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Stem Cell Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333563/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-adipose-tissue-isolation-and-gene-expression-profile-of-distinct-sub-population-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#1
Mehdi Najar, Emerence Crompot, Leo A van Grunsven, Laurent Dollé, Laurence Lagneaux
Thanks to their relative abundance and easier collection, adipose tissue (AT) is considered an alternative source for the isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs have great therapeutic values and are thus under investigations for several clinical indications such as regenerative medicine and immunomodulation. In this work, we aimed to identify, isolate and characterize AT-MSCs based on their aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity known to be a classical feature of stem cells. FACS technology allowed to isolate two different populations of AT-MSCs according to their ALDH activity (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH-)...
January 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305755/creation-of-dystrophin-expressing-chimeric-cells-of-myoblast-origin-as-a-novel-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#2
M Siemionow, J Cwykiel, A Heydemann, J Garcia-Martinez, K Siemionow, E Szilagyi
Over the past decade different stem cell (SC) based approaches were tested to treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a lethal X-linked disorder caused by mutations in dystrophin gene. Despite research efforts, there is no curative therapy for DMD. Allogeneic SC therapies aim to restore dystrophin in the affected muscles; however, they are challenged by rejection and limited engraftment. Thus, there is a need to develop new more efficacious SC therapies. Chimeric Cells (CC), created via ex vivo fusion of donor and recipient cells, represent a promising therapeutic option for tissue regeneration and Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) due to tolerogenic properties that eliminate the need for lifelong immunosuppression...
January 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285667/epigenetic-erasing-and-pancreatic-differentiation-of-dermal-fibroblasts-into-insulin-producing-cells-are-boosted-by-the-use-of-low-stiffness-substrate
#3
Georgia Pennarossa, Rosaria Santoro, Elena F M Manzoni, Maurizio Pesce, Fulvio Gandolfi, Tiziana A L Brevini
Several studies have demonstrated the possibility to revert differentiation process, reactivating hypermethylated genes and facilitating cell transition to a different lineage. Beside the epigenetic mechanisms driving cell conversion processes, growing evidences highlight the importance of mechanical forces in supporting cell plasticity and boosting differentiation. Here, we describe epigenetic erasing and conversion of dermal fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells (EpiCC), and demonstrate that the use of a low-stiffness substrate positively influences these processes...
December 28, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273868/involvement-of-tlr3-dependent-pges-expression-in-immunosuppression-by-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Dae Seong Kim, Whi Hyeong Lee, Myoung Woo Lee, Hyun Jin Park, In Keun Jang, Ji Won Lee, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Keon Hee Yoo
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known for their prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated immunosuppressive function but the precise molecular mechanisms underlying PGE2 biosynthesis during inflammation have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the involvement of PGE2 pathway members in PGE2 production by bone marrow (BM)-MSCs in response to inflammatory stimuli, and their role in immunosuppression mediated by BM-MSCs. We found that IFN-γ and TNF-α increased cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression but not that of prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), or PGE2 production...
December 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270820/stem-cell-transplantation-and-physical-exercise-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-literature-review-of-human-and-animal-studies
#5
REVIEW
Jaison Daniel Cucarián Hurtado, Jenny Paola Berrío Sánchez, Ramiro Barcos Nunes, Alcyr Alves de Oliveira
The absence of effective and satisfactory treatments that contribute to repairing the dopaminergic damage caused by Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the limited recovery capacity of the nervous system are troubling issues and the focus of many research and clinical domains. Recent advances in the treatment of PD through stem cell (SC) therapy have recognized their promising restorative and neuroprotective effects that are implicated in the potentiation of endogenous mechanisms of repair and contribute to functional locomotor improvement...
December 21, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256173/gene-network-analysis-of-interstitial-macrophages-after-treatment-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-secretome-ipsc-cm-in-the-bleomycin-injured-rat-lung
#6
Luca Tamò, Cedric Simillion, Youssef Hibaoui, Anis Feki, Mathias Gugger, Antje Prasse, Benedikt Jäger, Torsten Goldmann, Thomas Geiser, Amiq Gazdhar
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease involving various cell types. Macrophages are essential in maintenance of physiological homeostasis, wound repair and fibrosis in the lung. Macrophages play a crucial role in repair and remodeling by altering their phenotype and secretory pattern in response to injury. The secretome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-cm) attenuates injury and fibrosis in bleomycin injured rat lungs. In the current study, we evaluate the effect of iPSC-cm on gene expression and phenotype of interstitial macrophage in bleomycin injured rat lungs in vivo...
