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Stem Cell Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737458/dental-pulp-stem-cells-exploration-in-a-novel-animal-model-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#1
REVIEW
Chelsea M Graham, Karlea L Kremer, Simon A Koblar, Monica A Hamilton-Bruce, Stephen B Pyecroft
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) are a heterogeneous population of highly proliferative stem cells located in the soft inner pulp tissue of the tooth. Demonstrated to have an affinity for neural differentiation, DPSC have been reported to generate functional Schwann cells (SC) through in vitro differentiation. Both DPSC and SC have neural crest origins, recently a significant population of DPSC have been reported to derive from peripheral nerve-associated glia. The predisposition DPSC have towards the SC lineage is not only a very useful tool for neural regenerative therapies in the medical field, it also holds great promise in the veterinary field...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736843/vsels-maintain-their-pluripotency-and-competence-to-differentiate-after-enhanced-ex-vivo-expansion
#2
Rachid Lahlil, Maurice Scrofani, Romain Barbet, Céline Tancredi, Anne Aries, Philippe Hénon
The very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are known as a subset of adult pluripotent stem cells able to differentiate to all three germ layers. However, their small number and quiescence restrict the possibility of their use in cell therapy. In the present study, we first delineate different subpopulation of VSELs from human cord blood CD34+ cells to define their purity. We next determine genes expression levels in the whole transcriptome of VSELs expressing the pluripotent marker NANOG and control cells under the steady state condition...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728886/development-of-a-novel-large-animal-model-to-evaluate-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-for-articular-cartilage-treatment
#3
Tiago Lazzaretti Fernandes, Kazunori Shimomura, Andre Asperti, Carla Cristina Gomes Pinheiro, Heloísa Vasconcellos Amaral Caetano, Claudia Regina G C M Oliveira, Norimasa Nakamura, Arnaldo José Hernandez, Daniela Franco Bueno
PURPOSE: Chondral lesion is a pathology with high prevalence, reaching as much as 63% of general population and 36% among athletes. The ability of human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) to differentiate into chondroblasts in vitro suggests that this stem cell type may be useful for tissue bioengineering. However, we have yet to identify a study of large animal models in which DPSCs were used to repair articular cartilage. Therefore, this study aimed to describe a novel treatment for cartilage lesion with DPSCs on a large animal model...
May 4, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707747/comparison-of-human-denuded-amniotic-membrane-and-porcine-small-intestine-submucosa-as-scaffolds-for-limbal-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Liliana I Sous Naasani, Cristiano Rodrigues, Jéssica Gonçalves Azevedo, Aline F Damo Souza, Silvio Buchner, Márcia R Wink
Blinding corneal scarring is usually treated with allogeneic graft tissue. Nevertheless, the global shortage of donors leaves millions of patients in need of therapy. Traditional tissue engineering strategies involves the combination of cells, growth factors, and scaffolds that can supply cellular biological components allowing to restore the tissue function. The mesenchymal stem cells found in the limbal stroma (L-MSCs) have a self-renewal potential for multilineage differentiation. Thus, in this work we compared the potential of human amniotic membrane (hAM) and porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS) as scaffolds for L-MSCs, aiming at potential applications in corneal regeneration...
April 29, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705868/new-hope-for-treatment-of-duchene-dystrophy-by-employing-dystrophin-expressing-chimeric-cells-studies-published-in-stem-cell-reviews-and-reports
#5
EDITORIAL
Mariusz Z Ratajczak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691795/improved-protocol-for-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-effect-of-pthrp-and-fgf-2-on-tgf%C3%AE-1-bmp2-induced-chondrocytes-hypertrophy
#6
Davood Nasrabadi, Siamak Rezaeiani, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Aliakbar Shabani
Growth factors have a pivotal role in chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. The differential effects of known growth factors involved in the maintenance and homeostasis of cartilage tissue have been previously studied in vitro. However, there are few reported researches about the interactional effects of growth factors on chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. The aim of this study is to examine the combined effects of four key growth factors on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
April 24, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687338/mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-horizon-a-new-arsenal-of-therapeutic-agents
#7
REVIEW
Zahra Abbasi-Malati, Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar
Over 10 years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as valuable and suitable cells for cell-based therapy applications, particularly in clinical trials. In any case, they are as yet not utilized routinely in clinics. At first, it was believed that MSCs play their roles, especially in regenerative medicine due to their differentiation and cell replacement properties. Interestingly, it is well-known that MSCs mainly exert their therapeutic effects through their vast bioactive factors. These findings turned scientists' consideration toward cell-free therapy concepts...
