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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816228/association-of-adiposity-telomere-length-and-mortality-data-from-the-nhanes-1999-2002
#1
J A Batsis, T A Mackenzie, E Vasquez, C M Germain, R T Emeny, P Rippberger, F Lopez-Jimenez, S J Bartels
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Telomere shortening is associated with age and risk of medical co-morbidity. We assessed the relationship between measures of adiposity, leukocyte telomere length, and mortality and whether it is modified by age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measures were identified using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Obesity was categorized using two body fat definitions (BF1%: men ⩾25%; females ⩾35%; BF2% ⩾28% and ⩾38%, respectively), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) (men ⩾102 cm; females ⩾88 cm)...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811653/meal-timing-effects-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-intrahepatic-triglycerides-during-weight-loss
#2
R I Versteeg, M T Ackermans, A J Nederveen, E Fliers, M J Serlie, S E la Fleur
BACKGROUND: Several human and rodent studies suggest that in addition to the amount of energy consumed, timing of food intake contributes to body weight regulation. Consuming most energy in the morning has favorable effects on weight loss and weight maintenance. Whether this also affects glucose metabolism and liver fat independently from weight loss is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that during weight loss, consuming most energy in the morning improves insulin sensitivity and reduces hepatic fat content more than consuming most energy in the evening...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811652/sources-of-variability-in-childhood-obesity-indicators-and-related-behaviors
#3
P T Katzmarzyk, S T Broyles, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke
The purpose of this study was to describe sources of variability in obesity-related variables in 6022 children aged 9-11 y from 12 countries. The study design involved recruitment of students, nested within schools, which were nested within study sites. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured and BMI was calculated; sleep duration and total and in-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were measured by accelerometry; and diet scores were obtained by questionnaire...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811651/inkt-cells-prevent-obesity-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-in-a-c-c-chemokine-receptor-7-dependent-manner
#4
H M Kim, R Lee, E S Lee, M H Kwon, J H Huh, B-E Kwon, E-K Park, S-Y Chang, M-N Kweon, P-H Kim, H-J Ko, C H Chung
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are characterized by an increase in hepatic triglyceride content with infiltration of immune cells, which can cause steatohepatitis and hepatic insulin resistance. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is primarily expressed in immune cells, and CCR7 deficiency leads to the development of multi-organ autoimmunity, chronic renal disease, and autoimmune diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of CCR7 on hepatic steatosis in a mouse model and its underlying mechanism...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811650/diet-induced-obesity-leads-to-metabolic-dysregulation-in-offspring-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#5
J H Park, Y Yoo, M Cho, J Lim, A M Lindroth, Y J Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exposure to metabolic stress has been suggested to influence the susceptibility to metabolic disorders in offspring according to epidemiological and animal studies. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated impacts of diet-induced paternal obesity on metabolic phenotypes in offspring and its underlying molecular mechanism. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Male founder mice (F0), fed with control diet (CD) or high fat diet (HFD), were mated with CD-fed females...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775377/objectively-measured-sedentary-time-and-physical-activity-and-associations-with-body-weight-gain-does-body-weight-determine-a-decline-in-moderate-and-vigorous-intensity-physical-activity
#6
U Ekelund, E Kolle, J Steene-Johannessen, K E Dalene, A K O Nilsen, S A Anderssen, B H Hansen
OBJECTIVES: High levels of physical activity may prevent the development of obesity. However, the magnitude and direction of the association between physical activity (PA) of various intensities, sedentary time and weight status remain unclear. Thus, we examined whether objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity independently predict gain in body weight, change in body weight and to examine the possibility of reverse causation. METHODS: We examined the prospective associations between sedentary time, PA and body weight (BW)...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775376/altered-circadian-feeding-behavior-and-improvement-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-tac1-deficient-mice
#7
C A Maguire, S León, R S Carroll, U B Kaiser, V M Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabolic function is regulated by the interplay of central and peripheral factors that ultimately regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The tachykinin substance P (SP) has been identified as a novel regulator of energy balance, however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are ill-defined and conflicting data regarding the role of SP on food intake have been reported by different groups. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the metabolic role of the Tac1 gene products (SP and neurokinin A (NKA)) in mice through a series of genetic, metabolic and behavioral studies in Tac1 deficient mice...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775375/the-relationship-between-maternal-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-status-in-pregnancy-and-childhood-adiposity-and-allergy-an-observational-study
