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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634364/lipid-changes-8-years-post-gastric-bypass-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity-fabs-5-study
#1
Amy S Shah, Todd Jenkins, Zhiqian Gao, Stephen R Daniels, Elaine M Urbina, Shelley Kirk, Robert Siegel, Thomas H Inge
OBJECTIVE: Severe obesity in adolescents is increasing and few effective treatments exist. Bariatric surgery is one option, but the extent to which surgery influences cardiovascular risk factors over time in youth is not clear. We hypothesized that Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) would be associated with sustained improvements in lipids over time (>5 years). PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: Youth who underwent RYGB from 2001-2007 were recruited for the Follow-up of Adolescent Bariatric Surgery-5+ (FABS-5+) in 2011-2014...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634363/long-term-health-outcomes-in-patients-with-prader-willi-syndrome-a-nationwide-cohort-study-in-denmark
#2
E Hedgeman, S P Ulrichsen, S Carter, N C Kreher, K P Malobisky, M M Braun, J Fryzek, M S Olsen
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare congenital disease that affects growth, sexual development, cognitive function and behavior. Individuals exhibit food preoccupation and hyperphagia, which may lead to obesity with premature morbidity and mortality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolisms (VTE), myocardial infarction, pulmonary hypertension, sleep apnea, depression, anxiety and all-cause mortality among persons with PWS as compared to an age- and sex-matched general population cohort...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630461/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-obesity-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#3
C-J Chang, C-C Lu, C-S Lin, J Martel, Y-F Ko, D M Ojcius, T-R Wu, Y-H Tsai, T-S Yeh, J-J Lu, H-C Lai, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, disrupted intestinal barrier and chronic inflammation. Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, anti-obesity treatments that are safe, effective and widely available would be beneficial. We examined whether the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea may reduce obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for eight weeks to induce obesity and chronic inflammation...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630460/oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-is-impaired-in-leukocytes-from-metabolically-unhealthy-vs-healthy-obese-individuals
#4
C Bañuls, S Rovira-Llopis, S Lopez-Domenech, N Diaz-Morales, A Blas-Garcia, S Veses, C Morillas, V M Victor, M Rocha, A Hernandez-Mijares
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to obesity, but the influence of metabolic disturbances on these parameters and their relationship with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unknown. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate whether metabolic profile influences ER and oxidative stress in an obese population with/without comorbidities. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 113 obese patients were enrolled in the study; 29 were metabolically healthy (MHO), 53 were metabolically abnormal (MAO), and 31 had type 2 diabetes (MADO)...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630459/abdominal-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-cellularity-in-men-and-women
#5
D P Andersson, E Arner, D E Hogling, M Rydén, P Arner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) fat cell size and number (cellularity) are linked to insulin resistance. Men are generally more insulin resistant than women but it is unknown whether there is a gender dimorphism in SAT cellularity. The objective was to determine SAT cellularity and its relationship to insulin sensitivity in men and women. METHODS: In a cohort study performed at an outpatient academic clinic in Sweden, 798 women and 306 men were included...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630458/the-value-of-instability-an-investigation-of-intra-subject-variability-in-brain-activity-among-obese-adolescent-girls
#6
L O Bauer, R J Houston
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the value of intra-subject variability (ISV) as a metric for revealing differences in cognition and brain activation associated with an obese versus lean body mass. METHODS: Ninety-six adolescents with a lean body mass (BMI %-ile=5-85), and 92 adolescents with an obese body mass (BMI %-ile >=95), performed two tasks (Stroop and Go/NoGo) challenging response inhibition skills. The standard deviations and averages of their reaction time and P300 electroencephalographic responses to task stimuli were computed across trials...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626215/genetic-variation-in-the-obesity-gene-fto-is-not-associated-with-decreased-fat-oxidation-the-neo-study
#7
L L Blauw, R Noordam, S Trompet, J F P Berbée, F R Rosendaal, D van Heemst, K W van Dijk, D O Mook-Kanamori, R de Mutsert, P C N Rensen
BACKGROUND: The FTO gene harbours the strongest common genetic variant associated with obesity. Recently, rs1421085-T to -C substitution mapped in FTO was shown to induce a developmental shift of human adipocytes from an energy-combusting beige to an energy-storing white phenotype in vitro. As browning of adipocytes selectively enhances fat oxidation (FatOx), we hypothesized that rs1421085-C in FTO is associated with deceased FatOx compared with carbohydrate oxidation (CarbOx) and an increased respiratory quotient (RQ)...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626214/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-is-produced-by-adipocytes-and-regulates-lipolysis-through-growth-hormone-receptor
