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Stem Cell Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540601/special-issue-organs-on-chips-3d-bioprinting-technologies-for-personalized-medicine
#1
EDITORIAL
Yaşar Murat Elçin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536890/progress-and-future-prospectives-in-skin-on-chip-development-with-emphasis-on-the-use-of-different-cell-types-and-technical-challenges
#2
Lenie J van den Broek, Lambert I J C Bergers, Christianne M A Reijnders, Susan Gibbs
Understanding the healthy and diseased state of skin is important in many areas of basic and applied research. Although the field of skin tissue engineering has advanced greatly over the last years, current in vitro skin models still do not mimic the complexity of the human skin. Skin-on-chip and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) might be key technologies to improve in vitro skin models. This review summarizes the state of the art of in vitro skin models with regard to cell sources (primary, cell line, iPSC) and microfluidic devices...
May 24, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509260/rapid-serum-free-isolation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#3
John Bianco, Dario Carradori, Ronald Deumens, Anne des Rieux
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) play a pivotal role in both health and disease within the central nervous system, with oligodendrocytes, arising from resident OPCs, being the main myelinating cell type. Disruption in OPC numbers can lead to various deleterious health defects. Numerous studies have described techniques for isolating OPCs to obtain a better understanding of this cell type and to open doors for potential treatments of injury and disease. However, the techniques used in the majority of these studies involve several steps and are time consuming, with current culture protocols using serum and embryonic or postnatal cortical tissue as a source of isolation...
May 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488235/emulating-host-microbiome-ecosystem-of-human-gastrointestinal-tract-in-vitro
#4
Gun-Seok Park, Min Hee Park, Woojung Shin, Connie Zhao, Sameer Sheikh, So Jung Oh, Hyun Jung Kim
The human gut microbiome performs prodigious physiological functions such as production of microbial metabolites, modulation of nutrient digestion and drug metabolism, control of immune system, and prevention of infection. Paradoxically, gut microbiome can also negatively orchestrate the host responses in diseases or chronic disorders, suggesting that the regulated and balanced host-gut microbiome crosstalk is a salient prerequisite in gastrointestinal physiology. To understand the pathophysiological role of host-microbiome crosstalk, it is critical to recreate in vivo relevant models of the host-gut microbiome ecosystem in human...
May 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488234/microphysiological-human-brain-and-neural-systems-on-a-chip-potential-alternatives-to-small-animal-models-and-emerging-platforms-for-drug-discovery-and-personalized-medicine
#5
Alexander P Haring, Harald Sontheimer, Blake N Johnson
Translational challenges associated with reductionist modeling approaches, as well as ethical concerns and economic implications of small animal testing, drive the need for developing microphysiological neural systems for modeling human neurological diseases, disorders, and injuries. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of microphysiological brain and neural systems-on-a-chip (NSCs) for modeling higher order trajectories in the human nervous system. Societal, economic, and national security impacts of neurological diseases, disorders, and injuries are highlighted to identify critical NSC application spaces...
May 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429185/high-content-assessment-of-cardiac-function-using-heart-on-a-chip-devices-as-drug-screening-model
#6
Genevieve Conant, Benjamin Fook Lun Lai, Rick Xing Ze Lu, Anastasia Korolj, Erika Yan Wang, Milica Radisic
Drug discovery and development continues to be a challenge to the pharmaceutical industry despite great advances in cell and molecular biology that allow for the design of better targeted therapeutics. Many potential drug compounds fail during the clinical trial due to inefficacy and toxicity that were not predicted during preclinical stages. The fundamental problem lies with the use of traditional drug screening models that still largely rely on the use of cell lines or animal cell monolayers, which leads to lack of predictive power of human tissue and organ response to the drug candidates...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425064/a-pathway-to-personalizing-therapy-for-metastases-using-liver-on-a-chip-platforms
#7
A S Khazali, A M Clark, A Wells
Metastasis accounts for most cancer-related deaths. The majority of solid cancers, including those of the breast, colorectum, prostate and skin, metastasize at significant levels to the liver due to its hemodynamic as well as tumor permissive microenvironmental properties. As this occurs prior to detection and treatment of the primary tumor, we need to target liver metastases to improve patients' outcomes. Animal models, while proven to be useful in mechanistic studies, do not represent the heterogeneity of human population especially in drug metabolism lack proper human cell-cell interactions, and this gap between animals and humans results in costly and inefficient drug discovery...
