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Stem Cell Reviews

Zachariah Payne Sellers, Gabriela Schneider, Magdalena Maj, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
The paternally-imprinted genes insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), H19, delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1), and maternally-expressed gene 3 (MEG3) are expressed from the tandem gene loci IGF2-H19 and DLK1-MEG3, which play crucial roles in initiating embryogenesis and development. The erasure of imprinting (EOI) at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) which regulate the expression of these genes maintains the developmental quiescence of primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrating through the embryo proper during embryogenesis and prevents them from forming teratomas...
July 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Deepa Bhartiya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Emanuela Chiarella, Annamaria Aloisio, Bruna Codispoti, Giovanna Nappo, Stefania Scicchitano, Valeria Lucchino, Ylenia Montalcini, Augusto Camarotti, Olimpio Galasso, Manfredi Greco, Giorgio Gasparini, Maria Mesuraca, Heather Mandy Bond, Giovanni Morrone
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors present in the bone marrow stroma and in subcutaneous abdominal fat, an abundant and easily accessible source of MSCs with the ability to differentiate along multiple lineage pathways. The stem cell-associated transcription co-factor Zinc Finger Protein 521 (ZNF521/zfp521) has been implicated in the control of the homeostasis of hematopoietic, neural and osteo-adipogenic progenitors. Here we document through the analysis of a panel of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), that ZNF521 strongly inhibits the generation of mature adipocytes...
June 25, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Manoelle Kossorotoff, Mariane De Montalembert, Valentine Brousse, Dominique Lasne, Emmanuel Curis, David M Smadja, Romaric Lacroix, Sebastien Bertil, Elodie Masson, Isabelle Desguerre, Damien Bonnet, Pascale Gaussem
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) complications mostly result from vascular dysfunction, concerning systemic microvasculature and cerebral large vessels. The aim of this cohort study was to identify potential circulating biomarkers predictive for further vascular event occurrence in pediatric SCD. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 108 children with SCD at steady state, aged 3-18 years old (median 9.8 years). Hematology, coagulation, hemolysis, endothelial, platelet and vascular activation parameters were recorded at inclusion...
June 21, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Subash Khushu, Ajay K Singh, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
Stem cells transplantation has emerged as a promising alternative therapeutic due to its potency at injury site. The need to monitor and non-invasively track the infused stem cells is a significant challenge in the development of regenerative medicine. Thus, in vivo tracking to monitor infused stem cells is especially vital. In this manuscript, we have described an effective in vitro labelling method of MSCs, a serial in vivo tracking of implanted stem cells at traumatic brain injury (TBI) site through 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Marta Budkowska, Ewa Ostrycharz, Adrianna Wojtowicz, Zuzanna Marcinowska, Jarosław Woźniak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Barbara Dołęgowska
The number of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) circulating in peripheral blood (PB) is regulated by a circadian rhythm, and more HSPCs circulate in PB in the morning hours than at night. Different mechanisms have been proposed that might regulate this process, including changes in tonus of β-adrenergic innervation of bone marrow (BM) tissue. Our group reported that in mice circadian changes in the number of HSPCs circulating in PB correlates with diurnal activation of the complement cascade (ComC) and that the mice deficient in C5 component of ComC (C5-KO mice) do not show circadian changes in the number of circulating HSPCs in PB...
June 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Cosmin Andrei Cismaru, Laura Pop, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Chimerism occurs naturaly throughout gestation and can also occur as a consequence of transfusion and transplantation therapy. It consists of the acquisition and long-term persistence of a genetically distinct population of allogenic cells inside another organism. Previous reports have suggested that feto-maternal microchimerism could exert a beneficial effect on the treatment of hematological and solid tumors in patients treated by PBSCT. In this review we report the mechanism of transplacental fetal stem cell trafficking during pregnancy and the effect of their long-term persistence on autoimmunity, GVHD, PBSCT, cancer and stem cell treatment...
June 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Yuri M Klyachkin, Amr Idris, Christopher B Rodell, Himi Tripathi, Shaojing Ye, Prabha Nagareddy, Ahmed Asfour, Erhe Gao, Rahul Annabathula, Mariusz Ratajczak, Jason A Burdick, Ahmed Abdel-Latif
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) and the ensuing ischemic heart disease are approaching epidemic state. Unfortunately, no definitive therapies are available and human regenerative therapies have conflicting results. Limited stem cell retention following intracoronary administration has reduced the clinical efficacy of this novel therapy. Cathelicidin related antimicrobial peptides (CRAMPs) enhance chemotactic responsiveness of BMSPCs to low SDF-1 gradients, suggesting a potential role in BMSPCs engraftment...
June 14, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Irma Virant-Klun
Data from the literature show that there are different populations of stem cells present in human adult ovaries, including small stem cells resembling very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs). These small ovarian stem cells with diameters of up to 5 μm are present in the ovarian surface epithelium and can grow into bigger, primitive oocyte-like cells that express several markers of a germinal lineage and exhibit pluripotency but not the zona pellucida structure when cultured in vitro. In this report, we present the results of the functional testing of such primitive oocyte-like cells from one patient with premature ovarian failure after insemination with her partners' sperm...
June 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Arka Saha, Souvick Roy, Madhabananda Kar, Shomereeta Roy, Shweta Thakur, SwatiShree Padhi, Yusuf Akhter, Birendranath Banerjee
The major problem to effective treatment of oral cancer is the presence of therapy resistance. Presence of cancer stem cell in the bulk of tumor have been implicated in therapeutic resistance. In this study, we report a non-telomeric role of TRF2 in formation of oral cancer spheroids and CSC phenotype maintenance via an efficient DNA damage repair mechanism in the presence of chemotherapeutic insult. We report reduced sphere formation efficiency and reduced spheroid size in TRF2 silenced oral cancer cell lines...
