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Stem Cell Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101702/bone-marrow-very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells-new-generation-of-autologous-cell-therapy-soon-ready-for-prime-time
#1
EDITORIAL
David M Smadja
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are major pluripotent stem cells described in human and mouse. In this issue of Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, Shaikh and colleagues show in a valuable work that mouse bone marrow collected after 5FU treatment contains VSELs able to undergo in vitro multi-lineage differentiation into cells from all three germ layers and also in germ and hematopoietic cells. These findings are robust since no confounding factor such as feeder cell fusion with VSELs can occur here...
January 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083784/understanding-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-use-of-cell-reprogramming
#2
REVIEW
Rebecca Playne, Bronwen Connor
Recent progress in the field of somatic cell reprogramming offers exciting new possibilities for the study and treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reprogramming technology offers the ability to untangle the diverse contributing risk factors for PD, such as ageing, genetics and environmental toxins. In order to gain novel insights into such a complex disease, cell-based models of PD should represent, as closely as possible, aged human dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. However, the generation of high yields of functionally mature, authentic ventral midbrain dopamine (vmDA) neurons has not been easy to achieve...
January 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070859/mouse-bone-marrow-vsels-exhibit-differentiation-into-three-embryonic-germ-lineages-and-germ-hematopoietic-cells-in-culture
#3
Ambreen Shaikh, Sandhya Anand, Sona Kapoor, Ranita Ganguly, Deepa Bhartiya
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) have been reported in various adult tissues, express pluripotent and primordial germ cells (PGCs) specific markers, are mobilized under stress/disease conditions, give rise to tissue committed progenitors and thus help regenerate and maintain homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro differentiation potential of VSELs using a quantitative approach. VSELs were collected from mouse bone marrow after 4 days of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 150 mg/Kg) treatment, further enriched by size based filtration and cultured on a feeder support in the presence of specific differentiation media...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070858/exosome-and-microvesicle-enriched-fractions-isolated-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-gradient-separation-showed-different-molecular-signatures-and-functions-on-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#4
Federica Collino, Margherita Pomatto, Stefania Bruno, Rafael Soares Lindoso, Marta Tapparo, Wen Sicheng, Peter Quesenberry, Giovanni Camussi
Several studies have suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may mediate MSC paracrine action on kidney regeneration. This activity has been, at least in part, ascribed to the transfer of proteins/transcription factors and different RNA species. Information on the RNA/protein content of different MSC EV subpopulations and the correlation with their biological activity is currently incomplete. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular composition and the functional properties on renal target cells of MSC EV sub-populations separated by gradient floatation...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064388/stem-cell-recipes-of-bone-marrow-and-fish-just-what-the-stroke-doctors-ordered
#5
REVIEW
Eleonora Napoli, Cesar V Borlongan
Stem cell therapy for stroke has advanced from the laboratory to the clinic, but remains as an experimental treatment. Two lines of transplant regimens have emerged, namely the "early bird" peripheral injections in subacute stroke patients and the "late night" direct intracerebral treatments in chronic stroke patients. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells, which only required minimal manipulations during graft cell preparation, gained fast-track entry into the clinic, while gene modified stem cells necessitated overcoming more stringent regulatory criteria before they were approved for clinical use...
January 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063063/identifying-candidate-reprogramming-genes-in-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Fang Gao, Jingyu Li, Heng Zhang, Xu Yang, Tiezhu An
Factor-based induced reprogramming approaches have tremendous potential for human regenerative medicine, but the efficiencies of these approaches are still low. In this study, we analyzed the global transcriptional profiles of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) from seven different labs and present here the first successful clustering according to cell type, not by lab of origin. We identified 2131 different expression genes (DEs) as candidate pluripotency-associated genes by comparing mESCs/miPSCs with somatic cells and 720 DEs between miPSCs and mESCs...
