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Global Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994352/the-impact-of-a-multi-level-maternal-health-programme-on-facility-delivery-and-capacity-for-emergency-obstetric-care-in-zambia
#1
Elizabeth G Henry, Donald M Thea, Davidson H Hamer, William DeJong, Kebby Musokotwane, Kenneth Chibwe, Godfrey Biemba, Katherine Semrau
In 2012, Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL), a multi-level health systems initiative, launched in Kalomo District, Zambia, to address persistent challenges in reducing maternal mortality. We assessed the impact of the programme from 2012 to 2013 using a quasi-experimental study with both household- and health facility-level data collected before and after implementation in both intervention and comparison areas. A total of 21,680 women and 75 non-hospital health centres were included in the study. Using the difference-in-differences method, multivariate logistic regression, and run charts, rates of facility-based birth (FBB) and delivery with a skilled birth provider were compared between intervention and comparison sites...
October 10, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984493/integration-of-tuberculosis-and-hiv-services-exploring-the-perspectives-of-co-infected-patients-in-ghana
#2
Prince Justin Anku, Joshua Amo-Adjei, David Teye Doku, Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme
Scaling up of integrated tuberculosis (TB)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services remains sub-optimal in many resource-limited countries, including Ghana, where the two conditions take a heavy toll on the financial resources of health systems as well as infected persons. Previous studies have documented several implementation challenges towards TB-HIV service integration, but views of patients on integrated service delivery have not received commensurate research attention. This paper explored the experiences of 40 TB-HIV co-infected patients at different stages of treatment in Ghana...
October 6, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931349/human-rights-and-access-to-healthcare-services-for-indigenous-peoples-in-africa
#3
Ebenezer Durojaye
In September 2015, the United Nations adopted the sustainable development goals (SDGs) to address among others poverty and inequality within and among countries of the world. In particular, the SDGs aim at ameliorating the position of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in societies. One of the over-arching goals of the SDGs is to ensure that no one is left behind in the realisation of their access to health care. African governments are obligated under international and regional human rights law to ensure access to healthcare services for everyone, including indigenous populations, on a non-discriminatory basis...
September 20, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929879/safer-muslim-motherhood-social-conditions-and-maternal-mortality-in-the-muslim-world
#4
Kylea Laina Liese, Angela B Maeder
The greatest variation in maternal mortality is among poor countries and wealthy countries that rely on emergency obstetric technology to save a woman's life during childbirth. However, substantial variation in maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) exists within and among poor countries with uneven access to advanced obstetric services. This article examines MMRs across the Muslim world and compares the impact of national wealth, female education, and skilled birth attendants on maternal mortality. Understanding how poor countries have lowered MMRs without access to expensive obstetric technologies suggests that certain social variables may act protectively to reduce the maternal risk for life-threatening obstetric complications that would require emergency obstetric care...
September 20, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920558/i-shouldn-t-talk-of-medicine-only-biomedical-and-religious-frameworks-for-understanding-antiretroviral-therapies-their-invention-and-their-effects
#5
Angela Kelly-Hanku, Peter Aggleton, Patti Shih
Medical pluralism offers a long-standing means of analysing the different ways in which health and illness can be interpreted and responded to. It is not unusual for multiple health systems and meanings to co-exist at any one moment in time, offering different ways of understanding and responding to illness and disease. In addition to biomedical frameworks, religious beliefs offer another important means of facilitating healing. Based on qualitative interviews with 36 people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapies (ART) in Papua New Guinea (PNG), this paper examines the ways in which people bring together and synthesise religious and biomedical therapeutic approaches to the treatment and management of HIV...
September 16, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920518/the-indirect-costs-of-underfunding-foreign-partners-in-global-health-research-a-case-study
#6
Johanna T Crane, Irene Andia Biraro, Tamer M Fouad, Yap Boum, David R Bangsberg
This study of a global health research partnership assesses how U.S. fiscal administrative policies impact capacity building at foreign partner institutions. We conducted a case study of a research collaboration between Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Mbarara, Uganda, and originally the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), but now Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Our case study is based on three of the authors' experiences directing and working with this partnership from its inception in 2003 through 2015...
September 16, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899284/identifying-and-addressing-the-governance-accountability-problem
#7
Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović
Successive global health crises - from HIV and AIDS to SARS and H5N1 to Ebola - highlight one of the most pressing challenges to global health security: the GAP - the governance accountability problem. Introduced in 2014 in the book entitled, HIV/AIDS and the South African state: The responsibility to respond, this article takes up Alan Whiteside's challenges, in a book review in these pages, to offer a more comprehensive analysis of the GAP. The GAP [Šehović, A. B. (2014). HIV/AIDS and the South African state: The responsibility to respond...
