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Stem Cell Reviews

Na Kyung Lee, Hyeong Seop Kim, Dongkyeom Yoo, Jung Won Hwang, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Jong Wook Chang, Duk L Na
The success of stem cell therapy is highly dependent on accurate delivery of stem cells to the target site of interest. Possible ways to track the distribution of MSCs in vivo include the use of reporter genes or nanoparticles. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ferumoxytol (Feraheme® [USA], Rienso® [UK]) as a treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Ferumoxytol is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO) that has recently been used to track the fate of transplanted cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Mateusz Adamiak, Ahmed Abdelbaset-Ismail, Joseph B Moore, J Zhao, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Marcin Wysoczynski, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical molecule involved in several biological processes related to inflammation, tissue damage, and infections. Based on reports that NO inhibits migration of granulocytes and monocytes, we became interested in the role of inducible NO synthetase (iNOS) in pharmacological mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB). To address the role of NO in HSPC trafficking, we upregulated or downregulated iNOS expression in hematopoietic cell lines...
October 17, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Francesco De Francesco, Antonio Graziano, Letizia Trovato, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Maurizio Romano, Marco Marcarelli, Gabriella Maria Casella De Angelis, Umberto Cillo, Michele Riccio, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro
BACKGROUND: The etiology of non-healing ulcers depends on both systemic and local factors. The introduction of advanced dressing, negative wound therapy and compression therapy have undoubtedly improved clinical outcomes. The principal aim of study was to demonstrate the efficacy of dermal micrografts in the treatment of ulcers with different etiologies. The second aim was to investigate in vitro the action of micrografts in the regenerative process. METHODS: The dermal micro-grafts were obtained from mechanical disaggregation of small pieces of skin tissue through a medical device called Rigeneracons...
October 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Ohad Oren, B Douglas Smith
Dramatic advances have been made in the understanding of cancer over the past decade. Prime among those are better appreciation of the biology of cancer and the development of targeted therapies. Despite these improvements, however, most tumors remain refractory to anti-cancer medications and frequently recur. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), which in some cases express markers of pluripotency (e.g., Oct-4), share many of the molecular features of normal stem cells. These cells have been hypothesised to play a role in tumor resistance and relapse...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Mateusz Adamiak, Malwina Suszynska, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Ahmed Abdelbaset-Ismail, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Migration and bone marrow (BM) homing of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) is regulated by several signaling pathways, and here we provide evidence for the involvement in this process of hematopoietic-specific phospholipase C-β2 (PLC-β2). This enzyme is involved in release of intracellular calcium and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Recently we reported that PLC-β2 promotes mobilization of HSPCs from BM into peripheral blood (PB), and this effect is mediated by the involvement of PLC-β2 in the release of proteolytic enzymes from granulocytes and its role in disintegration of membrane lipid rafts...
October 4, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Francesca Vittoria Sbrana, Margherita Cortini, Sofia Avnet, Francesca Perut, Marta Columbaro, Angelo De Milito, Nicola Baldini
Regulated self-consumption, also known as autophagy, is an evolutionary conserved process that degrades cellular components by directing them to the lysosomal compartment of eukaryotic cells. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining and remodeling cellular homeostasis during normal cellular and tissue development. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is necessary for the maintenance of cellular stemness and for a number of differentiation processes, including the lineage determination of mesenchymal stem cells...
October 1, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Colin Fennelly, Zhan Wang, Tracy Criswell, Shay Soker
It is important to maintain the myogenic properties of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) during in vitro expansion for stem cell therapies and tissue engineering applications. Controlling cell fate for biomedical interventions will require insight on all aspects that influence cellular properties. The resting membrane potential (Vmem) has proven to be a key parameter involved in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. This current work is focused on elucidating the impact of sustained depolarization on MPC growth and differentiation in vitro...
September 30, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Yu-Hua Li, Ying Xu, Hua-Mei Wu, Jing Yang, Li-Hong Yang, Wan Yue-Meng
BACKGROUND & AIM: Search for an effective therapy for patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) remains an important issue. This study investigated the efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantation in patients with HBV-ACLF. METHODS: 45 consecutive entecavir-treated HBV-ACLF patients were prospectively studied. Among these patients, 11 received both plasma exchange (PE) and a single transplantation of UC-MSCs (group A), while 34 received only PE (group B)...
September 29, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Elena Dai Prè, Giamaica Conti, Andrea Sbarbati
Traditional methods for tissue regeneration commonly used synthetic scaffolds to regenerate human tissues. However, they had several limitations, such as foreign body reactions and short time duration. In order to overcome these problems, scaffolds made of natural polymers are preferred. One of the most suitable and widely used materials to fabricate these scaffolds is hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is the primary component of the extracellular matrix of the human connective tissue. It is an ideal material for scaffolds used in tissue regeneration, thanks to its properties of biocompatibility, ease of chemical functionalization and degradability...
