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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344346/choroid-plexus-aquaporin-1-and-intracranial-pressure-are-increased-in-obese-rats-towards-an-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-model
#1
M Uldall, D K Bhatt, C Kruuse, M Juhler, I Jansen-Olesen, R Jensen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) without identifiable cause. The majority of IIH patients are obese, which suggests a connection between ICP and obesity. The aim of the study was to compare ICP in lean and obese rats. We also aimed to clarify if any ICP difference could be attributed to changes in some well-known ICP modulators; retinol and arterial partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Another potential explanation could be differences in water transport across the choroid plexus (CP) epithelia, and thus we furthermore investigated expression profiles of aquaporin 1 and Na/K ATPase...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344345/gastric-bypass-surgery-with-exercise-alters-plasma-micrornas-that-predict-improvements-in-cardiometabolic-risk
#2
Y O N Lopez, P M Coen, B H Goodpaster, A A Seyhan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery improves insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-cell function in obese non-diabetic subjects. Exercise also improves SI and may be an effective adjunct therapy to RYGB surgery. However, the mechanisms by which exercise or weight-loss improve peripheral SI after RYGB surgery are unclear. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate at least some of the regulatory processes driving such mechanisms. Consequently, this work aimed at profiling plasma miRNAs in participants of the Physical Activity Following Surgery Induced Weight Loss study (clinicaltrials...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337030/prenatal-steroid-administration-leads-to-adult-pericardial-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-male-baboons
#3
A H Kuo, J Li, C Li, H F Huber, M Schwab, P W Nathanielsz, G D Clarke
Developmental programming studies indicate that glucocorticoids modify fetal development. We hypothesized that administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) betamethasone to pregnant baboons at doses and stages of fetal life equivalent to human obstetric practice to decrease premature offspring morbidity and mortality, programs lipid metabolism. In 10-year-old male baboons (human equivalent 40) exposed in fetal life to betamethasone or saline, we quantified pericardial fat and hepatic lipid content with magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337029/the-impact-of-protein-quantity-during-energy-restriction-on-genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-humans
#4
I P G Van Bussel, E M P Backx, C P G M De Groot, M Tieland, M Müller, L A Afman
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a growing health problem worldwide. The most effective strategy to reduce weight is energy restriction (ER). ER has been shown to be beneficial in disease prevention and it reduces chronic inflammation. Recent studies suggest that reducing the protein quantity of a diet contributes to the beneficial effects by ER. The organ most extensively affected during ER is white adipose tissue (WAT). OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to assess changes in gene expression between a high protein diet and a normal protein diet during ER...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337028/modifiable-risk-factors-of-maternal-postpartum-weight-retention-an-analysis-of-their-combined-impact-and-potential-opportunities-for-prevention
#5
J L Hollis, S R Crozier, H M Inskip, C Cooper, K M Godfrey, N C Harvey, C E Collins, S M Robinson
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy triggers a physiological change in weight status. Postpartum weight retention in the childbearing years can substantially alter a woman's weight gain trajectory, with several potential contributing factors identified. Most research has relied on women's recall of pre-pregnancy weight during pregnancy or later, and not considered risk factors in combination. Using measured pre-pregnancy weight, this study aimed to examine the associations of maternal postpartum weight retention with parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), maternal serum vitamin D concentration and dietary Glycaemic Index in early and late pregnancy and breastfeeding duration, including analysis of the combined impact of potentially modifiable risk factors...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337027/obesity-induced-decreases-in-muscle-performance-are-not-reversed-by-weight-loss
#6
F Seebacher, J Tallis, K McShea, R S James
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity can affect muscle phenotypes, and may thereby constrain movement and energy expenditure. Weight loss is a common and intuitive intervention for obesity, but it is not known whether the effects of obesity on muscle function are reversible by weight loss. Here we tested whether obesity-induced changes in muscle metabolic and contractile phenotypes are reversible by weight loss. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a factorial design to compare energy metabolism, locomotor capacity, muscle isometric force and work-loop power output, and myosin heavy chain composition between lean fish, diet-induced obese fish, and fish that were obese and then returned to lean body mass following diet restriction...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337026/increased-glp2r-expression-in-gastric-chief-cells-of-patients-with-severe-obesity-regardless-of-diabetes-status