#8
V T Boyle, E B Thorstensen, J M D Thompson, L M E McCowan, E A Mitchell, K M Godfrey, L Poston, C R Wall, R Murphy, W Cutfield, T Kenealy, L C Kenny, P N Baker
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency (defined as <75 nmol/l) is widespread amongst pregnant women around the world and has been proposed to influence offspring outcomes in childhood and into adult life, including adiposity and allergy. Disorders including asthma and eczema are on the rise amongst children. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in pregnancy and offspring adiposity, asthma and eczema in childhood. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were analysed in serum samples collected at 15 weeks' gestation from 1710 participants of the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775374/relation-between-adiposity-and-vascular-events-malignancy-and-mortality-in-patients-with-stable-cerebrovascular-disease
#9
N E M Jaspers, J A N Dorresteijn, Y van der Graaf, J Westerink, L J Kappelle, H M Nathoe, A Algra, F L J Visseren
BACKGROUND: Abdominal adiposity is associated with various risk factors including hypertension, and is therefore particularly relevant in patients with stable cerebrovascular disease (CeVD). A U-shaped relation between body-mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and cardiovascular events is often described. Whether this U-shape persists for abdominal adiposity, and consequently which reference values should guide clinical practice, is unclear. We described the relation between multiple adiposity measurements and risk of vascular events, vascular mortality, malignancy, and all-cause mortality in patients with clinically stable CeVD...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775373/association-of-maternal-gestational-weight-gain-with-their-offspring-s-anthropometric-outcomes-at-late-infancy-and-6-years-old-mediating-roles-of-birth-weight-and-breastfeeding-duration
#10
J X Liu, X Xu, J H Liu, J W Hardin, R Li
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies examining the potential mediating roles of birth weight and breastfeeding duration on the pathways between maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring anthropometric outcomes are lacking. METHODS: We analyzed data from the mother-child pairs in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II) in late infancy (n=1 548) and at the year six follow-up (n=1 514) study. Child anthropometrics included age- and sex-specific Z scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), height/length-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height/length (WHZ), and body mass index (BMIZ)...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769122/modulation-of-gr1-low-monocytes-subset-impacts-insulin-sensitivity-and-weight-gain-upon-high-fat-diet-in-female-mice
#11
S Béliard, W Le Goff, F Saint-Charles, L Poupel, V Deaswerte, L Boucharechas, T Huby, P Lesnik
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Blood monocytes are expanded during obesity. However, the differential contribution of monocytes subsets in obesity-related metabolic disorders remains unknown. The aim of the study was to define the role of the Gr1(low) monocytes subset upon high-fat-diet (HFD). METHODS: We used transgenic female mouse models allowing the modulation of circulating Gr1(low) monocytes number (decreased number in CX3CR1(-/-) mice, increased number in CD11c-hBcl2 mice) and studied obesity upon HFD...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769121/acute-effects-of-exercise-on-appetite-ad-libitum-energy-intake-and-appetite-regulatory-hormones-in-lean-and-overweight-obese-men-and-women
#12
J A Douglas, J A King, D J Clayton, A P Jackson, J A Sargeant, A E Thackray, M J Davies, D J Stensel
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise does not elicit compensatory changes in appetite parameters in lean individuals; however, less is known about responses in overweight individuals. This study compared the acute effects of moderate-intensity exercise on appetite, energy intake and appetite-regulatory hormones in lean and overweight/obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-seven healthy lean (n=22, 11 females; mean(s.d.) 37.5(15.2) years; 22.4(1.5) kg·m(-2)) and overweight/obese (n=25, 11 females; 45...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769120/interferon-gamma-released-from-omental-adipose-tissue-of-insulin-resistant-humans-alters-adipocyte-phenotype-and-impairs-response-to-insulin-and-adiponectin-release
#13
J M Wentworth, J-G Zhang, E Bandala-Sanchez, G Naselli, C Liu, M Ritchie, G K Smyth, P E O'Brien, L C Harrison
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory factors derived from adipose tissue have been implicated in mediating insulin resistance in obesity. We sought to identify these using explanted human adipose tissue exposed to innate and adaptive immune stimuli. METHOD: Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant donors was cultured in the presence of macrophage and T-cell stimuli and the conditioned medium tested for its ability to inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757643/birth-by-cesarean-section-in-relation-to-adult-offspring-overweight-and-biomarkers-of-cardiometabolic-risk
#14
S Hansen, T I Halldorsson, S F Olsen, D Rytter, B H Bech, C Granström, T B Henriksen, J E Chavarro
