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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368525/do-adolescents-with-extreme-obesity-differ-according-to-previous-treatment-seeking-behavior-the-youth-with-extreme-obesity-study-yes-cohort
#1
Belinda S Lennerz, Anja Moss, Julia von Schnurbein, Annika Bickenbach, Esther Bollow, Stefanie Brandt, Diana Luetke-Brintrup, Yvonne Mühlig, Madlen Neef, Claudia Ose, Miriam Remy, Renee Stark, Christina Teuner, Barbara Wolters, Wieland Kiess, André Scherag, Thomas Reinehr, Reinhard W Holl, Rolf Holle, Susanna Wiegand, Johannes Hebebrand, Martin Wabitsch
OBJECTIVES: Adolescent extreme obesity is associated with somatic and psychiatric comorbidity, low quality of life, and social dysfunction. Nevertheless, few adolescents seek obesity treatment, thus many may elope appropriate care. We examine whether previous treatment seeking relates to disease burden, and whether previously non-treatment seeking adolescents accept diagnostic and therapeutic offers. This information is important to inform intervention strategies. METHODS: The Youth with Extreme obesity Study (YES) is a prospective, multicenter cohort study...
October 27, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367111/the-effects-of-a-glp-1-analog-liraglutide-on-reward-value-and-the-learned-inhibition-of-appetitive-behavior-in-male-and-female-rats
#2
Sabrina Jones, Camille H Sample, Terry L Davidson
Liraglutide, a relatively long-lasting analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has received recent attention as a treatment for obesity. It has been proposed that activation of GLP-1 receptors in mesolimbic reward pathways contributes to this outcome by reducing hedonic value of food. However, other findings suggest that activation of GLP-1 signaling pathways may suppress appetitive behavior by enhancing a hippocampal-dependent form of learned inhibition. The present experiment compares these two alternatives...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30349011/inflammation-increases-mmp-levels-via-pge-2-in-human-vascular-wall-and-plasma-of-obese-women
#3
G Ozen, S Boumiza, C Deschildre, G Topal, D Longrois, P J Jakobsson, J B Michel, M P Jacob, K Chahed, X Norel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in several inflammatory processes including obesity-related vascular diseases and graft failure of coronary artery (CA) bypass grafts [internal mammary artery (IMA), saphenous vein (SV)]. In these inflammatory conditions, the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is increased via the activity of inducible microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Our aim was to investigate whether MMPs and their endogenous inhibitor (TIMPs) may be regulated by PGE2 under inflammatory conditions in human vasculature and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), as well as in plasma of obese patients...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30349010/the-role-of-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-the-association-between-childhood-adhd-symptoms-and-bmi
#4
Elizabeth K Do, Brett C Haberstick, Redford B Williams, Jeffrey M Lessem, Andrew Smolen, Ilene C Siegler, Bernard F Fuemmeler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been previously associated with concurrent and later obesity in adulthood, the etiology of this association remains unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the shared genetic effects of ADHD symptoms and BMI in a large sample of sibling pairs, consider how these shared effects may vary over time, and examine potential sex differences. SUBJECT/METHODS: Sibling pair data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health); childhood ADHD symptoms were reported retrospectively during young adulthood, while three prospective measurements of BMI were available from young adulthood to later adulthood...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30349009/does-cesarean-delivery-impact-infant-weight-gain-and-adiposity-over-the-first-year-of-life
#5
Noel T Mueller, Mingyu Zhang, Cathrine Hoyo, Truls Østbye, Sara E Benjamin-Neelon
BACKGROUND: Potentially driven by the lack of mother-to-infant transmission of microbiota at birth, cesarean delivery has been associated with higher risk of offspring obesity. Yet, no studies have examined when delivery-mode differences in adiposity begin to emerge. In this study, we examine differences in infant weight and adiposity trajectories from birth to 12 months by delivery mode. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, we recruited pregnant women into the Nurture Study and followed up their 666 infants...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30349008/association-of-adiposity-measures-in-childhood-and-adulthood-with-knee-cartilage-thickness-volume-and-bone-area-in-young-adults
#6
Tao Meng, Alison Venn, Felix Eckstein, Wolfgang Wirth, Flavia Cicuttini, Lyn March, Terence Dwyer, Marita Cross, Laura L Laslett, Graeme Jones, Changhai Ding, Benny Antony
OBJECTIVE: To describe the associations of childhood and adulthood adiposity measures with knee cartilage thickness, volume and bone area in young adults. METHODS: Childhood and adulthood adiposity measures (weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference) of 186 participants were collected in 1985 (aged 7-15 years) and during 2004-2006 (aged 26-36 years). Knee magnetic resonance imaging was conducted during 2008-2010 (aged 31-41 years) and cartilage thickness, volume and bone area were measured using a quantitative approach (Chondrometrics, Germany)...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341407/fetal-exposure-to-maternal-active-and-secondhand-smoking-with-offspring-early-life-growth-in-the-healthy-start-study