January 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058671/possible-muscle-repair-in-the-human-cardiovascular-system
#7
REVIEW
Linda Sommese, Alberto Zullo, Concetta Schiano, Francesco P Mancini, Claudio Napoli
The regenerative potential of tissues and organs could promote survival, extended lifespan and healthy life in multicellular organisms. Niches of adult stemness are widely distributed and lead to the anatomical and functional regeneration of the damaged organ. Conversely, muscular regeneration in mammals, and humans in particular, is very limited and not a single piece of muscle can fully regrow after a severe injury. Therefore, muscle repair after myocardial infarction is still a chimera. Recently, it has been recognized that epigenetics could play a role in tissue regrowth since it guarantees the maintenance of cellular identity in differentiated cells and, therefore, the stability of organs and tissues...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054239/the-protein-content-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-expanded-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-cd133-and-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-partially-explains-why-both-sources-are-advantageous-for-regenerative-medicine
#8
Addeli B B Angulski, Luiz G Capriglione, Michel Batista, Bruna H Marcon, Alexandra C Senegaglia, Marco A Stimamiglio, Alejandro Correa
Adult stem cells have beneficial effects when exposed to damaged tissue due, at least in part, to their paracrine activity, which includes soluble factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Given the multiplicity of signals carried by these vesicles through the horizontal transfer of functional molecules, human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) and CD133(+) cell-derived EVs have been tested in various disease models and shown to recover damaged tissues. In this study, we profiled the protein content of EVs derived from expanded human CD133(+) cells and bone marrow-derived hMSCs with the intention of better understanding the functions performed by these vesicles/cells and delineating the most appropriate use of each EV in future therapeutic procedures...
January 4, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050756/endothelial-cell-mediated-promotion-of-ciliated-cell-differentiation-of-human-airway-basal-cells-via-insulin-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-mediated-signaling
#9
Kazunori Gomi, Yongjiang Tang, Vanessa Arbelaez, Ronald G Crystal, Matthew S Walters
Human airway basal cells (BC) function as stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium, capable of differentiating into ciliated and secretory cells during turnover and repair. The positioning of BC along the basement membrane allows for potential paracrine signaling from non-epithelial cells in the mesenchyme to regulate BC function. Based on the knowledge that interaction between the airway epithelium and mesenchyme is critical for proper maintenance of both tissues, and that endothelial cells (EC) can regulate multiple functions of BC, the present study was designed to help understand the role of BC and EC cross-talk in regulating BC stem/progenitor function...
January 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000155/hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-4-alpha-promotes-definitive-endoderm-differentiation-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
Morifumi Hanawa, Kazuo Takayama, Fuminori Sakurai, Masashi Tachibana, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) is a key transcription factor for liver development. Although HNF4α is necessary for hepatoblast differentiation, the function of HNF4α before the hepatoblast differentiation, such as in definitive endoderm differentiation, is not well known. In addition, it is known that there are nine HNF4α isoforms, but the expression and function of each HNF4α isoform during the definitive endoderm differentiation is also not clear. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of HNF4α and its functions in the definitive endoderm differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells...
December 21, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987073/comparison-of-four-protocols-to-generate-chondrocyte-like-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-hipscs
#11
Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Ewelina Augustyniak, Magdalena Richter, Tomasz Trzeciak
Stem cells (SCs) are a promising approach to regenerative medicine, with the potential to treat numerous orthopedic disorders, including osteo-degenerative diseases. The development of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has increased the potential of SCs for new treatments. However, current methods of differentiating hiPSCs into chondrocyte-like cells are suboptimal and better methods are needed. The aim of the present study was to assess four different chondrogenic differentiation protocols to identify the most efficient method of generating hiPSC-derived chondrocytes...
December 16, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924617/cxcl12-sdf-1-dependent-retinal-migration-of-endogenous-bone-marrow-derived-stem-cells-improves-visual-function-after-pharmacologically-induced-retinal-degeneration
#12
Volker Enzmann, Stéphanie Lecaudé, Anna Kruschinski, Axel Vater
Mobilized bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) have been discussed as an alternative strategy for endogenous repair. Thereby, different approaches for BMSC mobilization have been pursued. Herein, the role of a newly discovered oligonucleotide for retinal homing and regeneration capability of BMSCs was investigated in the sodium iodate (NaIO3) model of retinal degeneration. Mobilization was achieved in GFP-chimera with NOX-A12, a CXC-motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)-neutralizing L-aptamer...
December 6, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921202/endogenous-stem-cells-were-recruited-by-defocused-low-energy-shock-wave-in-treating-diabetic-bladder-dysfunction
#13
Yang Jin, Lina Xu, Yong Zhao, Muwen Wang, Xunbo Jin, Haiyang Zhang
Defocused low-energy shock wave (DLSW) has been shown effects on activating mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vitro. In this study, recruitment of endogenous stem cells was firstly examined as an important pathway during the healing process of diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) treated by DLSW in vivo. Neonatal rats received intraperitoneal injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) and then DBD rat model was created by injecting streptozotocin. Four weeks later, DLSW treatment was performed. Afterward, their tissues were examined by histology...