December 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247345/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-carrying-fancd2-mutation-differ-from-the-other-fanconi-anemia-complementation-groups-in-terms-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-production
#7
Ilgin Cagnan, Aysen Gunel-Ozcan, Fatima Aerts-Kaya, Najim Ameziane, Baris Kuskonmaz, Josephine Dorsman, Fatma Gumruk, Duygu Uckan
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) secretion from cells in the bone marrow (BM) niche affects hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fate and has a cardinal role in HSC quiescence. BM mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), a component of the BM niche, may produce abnormal levels of TGF-β in Fanconi anemia (FA) and may play a role in bone marrow failure. Here, we molecularly and cellularly characterized FA BM-MSCs by addressing their immunophenotype, proliferation- and differentiation- capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, senescence activity as well as expression and secretion levels of TGF-β isoforms...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243108/identification-of-a-novel-high-yielding-source-of-multipotent-adult-human-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells
#8
Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Marlena Bütow, Johannes Greiner, Anna Höving, Christian Kaltschmidt, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Due to their extraordinarily broad differentiation potential and persistence during adulthood, adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are highly promising candidates for clinical applications, particularly when facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or complex craniofacial injuries. Successful application of human NCSCs in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical research mainly relies on the availability of sufficient amounts of tissue for cell isolation procedures. Facing this challenge, we here describe for the first time a novel population of NCSCs within the middle turbinate of the human nasal cavity...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238913/phthalazinone-pyrazole-enhances-the-hepatic-functions-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells-via-suppression-of-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#9
Young-Jun Choi, Hyemin Kim, Ji-Woo Kim, Chang-Woo Song, Dae-Sung Kim, Seokjoo Yoon, Han-Jin Park
During liver development, nonpolarized hepatic progenitor cells differentiate into mature hepatocytes with distinct polarity. This polarity is essential for maintaining the intrinsic properties of hepatocytes. The balance between the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) plays a decisive role in differentiation of polarized hepatocytes. In this study, we found that phthalazinone pyrazole (PP), a selective inhibitor of Aurora-A kinase (Aurora-A), suppressed the EMT during the differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from human embryonic stem cells...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214379/dual-contribution-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-employed-for-tissue-engineering-of-peripheral-nerves-trophic-activity-and-differentiation-into-connective-tissue-cells
#10
F Evaristo-Mendonça, A Carrier-Ruiz, R de Siqueira-Santos, R M P Campos, B Rangel, T H Kasai-Brunswick, V T Ribeiro-Resende
Adult peripheral nerves in vertebrates can regrow their axons and re-establish function after crush lesion. However, when there is extensive loss of a nerve segment, due to an accident or compressive damage caused by tumors, regeneration is strongly impaired. In order to overcome this problem, bioengineering strategies have been employed, using biomaterials formed by key cell types combined with biodegradable polymers. Many of these strategies are successful, and regenerated nerve tissue can be observed 12 weeks after the implantation...
December 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188439/a-fully-closed-and-automated-hollow-fiber-bioreactor-for-clinical-grade-manufacturing-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells
#11
LETTER
Amanda Mizukami, Mario Soares de Abreu Neto, Francisco Moreira, Ana Fernandes-Platzgummer, Yi-Feng Huang, William Milligan, Joaquim M S Cabral, Cláudia L da Silva, Dimas T Covas, Kamilla Swiech
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185191/delivery-of-exogenous-mir-124-to-glioblastoma-multiform-cells-by-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-migration-and-confers-chemosensitivity
#12
S Sharif, M H Ghahremani, M Soleimani
MicroRNAs (miRs) are potential therapeutic targets in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the difficulties associated with their delivery to tumor target cells have hampered their widespread use. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can migrate to the sites of cancers, including GBM and exert anti-tumor effects. In this study, it is shown that Wharton's jelly-MSCs (WJ-MSCs) have the ability to deliver exogenous miRs to GBM cells and the functional impact of this delivery is characterized. It is found that the labeled miR-124, as an example for miR of interest, can be successfully delivered with WJ-MSCs to U87 GBM cells via dependent or exosome-independent processes...