#8
F Rodríguez-Pacheco, C Gutierrez-Repiso, S García-Serrano, A Ho-Plagaro, J M Gómez-Zumaquero, S Valdes, M Gonzalo, J Rivas-Becerra, C Montiel-Casado, G Rojo-Martínez, E García-Escobar, E Garcia-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays a crucial role in growth hormone (GH) secretion, but little is known about its production by adipocytes and its involvement in adipocyte metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To determine if GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) are present in human adipocytes and to study their levels in obesity. Also, to analize the effects of GHRH on human adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis. METHODS: GHRH/GHRH-R and GH/GH-R mRNA expression levels were analyzed in human mature adipocytes from non-obese and morbidly obese subjects...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611394/identification-of-the-ectoenzyme-cd38-as-a-marker-of-committed-preadipocytes
#9
A Carrière, Y Jeanson, J-A Côté, C Dromard, A Galinier, S Menzel, C Barreau, S Dupuis-Coronas, E Arnaud, A Girousse, V Cuminetti, J Paupert, B Cousin, C Sengenes, F Koch-Nolte, A Tchernof, L Casteilla
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Characterization of the adipocyte cellular lineage is required for a better understanding of white adipose tissue homeostasis and expansion. While several studies have focused on the phenotype of the most immature adipocyte progenitors, very few tools exist to identify committed cells. In haematopoiesis, the CD38 ectoenzyme is largely used to delineate various stages of stem cell lineage commitment. We hypothesize that this marker could be used to identify committed preadipocytes...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607454/insulin-sparing-and-fungible-effects-of-e4orf1-combined-with-an-adipocyte-targeting-sequence-in-mouse-models-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
I-S Yoon, S Park, R-H Kim, H L Ko, J-H Nam
Obesity impairs glycemic control and causes insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adenovirus 36 (Ad36) infection can increase the uptake of excess glucose from blood into adipocytes by increasing GLUT4 translocation through the Ras-Akt signaling pathway, which bypasses PI3K-Akt-mediated insulin receptor signaling. E4orf1, a viral gene expressed early during Ad36 infection, is responsible for this insulin-sparing effect and may be an alternative target for improving insulin resistance. To deliver the gene to adipocytes only, we connected the adipocyte-targeting sequence (ATS) to the 5' end of E4orf1 (ATS-E4orf1)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607453/specific-skeletal-muscle-sphingolipid-compounds-in-energy-expenditure-regulation-and-weight-gain-in-native-americans-of-southwestern-heritage
#11
S Heinitz, P Piaggi, K L Vinales, A Basolo, J Spranger, D Piomelli, J Krakoff, S R Jumpertz von
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In animal models, a role in the regulation of energy expenditure (EE) has been ascribed to sphingolipids, active components of cell membranes participating in cellular signaling. In humans, it is unknown whether sphingolipids play a role in the modulation of EE and, consequently, influence weight gain. The present study investigated the putative association of EE and weight gain with sphingolipid levels in human skeletal muscle, a component of fat-free mass (the strongest determinant of EE) in adipose tissue and in plasma...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588306/metabolomics-allow-the-discrimination-of-the-pathophysiological-relevance-of-hyperinsulinism-in-obese-prepubertal-children
#12
G Á Martos-Moreno, A Mastrangelo, V Barrios, A García, J A Chowen, F J Rupérez, C Barbas, J Argente
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance (IR) is the cornerstone of the obesity-associated metabolic derangements observed in obese children. Targeted metabolomics was employed to explore the pathophysiological relevance of hyperinsulinemia in childhood obesity in order to identify biomarkers of IR with potential clinical application. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred prepubertal obese children (50 girls/50 boys, 50% IR and 50% non-IR in each group), underwent an oral glucose tolerance test for usual carbohydrate and lipid metabolism determinations...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588305/chronic-maternal-inflammation-or-high-fat-feeding-programs-offspring-obesity-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#13
A Dudele, K S Hougaard, M Kjølby, M Hokland, G Winther, B Elfving, G Wegener, A L Nielsen, A Larsen, M K Nøhr, S B Pedersen, T Wang, S Lund
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The current world-wide obesity epidemic partially results from a vicious circle whereby maternal obesity during pregnancy predisposes the offspring for accelerated weight-gain and development of metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate whether low grade inflammation, characteristic of the obese state, provides a causal role for this disastrous fetal programming in mice. METHODS: We exposed pregnant and lactating C57BL/6JBom female mice to either high fat diet (HFD), or continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent trigger of innate immunity, and studied offspring phenotypes...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588304/plasma-fgf21-levels-in-obese-patients-undergoing-energy-restricted-diets-or-bariatric-surgery-a-marker-of-metabolic-stress
