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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622314/physical-education-and-leisure-time-sport-reduce-overweight-and-obesity-a-number-needed-to-treat-analysis
#1
Yvonne C Learmonth, Jeffrey J Hebert, Timothy J Fairchild, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Niels Wedderkopp
BACKGROUND: School-based physical education (PE) and organised leisure-time sports participation (LTSP) represent important physical activity opportunities for children. We examined the preventive effect of increased PE as well as LTSP on overweight and obesity (OW/OB) in school children. METHODS: Longitudinal data from children attending 10 primary schools in the Danish municipality of Svendborg, comprising 6 intensive PE (270 min/week) and 4 control (90 min/week) schools were assessed...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622313/associations-of-prenatal-exposure-to-impaired-glucose-tolerance-with-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-in-early-adolescence
#2
Ivonne P M Derks, Marie-France Hivert, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Véronique Gingras, Jessica G Young, Pauline W Jansen, Emily Oken
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to impaired gestational glucose tolerance has been shown to have sex-specific associations with offspring obesity risk, perhaps by affecting the development of appetite regulation. We examined the extent to which prenatal exposure to impaired glucose tolerance was associated with eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) in early adolescent offspring, and in turn, whether EAH was cross-sectionally associated with body composition. METHODS: We included data from 1097 adolescents participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth longitudinal cohort...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622312/maternal-high-fat-diet-during-suckling-programs-visceral-adiposity-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-in-offspring
#3
Laura Butruille, Lucie Marousez, Charlène Pourpe, Frédérik Oger, Simon Lecoutre, Daniel Catheline, Solvig Görs, Cornelia C Metges, Céline Guinez, Christine Laborie, Philippe Deruelle, Jérôme Eeckhoute, Christophe Breton, Philippe Legrand, Jean Lesage, Delphine Eberlé
OBJECTIVE: The lactation-suckling period is critical for white adipose tissue (WAT) development. Early postnatal nutrition influences later obesity risk but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we tested whether altered postnatal nutrition specifically during suckling impacts epigenetic regulation of key metabolic genes in WAT and alter long-term adiposity set point. METHODS: We analyzed the effects of maternal high-fat (HF) feeding in rats exclusively during lactation-suckling on breast milk composition and its impact on male offspring visceral epidydimal (eWAT) and subcutaneous inguinal (iWAT) depots during suckling and in adulthood...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622311/high-fat-feeding-reprograms-maternal-energy-metabolism-and-induces-long-term-postpartum-obesity-in-mice
#4
Liping Qiao, Kayee Chu, Jean-Sebastien Wattez, Samuel Lee, Hongfei Gao, Gen-Sheng Feng, William W Hay, Jianhua Shao
BACKGROUND: Excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) closely associates with postpartum obesity. However, the causal role of EGWG in postpartum obesity has not been experimentally verified. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how EGWG causes long-term postpartum obesity. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet during gestation (HFFDG) or control chow, then their body composition and energy metabolism were monitored after delivery. RESULTS: We found that HFFDG significantly increased gestational weight gain...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622310/a-body-shape-index-absi-reflects-body-composition-changes-in-response-to-testosterone-treatment-in-obese-men
#5
Rudolf Hoermann, Mark Ng Tang Fui, Jesse C Krakauer, Nir Y Krakauer, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Interventions such as testosterone treatment may change body composition and metabolic outcomes without substantial changes in weight and BMI. OBJECTIVES: Using testosterone treatment as a paradigm, we hypothesized that a body shape index (ABSI) reflects body composition changes more accurately than traditional markers, such as weight, BMI and waist circumference. INTERVENTION: Secondary analysis of a 56-week RCT in 100 dieting obese men with low-normal testosterone receiving testosterone treatment or placebo, and subsequent off-treatment follow-up...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622309/differential-slc6a4-methylation-a-predictive-epigenetic-marker-of-adiposity-from-birth-to-adulthood
