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Global Public Health

Elis Borde, Mario Hernández
In an effort to provide an overview of the conceptual debates shaping the mobilisation around social determinants of health and health inequities and challenge the apparent consensus for equity in health, this essay compares two of the most influential approaches in the field: the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health approach (CSDH), strongly influenced by European Social Medicine, and the Latin American Social Medicine and Collective Health (LASM-CH) 'Social determination of the health-disease process' approach, hitherto largely invisibilized...
November 30, 2018: Global Public Health
Seth C Kalichman, Catherine Mathews, Ellen Banas, Moira O Kalichman
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has transformed HIV infection from a universally fatal disease to a medically manageable chronic illness. We conducted a Phase-I test of concept intervention trial to examine feasibility and potential efficacy of behavioural self-regulation counselling designed to improve care retention and cART adherence. The intervention was culturally adapted from client-centered evidence-based interventions that are grounded in behavioural self-regulation theory and available in the US...
November 30, 2018: Global Public Health
Maria Alejandra Rubio, Rodolfo Dennis, Maria Teresa Dominguez, Roberto Suarez, Maria Fernanda Olarte-Sierra, Daniela Palacio, Miguel Ronderos
Qualitative research of brigades and the family experience of congenital heart disease is of current interest and has been previously neglected. This study aimed to explore the social factors conditioning outcomes of paediatric cardiology care in the setting of Colombian medical brigades and to identify feasible strategies to improve the experience of the beneficiary populations. Participants were selected using purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of logistic and health care teams, caregivers and custodians of beneficiary children of the Programme...
November 23, 2018: Global Public Health
Daniel H de Vries, Ellen Eiling, Natassia Brenman, Mark Vermeulen
Because HIV and AIDS key populations share common social-cultural factors challenging their sexual health and rights (e.g. stigma, criminalisation), there is an assumed benefit of collaborative programmes where various key populations work in solidarity. In this paper, we reflect on how partners collaborated in a complex alliance of over 100 different NGOs, representing and supporting three key populations - lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, sex workers and people who use drugs - working across 16 countries...
November 22, 2018: Global Public Health
Simone Monteiro, Mauro Brigeiro, Claudia Mora, Wilza Vilella, Richard Parker
Global AIDS policy points to a new prevention rationale centred on the identification and treatment of people infected with HIV, particularly among the so-called key populations. This study analyses the continuities and changes in HIV testing strategies based on a meta-narrative review of academic output (2005-2015) focusing on men who have sex with men. We reviewed 65 articles based on their prevention approaches, testing strategies and the involvement of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and community-based organisations...
November 15, 2018: Global Public Health
Robert Peckham, Ria Sinha
In recent years, research on the military deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, has proliferated. However, to date there has been little systematic study of how drones are being used for health surveillance and management, particularly in resource-constrained settings. In this paper, we draw on a number of case studies to explore how the biomedical drone is contributing to a re-spatialization of health and to a process of datafication that is set to fundamentally change the nature and scope of health governance...
November 15, 2018: Global Public Health
Alissa Koski, Jody Heymann
Campaigns to end female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) have been ongoing for decades. Many countries have adopted legislation that criminalises the practice and programmatic interventions aim to reduce support for it by presenting it as a violation of human rights and by highlighting associated health risks. We used Demographic and Health Survey data from 19 countries to measure national-level trends in the prevalence of FGM/C, reported support for the continuation of the practice, and the belief that it is a religious requirement among men and women...
November 13, 2018: Global Public Health
Adriana Gisela Martinez-Parra, César Ernesto Abadía-Barrero, Chiharu Murata, Ignacio Méndez Ramírez, Ignacio Méndez Gómez-Humaran
Social Determination of Health (SDH)/Collective Health is a Latin American framework that sees the Marxist core concept of social class as fundamental for understanding health inequalities. In contrast to social stratification approaches, Marxist proposals seek to understand health as part of the historical transformations of capitalism's mode of production. In this article we aim to analyze the relationship between social class and health inequalities using data from the IV Oral Health National Study in Colombia...
November 8, 2018: Global Public Health
Rachel Yantzi, Gabriel van de Walle, Janet Lin
To identify factors precipitating antibiotic misuse and discuss how to promote safe antibiotics use and curb antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic misuse is a significant problem globally, leading to increased antibiotic resistance. Many socio-cultural factors facilitate antibiotic misuse: patient and provider beliefs about antibiotics, inadequate regulation, poor health literacy, inadequate healthcare provider training, and sub-optimal diagnostic capability. This study investigates the influence of such factors on antibiotic use and community health in rural Uganda...
November 8, 2018: Global Public Health
Ingrid van der Heijden, Jane Harries, Naeemah Abrahams
Globally, women with disabilities experience heightened and unique forms of violence compared to men with disabilities and women without disabilities. Yet formalised guidelines for their inclusion in gender-based violence (GBV) research is lacking. This paper draws on ethical guidelines for researching violence against women, and studies on the ethicality of including people with disabilities in research, to advocate for women with disabilities' inclusion and safety in GBV research. Reflecting on lessons from a qualitative study on violence against women living with disabilities in South Africa, the paper considers what could be of value for GBV researchers and ethics review committees in low-middle income countries (LMICs)...