#7
Brianna F Moore, Anne P Starling, Sheryl Magzamen, Curtis S Harrod, William B Allshouse, John L Adgate, Brandy M Ringham, Deborah H Glueck, Dana Dabelea
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have modeled the association between fetal exposure to tobacco smoke and body mass index (BMI) growth trajectories, but not the timing of catch-up growth. Research on fetal exposure to maternal secondhand smoking is limited. OBJECTIVES: To explore the associations between fetal exposure to maternal active and secondhand smoking with body composition at birth and BMI growth trajectories through age 3 years. METHODS: We followed 630 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Healthy Start cohort through age 3 years...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337653/a-low-visceral-fat-proportion-independent-of-total-body-fat-mass-protects-obese-adolescent-girls-against-fatty-liver-and-glucose-dysregulation-a-longitudinal-study
#8
Giuseppina R Umano, Veronika Shabanova, Bridget Pierpont, Mariana Mata, Jessica Nouws, Domenico Tricò, Alfonso Galderisi, Nicola Santoro, Sonia Caprio
BACKGROUND: The relative proportion of visceral fat (VAT) to subcutaneous fat (SAT) has been described as a major determinant of insulin resistance (IR). Our study sought to evaluate the effect of body fat distribution on glucose metabolism and intrahepatic fat content over time in a multiethnic cohort of obese adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We examined markers of glucose metabolism by oral glucose tolerance test, and body fat distribution by abdominal MRI at baseline and after 19...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305689/weight-management-interventions-for-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#9
Seán Healy, Carly R Pacanowski, Edward Williams
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In response to the elevated levels of overweight and obesity among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this article provides a systematic review of the extant empirical literature reporting the effect of weight management interventions (including exercise, diet, and medication) for youth with ASD. DESIGN: A systematic review of published studies. The databases CINAHL, Web of Science, ERIC, Pubmed, and PsychINFO were searched, revealing 12 studies that were eligible for review...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301968/evaluation-of-chitotriosidase-as-a-biomarker-for-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-overweight-individuals-and-type-2-diabetic-patients
#10
Roel Tans, Janna A van Diepen, Sabina Bijlsma, Lars Verschuren, Anouk Suppers, Rinke Stienstra, Ron A Wevers, Cees J Tack, Jolein Gloerich, Alain J van Gool
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity can lead to adipose tissue inflammation, which causes insulin resistance and on the long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The inflammatory changes of obese-adipose tissue are characterized by macrophage infiltration and activation, but validated circulating biomarkers for adipose tissue inflammation for clinical use are still lacking. One of the most secreted enzymes by activated macrophages is chitotriosidase (CHIT1). OBJECTIVE: To test whether circulating CHIT1 enzymatic activity levels reflect adipose tissue inflammation...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301967/temporal-immmunometabolic-profiling-of-adipose-tissue-in-hfd-induced-obesity-manifestations-of-mast-cells-in-fibrosis-and-senescence
#11
Durgesh Kumar, Sanket Kumar Pandya, Salil Varshney, Kripa Shankar, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Sanchita Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Amit Misra, Anil N Gaikwad
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic low-grade inflammation/meta-inflammation in adipose tissue leads to obesity-associated metabolic complications. Despite growing understanding, the roles of immune cell subsets, their interrelationship, and chronological events leading to progression of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) remains unclear. METHODS: We carried out temporal immunometabolic profiling of adipose tissue from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301966/genetic-background-influences-weight-loss-trajectories-on-the-mid-term-after-bariatric-surgery
#12
Laura Boswell, Amanda Jiménez, Emilio Ortega, Adriana Pané, Ana de Hollanda, Violeta Moizé, Alba Andreu, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Lilliam Flores, Josep Vidal
Bariatric surgery (BS) is a highly effective therapy for morbid obesity, yet with a wide inter-individual variability on weight-loss responses. To determine genetic influence on weight loss after BS we compared the within-pairs difference in maximum percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) and the within-pairs %EWL differences over a mean follow-up of 53.6 ± 36.4 months between 47 pairs of first-degree relatives and 47 genetically unrelated control pairs. Within-pairs maximum %EWL difference was similar between first-degree related pairs and control pairs (p = 0...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301965/information-bias-in-measures-of-self-reported-physical-activity
#13
LETTER
Stephanie Folley, Ang Zhou, Elina Hyppönen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301964/interventions-for-treating-children-and-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#14
Louisa J Ells, Karen Rees, Tamara Brown, Emma Mead, Lena Al-Khudairy, Liane Azevedo, Grant J McGeechan, Louise Baur, Emma Loveman, Heather Clements, Pura Rayco-Solon, Nathalie Farpour-Lambert, Alessandro Demaio