September 13, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895503/needs-assessment-with-elder-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon-implications-for-services-and-interventions
#8
Zeina Chemali, Christina P C Borba, Kelsey Johnson, Sama Khair, Gregory L Fricchione
Currently, over 1 million Syrian and Palestinian refugees have fled Syria to take refuge in Lebanon. Among this vulnerable population, elder refugees warrant particular concern, as they shoulder a host of additional health and safety issues that require additional resources. However, the specific needs of elder refugees are often overlooked, especially during times of crisis. Our study used a semi-structured interview to survey the needs of elder refugees and understand their perceived support from Lebanese fieldworkers...
September 12, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884634/the-context-and-quality-of-evidence-used-by-tobacco-interests-to-oppose-anvisa-s-2012-regulations-in-brazil
#9
Raphael Lencucha, Clelio de Lima Pontes
Evidence is an important resource for policy makers. Alongside its practical utility, evidence is a persuasive strategic and rhetorical tool. This study scrutinises the information used by tobacco interests in opposition to Brazil's National Health Surveillance Agency's (ANVISA) 2012 regulations. We analysed one prominent document widely cited in the policy discourse, produced by Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) in 2010 when ANVISA initiated public consultations. The FGV document formed the basis of opposition to the regulations...
September 8, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868979/ethical-public-health-issues-for-the-use-of-informal-prep
#10
Julien Brisson
This article presents the phenomenon of the use of informal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), also known colloquially as 'wild PrEP'. The related ethical public health issues of the use of informal PrEP are discussed. From the approach of an ethical framework of risk reduction in public health, the main objective of this article is to encourage health-related practices and policies that do not stop the informal access to PrEP, but rather promote the wellbeing of users by providing them with the necessary knowledge and resources related to PrEP and HIV prevention (i...
September 3, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828943/from-a-global-crisis-to-the-end-of-aids-new-epidemics-of-signification
#11
Nora Kenworthy, Matthew Thomann, Richard Parker
In the past decade, discourses about AIDS have taken a remarkable, and largely unquestioned, turn. Whereas mobilisations for treatment scale-up during the 2000s were premised on perceptions of an 'epidemic out of control', we have repeatedly been informed in more recent years that an end to AIDS is immanent. This new discourse and its resulting policies are motivated by post-recession financial pressures, a changing field of global institutions, and shifting health and development priorities. These shifts also reflect a biomedical triumphalism in HIV prevention and treatment, whereby shorter term, privatised, technological, and 'cost-effective' interventions are promoted over long-term support for antiretroviral treatment...
August 22, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816610/tobacco-control-law-implementation-in-a-middle-income-country-transnational-tobacco-control-network-overcoming-tobacco-industry-opposition-in-colombia
#12
Randy Uang, Eric Crosbie, Stanton A Glantz
The objective of this paper is to examine the implementation of Colombia's tobacco control law. Methods involved are triangulated government legislation, news sources, and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Colombia. Colombia, a middle-income country, passed a tobacco control law in 2009 that included a prohibition on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; and required pictorial health warning labels, ingredients disclosure, and a prohibition on individual cigarette sales. Tobacco companies challenged the implementation through litigation, tested government enforcement of advertising provisions and regulations on ingredients disclosure, and lobbied local governments to deprioritise policy responses to single cigarette sales...
August 17, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793832/-i-was-thinking-we-would-be-spoon-fed-community-co-researchers-perceptions-of-individual-empowerment-in-participatory-health-research-in-swaziland
#13
Michelle Brear
Empowerment is an influential concept in global public health. Current theoretical models, which were developed in resource-rich countries, conceptualise individual-level empowerment as a process (or outcome) of developing positive self-perceptions, critical thinking expertise and new behaviours. They neglect the social and structural aspects that were central to early conceptualisations of empowerment, and may be culturally biased. My aim was to elucidate lay-people in Swaziland's perspectives about individual-level empowerment...
