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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220042/healthy-obesity-and-risk-of-accelerated-functional-decline-and-disability
#1
J A Bell, S Sabia, A Singh-Manoux, M Hamer, M Kivimäki
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Some obese adults have a normal metabolic profile and are considered 'healthy', but whether they experience faster ageing than healthy normal-weight adults is unknown. We compared decline in physical function, worsening of bodily pain, and likelihood of future mobility limitation and disability between these groups. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This was a population-based observational study using repeated measures over 2 decades (Whitehall II cohort data)...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220041/butyrate-restores-hfd-induced-adaptations-in-brain-function-and-metabolism-in-mid-adult-obese-mice
#2
I A C Arnoldussen, M Wiesmann, C E Pelgrim, E M Wielemaker, W van Duyvenvoorde, P A Santos, L Verschuren, B J F Keijser, A Heerschap, R Kleemann, P Y Wielinga, A J Kiliaan
OBJECTIVE: Midlife obesity affects cognition and increases risk of developing dementia. Recent data suggest that intake of the short chain fatty acid butyrate could improve memory function, and may protect against diet-induced obesity by reducing bodyweight and adiposity. SUBJECTS: We examined the impact of a high fat diet (HFD) followed by intervention with 5% (w/w) dietary butyrate, on metabolism, microbiota, brain function and structure in the low-density-lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mouse model in mid- and late life...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220040/associations-between-physical-activity-and-bmi-body-fatness-and-visceral-adiposity-in-overweight-or-obese-latino-and-non-latino-adults
#3
N Cameron, J Godino, J F Nichols, D Wing, L Hill, K Patrick
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have reported associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), body fatness, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the extent to which associations differ among Latinos and non-Latinos remains unclear. The present study evaluated the associations between body composition and MVPA in Latino and non-Latino adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An exploratory, cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline data collected from 298 overweight adults enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial that tested the efficacy of text messaging to improve weight loss...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220039/hormone-signaling-and-fatty-liver-in-females-analysis-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mutant-mice
#4
S Hart-Unger, Y Arao, K J Hamilton, S L Lierz, D E Malarkey, S C Hewitt, M Freemark, K S Korach
BACKGROUND: Treatment with estrogen in early menopausal women protects against development of hepatic steatosis and NAFLD but estrogen has undesirable side effects which negate its beneficial effects in pre- and post-menopausal women. Targeted therapies require better understanding of the target sites and mechanisms by which estrogen signaling exerts its protective effects in women. ERα is thought to be the primary mediator for estrogen signaling to protect against hepatic steatosis...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216644/infant-adiposity-following-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-behavioural-intervention-in-obese-pregnancy
#5
N Patel, K M Godfrey, D Pasupathy, J Levin, A C Flynn, L Hayes, A L Briley, R Bell, D A Lawlor, E Oteng-Ntim, S M Nelson, S C Robson, N Sattar, C Singh, J Wardle, S White, P T Seed, L Poston
OBJECTIVE: Randomised controlled trials are required to address causality in the reported associations between maternal influences and offspring adiposity. The aim of this study was to determine whether an antenatal lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women associated with improved maternal diet and reduced gestational weight gain leads to a reduction in infant adiposity and sustained improvements in maternal lifestyle behaviours at 6 months postpartum. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted a planned postnatal follow up of a randomised controlled trial (UPBEAT) of a complex behavioural intervention targeting maternal diet (glycemic load and saturated fat intake) and physical activity in 1555 obese pregnant women...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216643/effect-of-an-obesity-prevention-program-focused-on-motivating-environments-in-childhood-a-school-based-prospective-study
#6
Y Yang, B Kang, E Y Lee, H K Yang, H-S Kim, S-Y Lim, J-H Lee, S-S Lee, B K Suh, K-H Yoon
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There has been an increasing global recognition of the need for effective strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity. In this study, we aimed to identify the effectiveness of an obesity prevention program focused on motivating environments in school. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this school-based, prospective, quasi-experimental study, we enrolled three elementary (4th graders) and two middle (7th graders) schools located in Chungju, Korea...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216642/high-fat-meal-systemic-inflammation-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#7
A Morandi, E Fornari, F Opri, M Corradi, M Tommasi, R Bonadonna, C Maffeis