December 5, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914035/mobilization-of-peripheral-blood-stem-cells-and-changes-in-the-concentration-of-plasma-factors-influencing-their-movement-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#14
Marcin Jabłoński, Jolanta Kucharska Mazur, Maciej Tarnowski, Barbara Dołęgowska, Daniel Pędziwiatr, Ewa Kubiś, Marta Budkowska, Daria Sałata, Justyna Pełka Wysiecka, Arkadiusz Kazimierczak, Artur Reginia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Jerzy Samochowiec
In this paper we examined whether stem cells and factors responsible for their movement may serve as new biological markers of anxiety disorders. The study was carried out on a group of 30 patients diagnosed with panic disorder (examined before and after treatment), compared to 30 healthy individuals forming the control group. We examined the number of circulating HSCs (hematopoetic stem cells) (Lin-/CD45 +/CD34 +) and HSCs (Lin-/CD45 +/AC133 +), the number of circulating VSELs (very small embryonic-like stem cells) (Lin-/CD45-/CD34 +) and VSELs (Lin-/CD45-/AC133 +), as well as the concentration of complement components: C3a, C5a and C5b-9, SDF-1 (stromal derived factor) and S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate)...
December 2, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866327/mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-the-adverse-effects-of-immunosuppressive-drugs-on-distinct-t-cell-subopulations
#15
Michaela Hajkova, Barbora Hermankova, Eliska Javorkova, Pavla Bohacova, Alena Zajicova, Vladimir Holan, Magdalena Krulova
Immunosuppressive drugs are widely used to treat undesirable immune reaction, however their clinical use is often limited by harmful side effects. The combined application of immunosuppressive agents with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offers a promising alternative approach that enables the reduction of immunosuppressive agent doses and simultaneously maintains or improves the outcome of therapy. The present study aimed to determinate the effects of immunosuppressants on individual T cell subpopulations and to investigate the efficacy of MSC-based treatment combined with immunosuppressive drugs...
November 19, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853939/wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-as-a-feeder-layer-for-the-ex-vivo-expansion-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Melania Lo Iacono, Rita Anzalone, Giampiero La Rocca, Elena Baiamonte, Aurelio Maggio, Santina Acuto
In recent years, umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been widely used as an alternative source to bone marrow (BM) for transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in a variety of hematological and non-hematological disorders. Nevertheless, the insufficient number of UCB-HSPCs for graft represents a major challenge. HSPCs ex vivo expansion prior to transplantation is a valid strategy to overcome this limit. Several attempts to optimize the expansion conditions have been reported, including the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as feeder layer...
November 16, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826795/erratum-to-a-regenerative-approach-with-dermal-micrografts-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-ulcers
#17
Francesco De Francesco, Antonio Graziano, Letizia Trovato, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Maurizio Romano, Marco Marcarelli, Gabriella Maria Cusella De Angelis, Umberto Cillo, Michele Riccio, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826794/the-challenge-in-using-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-recellularization-of-decellularized-cartilage
#18
REVIEW
Zhao Huang, Owen Godkin, Gundula Schulze-Tanzil
Some decellularized musculoskeletal extracellular matrices (ECM)s derived from tissues such as bone, tendon and fibrocartilaginous meniscus have already been clinical use for tissue reconstruction. Repair of articular cartilage with its unique zonal ECM architecture and composition is still an unsolved problem, and the question is whether allogenic or xenogeneic decellularized cartilage ECM could serve as a biomimetic scaffold for this purpose.Hence, this survey outlines the present state of preparing decellularized cartilage ECM-derived scaffolds or composites for reconstruction of different cartilage types and of reseeding it particularly with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822872/constitutive-expression-of-inducible-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-early-repressor-icer-in-cycling-quiescent-hematopoietic-cells-implications-for-aging-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#19
Steven J Greco, Ghassan Yehia, Julius A Potian, Carlos A Molina, Pranela Rameshwar
Despite extensive insights on the interaction between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the supporting bone marrow (BM) stroma in hematopoietic homeostasis there remains unanswered questions on HSC regulation. We report on the mechanism by which HSCs attain cycling quiescence by addressing a role for inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER). ICER negatively transcriptional regulators of cAMP activators such as CREM and CREB. These activators can be induced by hematopoietic stimulators such as cytokines...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817181/reprogramming-enhancers-in-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-ipsc-technology-and-direct-conversion
#20
REVIEW
Daekee Kwon, Minjun Ji, Seunghee Lee, Kwang Won Seo, Kyung-Sun Kang
Direct conversion of cell fate is a core technology for future regenerative medicine. However, the low reprogramming efficiency and low reproducibility are the largest obstacles blocking translational research of direct conversion technology. This review lists the major reprogramming enhancers verified in the representative reprogramming technologies of somatic cell nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell technology, and direct conversion, and categorizes them according to their functions. Ultimately, we strive to provide a practical plan to overcome the low reprogramming efficiency and low reproducibility of direct conversion...
November 5, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
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