August 10, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793809/-these-people-who-dig-roots-in-the-forests-cannot-treat-hiv-women-and-men-in-durban-south-africa-reflect-on-traditional-medicine-and-antiretroviral-drugs
#14
Amy Weintraub, Joanne E Mantell, Kelsey Holt, Renée A Street, Catriona Wilkey, Suraya Dawad, Tsitsi B Masvawure, Susie Hoffman
Relatively few empirical investigations of the intersection of HIV biomedical and traditional medicine have been undertaken. As part of preliminary work for a longitudinal study investigating health-seeking behaviours among newly diagnosed individuals living with HIV, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 urban South Africans presenting for HIV testing or newly enrolled in HIV care; here we explored participants' views on African traditional medicine (TM) and biomedical HIV treatment. Notions of acceptance/non-acceptance were more nuanced than dichotomous, with participants expressing views ranging from favourable to reproachful, often referring to stories they had heard from others rather than drawing from personal experience...
August 10, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786324/-exotic-no-more-tuberculosis-public-debt-and-global-health-in-berlin
#15
Janina Kehr
Geographical divisions between North and South are coming increasingly undone in the field of global health. Settings in the global North, such as Berlin, are becoming linked up to those in the global South in manifold ways. In this article, I show through discourse analysis and ethnographic research how tuberculosis and its meanings have been transfigured in Western Europe through the worldwide circulation of the disease and its definition as a global health epidemic returning to the North from the South through global migration routes...
August 8, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776485/evidence-based-feedback-about-emotional-cancer-challenges-experienced-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-analysis-of-316-photovoice-interviews
#16
Lynn Barbara Edwards, Linda Estelle Greeff
This study aims to offer evidence-based feedback about the emotional challenges of cancer in South Africa. The action research photovoice methodology was used to capture accounts of cancer-related challenges via 316 face-to-face interviews with cancer patients and family members (n = 286), and oncology support and medical staff (n = 30). The photovoice contributions constituted qualitative data that were analysed according to inductive thematic analysis whereby nine themes of cancer challenges were identified and photovoice images were descriptively summarised from a phenomenological perspective...
August 4, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776481/tobacco-cessation-in-vietnam-exploring-the-role-of-village-health-workers
#17
Nam Nguyen, Trang Nguyen, Jessica Chapman, Linh Nguyen, Pritika Kumar, Nancy VanDevanter, Donna Shelley
The purpose of this study was to explore current tobacco use treatment (TUT) practice patterns, and attitudes and beliefs among Village Health Workers (VHWs) about expanding their role to include delivering smoking cessation interventions and the perceived barriers. We conducted a survey of 449 VHWs from 26 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We assessed TUT practice patterns including asking about tobacco use, advising smokers to quit, offering assistance (3As) and attitudes, self-efficacy, and norms related to TUT...
August 4, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766377/stigma-towards-mental-illness-and-substance-use-issues-in-primary-health-care-challenges-and-opportunities-for-latin-america
#18
Jaime C Sapag, Brena F Sena, Inés V Bustamante, Sireesha J Bobbili, Paola R Velasco, Franco Mascayano, Rubén Alvarado, Akwatu Khenti
Stigma towards mental illness and addictive disorders is a global problem and one of the main obstacles in tackling this issue remains the effective integration of mental health services into primary health care (PHC). In Latin America, information has significantly increased on the existence of stigma; however, little is known about effective interventions to prevent stigma and promote recovery-oriented practices in PHC. The aim of this study is to understand the existing evidence regarding mental health stigma in PHC with a special focus on the Latin American region...
August 2, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766376/the-association-of-minimum-wage-change-on-child-nutritional-status-in-lmics-a-quasi-experimental-multi-country-study
#19
Ninez Ponce, Riti Shimkhada, Amy Raub, Adel Daoud, Arijit Nandi, Linda Richter, Jody Heymann
There is recognition that social protection policies such as raising the minimum wage can favourably impact health, but little evidence links minimum wage increases to child health outcomes. We used multi-year data (2003-2012) on national minimum wages linked to individual-level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 23 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that had least two DHS surveys to establish pre- and post-observation periods. Over a pre- and post-interval ranging from 4 to 8 years, we examined minimum wage growth and four nutritional status outcomes among children under 5 years: stunting, wasting, underweight, and anthropometric failure...
August 2, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730874/abortion-politics-in-cambodia-social-history-local-forms-and-transnational-issues
#20
Pascale Hancart Petitet
Cambodia's current abortion rate and ratio could be among the highest in Southeast Asia. In 1997, the Cambodian parliament passed the first law regulating abortions. This law was adopted to contribute to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, as a significant number of maternal deaths were believed to be related to complications of unsafe abortion. A decade later, the Ministry of Health had not yet established medical protocols for safe abortion access and women often continued to induce their own terminations or seek unsafe services...
July 21, 2017: Global Public Health
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