of this qualitative study was to provide a context-specific understanding of adolescent (10-15 years of age) exposure and coping with trauma from the perspective of mothers/female caregivers and key informants in rural conflict-affected villages. Focus groups were conducted with mothers/female caregivers (4 groups with total participants n = 26) and interviews were conducted with key informants (n = 9) in four villages in the Walungu Territory, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Focus group and interview guides were designed to elicit responses by participants on adolescent exposures to trauma and coping strategies...
October 31, 2017: Global Public Health
Téa Collins, Bente Mikkelsen, Jennifer Adams, Oleg Chestnov, Tim Evans, Andrea Feigl, Rachel Nugent, Ariel Pablos-Mendez, Supattra Srivanichakorn, Douglas Webb
Despite the mounting evidence that they impede social and economic development, increase inequalities, and perpetuate poverty, Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) remain largely absent from the agendas of major development assistance initiatives. In addition, fundamental changes are developing in patterns of development assistance for health, and more of the burden for fighting NCDs is being placed on domestic budgets, thus increasing pressure on the most vulnerable countries. The paper argues, however, that a new day is coming...
October 28, 2017: Global Public Health
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: Global Public Health
William C Goedel, Kenneth H Mayer, Matthew J Mimiaga, Dustin T Duncan
Men who have sex with men (MSM) who use smartphone applications (apps) to meet sexual partners represent a high-risk subset of MSM. As such, the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be highly suitable. The purpose of the study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use PrEP among 179 HIV-uninfected MSM recruited in London who use these apps. Regression models were fit to assess the associations between perceived barriers and willingness to use PrEP in the future. Most (84.9%) had heard of PrEP and more than half (57...
October 23, 2017: Global Public Health
Elizabeth G Henry, Donald M Thea, Davidson H Hamer, William DeJong, Kebby Musokotwane, Kenneth Chibwe, Godfrey Biemba, Katherine Semrau
In 2012, Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL), a multi-level health systems initiative, launched in Kalomo District, Zambia, to address persistent challenges in reducing maternal mortality. We assessed the impact of the programme from 2012 to 2013 using a quasi-experimental study with both household- and health facility-level data collected before and after implementation in both intervention and comparison areas. A total of 21,680 women and 75 non-hospital health centres were included in the study. Using the difference-in-differences method, multivariate logistic regression, and run charts, rates of facility-based birth (FBB) and delivery with a skilled birth provider were compared between intervention and comparison sites...
October 10, 2017: Global Public Health
Prince Justin Anku, Joshua Amo-Adjei, David Teye Doku, Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme
Scaling up of integrated tuberculosis (TB)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services remains sub-optimal in many resource-limited countries, including Ghana, where the two conditions take a heavy toll on the financial resources of health systems as well as infected persons. Previous studies have documented several implementation challenges towards TB-HIV service integration, but views of patients on integrated service delivery have not received commensurate research attention. This paper explored the experiences of 40 TB-HIV co-infected patients at different stages of treatment in Ghana...
October 6, 2017: Global Public Health
Ebenezer Durojaye
In September 2015, the United Nations adopted the sustainable development goals (SDGs) to address among others poverty and inequality within and among countries of the world. In particular, the SDGs aim at ameliorating the position of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in societies. One of the over-arching goals of the SDGs is to ensure that no one is left behind in the realisation of their access to health care. African governments are obligated under international and regional human rights law to ensure access to healthcare services for everyone, including indigenous populations, on a non-discriminatory basis...
September 20, 2017: Global Public Health
Kylea Laina Liese, Angela B Maeder
The greatest variation in maternal mortality is among poor countries and wealthy countries that rely on emergency obstetric technology to save a woman's life during childbirth. However, substantial variation in maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) exists within and among poor countries with uneven access to advanced obstetric services. This article examines MMRs across the Muslim world and compares the impact of national wealth, female education, and skilled birth attendants on maternal mortality. Understanding how poor countries have lowered MMRs without access to expensive obstetric technologies suggests that certain social variables may act protectively to reduce the maternal risk for life-threatening obstetric complications that would require emergency obstetric care...
September 20, 2017: Global Public Health
Angela Kelly-Hanku, Peter Aggleton, Patti Shih
Medical pluralism offers a long-standing means of analysing the different ways in which health and illness can be interpreted and responded to. It is not unusual for multiple health systems and meanings to co-exist at any one moment in time, offering different ways of understanding and responding to illness and disease. In addition to biomedical frameworks, religious beliefs offer another important means of facilitating healing. Based on qualitative interviews with 36 people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapies (ART) in Papua New Guinea (PNG), this paper examines the ways in which people bring together and synthesise religious and biomedical therapeutic approaches to the treatment and management of HIV...
September 16, 2017: Global Public Health
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