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Global Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892826/assessing-factors-associated-with-hiv-testing-among-adolescents-in-malawi
#1
Paul Mkandawire
Despite being at high risk of HIV/AIDS, most young people do not know their HIV status. Using survey data (n = 2428) and applying multilevel models, this paper assesses factors associated with HIV testing among adolescents in Northern Malawi. The results show that among both boys (OR = 0.39) and girls (OR = 0.47), orphan status is associated with low likelihood of HIV testing. Correct knowledge about HIV/AIDS (OR = 2.55) and having secondary education (OR = 3.24) are associated with HIV testing among boys and girls, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884083/the-globalisation-strategies-of-five-asian-tobacco-companies-an-analytical-framework
#2
Kelley Lee, Jappe Eckhardt
With 30% of the world's smokers, two million deaths annually from tobacco use, and rising levels of tobacco consumption, the Asian region is recognised as central to the future of global tobacco control. There is less understanding, however, of how Asian tobacco companies with regional and global aspirations are contributing to the global burden of tobacco-related disease and death. This introductory article sets out the background and rationale for this special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance' the globalisation of the Asian tobacco industry...
November 25, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875924/explaining-ethnic-disparities-in-preterm-birth-in-argentina-and-ecuador
#3
George L Wehby, Mariela Pawluk, Kwame A Nyarko, Jorge S López-Camelo
Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; <37 gestational weeks) rate between infants of Native only ancestry and those of European only ancestry in Argentina and Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador...
November 22, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841097/the-trans-pacific-partnership-agreement-and-access-to-hiv-treatment-in-vietnam
#4
Hazel V J Moir, Brigitte Tenni, Deborah Gleeson, Ruth Lopert
In the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement negotiations, the USA successfully pursued intellectual property (IP) provisions that will affect the affordability of medicines, including anti-retrovirals (ARV) for HIV. Vietnam has the lowest GDP per capita of the 12 TPP countries and in 2013 provided ARVs for only 68% of eligible people living with HIV. Using the current Vietnamese IP regime as our base case, we analysed the potential impact of a regime making full use of legal IP flexibilities, and one based on the IP provisions of the final, agreed TPP text...
November 14, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841079/contextual-factors-affecting-health-information-system-strengthening
#5
James C Thomas
At the turn of the century, several major efforts were initiated to combat HIV/AIDS and other major epidemics affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). They were accompanied by initiatives to enable recipient countries to collect and use data to guide their public health programmes. These health information systems (HIS) typify systems in that they have multiple interacting components, and they are embedded within larger systems. Components of a larger system act as the context for all lower-level systems...
November 14, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830996/permanent-emergency-inequality-in-access-to-hospitalisation-among-urban-elderly-chinese
#6
Tim F Liao, Cuntong Wang
The phenomenon of elderly patients staying in hospital emergency department observation units for extended time in urban China poses a challenge to China's healthcare system and presents a social problem of inequality. In this paper, we analyse statistics collected from 16 major public hospitals in Beijing to assess the extent and intensity of the problem and examine interviews of medical professionals to understand the mechanisms linking the issue to the Chinese healthcare system. We study the issue with the literature on market transition theory and on China's recent healthcare reforms and view this age-based inequality as an outcome of the economic and social transformations in China...
November 10, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760492/impact-of-vision-impairment-and-self-reported-barriers-to-vision-care-the-views-of-elders-in-nuwara-eliya-district-sri-lanka
#7
W Holmes, R Shajehan, S Kitnasamy, C Abeywickrama, Y Arsath, F Gnanaraj, S Inbaraj, G Jayakody, K Durrant, S Luchters
: The growing burden of vision impairment (VI) among older people is a development challenge in Asian countries. This study aimed to understand older people's views and experiences about the impact of VI and barriers to eye care to inform policies to address this challenge. We conducted 12 focus group discussions in 2013 with retired Tamil and Sinhala elders in Nuwara Eliya district, Sri Lanka (n = 107). Data were analysed thematically. Older people described the broad impacts VI has on their lives...
