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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006585/inflammation-linked-adaptations-in-dermal-microvascular-reactivity-accompany-the-development-of-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
Marie-Sophie Nguyen-Tu, Pierre Nivoit, Valérie Oréa, Sandrine Lemoine, Cécile Acquaviva, Aurélie Pagnon-Minot, Bérengère Fromy, Jaswinder K Sethi, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The increased prevalence of obesity has prompted great strides in our understanding of specific adipose depots and their involvement in cardio-metabolic health. However, the impact of obesity on dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) and dermal microvascular functionality remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the temporal changes that occur in dWAT and dermal microvascular functionality during the development of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006584/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-and-health-care-utilization-and-costs-in-the-offspring
#2
Stefan Kuhle, Adam Muir, Christy G Woolcott, Mary M Brown, Sarah D McDonald, Mohamed Abdolell, Linda Dodds
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and adverse child health outcomes is well described, but there are few data on the relationship with offspring health service use. We examined the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring health care utilization and costs over the first 18 years of life. METHODS: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of children (n = 35,090) born between 1989 and 1993 and their mothers, who were identified using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and linked to provincial administrative health data from birth through 2014...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006583/maternal-high-fat-diet-reversal-improves-placental-hemodynamics-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#3
Jennifer A Salati, Victoria H J Roberts, Matthias C Schabel, Jamie O Lo, Christopher D Kroenke, Katherine S Lewandowski, Jonathan R Lindner, Kevin L Grove, Antonio E Frias
BACKGROUND: In a Japanese macaque model of diet-induced obesity, we have previously demonstrated that consumption of a high-fat, "Western-style" diet (WSD) is associated with placental dysfunction and adverse pregnancy outcomes, independent of an obese maternal phenotype. Specifically, we have reported decreased uterine placental blood flow and increased inflammation with maternal WSD consumption. We also previously investigated the use of a promising therapeutic intervention that mitigated the adverse placental effects of a WSD but had unexpected detrimental effects on fetal pancreatic development...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006582/physical-activity-intensity-bout-duration-and-cardiometabolic-risk-markers-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
Jakob Tarp, Abbey Child, Tom White, Kate Westgate, Anna Bugge, Anders Grøntved, Niels Wedderkopp, Lars B Andersen, Greet Cardon, Rachel Davey, Kathleen F Janz, Susi Kriemler, Kate Northstone, Angie S Page, Jardena J Puder, John J Reilly, Luis B Sardinha, Esther M F van Sluijs, Ulf Ekelund, Katrien Wijndaele, Søren Brage
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of physical activity intensity and bout-duration in modulating associations between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk markers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) including 38,306 observations (in 29,734 individuals aged 4-18 years). Accelerometry data was summarized as time accumulated in 16 combinations of intensity thresholds (≥500 to ≥3000 counts/min) and bout-durations (≥1 to ≥10 min)...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006581/variable-oxytocin-levels-in-humans-with-different-degrees-of-obesity-and-impact-of-gastric-bypass-surgery
#5
Zoltan Pataky, Idris Guessous, Aurélie Caillon, Alain Golay, Françoise Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Jordi Altirriba
Exogenous oxytocin administration in obese mice, rats, and monkeys was shown to induce sustained weight loss, mostly due to a decrease in fat mass, accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism. A pilot study in obese humans confirmed the weight-reducing effect of oxytocin. Knowledge about circulating oxytocin levels in human obesity might help indicating which obese subjects could potentially benefit from an oxytocin treatment. Conclusive results on this topic are missing. The aim of this study was to measure circulating oxytocin levels in lean (n = 37) and obese (n = 72) individuals across a wide range of body mass index (BMI) values (18...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006580/zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein-protects-against-obesity-induced-hepatic-steatosis
#6
Xin-Hua Xiao, Ya-Di Wang, Xiao-Yan Qi, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Jiao-Yang Li, Han Li, Pei-Ying Zhang, Hai-Lin Liao, Mei-Hua Li, Zhe-Zhen Liao, Jing Yang, Can-Xin Xu, Ge-Bo Wen, Jiang-Hua Liu
BACKGROUND/AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis, impaired insulin sensitivity, and chronic low-grade inflammation. Our previous studies indicated that zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) alleviates palmitate (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. This study is to further characterize the roles of ZAG on the development of hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance (IR), and inflammation. METHODS: ZAG protein levels in the livers of NAFLD patients, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced or genetically (ob/ob) induced obese mice, and in PA-treated hepatocytes were determined by western blotting...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006579/comparing-bmi-with-skinfolds-to-estimate-age-at-adiposity-rebound-and-its-associations-with-cardio-metabolic-risk-markers-in-adolescence
#7
Chiara Di Gravio, G V Krishnaveni, R Somashekara, S R Veena, K Kumaran, Murali Krishna, S C Karat, Caroline H D Fall
