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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337025/prevalence-of-obesity-and-comorbid-eating-disorder-behaviors-in-south-australia-from-1995-to-2015
#1
F Q da Luz, A Sainsbury, H Mannan, S Touyz, D Mitchison, P Hay
BACKGROUND: Obesity and eating disorders are often studied and treated separately. While the increases in obesity prevalence are well known, examination of its co-occurrence with eating disorders, a problem also of public health concern, is important because eating disorder behaviors are known to contribute to obesity onset and maintenance, and vice versa. METHODS: Data from large cross-sectional representative statewide community samples of people in the years of 1995 (n=3001), 2005 (n=3047) and 2015 (n=3005) were analyzed...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392556/role-of-orexin-a-in-the-ventrolateral-preoptic-area-on-components-of-total-energy-expenditure
#2
J E Coborn, D P DePorter, V Mavanji, C M Sinton, C M Kotz, C J Billington, J A Teske
BACKGROUND: Identifying whether components of total EE are affected by orexin receptor (OXR1 and OXR2) stimulation or antagonism with dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) has relevance for obesity treatment. Orexin receptor stimulation reduces weight gain by increasing total energy expenditure (EE) and EE during spontaneous physical activity (SPA). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a DORA (TCS-1102) in the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) reduced orexin-A-induced arousal, SPA, total EE and EE during sleep, rest, wake and SPA and whether the DORA alone reduced total EE and its components...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392555/a-quantitative-analysis-of-statistical-power-identifies-obesity-endpoints-for-improved-in-vivo-preclinical-study-design
#3
J Selimkhanov, W C Thompson, J Guo, K D Hall, C J Musante
The design of well-powered in vivo preclinical studies is a key element in building knowledge of disease physiology for the purpose of identifying and effectively testing potential anti-obesity drug targets. However, as a result of the complexity of the obese phenotype, there is limited understanding of the variability within and between study animals of macroscopic endpoints such as food intake and body composition. This, combined with limitations inherent in the measurement of certain endpoints, presents challenges to study design that can have significant consequences for an anti-obesity program...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373675/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-supplementation-reduces-adipocyte-size-and-increases-adipocyte-number-in-obese-rats
#4
A Pascual-Serrano, A Arola-Arnal, S Suárez-Garcia, F I Bravo, M Suárez, L Arola, C Bladé
OBJECTIVES: White adipose tissue (WAT) expands through hypertrophy (increased adipocyte size) and/or hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number). Hypertrophy has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia independently of body composition and fat distribution. In contrast, hyperplasia protects against metabolic alterations. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet, improve metabolic disturbances associated with diet-induced obesity without reducing body weight or adiposity...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373674/early-improvement-in-food-cravings-are-associated-with-long-term-weight-loss-success-in-a-large-clinical-sample
#5
M Dalton, G Finlayson, B Walsh, A Er Halseth, C Duarte, J E Blundell
BACKGROUND: Food cravings are associated with dysregulated eating behaviour and obesity, and may impede successful weight loss attempts. Gaining control over food craving is therefore a component in the management of obesity. The current paper examined whether early changes in control over food craving (assessed using the Craving Control subscale on the Control of Eating Questionnaire [CoEQ]) was predictive of weight loss in four Phase 3 clinical trials investigating a sustained-release combination of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) in obese adults...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239161/adolescent-preferences-and-reactions-to-language-about-body-weight
#6
R M Puhl, M S Himmelstein, S C Armstrong, E Kingsford
Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360432/dose-response-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-energy-compensation-in-postmenopausal-women-combined-results-from-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
J McNeil, D R Brenner, K S Courneya, C M Friedenreich
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Despite the clear health benefits of exercise, exercised-induced weight loss is often less than expected. The term 'exercise energy compensation' is used to define the amount of weight loss below what is expected for the amount of exercise energy expenditure. We examined the dose-response effects of exercise volume on energy compensation in postmenopausal women. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: Data from Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) and Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA) were combined for the present analysis...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360431/chilli-consumption-and-the-incidence-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-a-chinese-adult-population