April 23, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675777/inhibition-of-p16-ink4a-to-rejuvenate-aging-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells-via-the-upregulation-of-anti-oxidant-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-pathways
#8
Roshni V Khatiwala, Shuning Zhang, Xiuchun Li, Neil Devejian, Edward Bennett, Chuanxi Cai
Autologous human cardiac stem/progenitor cell (hCPC) therapy is a promising treatment that has come into use in recent years for patients with cardiomyopathy. Though innovative in theory, a major hindrance to the practical application of this treatment is that the hCPCs of elderly patients, who are most susceptible to myocardial disease, are senescent and prone to cell death. Rejuvenating hCPCs from elderly patients may help overcome this obstacle, and can be accomplished by reversing entry into the cellular stage of senescence...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675776/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-retinal-tissue-engineering-current-status-and-future-prospects
#9
REVIEW
Ratnesh Singh, Oscar Cuzzani, François Binette, Hal Sternberg, Michael D West, Igor O Nasonkin
The retina is a very fine and layered neural tissue, which vitally depends on the preservation of cells, structure, connectivity and vasculature to maintain vision. There is an urgent need to find technical and biological solutions to major challenges associated with functional replacement of retinal cells. The major unmet challenges include generating sufficient numbers of specific cell types, achieving functional integration of transplanted cells, especially photoreceptors, and surgical delivery of retinal cells or tissue without triggering immune responses, inflammation and/or remodeling...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667027/neonatal-overfeeding-impairs-differentiation-potential-of-mice-subcutaneous-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Isabelle Dias, Ísis Salviano, André Mencalha, Simone Nunes de Carvalho, Alessandra Alves Thole, Laís Carvalho, Erika Cortez, Ana Carolina Stumbo
Nutritional changes in the development (intrauterine life and postnatal period) may trigger long-term pathophysiological complications such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic programming leads to organs and tissues modifications, including adipose tissue, with increased lipogenesis, production of inflammatory cytokines, and decreased glucose uptake. However, stem cells participation in adipose tissue dysfunctions triggered by overfeeding during lactation has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was the first to evaluate the effect of metabolic programming on adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) from mice submitted to overfeeding during lactation, using the litter reduction model...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663271/regenerative-potential-and-inflammation-induced-secretion-profile-of-human-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-cells-are-influenced-by-donor-variability-and-prior-breast-cancer-diagnosis
#11
Adrienne M Parsons, Deborah M Ciombor, Paul Y Liu, Eric M Darling
Adipose tissue contains a heterogeneous population of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells that work synergistically with resident cell types to enhance tissue healing. Ease of access and processing paired with therapeutic promise make SVF cells an attractive option for autologous applications in regenerative medicine. However, inherent variability in SVF cell therapeutic potential from one patient to another hinders prognosis determination for any one person. This study investigated the regenerative properties and inflammation responses of thirteen, medically diverse human donors...
April 16, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651609/the-delta-opioid-peptide-dadle-represses-hypoxia-reperfusion-mimicked-stress-mediated-apoptotic-cell-death-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-part-by-downregulating-the-unfolded-protein-response-and-ros-along-with-enhanced-anti-inflammatory-effect
#12
Madhubanti Mullick, Dwaipayan Sen
Hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R) emblems a plethora of pathological conditions which is potent in contributing to the adversities encountered by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in post-transplant microenvironment, resulting in transplant failure. D-Alanine 2, Leucine 5 Enkephaline (DADLE)-mediated delta opioid receptor (DOR) activation is well-known for its recuperative properties in different cell types like neuronal and cardiomyocytes. In the current study its effectiveness in assuaging hMSC mortality under H/R-like insult has been delineated...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623532/genome-editing-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-crispr-cas9
#13
REVIEW
Ronen Ben Jehuda, Yuval Shemer, Ofer Binah
The development of the reprogramming technology led to generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) from a variety of somatic cells. Ever since, fast growing knowledge of different efficient protocols enabled the differentiation of these iPSCs into different cells types utilized for disease modeling. Indeed, iPSC-derived cells have been increasingly used for investigating molecular and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms underlying inherited diseases. However, a major barrier in the field of iPSC-based disease modeling relies on discriminating between the effects of the causative mutation and the genetic background of these cells...