April 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425063/blastocyst-derived-stem-cell-populations-under-stress-impact-of-nutrition-and-metabolism-on-stem-cell-potency-loss-and-miscarriage
#8
REVIEW
Yu Yang, Alan Bolnick, Alexandra Shamir, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Quanwen Li, G C Parker, Elizabeth E Puscheck, D A Rappolee
Data from in vitro and in vivo models suggest that malnutrition and stress trigger adaptive responses, leading to small for gestational age (SGA) blastocysts with fewer cell numbers. These stress responses are initially adaptive, but become maladaptive with increasing stress exposures. The common stress responses of the blastocyst-derived stem cells, pluripotent embryonic and multipotent placental trophoblast stem cells (ESCs and TSCs), are decreased growth and potency, and increased, imbalanced and irreversible differentiation...
April 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364326/of-cytometry-stem-cells-and-fountain-of-youth
#9
REVIEW
Dariusz Galkowski, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Janusz Kocki, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz
Outlined are advances of cytometry applications to identify and sort stem cells, of laser scanning cytometry and ImageStream imaging instrumentation to further analyze morphometry of these cells, and of mass cytometry to classify a multitude of cellular markers in large cell populations. Reviewed are different types of stem cells, including potential candidates for cancer stem cells, with respect to their "stemness", and other characteristics. Appraised is further progress in identification and isolation of the "very small embryonic-like stem cells" (VSELs) and their autogenous transplantation for tissue repair and geroprotection...
March 31, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303468/human-very-small-embryonic-like-cells-support-vascular-maturation-and-therapeutic-revascularization-induced-by-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#10
Coralie L Guerin, Elisa Rossi, Bruno Saubamea, Audrey Cras, Virginie Mignon, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre, David M Smadja
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are major pluripotent stem cells defined as cells of small size being Lineage- negative, CD133-positive, and CD45-negative. We previously described that human bone marrow VSELs were able to differentiate into endothelial cells and promoted post-ischemic revascularization in mice with surgically induced critical limb ischemia. In the present work, we isolated bone marrow VSELs from patients with critical limb ischemia and studied their ability to support endothelial progenitor cells therapeutic capacity and revascularization potential...
March 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285391/very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells-are-mobilized-in-human-peripheral-blood-during-hypoxemic-copd-exacerbations-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Coralie L Guerin, Adeline Blandinières, Benjamin Planquette, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre, Dominique Israel-Biet, Olivier Sanchez, David M Smadja
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are major pluripotent stem cells involved in vascular and tissue regeneration and constitute a recruitable pool of stem/progenitor cells with putative instrumental role in organ repair. Here, we hypothesized that VSELs might be mobilized from the bone marrow (BM) to peripheral blood (PB) in patients with hypoxic lung disease or pulmonary hypertension (PH). The objective of the present study was then to investigate the changes in VSELs number in peripheral blood of patients with hypoxic lung disease and PH...
March 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120159/effect-of-cell-seeding-density-and-inflammatory-cytokines-on-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-an-in-vitro-study
#12
Panithi Sukho, Jolle Kirpensteijn, Jan Willem Hesselink, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Femke Verseijden, Yvonne M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are known to be able to promote repair of injured tissue via paracrine factors. However, the effect of cell density and inflammatory cytokines on the paracrine ability of ASCs remains largely unknown. To investigate these effects, ASCs were cultured in 8000 cells/cm(2), 20,000 cells/cm(2), 50,000 cells/cm(2), and 400,000 cells/cm(2) with and without 10 or 20 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and 25 or 50 ng/ml interferon gamma (IFNγ). ASC-sheets formed at 400,000 cells/cm(2) after 48 h of culture...
April 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070858/exosome-and-microvesicle-enriched-fractions-isolated-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-gradient-separation-showed-different-molecular-signatures-and-functions-on-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#13
Federica Collino, Margherita Pomatto, Stefania Bruno, Rafael Soares Lindoso, Marta Tapparo, Wen Sicheng, Peter Quesenberry, Giovanni Camussi
Several studies have suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may mediate MSC paracrine action on kidney regeneration. This activity has been, at least in part, ascribed to the transfer of proteins/transcription factors and different RNA species. Information on the RNA/protein content of different MSC EV subpopulations and the correlation with their biological activity is currently incomplete. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular composition and the functional properties on renal target cells of MSC EV sub-populations separated by gradient floatation...
April 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987073/comparison-of-four-protocols-to-generate-chondrocyte-like-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-hipscs
#14
Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Ewelina Augustyniak, Magdalena Richter, Tomasz Trzeciak
Stem cells (SCs) are a promising approach to regenerative medicine, with the potential to treat numerous orthopedic disorders, including osteo-degenerative diseases. The development of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has increased the potential of SCs for new treatments. However, current methods of differentiating hiPSCs into chondrocyte-like cells are suboptimal and better methods are needed. The aim of the present study was to assess four different chondrogenic differentiation protocols to identify the most efficient method of generating hiPSC-derived chondrocytes...