November 28, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185190/do-vascular-mural-cells-possess-endogenous-plasticity-in-vivo
#13
LETTER
Philipp Wörsdörfer, Süleyman Ergün
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181780/3d-models-of-insulin-producing-%C3%AE-cells-from-primary-islet-cells-to-stem-cell-derived-islets
#14
REVIEW
Diana Ribeiro, Alexander J Kvist, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Ryan Hicks, Anna Forslöw
There is a need for physiologically relevant assay platforms to provide functionally relevant models of diabetes, to accelerate the discovery of new treatment options and boost developments in drug discovery. In this review, we compare several 3D-strategies that have been used to increase the functional relevance of ex vivo human primary pancreatic islets and developments into the generation of stem cell derived pancreatic beta-cells (β-cells). Special attention will be given to recent approaches combining the use of extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds with pancreatic molecular memory, which can be used to improve yield and functionality of in vitro stem cell-derived pancreatic models...
November 27, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177796/molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-involved-in-mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-therapy-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Bojana Simovic Markovic, Tatjana Kanjevac, C Randall Harrell, Marina Gazdic, Crissy Fellabaum, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising resource for the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) on the grounds of their differentiation capabilities and immuno-modulatory characteristics. Results of clinical studies indicate that local application of MSCs is a secure and beneficial approach for the treatment of perianal fistulas while systemic application of MSCs leads to the attenuation or aggravation of IBDs. Herein, we emphasized molecular mechanisms and approaches that should improve efficacy of MSC-based therapy of IBDs...
November 25, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177909/stem-cells-and-progenitors-in-human-peripheral-blood-get-activated-by-extremely-active-resveratrol-xar%C3%A2
#16
Vinaykumar Tripathi, Sagar Chhabria, Vaibhav Jadhav, Deepa Bhartiya, Ashish Tripathi
Resveratrol generated enormous interest as it improved functions of multiple organs and could delay aging in animal models. However, basic mechanism of action was not understood and due to poor bioavailability, it has failed to enter the market. A highly active nano-formulation of resveratrol (XAR™) with enhanced bioavailability is now available. Present study was undertaken to evaluate its effects on stem cells biology in the human peripheral blood. Twelve healthy participants were enrolled of which five received XAR™, five were age-matched placebo controls and two were 76 and 85 years old...
November 24, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168113/dynamics-of-bone-marrow-vsels-and-hscs-in-response-to-treatment-with-gonadotropin-and-steroid-hormones-during-pregnancy-and-evidence-to-support-their-asymmetric-symmetric-cell-divisions
#17
Ranita Ganguly, Sidhanath Metkari, Deepa Bhartiya
Gender plays an important role in the incidence of hematological malignancies and recently hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were found to proliferate more in females that gets further augmented during pregnancy. It was suggested that since basal numbers of HSCs remain the same in both sexes, possibly HSCs in females undergo increased self-renewal and apoptosis. Then how is self-renewal of stem cells regulated in males? More important, do HSCs undergo asymmetric cell divisions (ACD) or a more primitive population of pluripotent, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) undergo ACD to self-renew and specify into HSCs? Lot more clarity is required on the bone marrow stem cells biology...
November 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143183/micrornas-important-regulators-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-generation-and-differentiation
#18
REVIEW
Zhao-Lin Zeng, Xiao-Long Lin, Li-Lan Tan, Ya-Mi Liu, Kai Qu, Zuo Wang
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into nearly all types of cells. In contrast to embryonic stem cells, iPS cells are not subject to immune rejection because they are derived from a patient's own cells without ethical concerns. These cells can be used in regenerative medical techniques, stem cell therapy, disease modelling and drug discovery investigations. However, this application faces many challenges, such as low efficiency, slow generation time, partially reprogrammed colonies and tumourigenicity...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143182/noncoding-rnas-in-the-regulation-of-pluripotency-and-reprogramming
#19
REVIEW
Vladimir V Sherstyuk, Sergey P Medvedev, Suren M Zakian
Pluripotent stem cells have great potential for developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Embryonic stem cells, which are obtained from blastocysts, and induced pluripotent stem cells, which are generated by the reprogramming of somatic cells, are two main types of pluripotent cells. It is important to understand the regulatory network that controls the pluripotency state and reprogramming process. Various types of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as substantial components of regulatory networks...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134474/familial-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency-clinical-cytological-and-genetic-characterization
#20
LETTER
Lubica Dudakova, Sek-Shir Cheong, Stanislava Reinstein Merjava, Pavlina Skalicka, Marcela Michalickova, Michalis Palos, Gabriela Mahelkova, Deli Krizova, Martin Hlozanek, Marie Trkova, Jena L Chojnowski, Enkela Hrdlickova, Nikolas Pontikos, Vincent Plagnol, Viera Veselá, Katerina Jirsova, Alison J Hardcastle, Martin Filipec, James D Lauderdale, Petra Liskova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
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