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Stem Cell Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914035/mobilization-of-peripheral-blood-stem-cells-and-changes-in-the-concentration-of-plasma-factors-influencing-their-movement-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#1
Marcin Jabłoński, Jolanta Kucharska Mazur, Maciej Tarnowski, Barbara Dołęgowska, Daniel Pędziwiatr, Ewa Kubiś, Marta Budkowska, Daria Sałata, Justyna Pełka Wysiecka, Arkadiusz Kazimierczak, Artur Reginia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Jerzy Samochowiec
In this paper we examined whether stem cells and factors responsible for their movement may serve as new biological markers of anxiety disorders. The study was carried out on a group of 30 patients diagnosed with panic disorder (examined before and after treatment), compared to 30 healthy individuals forming the control group. We examined the number of circulating HSCs (hematopoetic stem cells) (Lin-/CD45 +/CD34 +) and HSCs (Lin-/CD45 +/AC133 +), the number of circulating VSELs (very small embryonic-like stem cells) (Lin-/CD45-/CD34 +) and VSELs (Lin-/CD45-/AC133 +), as well as the concentration of complement components: C3a, C5a and C5b-9, SDF-1 (stromal derived factor) and S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate)...
December 2, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866327/mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-the-adverse-effects-of-immunosuppressive-drugs-on-distinct-t-cell-subopulations
#2
Michaela Hajkova, Barbora Hermankova, Eliska Javorkova, Pavla Bohacova, Alena Zajicova, Vladimir Holan, Magdalena Krulova
Immunosuppressive drugs are widely used to treat undesirable immune reaction, however their clinical use is often limited by harmful side effects. The combined application of immunosuppressive agents with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offers a promising alternative approach that enables the reduction of immunosuppressive agent doses and simultaneously maintains or improves the outcome of therapy. The present study aimed to determinate the effects of immunosuppressants on individual T cell subpopulations and to investigate the efficacy of MSC-based treatment combined with immunosuppressive drugs...
November 19, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853939/wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-as-a-feeder-layer-for-the-ex-vivo-expansion-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Melania Lo Iacono, Rita Anzalone, Giampiero La Rocca, Elena Baiamonte, Aurelio Maggio, Santina Acuto
In recent years, umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been widely used as an alternative source to bone marrow (BM) for transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in a variety of hematological and non-hematological disorders. Nevertheless, the insufficient number of UCB-HSPCs for graft represents a major challenge. HSPCs ex vivo expansion prior to transplantation is a valid strategy to overcome this limit. Several attempts to optimize the expansion conditions have been reported, including the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as feeder layer...
November 16, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826795/erratum-to-a-regenerative-approach-with-dermal-micrografts-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-ulcers
#4
Francesco De Francesco, Antonio Graziano, Letizia Trovato, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Maurizio Romano, Marco Marcarelli, Gabriella Maria Cusella De Angelis, Umberto Cillo, Michele Riccio, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826794/the-challenge-in-using-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-recellularization-of-decellularized-cartilage
#5
REVIEW
Zhao Huang, Owen Godkin, Gundula Schulze-Tanzil
Some decellularized musculoskeletal extracellular matrices (ECM)s derived from tissues such as bone, tendon and fibrocartilaginous meniscus have already been clinical use for tissue reconstruction. Repair of articular cartilage with its unique zonal ECM architecture and composition is still an unsolved problem, and the question is whether allogenic or xenogeneic decellularized cartilage ECM could serve as a biomimetic scaffold for this purpose.Hence, this survey outlines the present state of preparing decellularized cartilage ECM-derived scaffolds or composites for reconstruction of different cartilage types and of reseeding it particularly with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822872/constitutive-expression-of-inducible-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-early-repressor-icer-in-cycling-quiescent-hematopoietic-cells-implications-for-aging-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#6
Steven J Greco, Ghassan Yehia, Julius A Potian, Carlos A Molina, Pranela Rameshwar
Despite extensive insights on the interaction between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the supporting bone marrow (BM) stroma in hematopoietic homeostasis there remains unanswered questions on HSC regulation. We report on the mechanism by which HSCs attain cycling quiescence by addressing a role for inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER). ICER negatively transcriptional regulators of cAMP activators such as CREM and CREB. These activators can be induced by hematopoietic stimulators such as cytokines...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817181/reprogramming-enhancers-in-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-ipsc-technology-and-direct-conversion
#7
REVIEW
Daekee Kwon, Minjun Ji, Seunghee Lee, Kwang Won Seo, Kyung-Sun Kang
Direct conversion of cell fate is a core technology for future regenerative medicine. However, the low reprogramming efficiency and low reproducibility are the largest obstacles blocking translational research of direct conversion technology. This review lists the major reprogramming enhancers verified in the representative reprogramming technologies of somatic cell nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell technology, and direct conversion, and categorizes them according to their functions. Ultimately, we strive to provide a practical plan to overcome the low reprogramming efficiency and low reproducibility of direct conversion...
November 5, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815690/pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-robust-source-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
REVIEW
Carlos D Luzzani, Santiago G Miriuka
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied over the past years for the treatment of different diseases. Most of the ongoing clinical trials currently involve the use of MSC derived from adult tissues. This source may have some limitations, particularly with therapies that may require extensive and repetitive cell dosage. However, nowadays, there is a staggering growth in literature on a new source of MSC. There is now increasing evidence about the mesenchymal differentiation from pluripotent stem cell (PSC)...