#14
A B Crujeiras, D Gomez-Arbelaez, M A Zulet, M C Carreira, I Sajoux, D de Luis, A I Castro, J Baltar, I Baamonde, A Sueiro, M Macias-Gonzalez, D Bellido, F J Tinahones, J A Martinez, F F Casanueva
CONTEXT: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been suggested to be an endocrine signal of nutritional status and an active regulator of metabolism. However, there is no agreement on the effect of weight loss therapies on circulating levels of FGF21 in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess FGF21 circulating levels in adiposity excess and after different weight loss strategies prescribed in five different groups from 4 independent centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and FGF21 were evaluated in 181 excess body weight and 14 normal-weight subjects...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584300/duration-and-degree-of-adiposity-effect-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-at-early-adulthood
#15
J Araújo, M Severo, H Barros, E Ramos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The effect of adiposity dynamics throughout adolescence on adult cardiometabolic outcomes is not well known. We aimed to assess the effect of duration and degree of adiposity from adolescence to early adulthood on blood pressure and insulin resistance at 24 years. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used data from 2253 participants evaluated at 13, 17, 21 and 24 years of age, in the EPITeen cohort, Porto, Portugal. The area under the curve of body mass index (BMIAUC) was computed to summarize duration and degree of BMI for the 11-year period...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584299/dissociation-of-body-mass-index-excess-weight-loss-and-body-fat-percentage-trajectories-after-3-years-of-gastric-bypass-relationship-with-metabolic-outcomes
#16
J Gómez-Ambrosi, P Andrada, V Valentí, F Rotellar, C Silva, V Catalán, A Rodríguez, B Ramírez, R Moncada, J Escalada, J Salvador, G Frühbeck
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Body weight, body mass index (BMI) and excess weight loss (EWL) are the most frequently used measures to analyse bariatric surgery outcomes. However, these measurements do not provide accurate information on body composition (BC) with body fat (BF) importantly determining the levels of cardiometabolic risk factors. Our aim was to analyse the evolution of BC after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) and its influence on the changes of cardiometabolic risk factors in comparison to BMI and EWL...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584298/role-of-aquaporin-7-in-ghrelin-and-glp-1-induced-improvement-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-obese-rats
#17
L Méndez-Giménez, S Becerril, S P Camões, I V da Silva, C Rodrigues, R Moncada, V Valentí, V Catalán, J Gómez-Ambrosi, J P Miranda, G Soveral, G Frühbeck, A Rodriguez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Glycerol is a key metabolite for lipid accumulation in insulin-sensitive tissues as well as for pancreatic insulin secretion. We examined the role of aquaporin-7 (AQP7), the main glycerol channel in β-cells, and AQP12, a aquaporin related to pancreatic damage, in the improvement of pancreatic function and steatosis after sleeve gastrectomy in diet-induced obese rats. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Male Wistar obese rats (n=125) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and sleeve gastrectomy) or dietary (pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve-gastrectomized animals) interventions...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584297/increased-risk-of-influenza-among-vaccinated-adults-who-are-obese
#18
S D Neidich, W D Green, J Rebeles, E A Karlsson, S Schultz-Cherry, T L Noah, S Chakladar, M G Hudgens, S S Weir, M A Beck
BACKGROUND: Influenza infects 5-15% of the global population each year, and obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for increased influenza-related complications including hospitalization and death. However, the risk of developing influenza or ILI in a vaccinated obese adult population has not been addressed. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether obesity was associated with increased risk of influenza and influenza-like illness among vaccinated adults...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584296/transcriptome-analysis-in-blood-cells-from-children-reveals-potential-early-biomarkers-of-metabolic-alterations
#19
J Sánchez, C Picó, W Ahrens, R Foraita, A Fraterman, L A Moreno, P Russo, A Siani, A Palou
OBJECTIVES: The development of effective strategies to prevent childhood obesity and its comorbidities requires new, reliable early biomarkers. Here, we aimed to identify in peripheral blood cells (PBCs) potential transcript-based biomarkers of unhealthy metabolic profile associated to overweight/obesity in children. METHODS: We performed a whole-genome microarray analysis in blood cells to identify genes differentially expressed between overweight and normal weight children to obtain novel transcript-based biomarkers predictive of metabolic complications...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584251/the-obesity-paradox-may-not-be-a-paradox-at-all
#20
EDITORIAL
H R Banack, A Stokes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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