#6
Karen A Lillycrop, Emma S Garratt, Philip Titcombe, Phillip E Melton, Robert J S Murray, Sheila J Barton, Rebecca Clarke-Harris, Paula M Costello, Joanna D Holbrook, James C Hopkins, Caroline E Childs, Carolina Paras-Chavez, Philip C Calder, Trevor A Mori, Lawrie Beilin, Graham C Burdge, Peter D Gluckman, Hazel M Inskip, Nicholas C Harvey, Mark A Hanson, Rae-Chi Huang, Cyrus Cooper, Keith M Godfrey
BACKGROUND: The early life environment may influence susceptibility to obesity and metabolic disease in later life through epigenetic processes. SLC6A4 is an important mediator of serotonin bioavailability, and has a key role in energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that methylation of the SLC6A4 gene predicts adiposity across the life course. METHODS: DNA methylation at 5 CpGs within the SLC6A4 gene identified from a previous methyl binding domain array was measured by pyrosequencing...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622308/dietary-weight-loss-intervention-improves-subclinical-atherosclerosis-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-leukocytes-of-obese-humans
#7
Sandra López-Domènech, Mayte Martínez-Herrera, Zaida Abad-Jiménez, Carlos Morillas, Irene Escribano-López, Noelia Díaz-Morales, Celia Bañuls, Víctor M Víctor, Milagros Rocha
BACKGROUND: The relationship between caloric restriction-mediated weight loss and the generation of ROS and its effects on atherosclerotic markers in obesity is not fully understood. Therefore, we set out to investigate whether dietary weight loss intervention improves markers of oxidative stress in leukocytes and subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was an interventional study of 59 obese subjects (BMI > 35 kg/m2 ) who underwent 6 months of dietary therapy, including a 6-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by an 18-week low-calorie diet (LCD)...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30575803/the-joint-associations-of-weight-status-and-physical-activity-with-mobility-disability-the-nih-aarp-diet-and-health-study
#8
Loretta DiPietro, Yichen Jin, Sameera Talegawkar, Charles E Matthews
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the joint associations of weight status and physical activity with mobility disability in older men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analyzed prospective data from 135,220 participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study between 1995-1996 and 2004-2005. METHODS: Height and weight, as well as light- and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity typical of the past 10 years (h/week) were self-reported at baseline, and body mass index (BMI: kg/m2 ) was categorized into normal weight (BMI 18 to <25 kg/m2 ); overweight (BMI 25 to <30 kg/m2 ); and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 )...
December 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568274/body-mass-index-and-use-and-costs-of-primary-care-services-among-women-aged-55-79-years-in-england-a-cohort-and-linked-data-study
#9
Seamus Kent, Susan A Jebb, Alastair Gray, Jane Green, Gillian Reeves, Valerie Beral, Borislava Mihaylova, Benjamin J Cairns
BACKGROUND: Excess weight is associated with poor health and increased healthcare costs. There are no reliable data describing the association between BMI and the use and costs of primary care services in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Among 69,440 participants in the Million Women Study with primary care records in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between April 2006 (mean age 64 years) and March 2014, the annual rates and costs of their primary care consultations, prescription medications, and diagnostic and monitoring tests were estimated in relation to their self-reported body mass index (BMI) at recruitment in 1996-2001 (mean age 56 years)...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568273/spatiotemporal-predictions-of-obesity-prevalence-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents-based-on-analyses-of-obesogenic-environmental-variability-and-bayesian-model
#10
C Guo, H Wang, G Feng, J Li, C Su, J Zhang, Z Wang, W Du, B Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To find variations in Chinese obesogenic environmental priorities from 2000 to 2011, predict spatiotemporal distribution of obesity prevalence aged 7-17 years in 31 provinces, and provide foundations for policy-makers to reduce obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: Based on data examination of provincial obesity prevalence aged 7-17 years from three rounds of China Health and Nutrition Surveys (in 9 [2000], 9 [2006], and 12 [2011] provinces) and corresponding years' environments in 31 provinces from China Statistical Yearbooks and other sources, 12 predictors were selected...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568272/-igt-like-status-in-normoglucose-tolerant-obese-children-and-adolescents-the-additive-role-of-glucose-profile-morphology-and-2-hours-glucose-concentration-during-the-oral-glucose-tolerance-test