#8
Z Shi, M Riley, A W Taylor, A Page
BACKGROUND: The frequency of spicy food intake has recently been associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association between chilli intake and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Chinese adult population. METHODS: Adults aged 20-75 years in the China Health and Nutrition Survey were followed between 1991 and 2011. Dietary data were collected during home visits using a 3-day food record in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360430/sex-differences-in-the-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-anatomical-architecture-of-brain-networks
#9
A Gupta, E A Mayer, K Hamadani, R Bhatt, C Fling, M Alaverdyan, C Torgenson, C Ashe-McNalley, J D Van Horn, B Naliboff, K Tillisch, C P Sanmiguel, J S Labus
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The brain plays a central role in regulating ingestive behavior in obesity. Analogous to addiction behaviors, an imbalance in the processing of rewarding and salient stimuli results in maladaptive eating behaviors that override homeostatic needs. We performed network analysis based on graph theory to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and network measures of integrity, information flow, and global communication (centrality) in reward, salience and sensorimotor regions, and to identify sex-related differences in these parameters...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358003/loss-of-anti-contractile-effect-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-in-offspring-of-obese-rats
#10
K E Zaborska, M Wareing, G Edwards, C Austin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356561/myeloperoxidase-positive-cell-infiltration-of-normal-colorectal-mucosa-is-related-to-body-fatness-and-is-predictive-of-adenoma-occurrence
#11
F Mariani, V Boarino, A Bertani, A Merighi, M Pedroni, G Rossi, S Mancini, P Sena, P Benatti, L Roncucci
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Body fatness is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, and promotes an inflammatory environment. Indeed, inflammation in normal colorectal mucosa may be a factor linking body fatness to colorectal carcinogenesis. In this study we evaluated Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells infiltration of normal colorectal mucosa as a marker of cancer-promoting inflammation in overweight and obese subjects. METHODS: One hundred and three subjects with normal colonoscopy entered the study...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280271/obesity-overweight-reduces-the-risk-of-active-tuberculosis-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#12
Y-F Yen, H-Y Hu, Y-L Lee, P-W Ku, I-F Lin, D Chu, Y-J Lai
BACKGROUND: Obesity affects immune function by increasing the number of T helper lymphocytes, which may reduce the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the effect of obesity on TB development has not been extensively studied. This nationwide population-based cohort study investigated the effect of obesity on TB development in Taiwanese adults. METHODS: We included 46 028 adult participants (age ⩾18 years) from three rounds (2001, 2005 and 2009) of the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262678/eight-weeks-of-overfeeding-alters-substrate-partitioning-without-affecting-metabolic-flexibility-in-men
#13
C M Peterson, B Zhang, D L Johannsen, E Ravussin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Impairments in metabolic flexibility (MF) and substrate handling are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, it is unknown whether metabolic inflexibility causes insulin resistance. We therefore measured MF and substrate handling before and after 8 weeks of overfeeding in initially healthy adults as a model of the early stages of insulin resistance. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy men (27±5 years old; body mass index 25.5±2.3 kg m(-2)) were overfed by 40% above baseline energy requirements for 8 weeks and gained 7...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262676/the-effects-of-supervised-exercise-training-12-24-months-after-bariatric-surgery-on-physical-function-and-body-composition-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
L Y Herring, C Stevinson, P Carter, S J H Biddle, D Bowrey, C Sutton, M J Davies
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is effective for the treatment of stage II and III obesity and its related diseases, although increasing evidence is showing weight regain ~12-24 months postsurgery. Weight regain increases the risk of physical function decline, which negatively affects an individual's ability to undertake activities of daily living. The study assessed the effects of a 12-week supervised exercise intervention on physical function and body composition in patients between 12 and 24 months post bariatric surgery...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344346/choroid-plexus-aquaporin-1-and-intracranial-pressure-are-increased-in-obese-rats-towards-an-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-model
#15