June 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Lukáš Školoudík, Viktor Chrobok, Zuzana Kočí, Jiří Popelář, Josef Syka, Jan Laco, Alžběta Filipová, Eva Syková, Stanislav Filip
Temporal bone reconstruction is a persisting problem following middle ear cholesteatoma surgery. Seeking to advance the clinical transfer of stem cell therapy we attempted the reconstruction of temporal bone using a composite bioartificial graft based on a hydroxyapatite bone scaffold combined with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined biomaterial on the healing of postoperative temporal bone defects and the preservation of physiological hearing functions in a guinea pig model...
June 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Dorothee Hielscher, Constanze Kaebisch, Benedikt Julius Valentin Braun, Kevin Gray, Edda Tobiasch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Mehmet F Güleçyüz, Konstanze Macha, Matthias F Pietschmann, Andreas Ficklscherer, Birte Sievers, Björn P Roßbach, Volkmar Jansson, Peter E Müller
PURPOSE: Rotator cuff (RC) tears result not only in functional impairment but also in RC muscle atrophy, muscle fattening and eventually to muscle fibrosis. We hypothesized that allogenic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and myocytes can be utilized to improve the rotator cuff muscle fattening and increase the atrophied muscle mass in a rat model. METHODS: The right supraspinatus (SSP) tendons of 105 inbred rats were detached and muscle fattening was provoked over 4 weeks; the left side remained untouched (control group)...
May 31, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Tomoatsu Kaneko, Bin Gu, Phyo Pyai Sone, Su Yee Myo Zaw, Hiroki Murano, Zar Chi Thein Zaw, Takashi Okiji
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that can be isolated from human and animal sources such as rats. Recently, an in vivo protocol for pulp tissue engineering using implantation of bone marrow MSCs into rat pulpotomized molars was established by our research group. This coronal pulp regeneration model showed almost complete regeneration/healing with dentin bridge formation when the cavity was sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to create a biocompatible seal of the pulp. This method is a powerful tool for elucidating the processes of dental pulp tissue regeneration following implantation of MSCs...
May 26, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Federica Banfi, Alessandra Colombini, Carlotta Perucca Orfei, Valentina Parazzi, Enrico Ragni
The molecular profile of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a key factor in defining their identity. Nevertheless, the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) batches or origin on MSC molecular signature has been neglected. In this frame, chemical fingerprint of FBS batches from unrelated countries showed strong correlation between chemical composition and country of origin. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in stem cells isolated from bone marrow (BMMSCs) and umbilical cord-blood (CBMSCs) the effects of independently collected FBS batches on both twelve commonly used reference genes (RGs) and a selected panel of thirty-eight genes crucial for MSC definition in both research and clinical settings...
May 26, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Abbas Ghaderi, Shabnam Abtahi
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous population of fibroblast-like cells which maintain self-renewability and pluripotency to differentiate into mesodermal cell lineages. The use of MSCs in clinical settings began with high enthusiasm and the number of MSC-based clinical trials has been rising ever since. However; the very unique characteristics of MSCs that made them suitable to for therapeutic use, might give rise to unwanted outcomes, including tumor formation and progression. In this paper, we present a model of carcinogenesis initiated by MSCs, which chains together the tissue organization field theory, the stem cell theory, and the inflammation-cancer chain...
May 24, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Rachid Lahlil, Maurice Scrofani, Romain Barbet, Céline Tancredi, Anne Aries, Philippe Hénon
The very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are known as a subset of adult pluripotent stem cells able to differentiate to all three germ layers. However, their small number and quiescence restrict the possibility of their use in cell therapy. In the present study, we first delineate different subpopulation of VSELs from human cord blood CD34+ cells to define their purity. We next determine genes expression levels in the whole transcriptome of VSELs expressing the pluripotent marker NANOG and control cells under the steady state condition...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Tiago Lazzaretti Fernandes, Kazunori Shimomura, Andre Asperti, Carla Cristina Gomes Pinheiro, Heloísa Vasconcellos Amaral Caetano, Claudia Regina G C M Oliveira, Norimasa Nakamura, Arnaldo José Hernandez, Daniela Franco Bueno
PURPOSE: Chondral lesion is a pathology with high prevalence, reaching as much as 63% of general population and 36% among athletes. The ability of human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) to differentiate into chondroblasts in vitro suggests that this stem cell type may be useful for tissue bioengineering. However, we have yet to identify a study of large animal models in which DPSCs were used to repair articular cartilage. Therefore, this study aimed to describe a novel treatment for cartilage lesion with DPSCs on a large animal model...
May 4, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Liliana I Sous Naasani, Cristiano Rodrigues, Jéssica Gonçalves Azevedo, Aline F Damo Souza, Silvio Buchner, Márcia R Wink
Blinding corneal scarring is usually treated with allogeneic graft tissue. Nevertheless, the global shortage of donors leaves millions of patients in need of therapy. Traditional tissue engineering strategies involves the combination of cells, growth factors, and scaffolds that can supply cellular biological components allowing to restore the tissue function. The mesenchymal stem cells found in the limbal stroma (L-MSCs) have a self-renewal potential for multilineage differentiation. Thus, in this work we compared the potential of human amniotic membrane (hAM) and porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS) as scaffolds for L-MSCs, aiming at potential applications in corneal regeneration...
April 29, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Davood Nasrabadi, Siamak Rezaeiani, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Aliakbar Shabani
Growth factors have a pivotal role in chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. The differential effects of known growth factors involved in the maintenance and homeostasis of cartilage tissue have been previously studied in vitro. However, there are few reported researches about the interactional effects of growth factors on chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. The aim of this study is to examine the combined effects of four key growth factors on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
April 24, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
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