October 19, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760489/geneva-seattle-collaboration-in-support-of-developing-country-vaccine-manufacturing
#8
Michael A Stevenson
Vaccines were once produced almost exclusively by state-supported entities. While they remain essential tools for public health protection, the majority of the world's governments have allowed industry to assume responsibility for this function. This is significant because while the international harmonisation of quality assurance standards have effectively increased vaccine safety, they have also reduced the number of developing country vaccine producers, and Northern multinational pharmaceutical companies have shown little interest in offering the range of low-priced products needed in low and middle-income-country contexts...
October 19, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756194/ageism-resilience-coping-family-support-and-quality-of-life-among-older-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-nanning-china
#9
Yongfang Xu, Xinqin Lin, Shiyi Chen, Yanfen Liu, Hongjie Liu
Although the HIV epidemic continues to spread among older adults over 50 years old in China, little empirical research has investigated the interrelationships among ageism, adaptability, family support, and quality of life among older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). In this cross-sectional study, among 197 older PLWHAs over 50 years old, path analytic modelling was used to assess the interrelationships among ageism, resilience, coping, family support, and quality of life. Compared with female PLWHAs, male PLWHAs had a higher level of resilience and coping...
October 19, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748647/exploring-the-broader-health-and-well-being-outcomes-of-mining-communities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#10
Fiona Mactaggart, Liane McDermott, Anna Tynan, Maxine Whittaker
Health and well-being outcomes in communities living in proximity to mining activity may be influenced by a broad spectrum of factors including population growth, economic instability or land degradation. This review aims to synthesise broader outcomes associated with mining activity and in doing so, further explore possible determinants in communities of low- and middle-income countries. Four databases were systematically searched and articles were included if the study targeted adults residing in proximity to mining activity, and measured individual or community-level health or well-being outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748161/trends-in-reproductive-health-indicators-in-nigeria-using-demographic-and-health-surveys-1990-2013
#11
Chinelo C Okigbo, Korede K Adegoke, Comfort Z Olorunsaiye
There is an urgent need to improve reproductive health (RH) in Nigeria - the most populous country in Africa. In 2015, Nigeria had the highest number of maternal deaths in the world. This study assessed the trends in select RH indicators in Nigeria over two decades. Data used were from Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) conducted between 1990 and 2013. The NDHS uses a two-stage cluster sampling design to select nationally representative samples of reproductive-age women. The study sample ranged from 7620 to 38,948 women aged 15-49 across the five surveys...
October 16, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748158/mobilising-a-global-response-to-hepatitis-lessons-learned-from-the-hiv-movement
#12
Jessica Taaffe, David Wilson
Hepatitis caused by hepatitis B and C virus is increasingly becoming a significant global health threat, with widespread prevalence that may have severe disease and economic impacts in the future. Yet, preventative measures are not implemented universally and high costs of medicines limits treatment efforts. The global response to HIV/AIDS faced similar issues, but overcame them through a global movement that brought attention to the crisis and ultimately resulted in the creation and implementation of and access to better tools for HIV prevention and treatment...
October 16, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748157/surveillance-or-support-the-experience-of-direct-observation-during-tuberculosis-treatment
#13
Ietza Bojorquez, Irais Salazar, Richard S Garfein, Paris Cerecer, Timothy C Rodwell
Directly observed therapy (DOT) is a cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control. DOT has been criticised as paternalistic, but it has also been argued that the interaction with healthcare workers (HWs) can be a source of support for patients. We explored the experience of patients in antituberculosis treatment, with the aim of understanding the balance between surveillance and support from the recipient's point of view. We interviewed 27 patients in Tijuana, Mexico, employing narrative analysis to understand how participants made sense of their illness and their experience of DOT...