M Uldall, D K Bhatt, C Kruuse, M Juhler, I Jansen-Olesen, R Jensen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) without identifiable cause. The majority of IIH patients are obese, which suggests a connection between ICP and obesity. The aim of the study was to compare ICP in lean and obese rats. We also aimed to clarify if any ICP difference could be attributed to changes in some well-known ICP modulators; retinol and arterial partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Another potential explanation could be differences in water transport across the choroid plexus (CP) epithelia, and thus we furthermore investigated expression profiles of aquaporin 1 and Na/K ATPase...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344345/gastric-bypass-surgery-with-exercise-alters-plasma-micrornas-that-predict-improvements-in-cardiometabolic-risk
#16
Y O N Lopez, P M Coen, B H Goodpaster, A A Seyhan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery improves insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-cell function in obese non-diabetic subjects. Exercise also improves SI and may be an effective adjunct therapy to RYGB surgery. However, the mechanisms by which exercise or weight-loss improve peripheral SI after RYGB surgery are unclear. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate at least some of the regulatory processes driving such mechanisms. Consequently, this work aimed at profiling plasma miRNAs in participants of the Physical Activity Following Surgery Induced Weight Loss study (clinicaltrials...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337030/prenatal-steroid-administration-leads-to-adult-pericardial-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-male-baboons
#17
A H Kuo, J Li, C Li, H F Huber, M Schwab, P W Nathanielsz, G D Clarke
Developmental programming studies indicate that glucocorticoids modify fetal development. We hypothesized that administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) betamethasone to pregnant baboons at doses and stages of fetal life equivalent to human obstetric practice to decrease premature offspring morbidity and mortality, programs lipid metabolism. In 10-year-old male baboons (human equivalent 40) exposed in fetal life to betamethasone or saline, we quantified pericardial fat and hepatic lipid content with magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337029/the-impact-of-protein-quantity-during-energy-restriction-on-genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-humans
#18
I P G Van Bussel, E M P Backx, C P G M De Groot, M Tieland, M Müller, L A Afman
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a growing health problem worldwide. The most effective strategy to reduce weight is energy restriction (ER). ER has been shown to be beneficial in disease prevention and it reduces chronic inflammation. Recent studies suggest that reducing the protein quantity of a diet contributes to the beneficial effects by ER. The organ most extensively affected during ER is white adipose tissue (WAT). OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to assess changes in gene expression between a high protein diet and a normal protein diet during ER...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337028/modifiable-risk-factors-of-maternal-postpartum-weight-retention-an-analysis-of-their-combined-impact-and-potential-opportunities-for-prevention
#19
J L Hollis, S R Crozier, H M Inskip, C Cooper, K M Godfrey, N C Harvey, C E Collins, S M Robinson
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy triggers a physiological change in weight status. Postpartum weight retention in the childbearing years can substantially alter a woman's weight gain trajectory, with several potential contributing factors identified. Most research has relied on women's recall of pre-pregnancy weight during pregnancy or later, and not considered risk factors in combination. Using measured pre-pregnancy weight, this study aimed to examine the associations of maternal postpartum weight retention with parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), maternal serum vitamin D concentration and dietary Glycaemic Index in early and late pregnancy and breastfeeding duration, including analysis of the combined impact of potentially modifiable risk factors...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337027/obesity-induced-decreases-in-muscle-performance-are-not-reversed-by-weight-loss
#20
F Seebacher, J Tallis, K McShea, R S James
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity can affect muscle phenotypes, and may thereby constrain movement and energy expenditure. Weight loss is a common and intuitive intervention for obesity, but it is not known whether the effects of obesity on muscle function are reversible by weight loss. Here we tested whether obesity-induced changes in muscle metabolic and contractile phenotypes are reversible by weight loss. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a factorial design to compare energy metabolism, locomotor capacity, muscle isometric force and work-loop power output, and myosin heavy chain composition between lean fish, diet-induced obese fish, and fish that were obese and then returned to lean body mass following diet restriction...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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