#11
Francesca Olivieri, Chiara Zusi, Anita Morandi, Massimiliano Corradi, Maria L Boselli, Elena Fornari, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Claudio Maffeis
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether combining glucose shape and 2-h glucose concentration during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may help identifying normal glucose tolerant obese children/adolescents with an impaired glucose tolerant (IGT)-like metabolic profile in term of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and β-cell function (disposition index: DI). SUBJECTS, METHODS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: In total, 654 non-diabetic obese children/adolescents underwent a 2 h OGTT...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568271/subcutaneous-fat-mass-in-infancy-and-abdominal-pericardial-and-liver-fat-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-at-the-age-of-10-years
#12
Bernadeta Patro Golab, Ellis Voerman, Aad van der Lugt, Susana Santos, Vincent W V Jaddoe
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fat mass development in infancy contributes to later adiposity, but its relation to ectopic fat depots is unknown. We examined the associations of infant subcutaneous fat with childhood general and organ-specific fat. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 593 children from a population-based prospective cohort study, we obtained total subcutaneous fat mass (as sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfolds thickness), central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thickness/total subcutaneous fat) at 1...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568270/maternal-obesity-leads-to-long-term-altered-levels-of-plasma-ceramides-in-the-offspring-as-revealed-by-a-longitudinal-lipidomic-study-in-children
#13
Luis Felipe León-Aguilar, Mikael Croyal, Véronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Fengyang Huang, Laurence A Marchat, Albino Barraza-Villarreal, Isabelle Romieu, Usha Ramakrishnan, Michel Krempf, Khadija Ouguerram, Rosalio Mercado-Camargo, Francisco Bolaños-Jiménez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of obesity and other symptoms of the metabolic syndrome in the offspring. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms and cellular factors underlying this enhanced disease susceptibility remain to be determined. Here, we aimed at identifying changes in plasma lipids in offspring of obese mothers that might underpin, and serve as early biomarkers of, their enhanced metabolic disease risk. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a longitudinal lipidomic profiling in plasma samples from normal weight, overweight, and obese pregnant women and their children that participated in the Prenatal Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation, Growth, and Development trial conducted in Mexico...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568269/comparison-of-salivary-proteome-of-children-with-different-sensitivities-for-bitter-and-sweet-tastes-association-with-body-mass-index
#14
Lénia Rodrigues, Rosa Espanca, Ana Rodrigues Costa, Célia Miguel Antunes, Clarinda Pomar, Fernando Capela-Silva, Cristina Conceição Pinheiro, Pedro Domingues, Francisco Amado, Elsa Lamy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oral sensorial perception is a key aspect in food choices and knowing the mechanisms modulating such perception is of major importance in the context of child obesity, which is reaching high rates in Mediterranean countries. Salivary proteome has been linked to taste sensitivity in adults. The aim of this study was to search for differences in salivary proteomes of children with different bitter or sweet taste sensitivities and to assess if these potential differences are associated with their body mass index percentile (BMI percentile)...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568268/validity-of-multi-frequency-bioelectric-impedance-methods-to-measure-body-composition-in-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Louise Becroft, Geraldine Ooi, Adrienne Forsyth, Susannah King, Audrey Tierney