#7
F Li, L Lu, Y Peng, Y Zhang, J Gao, D Zhou, D Zhou, H Sheng, S Qu
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) affects multiple facets of gastrointestinal physiology and have been used to treat patients with short bowel syndrome, but the distribution of its receptor (GLP2R) in human remains poorly understood. Gastric tissue samples of non-obese patients (NOB, n=10) and obese patients without diabetes (OB, n=31) and with diabetes (OWD, n=12) were used to evaluate GLP2R expression and distribution. Immunostaining with a validated antibody, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization, showed that GLP2R expression was significantly increased in gastric chief cells in OB and OWD patients...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337025/prevalence-of-obesity-and-comorbid-eating-disorder-behaviors-in-south-australia-from-1995-to-2015
#8
F Q da Luz, A Sainsbury, H Mannan, S Touyz, D Mitchison, P Hay
BACKGROUND: Obesity and eating disorders are often studied and treated separately. Whilst the increases in obesity prevalence are well known, examination of its co-occurrence with eating disorders, a problem also of public health concern, is important because eating disorder behaviors are known to contribute to obesity onset and maintenance, and vice-versa. METHODS: Data from large cross-sectional representative statewide community samples of people in the years of 1995 (n=3001), 2005 (n=3047) and 2015 (n=3005) were analyzed...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325931/body-mass-index-adjustments-to-increase-the-validity-of-body-fatness-assessment-in-uk-black-african-and-south-asian-children
#9
M T Hudda, C M Nightingale, A S Donin, M S Fewtrell, D Haroun, S Lum, J E Williams, C G Owen, A R Rudnicka, J C K Wells, D G Cook, P H Whincup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: BMI (weight/height(2)) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for white European children. METHODS: We used data from four recent UK studies which made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of white European, South Asian and black African origins...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321132/the-outcomes-of-health-promoting-communities-being-active-eating-well-initiative-a-community-based-obesity-prevention-intervention-in-victoria-australia
#10
K A Bolton, P Kremer, L Gibbs, E Waters, B Swinburn, A de Silva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well (HPC:BAEW, 2007-2010) initiative which comprised of community-based multi-component interventions adapted to community context in five separate communities. The intervention aimed to promote healthy eating, physical activity and stronger, healthier communities. METHODS: A mixed method and multi-level quasi-experimental evaluation of the HPC:BAEW initiative captured process, impact and outcome data...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321131/does-activation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-promote-or-reduce-feeding
#11
L Boekhoudt, T J M Roelofs, J W de Jong, A E de Leeuw, M C M Luijendijk, I G Wolterink-Donselaar, G van der Plasse, R A H Adan
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced DA activity. On the other hand, psychostimulant drugs that increase DA signalling suppress food intake. This poses the questions of how endogenous DA neuronal activity regulates feeding, and whether enhancing DA neuronal activity would either promote or reduce food intake...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262677/weight-loss-after-laparoscopic-adjustable-gastric-band-and-resolution-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components
#12
G J Ooi, L Doyle, T Tie, J M Wentworth, C Laurie, A Earnest, M A Cowley, K Sikaris, C W le Roux, P R Burton, P E O'Brien, W A Brown
BACKGROUND: Substantial weight loss in the setting of obesity has considerable metabolic benefits. Yet some studies have shown improvements in obesity-related metabolic comorbidities with more modest weight loss. By closely monitoring patients undergoing bariatric surgery, we aimed to determine the effects of weight loss on the metabolic syndrome and its components and determine the weight loss required for their resolution. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of obese participants with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239165/antihypertensive-agents-do-not-prevent-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-and-cognitive-deficits-in-dietary-induced-obese-mice
#13
J C L Mamo, V Lam, C Giles, S H Coulson, N Fimognari, A Mooranian, H Al-Salami, R Takechi
BACKGROUND: While vascular risk factors including Western-styled diet and obesity are reported to induce cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, recent reports consistently suggest that compromised integrity of cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) may have an important role in neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. A number of studies report that elevated blood pressure increases the permeability of BBB. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of antihypertensive agents, candesartan or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on BBB dysfunction and cognitive decline in wild-type mice maintained on high fat and fructose (HFF) diet for 24 weeks...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239163/association-between-dna-methylation-at-socs3-gene-and-body-mass-index-might-be-due-to-familial-confounding