We aimed to assess in obese youths the relationships between interleukin 6 (IL-6), fat-meal induced endotoxemia and glucose homeostasis. Twenty obese children/adolescents (9-17 years old, 11 boys) underwent a standard OGTT and, 7-14 days later, a 5-hour fat meal test (fat=69% of energy, SFA/MUFA/PUFA=31.5%/35%/33.5%), with serial measures of IL-6 and two markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure and translocation, LPS-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14). IL-6 correlated not only with basal (HOMA-IR) but also with post-prandial (Matsuda-index) insulin sensitivity (r=0...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209971/obesity-paradox-in-group-1-pulmonary-hypertension-analysis-of-the-nih-pulmonary-hypertension-registry
#8
S Mazimba, E Holland, V Nagarajan, A D Mihalek, J L W Kennedy, K C Bilchick
BACKGROUND: The 'obesity paradox' refers to the fact that obese patients have better outcomes than normal weight patients. This has been observed in multiple cardiovascular conditions, but evidence for obesity paradox in pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains sparse. METHODS: We categorized 267 patients from the NIH PH Registry into five groups based on BMI: underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese. Mortality was compared in BMI groups using the chi square statistic...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194012/a-dna-methylation-site-within-the-klf13-gene-is-associated-with-orexigenic-processes-based-on-neural-responses-and-ghrelin-levels
#9
L Wiemerslage, R Islam, C van der Kamp, H Cao, G Olivo, F Ence-Eriksson, S Castillo, A L Larsen, M Bandstein, L S Dahlberg, E Perland, V Gustavsson, J Nilsson, H Vogel, A Schürmann, E-M Larsson, M Rask-Andersen, C Benedict, H B Schiöth
We investigated five methylation markers recently linked to body-mass index, for their role in the neuropathology of obesity. In neuroimaging experiments, our analysis involving 23 participants showed that methylation levels for the cg07814318 site, which lies within the KLF13 gene, correlated with brain activity in the claustrum, putamen, cingulate gyrus, and frontal gyri, some of which have been previously associated to food signaling, obesity, or reward. Methylation levels at cg07814318 also positively correlated with ghrelin levels...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104916/trpv1-activation-counters-diet-induced-obesity-through-sirtuin-1-activation-and-prdm-16-deacetylation-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#10
P Baskaran, V Krishnan, K Fettel, P Gao, Z Zhu, J Ren, B Thyagarajan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Increasing metabolism and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) can help in overcoming obesity. Here, we investigated the effect of activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) in the upregulation of thermogenic proteins in BAT to counter diet-induced obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of capsaicin (CAP) (TRPV1 agonist) on the expression of metabolically important thermogenic proteins in BAT of wild-type and TRPV1(-/-) mice that received either a normal chow or high-fat (±CAP; TRPV1 activator) diet by immunoblotting...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190874/maternal-consumption-of-a-cafeteria-diet-during-lactation-in-rats-leads-the-offspring-to-a-thin-outside-fat-inside-phenotype
#11
C A Pomar, R van Nes, J Sánchez, C Picó, J Keijer, A Palou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The suckling period is a critical phase of development, in which maternal over-nutrition may program the susceptibility of developing chronic diseases and disorders, such as obesity and metabolic alterations, in adult life. Here, we questioned whether the consumption of a cafeteria diet throughout lactation in rats affects the macronutrient composition of milk and whether it results in permanent metabolic effects in the offspring. METHODS: Nursing rats were fed a control diet or a cafeteria diet during lactation...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186100/school-food-environments-associated-with-adiposity-in-children-attending-canadian-urban-schools
#12
C Fitzpatrick, G D Datta, M Henderson, K Gray-Donald, Y Kestens, T A Barnett
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186099/the-effect-of-increasing-risk-and-challenge-in-the-school-playground-on-physical-activity-and-weight-in-children-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-play
#13
V L Farmer, S M Williams, J I Mann, G Schofield, J C McPhee, R W Taylor
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether changing the play environment in primary schools to one that includes greater risk and challenge increases physical activity and reduces body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A two-year cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 16 New Zealand schools (Years 1-8). Intervention schools (n=8) redesigned their play environments to encourage imaginative and independent free play by increasing opportunities for risk and challenge (e...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186098/postnatal-height-and-adiposity-gain-childhood-blood-pressure-and-prehypertension-risk-in-an-asian-birth-cohort
#14
I M Aris, J Y Bernard, L-W Chen, M T Tint, W Y Lim, S E Soh, S-M Saw, Lp-C Shek, K M Godfrey, P D Gluckman, Y-S Chong, F Yap, M S Kramer, Y S Lee
