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Global Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671373/developing-political-capabilities-with-community-based-monitoring-for-health-accountability-the-case-of-the-mahila-swasthya-adhikar-manch
#1
Giulietta Luul Balestra, Jashodhara Dasgupta, Yatirajula Kanaka Sandhya, Jenevieve Mannell
Community-Based Monitoring (CBM) is a participatory process in which citizens gather evidence on services to hold governments accountable to their commitments. Research on CBM for health in developing countries has mostly measured its impact on service performance. Overall, these studies have produced mixed evidence of CBM's effectiveness. This has led some authors to question the role of civic engagement, especially in communities where expectations from public services and power to demand for change are low...
April 19, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671365/queering-the-evidence-remaking-homosexuality-and-hiv-risk-to-end-aids-in-kenya
#2
Eileen Moyer, Emmy Igonya
Until recently, HIV in Africa was presumed to be driven by poverty, gender inequality and poor governance. The last decade has seen a shift in global and national public health discourses, especially in eastern Africa where new statistical evidence is used to justify prevention efforts to target Key Populations, i.e. men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users, and sex workers. In this article, we focus on Kenya to examine state, NGO and community HIV treatment and prevention efforts targeting MSM, specifically male sex workers...
April 19, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663859/factors-contributing-to-and-strategies-to-combat-emerging-arboviruses
#3
David Michael Callender
Less than half a century ago infectious diseases appeared to be destined to be extinguished via as a culmination of medical triumphs. As focus turned towards combating non-communicable diseases, emerging and re-emerging diseases (EIDs) have bloomed from those ashes. Five epidemic mosquito-borne arboviruses (Yellow Fever virus (YFV), Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus) have emerged in the recent past. Arboviruses are of the utmost importance with respect to EIDs due to intensive growth of globalisation, arthropod urban fitness/adaption, and environmental changes...
April 17, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621932/financial-security-and-public-health-how-basic-income-cash-transfers-can-promote-health
#4
Neiloy R Sircar, Eric A Friedman
Inadequate financial resources are a major driver for poor health. Financial insecurity contributes to health inequities in mutually reinforcing ways, with some effects lasting years. Fostering financial security to reduce the likelihood or magnitude of such pressures would have significant present and future health benefits. We review several models for bolstering financial security to determine which have the most significant health contributions based on current evidence and their theoretical potential. We hypothesise that basic income guarantees might have the greatest positive health impact for beneficiaries, though this is heavily contingent on programme design and how financing affects other social welfare programmes...
April 6, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616876/a-framework-for-medical-power-in-two-case-studies-of-health-policymaking-in-india-and-niger
#5
Sarah L Dalglish, Veena Sriram, Kerry Scott, Daniela C Rodríguez
Medical professionals influence health policymaking but the power they exercise is not well understood in low- and middle-income countries. We explore medical power in national health policymaking for child survival in Niger (late 1990s-2012) and emergency medicine specialisation in India (early 1990s-2015). Both case studies used document review, in-depth interviews and non-participant observation; combined analysis traced policy processes and established theoretical categories around power to build a conceptual framework of medical power in health policymaking...
April 4, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592787/theoretical-underpinnings-of-state-institutionalisation-of-inclusion-and-struggles-in-collective-health-in-latin-america
#6
Qamar Mahmood, Carles Muntaner
Community participation as a strategy in health aims to increase the role of citizens in health decision-making which are contextualised within the institutions of democracy. Electoral representation as the dominant model of democracy globally is based on the elite theory of democracy that sees political decision-making a prerogative of political elites. Such political elitism is counter to the idea of democratic participation. Neoliberalism together with elitism in political sphere have worsened social inequities by undermining working class interests...
March 28, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583079/stigma-related-access-barriers-and-violence-against-trans-women-in-the-colombian-healthcare-system
#7
Amy E Ritterbusch, Catalina Correa Salazar, Andrea Correa
Drawing from qualitative research conducted in a participatory action research framework with 28 transgender women in Colombia, this paper presents the stigma-related barriers to healthcare experienced by trans women and their experiences of multi-level violence within the healthcare system. The authors also discuss how advocacy work was conducted as part of the research process and how trans community leaders were involved throughout the project in order to promote policy-relevance and community-based implementation of findings...