BACKGROUND: Birth by Cesarean section (C-section) may increase the risk for non-communicable diseases. We aimed to examine the relation of birth by C-section with offspring overweight and markers of cardio-metabolic risk in a prospective observational cohort with 20-years of follow-up. METHODS: The Danish Fetal Origins Cohort enrolled 965 pregnant women in 1988-1989. In 2008, a follow-up study of the offspring was completed. The offspring were invited to participate in a clinical examination with measurements of anthropometry and a fasting blood sample (n=443)...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757642/mexican-origin-male-perspectives-of-diet-related-behaviors-associated-with-weight-management
#15
L A Valdez, A Amezquita, S P Hooker, D O Garcia
BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of obesity and related diseases are quickly reaching epidemic proportions among Hispanic males in the United States. Hispanic males suffer from the highest prevalence of obesity-related diseases when compared to all other racial/ethnic groups. Despite evidence showing that weight loss can significantly reduce the risk of obesity-related health implications, literature informing best practices to engage Hispanic males in weight management programs is scarce...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757641/education-as-a-moderator-of-genetic-risk-for-higher-body-mass-index-prospective-cohort-study-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#16
K Komulainen, L Pulkki-Råback, M Jokela, L-P Lyytikäinen, N Pitkänen, T Laitinen, M Hintsanen, M Elovainio, T Hintsa, A Jula, M Juonala, K Pahkala, J Viikari, T Lehtimäki, O Raitakari, L Keltikangas-Järvinen
OBJECTIVES: The life-course development of body mass index (BMI) may be driven by interactions between genes and obesity-inducing social environments. We examined whether lower parental or own education accentuates the genetic risk for higher BMI over the life course, and whether diet and physical activity account for the educational differences in genetic associations with BMI. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study comprised 2441 participants (1319 women, 3-18 years at baseline) from the prospective, population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757640/effects-of-peripheral-administration-of-a-neuromedin-u-receptor-2-selective-agonist-on-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-obese-mice
#17
T Kaisho, H Nagai, T Asakawa, N Suzuki, H Fujita, K Matsumiya, N Nishizawa, Y Kanematsu-Yamaki, K Dote, J-I Sakamoto, T Asami, S Takekawa
BACKGROUND: Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide with various physiological functions including regulation of smooth-muscle contraction, blood pressure, stress responses, and feeding behaviors. NMU activates two distinct receptors, NMUR1 and NMUR2, which are predominantly expressed in peripheral tissues and the central nervous system, respectively. It is reported that the NMU signaling system regulates food intake and body weight via NMUR2, suggesting that an NMUR2 agonist exhibiting anorectic effects would be a potential therapy for obesity...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757639/metabolic-effects-of-resistance-or-high-intensity-interval-training-among-glycemic-control-nonresponsive-children-with-insulin-resistance
#18
C Álvarez, R Ramírez-Campillo, R Ramírez-Velez, C Martínez, M Castro-Sepúlveda, A Alonso-Martínez, M Izquierdo
BACKGROUND: Little evidence exists on which variables of body composition or muscular strength mediates more glucose control improvements taking into account inter-individual metabolic variability to different modes of exercise training. OBJECTIVE: We examined 'mediators' to the effects of 6-weeks of resistance (RT) or high-intensity interval training (HIT) on glucose control parameters in physically inactive schoolchildren with insulin resistance. Secondly, we also determined both training-induce changes and the prevalence of responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to decrease the insulin resistance level...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751763/modifiable-risk-factors-in-the-first-1000-days-for-subsequent-risk-of-childhood-overweight-in-an-asian-cohort-significance-of-parental-overweight-status
#19
I M Aris, J Y Bernard, L-W Chen, M T Tint, W W Pang, S E Soh, S-M Saw, Lp-C Shek, K M Godfrey, P D Gluckman, Y-S Chong, F Yap, M S Kramer, Y S Lee
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have identified early-life risk factors for subsequent childhood overweight/obesity, but few have evaluated how they combine to influence risk of childhood overweight/obesity. We examined associations, individually and in combination, of potentially modifiable risk factors in the first 1000 days after conception with childhood adiposity and risk of overweight/obesity in an Asian cohort. METHODS: Six risk factors were examined: maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 kg/m(2)), paternal overweight/obesity at 24 months post-delivery, maternal excessive gestational weight gain, raised maternal fasting glucose during pregnancy (⩾5...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736445/dietary-fat-and-total-energy-intake-modifies-the-association-of-genetic-profile-risk-score-on-obesity-evidence-from-48%C3%A2-170-uk-biobank-participants
#20
C A Celis-Morales, D M Lyall, S R Gray, L Steell, J Anderson, S Iliodromiti, P Welsh, Y Guo, F Petermann, D F Mackay, M E S Bailey, J P Pell, J M R Gill, N Sattar
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multifactorial condition influenced by both genetics and lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the association between a validated genetic profile risk score for obesity (GPRS-obesity) and body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) was modified by macronutrient intake in a large general population study. METHODS: This study included cross-sectional data from 48 170 white European adults, aged 37-73 years, participating in the UK Biobank...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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