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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206338/visceral-fat-related-systemic-inflammation-and-the-adolescent-brain-a-mediating-role-of-circulating-glycerophosphocholines
#1
Catriona Syme, Stephanie Pelletier, Jean Shin, Michal Abrahamowicz, Gabriel Leonard, Michel Perron, Louis Richer, Suzanne Veillette, Daniel Gaudet, Bruce Pike, Lisa J Strug, Yun Wang, Hongbin Xu, Graeme Taylor, Steffany Bennett, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova
OBJECTIVE: Life-long maintenance of brain health is important for the prevention of cognitive impairment in older age. Low-grade peripheral inflammation associated with excess visceral fat (VF) may influence brain structure and function. Here we examined (i) if this type of inflammation is associated with altered white-matter (WM) microstructure and lower cognitive functioning in adolescents, and (ii) if recently identified circulating glycerophosphocholines (GPCs) can index this type of inflammation and associated variations in WM microstructure and cognitive functioning...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206337/adipose-tissue-tsh-as-a-new-modulator-of-human-adipocyte-mitochondrial-function
#2
Ferran Comas, Aina Lluch, Mònica Sabater, Jèssica Latorre, Francisco Ortega, Wifredo Ricart, Miguel López, José Manuel Fernández-Real, José María Moreno-Navarrete
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent studies indicate a possible role of TSH/TSHR signalling axis on adipogenesis and adipose tissue physiology. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue TSHB and adipose tissue physiology-related gene expression. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue TSHB gene expression was analysed in two independent cohorts [Cohort1 (N = 96) and Cohort2 (N = 45)] and after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss [Cohort3 (N = 22)]...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206336/salt-in-stools-is-associated-with-obesity-gut-halophilic-microbiota-and-akkermansia-muciniphila-depletion-in-humans
#3
E H Seck, B Senghor, V Merhej, D Bachar, F Cadoret, C Robert, E I Azhar, M Yasir, F Bibi, A A Jiman-Fatani, D S Konate, D Musso, O Doumbo, C Sokhna, A Levasseur, J C Lagier, S Khelaifia, M Million, D Raoult
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: High salt intake has been linked to several diseases including obesity and an increased risk of death; however, fecal salinity and the ability of salt to alter the gut microbiota, which was recently identified as an instrumental factor for health and disease, remains poorly explored. METHODS/SUBJECTS: We analyzed the fecal samples of 1326 human individuals for salinity by refractometry, 572 for gut microbiota by culturomics, and 164 by 16S rRNA-targeted metagenomics...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206335/effects-of-intermittent-versus-continuous-dieting-on-weight-and-body-composition-in-obese-and-overweight-people-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Yuani M Roman, Mariah C Dominguez, Tommy M Easow, Vinay Pasupuleti, C Michael White, Adrian V Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Intermittent dieting may be an alternative to continuous dieting for weight reduction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intermittent dieting versus continuous dieting on weight and body composition in overweight or obese adults. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five databases were searched until February 2018 for RCTs comparing intermittent versus continuous dieting. Intermittent dieting consisted of two types: regular intermittent was caloric restriction interspersed with days of weight maintenance or ad libitum eating; intensified intermittent was caloric restriction interspersed with days of even lower caloric restriction...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206334/does-a-parsimonious-measure-of-complex-body-mass-index-trajectories-exist
#5
Rebeccah L Sokol, Nisha C Gottfredson, Jennifer M Poti, Carolyn T Halpern, Meghan E Shanahan, Edwin B Fisher, Susan T Ennett
BACKGROUND: A single measure that distills complex body mass index (BMI) trajectories into one value could facilitate otherwise complicated analyses. This study creates and assesses the validity of such a measure: average excess BMI. METHODS: We use data from Waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 17,669). We calculate average excess BMI by integrating to find the area above a healthy BMI trajectory and below each subject-specific trajectory and divide this value by total study time...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206333/prospective-associations-between-social-vulnerabilities-and-children-s-weight-status-results-from-the-idefics-study
#6
Isabel Iguacel, Juan M Fernández-Alvira, Wolfgang Ahrens, Karin Bammann, Wencke Gwozdz, Lauren Lissner, Nathalie Michels, Lucia Reisch, Paola Russo, Aliz Szommer, Michael Tornaritis, Toomas Veidebaum, Claudia Börnhorst, Luis A Moreno
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In high-income countries, childhood obesity follows a clear socioeconomic gradient with greater prevalence in children with lower socioeconomic status (SES). The extent to which the trend of other social vulnerabilities over time and the accumulation of these vulnerabilities can affect children's weight is still unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the IDEFICS study, 8624 children aged 2.0-9.9 years from eight European countries were examined at baseline and after 2 years...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206332/determinants-of-leptin-in-human-breast-milk-results-of-the-ulm-spatz-health-study