March 27, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582707/decentralisation-of-brazil-s-hiv-aids-programme-intended-and-unintended-consequences
#8
Timothy Frasca, Yves-A Fauré, Laetitia Atlani-Duault
Brazil's response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic was characterised by an innovative alliance of governmental and non-governmental actors inspired by a strong progressive tradition in public health. Brazil eventually moved to decentralise HIV/AIDS programmes to its states and cities, a policy endorsed and supported financially by the World Bank as consistent with the mix of public and private elements central to the country's HIV/AIDS strategy. However, decentralisation has not provided the results anticipated. Through interviews with key informants, government officials and patient advocates as well as observation of treatment sites, we outline how the shift of administration and resources to state and municipal bodies operated in practice...
March 27, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557293/prioritising-sexuality-education-in-mississippi-and-nigeria-the-importance-of-local-actors-policy-windows-and-creative-strategy
#9
Rachel Sullivan Robinson, Michael Kunnuji, Yusra Ribhi Shawar, Jeremy Shiffman
Mississippi and Nigeria are two socially conservative places unlikely to prioritise sexuality education. Nonetheless, Mississippi passed a bill in 2011 mandating all school districts to offer sexuality education, and Nigeria approved a national sexuality education curriculum in 2001. To identify the factors that drove the process of prioritisation of sexuality education in each context, we conducted more than 70 semi-structured interviews with nongovernmental organisations/nonprofits, donor organisations and federal and state ministries involved in the prioritisation and implementation of sexuality education in Mississippi and Nigeria...
March 20, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557288/multidisciplinary-and-multisectoral-coalitions-as-catalysts-for-action-against-antimicrobial-resistance-implementation-experiences-at-national-and-regional-levels
#10
Mohan P Joshi, Chifumbe Chintu, Mirfin Mpundu, Dan Kibuule, Oliver Hazemba, Tenaw Andualem, Martha Embrey, Bayobuya Phulu, Heran Gerba
The multi-faceted complexities of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) require consistent action, a multidisciplinary approach, and long-term political commitment. Building coalitions can amplify stakeholder efforts to carry out effective AMR prevention and control strategies. We have developed and implemented an approach to help local stakeholders kick-start the coalition-building process. The five-step process is to (1) mobilise support, (2) understand the local situation, (3) develop an action plan, (4) implement the plan, and (5) monitor and evaluate...
March 20, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537338/behind-the-scenes-international-ngos-influence-on-reproductive-health-policy-in-malawi-and-south-sudan
#11
Katerini T Storeng, Jennifer Palmer, Judith Daire, Maren O Kloster
Global health donors increasingly embrace international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) as partners, often relying on them to conduct political advocacy in recipient countries, especially in controversial policy domains like reproductive health. Although INGOs are the primary recipients of donor funding, they are expected to work through national affiliates or counterparts to enable 'locally-led' change. Using prospective policy analysis and ethnographic evidence, this paper examines how donor-funded INGOs have influenced the restrictive policy environments for safe abortion and family planning in South Sudan and Malawi...
March 14, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536817/couple-perspectives-on-unintended-pregnancy-in-an-area-with-high-hiv-prevalence-a-qualitative-analysis-in-rakai-uganda
#12
Stephanie A Grilo, Marina Catallozzi, Craig J Heck, Sanyukta Mathur, Neema Nakyanjo, John S Santelli
Understanding how couples perceive a recent unintended pregnancy in the context of HIV infection and high levels of gender inequality may provide insights for prevention of undesired pregnancy. We used data from 24 in-depth interviews with 8 HIV-serodiscordant and 4 seroconcordant couples living in rural Uganda and interviewed separately; between 15 and 49 years and one or both identified the pregnancy as unintended. A dyadic analysis was performed to understand each partner's perspectives on experiences of a specific pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532735/-in-the-north-you-can-t-be-openly-gay-contextualising-sexual-practices-among-sexually-and-gender-diverse-persons-in-northern-canada
#13
Carmen H Logie, Candice L Lys, Nicole Schott, Lisa Dias, Makenzie R Zouboules, Kayley Mackay
Scant research has addressed health and well-being among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons in the Arctic. The Northwest Territories (NWT) has among Canada's highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). LGBTQ persons in NWT are at the nexus of LGBTQ and Arctic health disparities. Yet little is known of their sexual health needs. This qualitative study explored the sexual health needs of LGBTQ persons in the NWT. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 51 participants, including 16 LGBTQ youth aged 15-24, 21 LGBTQ adults aged 25 and above, and 14 key informants who worked with LGBTQ persons...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532733/has-development-assistance-for-health-facilitated-the-rise-of-more-peaceful-societies-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Vin Gupta, Alexandre Mason-Sharma, Zoe M Lyon, Endel John Orav, Ashish K Jha, Vanessa B Kerry