November 4, 2018: Global Public Health
James O'Donovan, Andrew Thompson, Chinelo Onyilofor, Taylor Hand, Natalie Rosseau, Edward O'Neil
With the need to design and evaluate Community Health Worker (CHW) programmes from a more human-centred perspective, researchers and programme managers are exploring the role of participatory visual methodologies (PVMs). This review identifies, maps, and assesses the quality of current literature that describes the use of PVMs with CHWs. It includes material from the grey literature and 10 major databases between 1978-2018. A Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Qualitative checklist was used to assess the overall quality of the included studies...
October 23, 2018: Global Public Health
Elizabeth J King, Irina Evdokimova, Julia Godunova
There is a dearth of information about the factors influencing postpartum engagement in HIV treatment and care in Russia, a country with an expanding HIV epidemic and poor treatment coverage. The goal of our community-based study was to identify and explore the factors influencing engagement in care after pregnancy. We conducted in-depth interviews with 50 women living with HIV who had recently given birth, and with 20 health care and social service providers in two locations: a large metropolitan city (St...
October 22, 2018: Global Public Health
Jacob Hill, Coleman Mills, Quefeng Li, Jennifer S Smith
The use of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) for cancer may influence the delivery or effectiveness of conventional cancer treatment. In this systematic review, we aimed to (1) summarise the available prevalence data on traditional medicine use by cancer patients in less developed countries (LDCs), and (2) stratify the prevalence data by world region and country income level. A literature search for cancer, TCAM, and low income (LI) and lower-middle income (LMI) countries was conducted across 5 databases...
October 16, 2018: Global Public Health
A Desclaux, M S Malan, M Egrot, K Sow, F Akindès
During an Ebola outbreak, the WHO recommends that health professionals consider people as suspect cases (SCs) when they show key signs such as the sudden onset of high fever or specific symptoms after having had contact with a suspect or confirmed Ebola case. SCs should then get care, be isolated and be reported to health authorities until the Ebola virus disease is confirmed through a lab test. This exploratory study aims to understand this identification process in the field based on a qualitative analysis of the diagnosis and therapeutic itineraries of 19 SCs in Cote d'Ivoire and Senegal (2014-2015)...
October 13, 2018: Global Public Health
Samantha Winter, Robert Dreibelbis, Francis Barchi
For decades, countries throughout the world have failed to meet sanitation-related development goals. Access to safe sanitation is undeniably linked to improved health outcomes; yet, 2.4 billion people, globally, still lack access. The persistent failure to meet sanitation goals suggests that our understanding of the factors that influence sustainable sanitation access and utilisation is incomplete. Despite growing availability of toilets in informal settlements, there is evidence that women, in particular, may adopt other strategies for managing their sanitation needs...
October 12, 2018: Global Public Health
Finn Diderichsen, Lia Giraldo da Silva Augusto, Bernadete Perez
The health consequences of arbovirus infections such as dengue fever (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) has in recent years become a public health challenge, due to failure of prevention followed by increased incidence and pronounced social inequality in occurrence and consequences. This motivates a more systematic analysis of the potential mechanisms and pathways that generate these inequalities. We present in the paper a model that delineates five possible mechanisms driving the inequality of ZIKV and congenital Zika syndrome (CZS)...
October 9, 2018: Global Public Health
John Mark Wiginton, Elizabeth J King, A Oveta Fuller
Faith-based organisations (FBOs) have long been part of the fight against HIV and AIDS. International bodies continue to collaborate with FBOs to implement HIV-prevention programmes with mixed success. Zambia has been a target of such programmes in part due to its high HIV prevalence. The Trusted Messenger approach to provide religious leader networks with biomedical, science-focused education about HIV and AIDS was piloted in 2006, but participant experiences of the intervention have not been explored qualitatively...
September 21, 2018: Global Public Health
Wilfred Masebo
The majority of international migrants from Malawi to South Africa are undocumented, and some of them are on ART. This study explored how these migrants manage to access ART. Qualitative data were collected using open-ended questions in semi-structured interviews. 23 returned undocumented Malawian migrants from South Africa participated in the study. Also, key informant discussions were held with three health workers. Data collection took place in April and May 2015 at a rural village of Namwera in Mangochi district in southern Malawi...
September 20, 2018: Global Public Health
Shalean M Collins, Patrick Mbullo Owuor, Joshua D Miller, Godfred O Boateng, Pauline Wekesa, Maricianah Onono, Sera L Young
There is rapidly evolving literature on water insecurity in the general adult population, but the role of water insecurity during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and postpartum, or in the context of HIV, has been largely overlooked. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study, using Go Along interviews, photo-elicitation interviews, and pile sorts with 40 pregnant and postpartum Kenyan women living in an area of high HIV prevalence. We sought to (1) describe their lived experiences of water acquisition, prioritisation, and use and (2) explore the consequences of water insecurity...
September 20, 2018: Global Public Health
Alexander Wamboldt, Shamus R Khan, Claude Ann Mellins, Jennifer S Hirsch
Sexual assault is a part of many students' experiences in higher education. In U.S. universities, one in four women and one in ten men report being sexually assaulted before graduation. Bystander training programmes have been shown to modestly reduce campus sexual assault. Like all public health interventions, however, they have unintended social consequences; this research examines how undergraduate men on one campus understand bystander interventions and how those understandings shape their actual practices...
January 2019: Global Public Health
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