#7
Chad A Logan, Wolfgang Koenig, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Jon Genuneit
BACKGROUND: Leptin in human breast milk has been implicated as a potential regulator of early-life metabolic programming. We comprehensively investigated the influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and non-adiposity associated determinants on breast milk leptin concentration at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year postpartum. METHODS: The Ulm SPATZ Health Study consists of 1006 newborns and their mothers recruited from the general population in the University Medical Center Ulm, Southern Germany, in 2012/2013...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185922/the-esrc-strategic-network-for-obesity-tackling-obesity-with-big-data
#8
EDITORIAL
Michelle A Morris, Mark Birkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185921/brown-adipose-tissue-in-prepubertal-children-associations-with-sex-birthweight-and-metabolic-profile
#9
Rita Malpique, José Miguel Gallego-Escuredo, Giorgia Sebastiani, Joan Villarroya, Abel López-Bermejo, Francis de Zegher, Francesc Villarroya, Lourdes Ibáñez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals born small-for-gestational age (SGA), especially those who experience postnatal catch-up growth, are at increased risk for developing endocrine-metabolic abnormalities before puberty. In adults, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been associated with protection against metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidaemia. Here, we assessed for the first time whether BAT activation differs between prepubertal children born SGA or appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA)...
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185920/functional-imagery-training-versus-motivational-interviewing-for-weight-loss-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-brief-individual-interventions-for-overweight-and-obesity
#10
Linda Solbrig, Ben Whalley, David J Kavanagh, Jon May, Tracey Parkin, Ray Jones, Jackie Andrade
OBJECTIVE: Functional Imagery Training (FIT) is a new brief motivational intervention based on the Elaborated Intrusion theory of desire. FIT trains the habitual use of personalised, affective, goal-directed mental imagery to plan behaviours, anticipate obstacles, and mentally try out solutions from previous successes. It is delivered in the client-centred style of Motivational Interviewing (MI). We tested the impact of FIT on weight loss, compared with time- and contact-matched MI. DESIGN: We recruited 141 adults with BMI (kg/m²) ≥25, via a community newspaper, to a single-centre randomised controlled trial...
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181655/revisiting-the-united-states-army-body-composition-standards-a-receiver-operating-characteristic-analysis
#11
Russell Nelson, Johnathan Cheatham, Dympna Gallagher, Kevin Bigelman, Diana M Thomas
BACKGROUND: The objective for percent body fat standards in the United States Army Body Composition Program (ABCP) is to ensure soldiers maintain optimal well-being and performance under all conditions. However, conducting large-scale experiments within the United States Army to evaluate the efficacy of the thresholds is challenging. METHODS: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with corresponding area under the curve (AUC) was performed on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to determine optimal gender-specific age cohort thresholds that meet ABCP percent body fat standards in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III...
September 4, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181654/gestational-diabetes-and-offspring-s-growth-from-birth-to-6-years-old
#12
Jing Wang, Lei Pan, Enqing Liu, Hongyan Liu, Jin Liu, Shuting Wang, Jia Guo, Nan Li, Cuilin Zhang, Gang Hu
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the children's body mass index (BMI) growth between offspring exposed to maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those not exposed, and assess the associations between maternal hyperglycemia and their offspring's overweight risk from 1 to 6 years of age. METHODS: Using the healthcare records data from the Tianjin Maternal and Child Healthcare System, we conducted a population-based cohort study, which is composed of 27,155 mother-child pairs with all mothers undergoing GDM screening test in pregnancy...
September 4, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181653/detailed-assessment-of-hypothalamic-damage-in-craniopharyngioma-patients-with-obesity
#13
S Fjalldal, C Follin, S Gabery, P C Sundgren, I M Björkman-Burtscher, J Lätt, P Mannfolk, C H Nordström, L Rylander, B Ekman, R Cheong, A Pålsson, Å Petersén, E M Erfurth
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Hypothalamic obesity (HO) occurs in 50% of patients with the pituitary tumor craniopharyngioma (CP). Attempts have been made to predict the risk of HO based on hypothalamic (HT) damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but none have included volumetry. We performed qualitative and quantitative volumetric analyses of HT damage. The results were explored in relation to feeding related peptides and body fat. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study of childhood onset CPs involving 3 Tesla MRI, was performed at median 22 years after first operation; 41 CPs, median age 35 (range: 17-56), of whom 23 had HT damage, were compared to 32 controls...
