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Stem Cell Reviews

Lisa Hinz, Stephanie D Hoekstra, Kyoko Watanabe, Danielle Posthuma, Vivi M Heine
Generation of proper controls is crucial in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) studies. X-chromosomal disorders offer the potential to develop isogenic controls due to random X-chromosomal inactivation (XCI). However, the generation of such lines is currently hampered by skewed X-inactivation in fibroblast lines and X-chromosomal reactivation (XCR) after reprogramming. Here we describe a method to generate a pure iPSC population with respect to the specific inactivated X-chromosome (Xi). We used fibroblasts from Rett patients, who all have a causal mutation in the X-linked MeCP2 gene...
November 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Manash P Borgohain, Krishna Kumar Haridhasapavalan, Chandrima Dey, Poulomi Adhikari, Rajkumar P Thummer
More than a decade ago, a pioneering study reported generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) by ectopic expression of a cocktail of reprogramming factors in fibroblasts. This study has revolutionized stem cell research and has garnered immense interest from the scientific community globally. iPSCs hold tremendous potential for understanding human developmental biology, disease modeling, drug screening and discovery, and personalized cell-based therapeutic applications. The seminal study identified Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc as a potent combination of genes to induce reprogramming...
November 11, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Anna Pyšná, Robert Bém, Andrea Němcová, Vladimíra Fejfarová, Alexandra Jirkovská, Jitka Hazdrová, Edward B Jude, Michal Dubský
Endothelial progenitors are a population of cells with the inherent capacity to differentiate into mature endothelial cells and proangiogenic paracrine action. These characteristics have led to extensive studies being performed and tested in the treatment of tissue ischemia. The natural course of diabetes mellitus (DM) results in multiple areas of vascular damage. Thus endothelial progenitor cells'(EPCs) beneficial potential is particularly desirable in diabetic patients. In this review, we summarize contemporary knowledge of EPC biology in DM...
November 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Xiaoxiao Cai, Yunfeng Lin, Claudia C Friedrich, Craig Neville, Irina Pomerantseva, Cathryn A Sundback, Zhiyuan Zhang, Joseph P Vacanti, Peter V Hauschka, Brian E Grottkau
Please note the following errors in the original version.
November 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Georgia Pennarossa, Elena F M Manzoni, Sergio Ledda, Magda deEguileor, Fulvio Gandolfi, Tiziana A L Brevini
Phenotype definition is driven by epigenetic mechanisms as well as directly influenced by the cell microenvironment and by biophysical signals deriving from the extracellular matrix. The possibility to interact with the epigenetic signature of an adult mature cell, reversing its differentiated state and inducing a short transient high plasticity window, was previously demonstrated. In parallel, in vitro studies have shown that 3D culture systems, mimicking cell native tissue, exert significant effects on cell behavior and functions...
November 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Agata Raniszewska, Małgorzata Polubiec-Kownacka, Elzbieta Rutkowska, Joanna Domagala-Kulawik
OBJECTIVES: An immunotherapy was found to be effective in achieving long-term survival in some lung cancer patients. It has emerged to searching for new immune biomarkers for select the best candidates to this therapy. It is suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, maintenance and its metastatic potential. However, a role of CSCs in escape of cancer from immunosurveillance is unknown. The aim of the study was assess the phenotype of putative CSCs and to examine the expression of PD-L1 on CSCs in metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in lung cancer patients...
November 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Vânia Leal, Carlos Fontes Ribeiro, Bárbara Oliveiros, Natália António, Sónia Silva
Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a key role in the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis and endothelial repair at areas of vascular damage. The quantification of EPCs in peripheral blood by flow cytometry is a strategy to assess this reparative capacity. The number of circulating EPCs is inversely correlated with the number of cardiovascular risk factors and to the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Therefore, monitoring EPCs levels may provide an accurate assessment of susceptibility to cardiovascular injury, greatly improving risk stratification of patients with high cardiovascular risk, such as those with an acute myocardial infarction...
October 22, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Cecilia Granéli, Ryan Hicks, Gabriella Brolén, Jane Synnergren, Peter Sartipy
The global burden of diabetes has drastically increased over the past decades and in 2017 approximately 4 million deaths were caused by diabetes and cardiovascular complications. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common complication of diabetes with early manifestations of diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy with subsequent progression to systolic dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. An in vitro model accurately recapitulating key processes of diabetic cardiomyopathy would provide a useful tool for investigations of underlying disease mechanisms to further our understanding of the disease and thereby potentially advance treatment strategies for patients...
October 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Koya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Shree Ram Singh, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Our previous studies showed that nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, which reside in the bulge area of the hair follicle, could restore injured nerve and spinal cord and differentiate into cardiac muscle cells. Here we transplanted mouse green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HAP stem-cell colonies enclosed on polyvinylidene fluoride membranes (PFM) into the severed thoracic spinal cord of nude mice. After seven weeks of implantation, we found the differentiation of HAP stem cells into neurons and glial cells...
October 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Arash Aghajani Nargesi, Xiang-Yang Zhu, LaTonya J Hickson, Sabena M Conley, Andre J van Wijnen, Lilach O Lerman, Alfonso Eirin
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently being tested in several clinical trials. Mitochondria regulate many aspects of MSC function. Mitochondrial preproteins are rapidly translated and trafficked into the mitochondrion for assembly in their final destination, but whether coexisting cardiovascular risk factors modulate this process is unknown. We hypothesized that metabolic syndrome (MetS) modulates mitochondrial protein import in porcine MSCs. MSCs were isolated from porcine abdominal adipose tissue after 16 weeks of Lean or MetS diet (n = 5 each)...