OBJECTIVE: Excessive lean tissue loss following bariatric surgery may pose serious metabolic consequences. Accurate methods to assess body composition following bariatric surgery are required. This review aimed to investigate if multi-frequency bioelectric impedance (MF-BI) is a valid tool to determine body composition in obese patients. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases were searched until March 2017. Included studies were published in English with obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 ) adults measuring body composition with MF-BI methods in comparison with reference methods...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568267/noise-induced-sleep-disruption-increases-weight-gain-and-decreases-energy-metabolism-in-female-rats
#16
Jamie E Coborn, Rebecca E Lessie, Christopher M Sinton, Naomi E Rance, Claudio E Perez-Leighton, Jennifer A Teske
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep increases obesity and environmental noise contributes to poor sleep. However, women may be more vulnerable to noise and hence more susceptible to sleep disruption-induced weight gain than men. In male rats, exposure to environmental (i.e. ambient) noise disrupts sleep and increases feeding and weight gain. However, the effects of environmental noise on sleep and weight gain in female rats are unknown. Thus, this study was designed to determine whether noise exposure would disturb sleep, increase feeding and weight gain and alter the length of the estrous cycle in female rats...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568266/pathways-to-eating-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity
#17
Hayyah Clairman, Elizabeth Dettmer, Annick Buchholz, Kristina Cordeiro, Quazi Ibrahim, Katerina Maximova, Alene Toulany, Valerie H Taylor, Debra K Katzman, Katherine M Morrison, Jill Hamilton, Geoff Ball, Jean-Pierre Chanoine, Josephine Ho, Laurent Legault, Pam Mackie, Lehana Thabane, Ian Zenlea
BACKGROUND: Paediatric obesity management remains generalised to dietary and exercise modifications with an underappreciation for the contributions of eating behaviours and appetitive traits in the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether treatment-seeking children and adolescents with obesity cluster into phenotypes based on known eating behaviours and appetitive traits ("eating correlates") and how socio-demographic and clinical characteristics associate with different phenotypes...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568265/gut-microbiota-and-overweight-in-3-year-old-children
#18
Anne M Karvonen, Joanne E Sordillo, Diane R Gold, Leonard B Bacharier, George T O'Connor, Robert S Zeiger, Avraham Beigelman, Scott T Weiss, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota has been associated with overweight and obesity in adults, but the evidence in children is limited. Our aim was to study whether composition of the gut microbiota at the age of 3 years is associated with overweight/obesity in children cross-sectionally. METHODS: Children, who participated in a clinical trial of prenatal vitamin-D supplementation (VDAART), underwent standardized height and weight measurements, and collection of stool samples at 3 years of age...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568264/bmi-related-cortical-morphometry-changes-are-associated-with-altered-white-matter-structure
#19
Nenad Medic, Peter Kochunov, Hisham Ziauddeen, Karen D Ersche, Pradeep J Nathan, Lisa Ronan, Paul C Fletcher
BACKGROUND: While gross measures of brain structure have shown alterations with increasing body mass index (BMI), the extent and nature of such changes has varied substantially across studies. Here, we sought to determine whether small-scale morphometric measures might prove more sensitive and reliable than larger scale measures and whether they might offer a valuable opportunity to link cortical changes to underlying white matter changes. To examine this, we explored the association of BMI with millimetre-scale Gaussian curvature, in addition to standard measures of morphometry such as cortical thickness, surface area and mean curvature...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30568263/cardiac-function-in-adolescents-with-obesity-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-impact-on-physical-fitness
#20
Wouter M A Franssen, Marjolein Beyens, Torab Al Hatawe, Ines Frederix, Kenneth Verboven, Paul Dendale, Bert O Eijnde, Guy Massa, Dominique Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To gain greater insights in the etiology and clinical consequences of altered cardiac function in obese adolescents. Therefore, we aimed to examine cardiac structure and function in obese adolescents, and to examine associations between altered cardiac function/structure and cardiometabolic disease risk factors or cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. METHODS: In 29 obese (BMI 31.6 ± 4.2 kg/m², age 13.4 ± 1.1 years) and 29 lean (BMI 19.5 ± 2...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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