September 4, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181652/bmi-does-not-capture-the-high-fat-mass-index-and-low-fat-free-mass-index-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-and-proposed-statistical-models-that-improve-this-accuracy
#14
Daniel G Whitney, Freeman Miller, Ryan T Pohlig, Christopher M Modlesky
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for having a misclassified overweight/obesity status based on BMI thresholds due to their lower fat-free mass and similar fat mass compared with typically developing children. The primary objective was to determine if BMI could predict fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) in children with CP. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Forty-two children with CP and 42 typically developing children matched to children with CP for age and sex participated in the study...
September 4, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158567/duration-and-stability-of-metabolically-healthy-obesity-over-30-years
#15
Sarah M Camhi, Aviva Must, Philimon N Gona, Arlene Hankinson, Andrew Odegaard, Jared Reis, Erica P Gunderson, David R Jacobs, Mercedes R Carnethon
BACKGROUND: Obese adults who are free from metabolic risk factors may develop risk factors over time. Our objective was to characterize development of obesity and duration of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) over 30 years. METHODS: Participants in CARDIA who developed obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ) at follow-up exams during years 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 were analyzed. MHO was defined as obese and having 0 or 1 risk factor: ≥SBP/DBP 130/85 mmHg; fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL/5...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127463/metabolic-markers-regional-adiposity-and-adipose-cell-size-relationship-to-insulin-resistance-in-african-american-as-compared-with-caucasian-women
#16
Candice Allister-Price, Colleen M Craig, Dan Spielman, Samuel S Cushman, Tracey L McLaughlin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: African-American women have the greatest prevalence of obesity in the United States, and higher rates of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian women, yet paradoxically lower plasma triglycerides (TG), visceral fat and intrahepatic fat, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Visceral fat has not been evaluated against insulin resistance in African-American women, and TG/HDL-cholesterol has been criticized as a poor biomarker for insulin resistance in mixed-sex African-American populations...
August 20, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120431/repeat-length-variations-in-polyglutamine-disease-associated-genes-affect-body-mass-index
#17
Sarah L Gardiner, Renée de Mutsert, Stella Trompet, Merel W Boogaard, Ko Willems van Dijk, P J Wouter Jukema, P Eline Slagboom, Raymund A C Roos, Hanno Pijl, Frits R Rosendaal, N Ahmad Aziz
BACKGROUND: The worldwide prevalence of obesity, a major risk factor for numerous debilitating chronic disorders, is increasing rapidly. Although a substantial amount of the variation in body mass index (BMI) is estimated to be heritable, the largest meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to date explained only ~2.7% of the variation. To tackle this 'missing heritability' problem of obesity, here we focused on the contribution of DNA repeat length polymorphisms which are not detectable by GWAS...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120430/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-weight-height-and-body-mass-index-from-birth-to-5-years
#18
M Ballon, J Botton, M A Charles, S Carles, B de Lauzon-Guillain, A Forhan, A J Cameron, B Heude, S Lioret
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Studies in high-income countries show that despite the positive association of weight with socioeconomic position at birth, an inverse socioeconomic gradient in overweight (OW) appears later in childhood. The objectives were to understand the natural history of socioeconomic inequalities in weight, height and body mass index (BMI), by investigating their associations with maternal educational level between birth and 5 years, separately in boys and girls. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A published work of growth modelling between birth and 5 years allowed us to calculate predicted weight, height and BMI at 1 month, 6 months, 1, 3 and 5 years for 1735 children from the French EDEN mother-child cohort...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120429/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-a-cohort-of-significantly-obese-women-without-cardiometabolic-diseases
#19
Karen A Schlauch, Doina Kulick, Krishnamurthy Subramanian, Kenny L De Meirleir, András Palotás, Vincent C Lombardi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia; however, a small number of individuals with long-standing obesity do not present with these cardiometabolic diseases. Such individuals are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and potentially represent a subgroup of the general population with a protective genetic predisposition to obesity-related diseases. We hypothesized that individuals who were metabolically healthy, but significantly obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 ) would represent a highly homogenous subgroup, with which to investigate potential genetic associations to obesity...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120428/predictive-utility-of-childhood-anthropometric-measures-on-adult-glucose-homeostasis-measures-a-20-year-cohort-study
#20
Feitong Wu, Valentina Ho, Brooklyn J Fraser, Michael D Schmidt, Terence Dwyer, Alison J Venn, Costan G Magnussen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Childhood body mass index (BMI) predicts adult glucose homeostasis measures and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but little is known about the predictive utility of other anthropometric measures in childhood. We aimed to identify the anthropometric measure in childhood that best predicts adult glucose homeostasis measures and examine if the combination of additional anthropometric measures further improves predictive utility. METHODS: A 20-year follow-up of children participating in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (n = 2345, aged 7-15 years at baseline)...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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