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Global Public Health

W Holmes, R Shajehan, S Kitnasamy, C Abeywickrama, Y Arsath, F Gnanaraj, S Inbaraj, G Jayakody, K Durrant, S Luchters
: The growing burden of vision impairment (VI) among older people is a development challenge in Asian countries. This study aimed to understand older people's views and experiences about the impact of VI and barriers to eye care to inform policies to address this challenge. We conducted 12 focus group discussions in 2013 with retired Tamil and Sinhala elders in Nuwara Eliya district, Sri Lanka (n = 107). Data were analysed thematically. Older people described the broad impacts VI has on their lives...
October 19, 2016: Global Public Health
Michael A Stevenson
Vaccines were once produced almost exclusively by state-supported entities. While they remain essential tools for public health protection, the majority of the world's governments have allowed industry to assume responsibility for this function. This is significant because while the international harmonisation of quality assurance standards have effectively increased vaccine safety, they have also reduced the number of developing country vaccine producers, and Northern multinational pharmaceutical companies have shown little interest in offering the range of low-priced products needed in low and middle-income-country contexts...
October 19, 2016: Global Public Health
Yongfang Xu, Xinqin Lin, Shiyi Chen, Yanfen Liu, Hongjie Liu
Although the HIV epidemic continues to spread among older adults over 50 years old in China, little empirical research has investigated the interrelationships among ageism, adaptability, family support, and quality of life among older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). In this cross-sectional study, among 197 older PLWHAs over 50 years old, path analytic modelling was used to assess the interrelationships among ageism, resilience, coping, family support, and quality of life. Compared with female PLWHAs, male PLWHAs had a higher level of resilience and coping...
October 19, 2016: Global Public Health
Fiona Mactaggart, Liane McDermott, Anna Tynan, Maxine Whittaker
Health and well-being outcomes in communities living in proximity to mining activity may be influenced by a broad spectrum of factors including population growth, economic instability or land degradation. This review aims to synthesise broader outcomes associated with mining activity and in doing so, further explore possible determinants in communities of low- and middle-income countries. Four databases were systematically searched and articles were included if the study targeted adults residing in proximity to mining activity, and measured individual or community-level health or well-being outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Global Public Health
Chinelo C Okigbo, Korede K Adegoke, Comfort Z Olorunsaiye
There is an urgent need to improve reproductive health (RH) in Nigeria - the most populous country in Africa. In 2015, Nigeria had the highest number of maternal deaths in the world. This study assessed the trends in select RH indicators in Nigeria over two decades. Data used were from Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) conducted between 1990 and 2013. The NDHS uses a two-stage cluster sampling design to select nationally representative samples of reproductive-age women. The study sample ranged from 7620 to 38,948 women aged 15-49 across the five surveys...
October 16, 2016: Global Public Health
Jessica Taaffe, David Wilson
Hepatitis caused by hepatitis B and C virus is increasingly becoming a significant global health threat, with widespread prevalence that may have severe disease and economic impacts in the future. Yet, preventative measures are not implemented universally and high costs of medicines limits treatment efforts. The global response to HIV/AIDS faced similar issues, but overcame them through a global movement that brought attention to the crisis and ultimately resulted in the creation and implementation of and access to better tools for HIV prevention and treatment...
October 16, 2016: Global Public Health
Ietza Bojorquez, Irais Salazar, Richard S Garfein, Paris Cerecer, Timothy C Rodwell
Directly observed therapy (DOT) is a cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control. DOT has been criticised as paternalistic, but it has also been argued that the interaction with healthcare workers (HWs) can be a source of support for patients. We explored the experience of patients in antituberculosis treatment, with the aim of understanding the balance between surveillance and support from the recipient's point of view. We interviewed 27 patients in Tijuana, Mexico, employing narrative analysis to understand how participants made sense of their illness and their experience of DOT...
October 16, 2016: Global Public Health
Jennifer Fang, Kelley Lee, Nidhi Sejpal
The China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC), which produces one-third of the world's cigarettes, is the largest tobacco company in the world. Over the past 60 years, the CNTC has been focused on supplying a huge domestic market. As the market has become increasingly saturated, and potential foreign competition looms, the company has turned to expansion abroad. This paper examines the ambitions and prospects of the CNTC to 'go global'. Using Chinese and English language sources, this paper describes the globalisation ambitions of the CNTC, and its global business strategy focused on internal restructuring, brand development and expansion of overseas operations in selected markets...
October 13, 2016: Global Public Health
Isabell Schierenbeck, Peter Johansson, Lena M Andersson, Gunilla Krantz, Joseph Ntaganira
Traditional medicine (TM) and biomedicine represent parallel health systems in many developing countries; the latter dominating in public policies, while the former still retain considerable influence among the general public. This study investigates how mental health care professionals responsible for mental health care implementation comprehend and relate to the intersection between TM and biomedicine in the cases of Rwanda and the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The material is based on semi-structured interviews with mental health care stakeholders in Eastern Cape, South Africa and Rwanda...
October 7, 2016: Global Public Health
Imelda K Moise, Ezekiel Kalipeni, Poonam Jusrut, Juliet I Iwelunmor
One of the key objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was to improve the lives of infants and children, particularly the reduction of high infant and childhood mortality rates throughout the developing world. This paper examines the experiences of Malawi in tackling the problem of high infant and childhood mortality over recent decades, 1990-2010. We highlight the strategies that were used in Malawi which led to Malawi's stellar performance in achieving the targets set by the MDGs with reference to infant and childhood mortality...