September 24, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Vladimir Holan, Barbora Hermankova, Pavla Bohacova, Jan Kossl, Milada Chudickova, Michaela Hajkova, Magdalena Krulova, Alena Zajicova, Eliska Javorkova
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a population of cells which have the ability to regulate reactivity of T and B lymphocytes by multiple mechanisms. The immunoregulatory activities of MSCs are strictly influenced by the cytokine environment. Here we show that two functionally distinct cytokines, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), significantly potentiate the ability of MSCs to inhibit IL-10 production by activated regulatory B cells (Bregs). However, MSCs in the presence of IL-4 or IFN-γ inhibit the IL-10 production by different mechanisms...
September 24, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Sandhya Anand, Deepa Bhartiya, Kalpana Sriraman, Alpna Mallick
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) exist among spermatogonial stem cells and survive chemotherapy in both mice and human testes because of their relatively quiescent nature. Our earlier study revealed that inter-tubular transplantation of niche (Sertoli or bone marrow derived mesenchymal) cells can restore spermatogenesis from endogenous surviving VSELs. Present study was undertaken to delineate the effect of busulphan on testicular stem/germ/Sertoli cells and to comprehend the underlying mechanisms of how transplanted niche cells restore spermatogenesis...
September 23, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Jukka Kuusela, Jiyeong Kim, Esa Räsänen, Katriina Aalto-Setälä
Healthy human heart rate fluctuates overtime showing long-range fractal correlations. In contrast, various cardiac diseases and normal aging show the breakdown of fractal complexity. Recently, it was shown that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) intrinsically exhibit fractal behavior as in humans. Here, we investigated the fractal complexity of hiPSC-derived long QT-cardiomyocytes (LQT-CMs). We recorded extracellular field potentials from hiPSC-CMs at baseline and under the effect of various compounds including β-blocker bisoprolol, ML277, a specific and potent IKs current activator, as well as JNJ303, a specific IKs blocker...
September 19, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Hua Qin, Andong Zhao, Cuiping Zhang, Xiaobing Fu
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotent stem cells or transdifferentiate to another lineage cell type. Much efforts have been made to unravel the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cell fate conversion. Histone modifications as the major epigenetic regulator are implicated in various aspects of reprogramming and transdifferentiation. Here, we discuss the roles of histone modifications on reprogramming and transdifferentiation and hopefully provide new insights into induction and promotion of the cell fate conversion by modulating histone modifications...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Masahito Yoshihara, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Yasuhiro Murakawa
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cells generated directly from mature cells through the introduction of key transcription factors. iPSCs can be propagated and differentiated into many cell types in the human body, holding enormous potential in the field of regenerative medicine. However, genomic instability of iPSCs has been reported with the advent of high-throughput technologies such as next-generation sequencing. The presence of genetic variations in iPSCs has raised serious safety concerns, hampering the advancement of iPSC-based novel therapies...
September 5, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Dominika Dziedzicka, Christina Markouli, Lise Barbé, Claudia Spits, Karen Sermon, Mieke Geens
When aiming for homogenous embryoid body (EB) differentiation, the use of equal-sized EBs is required to avoid a size-induced differentiation bias. In this study we developed an efficient and standardized EB formation protocol for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) cultured in a laminin-521-based xeno-free system. As the cell proliferation rate of the cells growing on laminin-521 strongly affected the efficiency of aggregate formation, we found that recently passaged cells, as well as the addition of ROCK inhibitor, were essential for reproducible EB formation from hPSC single-cell suspensions...
August 20, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Pablo Hofbauer, Jangwook P Jung, Tanner J McArdle, Brenda M Ogle
Methods to generate murine cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in vitro are resource and time intensive. All current protocols require exogenously provided soluble factors and almost all utilize embryoid body formation to modulate pathways associated with mesoderm specification and cardiomyocyte differentiation. Here, we developed a simple protocol without EBs and without exogenous soluble factors that enabled cardiomyocyte differentiation of a murine induced PSC line based on controlled nutrient deprivation in 2D monolayer cultures...
August 19, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Christopher Y Chen, Alex Plocik, Nickesha C Anderson, Daniel Moakley, Trinithas Boyi, Carolyn Dundes, Chelsea Lassiter, Brenton R Graveley, Laura Grabel
The generation of inhibitory interneuron progenitors from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is of great interest due to their potential use in transplantation therapies designed to treat central nervous system disorders. The medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is a transient embryonic structure in the ventral telencephalon that is a major source of cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneuron progenitors. These progenitors migrate tangentially to sites in the cortex and differentiate into a variety of interneuron subtypes, forming local synaptic connections with excitatory projection neurons to modulate activity of the cortical circuitry...
August 18, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Mariusz Z Ratajczak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
E Legaki, M G Roubelakis, G E Theodoropoulos, A Lazaris, A Kollia, G Karamanolis, E Marinos, M Gazouli
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are the result of pathological immune responses due to environmental factors or microbial antigens into a genetically predisposed individual. Mainly due to their trophic properties, a mounting interest is focused on the use of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) to treat IBD disease in animal models. The aim of the study is to test whether the secreted molecules, derived from a specific population of second trimester amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, the spindle-shaped MSCs (SS-AF-MSCs), could be utilized as a novel therapeutic, cell free approach for IBD therapy...
October 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
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