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) reaches a nadir in mid-childhood, known as the adiposity rebound (AR). Earlier AR is associated with a higher risk of cardio-vascular diseases in later life. Skinfolds, which are a more direct measure of adiposity, may give better insight into the relationship between childhood adiposity and later obesity and cardio-metabolic risk. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether AR corresponds to a rebound in skinfolds, and compare associations of BMI-derived AR and skinfold-derived AR with cardio-metabolic risk markers in adolescence...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006578/metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obesity-phenotypes-and-risk-of-renal-stone-a-cohort-study
#8
Seolhye Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Kyung Eun Yun, Hyun-Suk Jung, Inah Kim, Young Youl Hyun, Kyu-Beck Lee, Kwan Joong Joo, Heung Jae Park, Hocheol Shin, Seungho Ryu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although obesity is considered an independent risk factor of nephrolithiasis, little is known about the effect of obesity on nephrolithiasis according to metabolic health status. We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) category and the incidence of nephrolithiasis in metabolically healthy and unhealthy individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The cohort consisted of 270,190 Korean adults free of nephrolithiasis at baseline, who were followed-up annually or biennially for a median of 4...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983415/the-relationship-between-parental-locus-of-control-and-adolescent-obesity-a-longitudinal-pre-birth-cohort
#9
Jean Golding, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Genette Ellis, Steven Gregory, Stephen Nowicki
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether parental external locus of control (ELOC) measured in pregnancy is related to obesity in their adolescent offspring and whether the child's own ELOC measured at age 8 contributes. To determine whether associations are due to types of behaviour used by externally oriented participants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Longitudinal pre-birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents & Children (ALSPAC)) set in south-west England. Families whose adolescent offspring had their fat mass measured using DXA scans at any of ages 9, 11, 13, 15 or 17 (range, n = 7329 at 9 to n = 4850 at 17)...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980762/overfed-but-undernourished-recognizing-nutritional-inadequacies-deficiencies-in-patients-with-overweight-or-obesity
#10
Arne Astrup, Susanne Bügel
Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent throughout the world and can adversely affect the nutritional status of individuals. Studies have shown that many people with obesity have inadequate intake of iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, folate and vitamins A and B12 , likely as a result of poor diet quality. Nutritional inadequacies or deficiencies may also occur due to altered pharmacokinetics in the individual with obesity and due to interactions in those with overweight or obesity with various pharmaceuticals...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980761/gwas-for-bmi-a-treasure-trove-of-fundamental-insights-into-the-genetic-basis-of-obesity
#11
LETTER
J R Speakman, R J F Loos, S O'Rahilly, J N Hirschhorn, D B Allison
Muller et al. [1] have provided a strong critique of the Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) of body-mass index (BMI), arguing that the GWAS approach for the study of BMI is flawed, and has provided us with few biological insights. They suggest that what is needed instead is a new start, involving GWAS for more complex energy balance related traits. In this invited counter-point, we highlight the substantial advances that have occurred in the obesity field, directly stimulated by the GWAS of BMI. We agree that GWAS for BMI is not perfect, but consider that the best route forward for additional discoveries will likely be to expand the search for common and rare variants linked to BMI and other easily obtained measures of obesity, rather than attempting to perform new, much smaller GWAS for energy balance traits that are complex and expensive to measure...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980760/trends-in-overweight-obesity-and-waist-to-height-ratio-among-australian-children-from-linguistically-diverse-backgrounds-1997-to-2015
#12
Louise L Hardy, Kai Jin, Seema Mihrshahi, Ding Ding
OBJECTIVE: To report the cross-sectional prevalence and 18-year trends in overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among Australian children from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Four cross-sectional population health surveys conducted among children (age 4-16 years; n=26, 449) in 1997-2004-2010-2015 in New South Wales, (NSW) Australia. Adiposity outcomes were measured by trained field staff using standard procedures. Binomial regression models with a robust error variance were used to estimate prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overweight and obesity, obesity, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967359/neural-differences-of-inhibitory-control-between-adolescents-with-obesity-and-their-peers
#13
Siqi Chen, Yajun Jia, Steven Woltering
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Inhibitory control, the ability to suppress prepotent responses and resist irrelevant stimuli, is thought to play a critical role in the manifestation and maintenance of obesity in adolescents. Adolescence is a unique developmental stage characterized by significant maturational changes in cortical structures (i.e., prefrontal cortex: PFC) that relate to inhibitory control processes. The current study investigated the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of inhibitory control in adolescents with obesity...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955085/the-impact-of-obesity-in-cognitive-and-memory-dysfunction-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#14
Yu-Chih Shen, Su-Chin Kung, En-Ting Chang, Ya-Ling Hong, Ling-Yi Wang
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a sleep disorder, results in decreased daytime alertness and neurocognitive dysfunction. Obesity is considered a major risk factor for the development and progression of OSA and the resulting cognitive dysfunction. However, the effect of obesity on neurocognitive dysfunction in OSA has been rarely investigated. METHODS: Eighty-three patients with moderate to severe OSA syndrome were recruited in our study. After matching for education, age, and body mass index (BMI), 40 patients were enrolled into our study with matched obese (BMI ≧ 30) and non-obese (BMI < 30) groups...