April 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611042/dysfunction-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-isolated-from-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetic-patients-as-result-of-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy-may-limit-their-potential-therapeutic-use
#14
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kornicka, Jenny Houston, Krzysztof Marycz
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have become a promising tool for therapeutic intervention. Their unique features, including self-renewal, multipotency and immunomodulatory properties draw the worldwide attention of researchers and physicians with respect to their application in disease treatment. However, the environment (so-called niche) from which MSCs are isolated may determine their usefulness. Many studies indicated the involvement of MSCs in ageing and disease. In this review, we have focused on how type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MS) affect MSC properties, and thus limit their therapeutic potential...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594684/human-adipose-tissue-stem-cells-promote-the-growth-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells-in-nod-scid-mice
#15
Myoung Woo Lee, Yoo Jin Park, Dae Seong Kim, Hyun Jin Park, Hye Lim Jung, Ji Won Lee, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Keon Hee Yoo
In this study, the effect of adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs) on the growth of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells was examined in an in vivo model. We established ALL cell lines expressing firefly luciferase (ALL/fLuc) by lentiviral infection that were injected intraperitoneally to NOD/SCID mice. The luciferase activities were significantly higher in mice co-injected with 105 ALL/fLuc cells and ASCs than in those injected with ALL/fLuc cells alone. Co-injection of 105 ALL/fLuc cells and ASCs in differing ratios into mice gradually increased the bioluminescence intensity in all groups, and mice co-injected with 1 or 2 × 106 ASCs showed higher bioluminescence intensity than those receiving lower numbers...
March 29, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556896/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-musculoskeletal-system-from-animal-models-to-human-tissue-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Klemen Čamernik, Ariana Barlič, Matej Drobnič, Janja Marc, Matjaž Jeras, Janja Zupan
The musculoskeletal system includes tissues that have remarkable regenerative capabilities. Bone and muscle sustain micro-damage throughout the lifetime, yet they continue to provide the body with the support that is needed for everyday activities. Our current understanding is that the regenerative capacity of the musculoskeletal system can be attributed to the mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) that reside within its different anatomical compartments. These MSCs can replenish various tissues with progenitor cells to form functional cells, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and others...
March 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546607/dystrophin-expressing-chimeric-dec-human-cells-provide-a-potential-therapy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#17
Maria Siemionow, Joanna Cwykiel, Ahlke Heydemann, Jesus Garcia, Enza Marchese, Krzysztof Siemionow, Erzsebet Szilagyi
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and lethal disease caused by mutations of the dystrophin gene. Currently no cure exists. Stem cell therapies targeting DMD are challenged by limited engraftment and rejection despite the use of immunosuppression. There is an urgent need to introduce new stem cell-based therapies that exhibit low allogenic profiles and improved cell engraftment. In this proof-of-concept study, we develop and test a new human stem cell-based approach to increase engraftment, limit rejection, and restore dystrophin expression in the mdx/scid mouse model of DMD...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541978/cell-cycle-regulation-of-stem-cells-by-micrornas
#18
REVIEW
Michelle M J Mens, Mohsen Ghanbari
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. They are involved in the fine-tuning of fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in many cell types. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. Several miRNAs have been suggested to target transcripts that directly or indirectly coordinate the cell cycle progression of stem cells. Moreover, previous studies have shown that altered expression levels of miRNAs can contribute to pathological conditions, such as cancer, due to the loss of cell cycle regulation...
March 14, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520567/optimization-of-synthetic-mrna-for-highly-efficient-translation-and-its-application-in-the-generation-of-endothelial-and-hematopoietic-cells-from-human-and-primate-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Kran Suknuntha, Lihong Tao, Vera Brok-Volchanskaya, Saritha S D'Souza, Akhilesh Kumar, Igor Slukvin
Identification of transcription factors that directly convert pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into endothelial and blood cells and advances in the chemical modifications of messenger RNA (mRNA) offer alternative nucleic acid-based transgene-free approach for scalable production of these cells for drug screening and therapeutic purposes. Here we evaluated the effect of 5' and 3' RNA untranslated regions (UTRs) on translational efficiency of chemically-modified synthetic mRNA (modRNA) in human PSCs and showed that an addition of 5'UTR indeed enhanced protein expression...
March 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508215/effect-of-everolimus-on-heterogenous-renal-cancer-cells-populations-including-renal-cancer-stem-cells
#20
Anna Kornakiewicz, Anna M Czarnecka, Mohammed I Khan, Paweł Krasowski, Anna V Kotrys, Cezary Szczylik
The aim of this study was to compare effect of everolimus on growth of different renal cell carcinoma (RCC) populations and develop experimental design to measure the early response of everolimus in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) cell lines including renal cancer stem cells. Effect of everolimus on RCC cell lines which include primary (786-0) and metastatic (ACHN) RCC cell lines as well as heterogenous populations of tumor cells of different histological RCC subtypes (clear cell RCC and papillary RCC) was measured when treated with everolimus in the range of 1-9 µM...
March 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
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