OBJECTIVE: There have been hypotheses that early life adiposity gain may influence blood pressure (BP) later in life. We examined associations between timing of height, body mass index (BMI) and adiposity gains in early life with BP at 48 months in an Asian pregnancy-birth cohort. METHODS: In 719 children, velocities for height, BMI and abdominal circumference (AC) were calculated at five intervals [0-3, 3-12, 12-24, 24-36 and 36-48 months]. Triceps (TS) and subscapular skinfold (SS) velocities were calculated between 0-18, 18-36 and 36-48 months...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179648/diet-induced-weight-loss-decreases-adipose-tissue-oxygen-tension-with-parallel-changes-in-adipose-tissue-phenotype-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-overweight-humans
#15
R G Vink, N J Roumans, M Čajlaković, J P M Cleutjens, M V Boekschoten, P Fazelzadeh, M A A Vogel, E E Blaak, E C Mariman, M A van Baak, G H Goossens
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia is present in rodent models of obesity, evidence for this in humans is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss on abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygen tension (pO2), AT blood flow (ATBF), AT capillary density, AT morphology and transcriptome, systemic inflammatory markers, and insulin sensitivity in humans. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen overweight and obese individuals underwent a dietary intervention (DI), consisting of a 5-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, 500 kcal/d) (WL), and a subsequent 4-week weight stable diet (WS)...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163319/diet-diversity-growth-and-adiposity-in-healthy-breastfed-infants-fed-homemade-complementary-foods
#16
E Mok, C A Vanstone, S Gallo, P Li, E Constantin, H A Weiler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infant complementary feeding is important for establishing food preferences. Few studies exist on the effects of infant complementary feeding choices (food preparation methods) on dietary intake, growth or adiposity. We examined whether provision of homemade complementary food is associated with the development of dietary diversity, nutrient intakes and quality of infant growth. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Secondary analysis of feeding practices from a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation in 132 healthy breastfed 1-month old infants from Montréal, Canada...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163318/adrenal-medullary-dysfunction-as-a-feature-of-obesity
#17
M Reimann, N Qin, M Gruber, S R Bornstein, C Kirschbaum, T Ziemssen, G Eisenhofer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While there is strong evidence linking obesity with increased sympathoneural activity, involvement of the adrenal medulla is less clear. We therefore investigated adrenal medullary function under fasting and feeding conditions in normal weight (NW, n=33), overweight (OW, n=28) and obese (OB, n=36) adults (59% women). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven healthy adults participated in a cross-sectional study with recruitment stratified according to BMI...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163317/embelin-attenuates-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis-through-activating-canonical-wnt-signaling-and-inhibits-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Y Gao, J Li, X Xu, S Wang, Y Yang, J Zhou, L Zhang, F Zheng, X Li, B Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that Embelin, a natural plant extract might have the potential to prevent body weight gain in rats. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. METHODS: Effects of Embelin on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis were studied in murine ST2 stromal cells and C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells. The mechanisms through which Embelin regulates adipogenic differentiation and lipogenesis were explored. The in vivo anti-obesity effects of Embelin in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice and possible transcriptional impact were investigated...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163316/prediction-and-evaluation-of-resting-energy-expenditure-in-a-large-group-of-obese-outpatients
#19
M Marra, I Cioffi, R Sammarco, C Montagnese, M Naccarato, V Amato, F Contaldo, F Pasanisi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare resting energy expenditure (REE) measured (MREE) by indirect calorimetry (IC) and REE predicted (PREE) from established predictive equations in a large sample of obese Caucasian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We evaluated 1851 obese patients (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) aged between 18-65 years. Data were obtained by comparing MREE with PREE, derived from different equations, within and between normal weight and obese groups...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163315/effects-of-topical-capsaicin-combined-with-moderate-exercise-on-insulin-resistance-body-weight-and-oxidative-stress-in-hypoestrogenic-obese-rats
#20
J M L Medina-Contreras, J Colado-Velázquez, N L Gómez-Viquez, P Mailloux-Salinas, I Perez-Torres, A Aranda-Fraustro, K Carvajal, G Bravo
BACKGROUND: Hypoestrogenic women are one of the most vulnerable groups for the development of obesity and its complications. Capsaicin and exercise have demonstrated to reduce body weight and to improve insulin sensitivity in different animal models, but it is unknown whether their combination could be useful in hypoestrogenic obese females. METHODS: We investigated whether topical capsaicin, exercise or their combination had better therapeutic effects in an obesity-hypoestrogenism model...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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