Children and adolescents with overweight and obesity are a global health concern. This is an integrative overview of six Cochrane systematic reviews, providing an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence examining interventions for the treatment of children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. The data extraction and quality assessments for each review were conducted by one author and checked by a second. The six high quality reviews provide evidence on the effectiveness of behaviour changing interventions conducted in children <6 years (7 trials), 6-11 years (70 trials), adolescents 12-17 years (44 trials) and interventions that target only parents of children aged 5-11 years (20 trials); in addition to interventions examining surgery (1 trial) and drugs (21 trials)...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301963/levels-of-adherence-needed-to-achieve-significant-weight-loss
#15
Craig A Johnston, Jennette P Moreno, Daphne C Hernandez, Brittany A Link, Tzu-An Chen, Alexis C Wojtanowski, Gary D Foster, John P Foreyt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Positive associations have been found between adherence and weight loss in behavioral weight-management interventions. However, less attention has been given to the level of adherence needed to reach clinically significant weight loss. This study examined the levels of adherence associated with a ≥ 5% - < 10% or ≥ 10% weight loss in a community-based, intensive behavioral weight management program, Weight Watchers® (WW), which included three modes of access: (1) 24-weekly WW meetings over 6 months, (2) the WW member website, and (3) the WW mobile application...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301962/high-fat-diet-consumption-alters-energy-metabolism-in-the-mouse-hypothalamus
#16
Blanca Lizarbe, Antoine Cherix, João M N Duarte, Jean-René Cardinaux, Rolf Gruetter
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: High-fat diet consumption is known to trigger an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus, which has been characterized by an initial expression of pro-inflammatory genes followed by hypothalamic astrocytosis, microgliosis, and the appearance of neuronal injury markers. The specific effects of high-fat diet on hypothalamic energy metabolism and neurotransmission are however not yet known and have not been investigated before. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used 1 H and 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and immunofluorescence techniques to evaluate in vivo the consequences of high-saturated fat diet administration to mice, and explored the effects on hypothalamic metabolism in three mouse cohorts at different time points for up to 4 months...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301961/obesity-associated-family-with-sequence-similarity-13-member-a-fam13a-is-dispensable-for-adipose-development-and-insulin-sensitivity
#17
Jiazhen Tang, Hongyi Zhou, Khushboo Sahay, Wenqiong Xu, Jing Yang, Wei Zhang, Weiqin Chen
BACKGROUND: Obesity and its associated morbidities represent the major and most rapidly expanding world-wide health epidemic. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reveal that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant in the Family with Sequence Similarity 13, Member A (FAM13A) gene is strongly associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) with adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (WHRadjBMI). However, the function of FAM13A in adipose development and obesity remains largely uncharacterized...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301960/necessity-for-a-paradigm-shift-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-obesity
#18
EDITORIAL
J C Han, R L Atkinson, I A Macdonald, A Pietrobelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283080/fluorescent-blood-brain-barrier-tracing-shows-intact-leptin-transport-in-obese-mice
#19
Luke Harrison, Sonja C Schriever, Annette Feuchtinger, Eleni Kyriakou, Peter Baumann, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Ana C Messias, Axel Walch, Matthias H Tschöp, Paul T Pfluger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals carrying loss-of-function gene mutations for the adipocyte hormone leptin are morbidly obese, but respond favorably to replacement therapy. Recombinant leptin is however largely ineffective for the vast majority of obese individuals due to leptin resistance. One theory underlying leptin resistance is impaired leptin transport across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Here, we aim to gain new insights into the mechanisms of leptin BBB transport, and its role in leptin resistance...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283079/sugar-sweetened-beverage-intake-and-relative-weight-gain-among-south-african-adults-living-in-resource-poor-communities-longitudinal-data-from-the-stop-sa-study
#20
K J Okop, E V Lambert, O Alaba, N S Levitt, A Luke, L Dugas, Dover Rvh, J Kroff, L K Micklesfield, T L Kolbe-Alexander, Smit Warren, H Dugmore, K Bobrow, F A Odunitan-Wayas, T Puoane
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the prospective association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption and change in body weight over a 4-5-year period in a socio-economically disadvantaged South African population. METHODS: This is a longitudinal study involving 800 adults (212 men, 588 women); 247 from the original METS (Modelling the Epidemiological Transition Study) cohort (N = 504) and 553 of the original 949 members of the PURE (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology) Study...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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