April 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914035/mobilization-of-peripheral-blood-stem-cells-and-changes-in-the-concentration-of-plasma-factors-influencing-their-movement-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#15
Marcin Jabłoński, Jolanta Kucharska Mazur, Maciej Tarnowski, Barbara Dołęgowska, Daniel Pędziwiatr, Ewa Kubiś, Marta Budkowska, Daria Sałata, Justyna Pełka Wysiecka, Arkadiusz Kazimierczak, Artur Reginia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Jerzy Samochowiec
In this paper we examined whether stem cells and factors responsible for their movement may serve as new biological markers of anxiety disorders. The study was carried out on a group of 30 patients diagnosed with panic disorder (examined before and after treatment), compared to 30 healthy individuals forming the control group. We examined the number of circulating HSCs (hematopoetic stem cells) (Lin-/CD45 +/CD34 +) and HSCs (Lin-/CD45 +/AC133 +), the number of circulating VSELs (very small embryonic-like stem cells) (Lin-/CD45-/CD34 +) and VSELs (Lin-/CD45-/AC133 +), as well as the concentration of complement components: C3a, C5a and C5b-9, SDF-1 (stromal derived factor) and S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate)...
April 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239758/acellular-mouse-kidney-ecm-can-be-used-as-a-three-dimensional-substrate-to-test-the-differentiation-potential-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-renal-progenitors
#16
Manpreet Sambi, Theresa Chow, Jennifer Whiteley, Mira Li, Shawn Chua, Vanessa Raileanu, Ian M Rogers
The development of strategies for tissue regeneration and bio-artificial organ development is based on our understanding of embryogenesis. Differentiation protocols attempt to recapitulate the signaling modalities of gastrulation and organogenesis, coupled with cell selection regimens to isolate the cells of choice. This strategy is impeded by the lack of optimal in vitro culture systems since traditional culture systems do not allow for the three-dimensional interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix...
February 27, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233276/anti-cancer-drug-validation-the-contribution-of-tissue-engineered-models
#17
Mariana R Carvalho, Daniela Lima, Rui L Reis, Joaquim M Oliveira, Vitor M Correlo
Drug toxicity frequently goes concealed until clinical trials stage, which is the most challenging, dangerous and expensive stage of drug development. Both the cultures of cancer cells in traditional 2D assays and animal studies have limitations that cannot ever be unraveled by improvements in drug-testing protocols. A new generation of bioengineered tumors is now emerging in response to these limitations, with potential to transform drug screening by providing predictive models of tumors within their tissue context, for studies of drug safety and efficacy...
February 23, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229284/prolonged-growth-hormone-insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-nutrient-response-signaling-pathway-as-a-silent-killer-of-stem-cells-and-a-culprit-in-aging
#18
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Andrzej Bartke, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz
The dream of slowing down the aging process has always inspired mankind. Since stem cells are responsible for tissue and organ rejuvenation, it is logical that we should search for encoded mechanisms affecting life span in these cells. However, in adult life the hierarchy within the stem cell compartment is still not very well defined, and evidence has accumulated that adult tissues contain rare stem cells that possess a broad trans-germ layer differentiation potential. These most-primitive stem cells-those endowed with pluripotent or multipotent differentiation ability and that give rise to other cells more restricted in differentiation, known as tissue-committed stem cells (TCSCs) - are of particular interest...
February 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214945/characterization-of-tunneling-nanotubes-in-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-an-intercellular-exchange-of-components-between-neighboring-cells
#19
Viviana Sanchez, Nerina Villalba, Luciano Fiore, Carlos Luzzani, Santiago Miriuka, Alberto Boveris, Ricardo J Gelpi, Alicia Brusco, Juan José Poderoso
Intercellular communication is one of the most important events in cell population behavior. In the last decade, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as a new form of long distance intercellular connection. TNT function is to allow molecular and subcellular structure exchange between neighboring cells via the transfer of molecules and organelles such as calcium ions, prions, viral and bacterial pathogens, small lysosomes and mitochondria. New findings support the concept that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can affect cell microenvironment by the release of soluble factors or the transfer of cellular components to neighboring cells, in a way which significantly contributes to cell regulation and tissue repair, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154962/expression-of-desmoglein-2-desmocollin-3-and-plakophilin-2-in-placenta-and-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#20
Melanie L Hart, Elisa Rusch, Marvin Kaupp, Kay Nieselt, Wilhelm K Aicher
Many controversial results exist when comparing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from different sources. Reasons include not only variables in tissue origin, but also methods of cell preparation or choice of expansion media which can strongly influence the expression and hence, function of the cells. In this short report we aimed to investigate the expression of the cell anchoring proteins desmoglein 2, desmocollin 3 and plakophilin 2 in early passage placenta-derived MSCs of fetal (fetal pMSCs) and maternal (maternal pMSCs) origins versus adult bone marrow-derived MSCs (bmMSCs) that were expanded and cultured under the same good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
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