June 28, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934609/leptin-alleviates-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-injury-and-inflammation-in-obese-mice-with-acute-pancreatitis
#15
Cheng Ye, Rui Wang, Mojin Wang, Zhiyin Huang, Chengwei Tang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an independent risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis (AP). Leptin plays an important role in energy homeostasis. It has been reported that leptin might also participate in the regulation of the intestinal mucosal barrier and inflammatory response. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of leptin on the intestinal mucosal barrier and inflammatory injury in obese mice with AP. SUBJECTS/METHODS: AP was induced in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) or wild type (WT) mice by peritoneal injection of caerulein...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930313/investigation-of-the-long-term-sustainability-of-changes-in-appetite-after-weight-loss
#16
S Nymo, S R Coutinho, P H Eknes, I Vestbostad, J F Rehfeld, H Truby, B Kulseng, C Martins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to a compensatory increase in appetite and changes in the plasma concentration of appetite-regulating hormones are likely to play a role. Whether these changes are transient or sustained remains unclear. This study aimed to assess if changes in subjective and objective appetite markers observed with WL are sustained after 1 year (1Y). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In total 100 (45 males) individuals with obesity (BMI: 37 ± 4 kg/m2 , age: 43 ± 10 years) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a very-low energy diet (VLED), followed by 4 wks refeeding, and a 1Y maintenance program...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915365/metabolic-effects-of-genetic-variation-in-the-human-repin1-gene
#17
Jacqueline Krüger, Claudia Berger, Kerstin Weidle, Dorit Schleinitz, Anke Tönjes, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Peter Kovacs, Nora Klöting
BACKGROUND: Replication initiator 1 (Repin1) is a zinc finger protein highly expressed in liver and adipose tissue. The Repin1 resides within a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for body weight and triglyceride levels in the rat, and its hepatic deletion in mice results in improved insulin sensitivity and lower body weight. Here, we analyzed whether genetic variation within the Repin1 affects parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: We sequenced REPIN1 in 48 non-related Caucasian subjects...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915364/does-weight-stigma-reduce-working-memory-evidence-of-stereotype-threat-susceptibility-in-adults-with-obesity
#18
Veronica Guardabassi, Carlo Tomasetto
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a highly stigmatizing condition, and reduced cognitive functioning is a stereotypical trait ascribed to individuals with obesity. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat (i.e., a depletion of working memory resources due to the fear of confirming a negative self-relevant stereotype when a stereotype-related ability is assessed) contributes to cognitive deficits in individuals with obesity. METHODS: Computerized tests of (a) working memory and (b) probabilistic learning-an ability unrelated with working memory-were administered to a community sample of 131 adults...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915363/ghrelin-reductions-following-bariatric-surgery-were-associated-with-decreased-resting-state-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Yi Zhang, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Qianqian Meng, Jizheng Zhao, Kai Yuan, Jixn Liu, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Tian, Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Gene-Jack Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity, and involves removal of the gastric fundus where ghrelin is mainly produced. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and regulates food intake through its effect on the hypothalamus and hippocampus (HIPP). While ghrelin's role on the hypothalamus has been explored, little is known about its role on HIPP. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in ghrelin levels would be associated with changes in HIPP activity...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915362/national-trends-in-stunting-thinness-and-overweight-among-chinese-school-aged-children-1985-2014
#20
Yi Song, Anette Agardh, Jun Ma, Liubai Li, Yuanting Lei, Randall S Stafford, Judith J Prochaska
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine changes in regional and sex disparities in stunting, thinness, and overweight among Chinese school-aged children from 1985 to 2014. METHODS: We analyzed data on 1,489,953 children aged 7-18 years in the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health. Stunting, thinness, and overweight were defined according to WHO anthropomorphic definitions. After adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, and school, logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence of stunting, thinness, and overweight by region and sex over 30 years' time...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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