Growing evidence suggests that health aid can serve humanitarian and diplomatic ends. This study utilised the Fragile States Index (FSI) for the 47 nations of the World Health Organizations' Africa region for the years 2005-2014 and data on health and non-health development aid spending from the United States (US) for those same years. Absolute amounts of health and non-health aid flows from the US were used as predictors of state fragility. We used time-lagged, fixed-effects multivariable regression modelling with change in FSI as the outcome of interest...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532713/systematically-excluded-young-women-s-experiences-of-accessing-child-support-grants-in-south-africa
#15
Andrew Gibbs, Laura Washington, Nwabisa Jama Shai, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Samantha Willan
Unconditional cash transfers have risen in prominence for their potential to improve the health of the world's most marginalised and bring them into a relationship with the state. Typically, challenges to accessing grants are described in terms of technical issues such as access to documents and distance to offices. This paper explores the challenges of 30 young, poor, black South African women in accessing the Child Support Grant (CSG), an unconditional cash transfer provided by the South African government...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521160/a-multi-level-multi-jurisdictional-strategy-transnational-tobacco-companies-attempts-to-obstruct-tobacco-packaging-restrictions
#16
Benjamin Hawkins, Chris Holden, Sophie Mackinder
Despite the extensive literature on the tobacco industry, there has been little attempt to study how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) coordinate their political activities globally, or to theorise TTC strategies within the context of global governance structures and policy processes. This article draws on three concepts from political science - policy transfer, multi-level governance and venue shifting - to analyse TTCs' integrated, global strategies to oppose augmented packaging requirements across multiple jurisdictions...
March 9, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506439/ecologies-of-security-on-the-everyday-security-tactics-of-female-sex-workers-in-nairobi-kenya
#17
Robert Lorway, Lisa Lazarus, Claudyne Chevrier, Shamshad Khan, Helgar K Musyoki, John Mathenge, Peninah Mwangi, Pascal Macharia, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Shajy Isac, Joshua Kimani, Gloria Gaaki, Marissa Becker, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard
This paper highlights important environmental dimensions of HIV vulnerability by describing how the sex trade operates in Nairobi, Kenya. Although sex workers there encounter various forms of violence and harassment, as do sex workers globally, we highlight how they do not merely fall victim to a set of environmental risks but also act upon their social environment, thereby remaking it, as they strive to protect their health and financial interests. In so doing, we illustrate the mutual constitution of 'agency' and 'structure' in social network formations that take shape in everyday lived spaces...
March 5, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495917/re-situating-abortion-bio-politics-global-health-and-rights-in-neo-liberal-times
#18
Maya Unnithan, Silvia de Zordo
New modes of neoliberal and rights-based reproductive governance are emerging across the world which either paradoxically foreclose access to universal health services or promote legislative reform without providing a continuum of services on the ground. These shifts present new opportunities for the expansion but also the limitation of abortion provision conceptually and 'on-the-ground', both in the Global North and South. The collection of papers in this special issue examine current abortion governance discourse and practice in historical, socio-political contexts to analyse the threat posed to women's sexual and reproductive health and rights globally...
March 2, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493435/history-and-challenges-of-brazilian-social-movements-for-the-achievement-of-the-right-to-adequate-food
#19
Ana Carolina Feldenheimer da Silva, Elisabetta Recine, Paula Johns, Fabio da Silva Gomes, Mariana de Araújo Ferraz, Eduardo Faerstein
The historical struggles that Brazil faced to overcome malnutrition coincided with the empowerment of civil society and social movements which played a crucial role in the affirmation of health and food as social rights. After two decades under military dictatorship, Brazil went through a redemocratization process in the 1980s when activism emerged to demand spaces to participate in policy-making regarding the social agenda, including food and nutrition security (FNS). From 1988 onward institutional structures were established: the National Council of FNS (CONSEA) convenes government and civil society sectors to develop and monitor the implementation of policies, systems and actions...
March 1, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486631/social-medicine-feminism-and-the-politics-of-population-from-transnational-knowledge-networks-to-national-social-movements-in-brazil-and-mexico
#20
Rafael de la Dehesa
This article examines the role of national actors articulated with an explicitly counter-hegemonic transnational knowledge network (TKN) mobilising around social medicine in policy debates on population control and family planning. It focuses primarily on Brazil, using Mexico as a shadow case to highlight salient points of contrast. In doing so, it makes two contributions to larger debates about TKNs. First, it highlights the plural and contested nature of the knowledge production they enact, underscoring contestation around a global reproductive regime that consolidated around family planning...
February 28, 2018: Global Public Health
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