October 18, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Janaina M Alves, Antonio H Martins, Claudiana Lameu, Talita Glaser, Nawal M Boukli, Vinicius Bassaneze, Rafael Dariolli, Isis C Nascimento, Poliana C M Martins, Héllio D N de Souza, José Eduardo Krieger, Dulce E Casarini, Vicencia M Sales, João B Pesquero, Henning Ulrich
The bioactive peptide bradykinin obtained from cleavage of precursor kininogens activates the kinin-B2 receptor functioning in induction of inflammation and vasodilatation. In addition, bradykinin participates in kidney and cardiovascular development and neuronal and muscle differentiation. Here we show that kinin-B2 receptors are expressed throughout differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. An autocrine loop between receptor activation and bradykinin secretion is suggested, since bradykinin secretion is significantly reduced in the presence of the kinin-B2 receptor antagonist HOE-140 during differentiation...
October 18, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Lihong He, Huanxiang Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising source of cell-based therapies for treatment of a wide variety of injuries and diseases. Their tropism and migration to the damaged sites, which are elicited by cytokines secreted from tissues around pathology, are the prerequisite for tissue repair and regeneration. Better understanding of the elicited-migration of MSCs and discovering conditions that elevate their migration ability, will help to increase their homing to pathologies and improve therapeutic efficacy...
October 16, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Dong Li, Xiao-Ying Zou, Ikbale El-Ayachi, Luis O Romero, Zongdong Yu, Alejandro Iglesias-Linares, Julio F Cordero-Morales, George T-J Huang
The potential of human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) including oral stem cells (OSCs) as a cell source to derive functional neurons has been inconclusive. Here we tested a number of human OSCs for their neurogenic potential compared to non-OSCs and employed various neurogenic induction methods. OSCs including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs), stem cells from apical papilla and non-OSCs including bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs), foreskin fibroblasts and dermal fibroblasts using non-neurosphere-mediated or neurosphere-mediated methods to guide them toward neuronal lineages...
October 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Ahmed Abdelbaset-Ismail, Monika Cymer, Sylwia Borkowska-Rzeszotek, Katarzyna Brzeźniakiewicz-Janus, Pranela Rameshwar, Sham S Kakar, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Bioactive phospholipids, including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and its derivative lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), have emerged as important mediators regulating the trafficking of normal and cancer cells. While the role of S1P in regulating migration of hematopoietic cells is well established, in this work we compared its biological effects to the effects of C1P, LPC, and LPA. We employed 10 human myeloid and lymphoid cell lines as well as blasts from AML patients...
October 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Victor Navarro-Tableros, Chiara Gai, Yonathan Gomez, Sara Giunti, Chiara Pasquino, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Marta Tapparo, Adriana Pitino, Ciro Tetta, Maria Felice Brizzi, Camillo Ricordi, Giovanni Camussi
A potential therapeutic strategy for diabetes is the transplantation of induced-insulin secreting cells. Based on the common embryonic origin of liver and pancreas, we studied the potential of adult human liver stem-like cells (HLSC) to generate in vitro insulin-producing 3D spheroid structures (HLSC-ILS). HLSC-ILS were generated by a one-step protocol based on charge dependent aggregation of HLSC induced by protamine. 3D aggregation promoted the spontaneous differentiation into cells expressing insulin and several key markers of pancreatic β cells...
September 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
N S S Halim, E S Ch'ng, E Kardia, S A Ali, R Radzi, B H Yahaya
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MSCs and MSC-expressing ANGPT1 (MSC-pANGPT1) treatment via aerosolisation in alleviating the asthma-related airway inflammation in the rabbit model. METHODS: Rabbits were sensitised and challenged with both intraperitoneal injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (Ova). MSCs and MSC-pANGPT1 cells were aerosolised into rabbit lungs using the MicroSprayer® Aerosolizer Model IA-1B 48 h after injury...
September 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Mariusz Z Ratajczak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Adeline Blandinières, Thomas Gille, Jérémy Sadoine, Ivan Bièche, Lofti Slimani, Blandine Dizier, Pascale Gaussem, Catherine Chaussain, Carole Planes, Peter Dorfmüller, Dominique Israël-Biet, David M Smadja
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, destruction of pulmonary alveolar architecture and vascular remodeling. Apart pirfenidone or nintendanib that only slow down the fibrotic process, there is no curative treatment other than lung transplantation. Because cell therapy approaches have been proposed in IPF, we hypothesized that injection of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), the vasculogenic subtype of endothelial progenitor cells, could modulate fibrosis in a Nude mouse model of bleomycin induced-pulmonary fibrosis...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Ankita Kaushik, Deepa Bhartiya
Developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors has resulted in the increased incidence of infertility and testicular germ cell tumors (T2GCT) in young men residing in developed countries. Unlike T1GCT (infants and young children) and T3GCT (aged men), T2GCT arise from CIS/GCNIS that develops from pre-CIS. Pre-CIS represents undifferentiated, growth-arrested gonocytes that persist in fetal testes due to endocrine disruption. However, whether pre-CIS truly exist, do CIS develop into T2GCT, why no CIS in T1GCT/T3GCT, why germ cell tumors (GCT) also occur along midline at extra-gonadal sites, why T1GCT show partial erasure and T2GCT show complete erasure of genomic imprints are open questions that are awaiting answers...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Krzysztof Marycz, K Kornicka, M Röcken
Tissue engineering and stem cell-based therapies are one of the most rapidly developing fields in medical sciences. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the development of new drug-delivery systems characterized by low cytotoxicity, high efficiency and controlled release. One of the possible strategies to achieve these goals is the application of magnetic field and/or magnetic nanoparticles, which have been shown to exert a wide range of effects on cellular metabolism. Static magnetic field (SMF) has been commonly used in medicine as a tool to increase wound healing, bone regeneration and as a component of magnetic resonance technique...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
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