#14
S Li, E M Wong, M C Southey, J L Hopper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239162/time-trends-and-factors-in-body-mass-index-and-obesity-among-children-in-china-1997-2011
#15
H Wang, H Xue, S Du, J Zhang, Y Wang, B Zhang
BACKGROUND: Research on the shift in children's body mass index (BMI) distribution is limited and conditional mean models used in the previous research have limitations in capturing cross-distribution variations in effects. The objectives are to analyze the shift in Chinese children's BMI distribution and to test the associations between BMI distribution and other factors. METHODS: We analyzed data collected from children 7 to 17 years old from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011, from 2814 participants with 6799 observations...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220041/butyrate-restores-hfd-induced-adaptations-in-brain-function-and-metabolism-in-mid-adult-obese-mice
#16
I A C Arnoldussen, M Wiesmann, C E Pelgrim, E M Wielemaker, W van Duyvenvoorde, P L Amaral-Santos, L Verschuren, B J F Keijser, A Heerschap, R Kleemann, P Y Wielinga, A J Kiliaan
OBJECTIVE: Midlife obesity affects cognition and increases risk of developing dementia. Recent data suggest that intake of the short chain fatty acid butyrate could improve memory function, and may protect against diet-induced obesity by reducing body weight and adiposity. SUBJECTS: We examined the impact of a high-fat diet (HFD) followed by intervention with 5% (w/w) dietary butyrate, on metabolism, microbiota, brain function and structure in the low-density-lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mouse model in mid and late life...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220040/associations-between-physical-activity-and-bmi-body-fatness-and-visceral-adiposity-in-overweight-or-obese-latino-and-non-latino-adults
#17
N Cameron, J Godino, J F Nichols, D Wing, L Hill, K Patrick
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have reported associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), body fatness and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the extent to which associations differ among Latinos and non-Latinos remains unclear. This study evaluated the associations between body composition and MVPA in Latino and non-Latino adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An exploratory, cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline data collected from 298 overweight adults enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial that tested the efficacy of text messaging to improve weight loss...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220039/hormone-signaling-and-fatty-liver-in-females-analysis-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mutant-mice
#18
S Hart-Unger, Y Arao, K J Hamilton, S L Lierz, D E Malarkey, S C Hewitt, M Freemark, K S Korach
BACKGROUND: Treatment with estrogen in early menopausal women protects against development of hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but estrogen has undesirable side effects, which negate its beneficial effects in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Targeted therapies require better understanding of the target sites and mechanisms by which estrogen signaling exerts its protective effects in women. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is thought to be the primary mediator for estrogen signaling to protect against hepatic steatosis...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293021/the-development-of-scientific-evidence-for-health-policies-for-obesity-why-and-how
#19
REVIEW
M B Richardson, M S Williams, K R Fontaine, D B Allison
Potential obesity-related policy approaches have recently been receiving more attention. While some have been implemented and others only proposed, few have been formally evaluated. We discuss the relevance, and in some cases irrelevance, of some of the types of evidence that are often brought to bear in considering obesity-related policy decisions. We discuss major methods used to generate such evidence, emphasizing study design and the varying quality of the evidence obtained. Third, we consider what the standards of evidence should be in various contexts, who ought to set those standards, as well as the inherent subjectivity involved in making policy decisions...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293020/untangling-the-relationship-between-diet-and-visceral-fat-mass-through-blood-metabolomics-and-gut-microbiome-profiling
#20
T Pallister, M A Jackson, T C Martin, C A Glastonbury, A Jennings, M Beaumont, R P Mohney, K S Small, A MacGregor, C J Steves, A Cassidy, T D Spector, C Menni, A M Valdes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Higher visceral fat mass (VFM) is associated with an increased risk for developing cardio-metabolic diseases. The mechanisms by which an unhealthy diet pattern may influence VF development has yet to be examined through cutting-edge multi-omic methods. Therefore, our objective was to examine the dietary influences on VFM and identify gut microbiome and metabolite profiles that link food intakes to VFM. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In 2218 twins with VFM, food intake and metabolomics data available we identified food intakes most strongly associated with VFM in 50% of the sample, then constructed and tested the 'VFM diet score' in the remainder of the sample...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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