October 16, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737622/the-china-national-tobacco-corporation-from-domestic-to-global-dragon
#14
Jennifer Fang, Kelley Lee, Nidhi Sejpal
The China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC), which produces one-third of the world's cigarettes, is the largest tobacco company in the world. Over the past 60 years, the CNTC has been focused on supplying a huge domestic market. As the market has become increasingly saturated, and potential foreign competition looms, the company has turned to expansion abroad. This paper examines the ambitions and prospects of the CNTC to 'go global'. Using Chinese and English language sources, this paper describes the globalisation ambitions of the CNTC, and its global business strategy focused on internal restructuring, brand development and expansion of overseas operations in selected markets...
October 13, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712466/collaboration-or-renunciation-the-role-of-traditional-medicine-in-mental-health-care-in-rwanda-and-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#15
Isabell Schierenbeck, Peter Johansson, Lena M Andersson, Gunilla Krantz, Joseph Ntaganira
Traditional medicine (TM) and biomedicine represent parallel health systems in many developing countries; the latter dominating in public policies, while the former still retain considerable influence among the general public. This study investigates how mental health care professionals responsible for mental health care implementation comprehend and relate to the intersection between TM and biomedicine in the cases of Rwanda and the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The material is based on semi-structured interviews with mental health care stakeholders in Eastern Cape, South Africa and Rwanda...
October 7, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696987/assessing-the-reduction-in-infant-mortality-rates-in-malawi-over-the-1990-2010-decades
#16
Imelda K Moise, Ezekiel Kalipeni, Poonam Jusrut, Juliet I Iwelunmor
One of the key objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was to improve the lives of infants and children, particularly the reduction of high infant and childhood mortality rates throughout the developing world. This paper examines the experiences of Malawi in tackling the problem of high infant and childhood mortality over recent decades, 1990-2010. We highlight the strategies that were used in Malawi which led to Malawi's stellar performance in achieving the targets set by the MDGs with reference to infant and childhood mortality...
October 4, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690750/women-s-agency-and-its-relationship-to-current-contraceptive-use-in-lower-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Laurie James-Hawkins, Courtney Peters, Kristin VanderEnde, Lauren Bardin, Kathryn M Yount
Research shows a positive relationship between women's empowerment and reproductive health. Yet we know little about the quantitative relationship between women's agency and contraceptive use. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature assessing the link between women's decision-making and freedom of movement with their contraceptive use in lower- and middle-income countries. Of 102 articles that met the initial screening criteria, 12 met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 12 included studies, consistently positive associations with contraceptive use were found in those that measured decision-making and freedom of movement as separate constructs...
October 1, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687242/sociocultural-factors-contributing-to-teenage-pregnancy-in-zomba-district-malawi
#18
Nanzen Caroline Kaphagawani, Ezekiel Kalipeni
This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district...
September 30, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618556/conscientious-objection-to-abortion-provision-why-context-matters
#19
Laura Florence Harris, Jodi Halpern, Ndola Prata, Wendy Chavkin, Caitlin Gerdts
Conscientious objection to abortion - a clinician's refusal to perform abortions because of moral or religious beliefs - is a limited right, intended to protect clinicians' convictions while maintaining abortion access. This paper argues that conscientious objection policies and debates around the world generally do not take into account the social, political, and economic pressures that profoundly influence clinicians who must decide whether to claim objector status. Lack of clarity about abortion policies, high workload, low pay, and stigma towards abortion providers can discourage abortion provision...
September 12, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878494/risk-behaviours-for-hiv-infection-among-travelling-mexican-migrants-the-mexico-us-border-as-a-contextual-risk-factor
#20
Xiao Zhang, Ana P Martinez-Donate, Norma-Jean E Simon, Melbourne F Hovell, Maria Gudelia Rangel, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Carol L Sipan
The Mexico-US border region is a transit point in the trajectory of Mexican migrants travelling to and from the USA and a final destination for domestic migrants from other regions in Mexico. This region also represents a high-risk environment that may increase risk for HIV among migrants and the communities they connect. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey, in Tijuana, Mexico, and compared Mexican migrants with a recent stay on the Mexico-US border region (Border, n = 553) with migrants arriving at the border from Mexican sending communities (Northbound, n = 1077)...
January 2017: Global Public Health
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