October 4, 2016: Global Public Health
Laurie James-Hawkins, Courtney Peters, Kristin VanderEnde, Lauren Bardin, Kathryn M Yount
Research shows a positive relationship between women's empowerment and reproductive health. Yet we know little about the quantitative relationship between women's agency and contraceptive use. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature assessing the link between women's decision-making and freedom of movement with their contraceptive use in lower- and middle-income countries. Of 102 articles that met the initial screening criteria, 12 met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 12 included studies, consistently positive associations with contraceptive use were found in those that measured decision-making and freedom of movement as separate constructs...
October 1, 2016: Global Public Health
Nanzen Caroline Kaphagawani, Ezekiel Kalipeni
This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district...
September 30, 2016: Global Public Health
Laura Florence Harris, Jodi Halpern, Ndola Prata, Wendy Chavkin, Caitlin Gerdts
Conscientious objection to abortion - a clinician's refusal to perform abortions because of moral or religious beliefs - is a limited right, intended to protect clinicians' convictions while maintaining abortion access. This paper argues that conscientious objection policies and debates around the world generally do not take into account the social, political, and economic pressures that profoundly influence clinicians who must decide whether to claim objector status. Lack of clarity about abortion policies, high workload, low pay, and stigma towards abortion providers can discourage abortion provision...
September 12, 2016: Global Public Health
Merrill Singer
It is estimated that over a million people die each year from infectious diseases of zoonotic origin and hundreds of millions suffer from these pervasive threats to human well-being. In light of the emergent global concern over the Zika virus, evidence that it has not one but two competent mosquito vector species in the Aedes family, and that both can be co-infected with other pathogens including dengue and chikungunya, this paper examines research suggesting the prospect of significant twenty-first-century outbreaks of arbovirus syndemics...
September 2, 2016: Global Public Health
Elizabeth J Pfeiffer, Harrison M K Maithya
Since access to HIV testing, counselling, and drug therapy has improved so dramatically, scholars have investigated ways this 'scale-up' has interacted with HIV/AIDS-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on data collected during ethnographic research in a trading centre in western Kenya, this paper critically analyses two violent and localised case studies of panic over the ill health of particular community residents as a nuanced lens through which to explore the dynamic interplay of gender politics and processes of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in the aftershocks of the AIDS crisis...
September 2, 2016: Global Public Health
Y A Sofolahan-Oladeinde, J I Iwelunmor, D F Conserve, A Gbadegesin, C O Airhihenbuwa
Healthcare experiences among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA), determine their utilisation of sexual and reproductive health services, which ultimately influences their decisions on childbearing. This study aimed to understand the importance of healthcare support in the childbearing decision-making processes of WLHA, and its impact on eliminating new paediatric HIV infections. We conducted in-depth interviews between July and August 2012 with 15 WLHA receiving clinical HIV care at a teaching hospital in Lagos...
August 31, 2016: Global Public Health
Umedjon Ibragimov, Frank Y Wong
Gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Tajikistan are an extremely stigmatised group at high risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. However, there is a paucity of research on how and in what way stigma affects their lives. We conducted a qualitative study to examine the impact of stigma on GBM's lives in Tajikistan, focusing on stigma enactors, settings, factors affecting vulnerability of GBM and health consequences. Eight individual in-depth interviews and 3 focus-group discussions with 13 participants (N   =   21) from GBM community were conducted in two cities of Tajikistan...
August 29, 2016: Global Public Health
Susan Caplan, Tariana V Little, Patricia Reyna, Angelina Sosa Lovera, Jasmine Garces-King, Kaila Queen, Ritu Nahar
This study examines mental health services in five different regions of the Dominican Republic (DR) from the perspectives of health care providers. The purpose of this research was to (1) examine existing mental health care services; (2) identify barriers to treatment and mental health services delivery; and (3) explore potential strategies to improve mental health services delivery. Thirty-seven health care workers including physicians, nurses, psychologists, governmental administrators, and non-governmental community health workers were part of five focus groups and subsequent follow-up interviews...
August 29, 2016: Global Public Health
Elysée Nouvet, Elizabeth Chan, Lisa J Schwartz
In this paper, we present findings from a qualitative study that gathered Nicaraguans' perceptions of short-term foreign medical missions, towards deepening the understanding of what Nicaraguans value or find limited in the work of such foreign missions operating in their country. Fifty-two interviews were conducted with patients, relatives of patients, Nicaraguan physicians and nurses who partnered with or observed missions at work, 'beneficiary' community leaders, and individuals who were unable or unwilling to access mission-provided healthcare...
August 20, 2016: Global Public Health
Bettye A Apenteng, Samuel T Opoku, Daniel Ansong, Emmanuel A Akowuah, Evans Afriyie-Gyawu
The World Bank estimates that at least 25 countries in the Sub-Saharan region of Africa experience chronic power outages. However, the implications of power shortages are often discussed within the context of industrial and economic disruptions, with little attention given to the health impact. Using a nationally representative data of healthcare facilities from the 2012 Ghana Access, Bottlenecks, Cost and Equity (ABCE) Health Facility Survey, this study aims to assess the impact of power outages on in-healthcare facility mortality in Ghana, a country that has experienced worsening energy crises in the last few decades...
August 17, 2016: Global Public Health
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