November 5, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807762/stem-cell-derived-exosomes-autophagy-extracellular-matrix-turnover-and-mirnas-in-cardiac-regeneration-during-stem-cell-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Priyanka Prathipati, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras Kumar Mishra
Stem cell therapy (SCT) raises the hope for cardiac regeneration in ischemic hearts. However, underlying molecular mechanisms for repair of dead myocardium by SCT in the ischemic heart is poorly understood. Growing evidences suggest that cardiac matrix stiffness and differential expressions of miRNAs play a crucial role in stem cell survival and differentiation. However, their roles on transplanted stem cells, for myocardial repair of the ischemic heart, remain unclear. Transplanted stem cells may act in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner to regenerate the dead myocardium...
November 2, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757917/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-ferumoxytol-labeled-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-mouse-brain
#10
Na Kyung Lee, Hyeong Seop Kim, Dongkyeom Yoo, Jung Won Hwang, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Jong Wook Chang, Duk L Na
The success of stem cell therapy is highly dependent on accurate delivery of stem cells to the target site of interest. Possible ways to track the distribution of MSCs in vivo include the use of reporter genes or nanoparticles. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ferumoxytol (Feraheme® [USA], Rienso® [UK]) as a treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Ferumoxytol is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO) that has recently been used to track the fate of transplanted cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752990/inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-inos-is-a-novel-negative-regulator-of-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-trafficking
#11
Mateusz Adamiak, Ahmed Abdelbaset-Ismail, Joseph B Moore, J Zhao, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Marcin Wysoczynski, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical molecule involved in several biological processes related to inflammation, tissue damage, and infections. Based on reports that NO inhibits migration of granulocytes and monocytes, we became interested in the role of inducible NO synthetase (iNOS) in pharmacological mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB). To address the role of NO in HSPC trafficking, we upregulated or downregulated iNOS expression in hematopoietic cell lines...
October 17, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738884/a-regenerative-approach-with-dermal-micrografts-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-ulcers
#12
Francesco De Francesco, Antonio Graziano, Letizia Trovato, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Maurizio Romano, Marco Marcarelli, Gabriella Maria Cusella De Angelis, Umberto Cillo, Michele Riccio, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro
BACKGROUND: The etiology of non-healing ulcers depends on both systemic and local factors. The introduction of advanced dressing, negative wound therapy and compression therapy have undoubtedly improved clinical outcomes. The principal aim of study was to demonstrate the efficacy of dermal micrografts in the treatment of ulcers with different etiologies. The second aim was to investigate in vitro the action of micrografts in the regenerative process. METHODS: The dermal micro-grafts were obtained from mechanical disaggregation of small pieces of skin tissue through a medical device called Rigeneracons...
October 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730468/eliminating-cancer-stem-cells-by-targeting-embryonic-signaling-pathways
#13
Ohad Oren, B Douglas Smith
Dramatic advances have been made in the understanding of cancer over the past decade. Prime among those are better appreciation of the biology of cancer and the development of targeted therapies. Despite these improvements, however, most tumors remain refractory to anti-cancer medications and frequently recur. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), which in some cases express markers of pluripotency (e.g., Oct-4), share many of the molecular features of normal stem cells. These cells have been hypothesised to play a role in tumor resistance and relapse...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704316/the-involvment-of-hematopoietic-specific-plc-%C3%AE-2-in-homing-and-engraftment-of-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#14
Mateusz Adamiak, Malwina Suszynska, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Ahmed Abdelbaset-Ismail, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Migration and bone marrow (BM) homing of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) is regulated by several signaling pathways, and here we provide evidence for the involvement in this process of hematopoietic-specific phospholipase C-β2 (PLC-β2). This enzyme is involved in release of intracellular calcium and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Recently we reported that PLC-β2 promotes mobilization of HSPCs from BM into peripheral blood (PB), and this effect is mediated by the involvement of PLC-β2 in the release of proteolytic enzymes from granulocytes and its role in disintegration of membrane lipid rafts...
December 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696329/sustained-depolarization-of-the-resting-membrane-potential-regulates-muscle-progenitor-cell-growth-and-maintains-stem-cell-properties-in-vitro
#15
Colin Fennelly, Zhan Wang, Tracy Criswell, Shay Soker
It is important to maintain the myogenic properties of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) during in vitro expansion for stem cell therapies and tissue engineering applications. Controlling cell fate for biomedical interventions will require insight on all aspects that influence cellular properties. The resting membrane potential (Vmem) has proven to be a key parameter involved in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. This current work is focused on elucidating the impact of sustained depolarization on MPC growth and differentiation in vitro...
December 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696271/the-role-of-autophagy-in-the-maintenance-of-stemness-and-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Francesca Vittoria Sbrana, Margherita Cortini, Sofia Avnet, Francesca Perut, Marta Columbaro, Angelo De Milito, Nicola Baldini
Regulated self-consumption, also known as autophagy, is an evolutionary conserved process that degrades cellular components by directing them to the lysosomal compartment of eukaryotic cells. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining and remodeling cellular homeostasis during normal cellular and tissue development. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is necessary for the maintenance of cellular stemness and for a number of differentiation processes, including the lineage determination of mesenchymal stem cells...
December 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687792/umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-treated-with-plasma-exchange-and-entecavir-a-24-month-prospective-study
#17
Yu-Hua Li, Ying Xu, Hua-Mei Wu, Jing Yang, Li-Hong Yang, Wan Yue-Meng
BACKGROUND & AIM: Search for an effective therapy for patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) remains an important issue. This study investigated the efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantation in patients with HBV-ACLF. METHODS: 45 consecutive entecavir-treated HBV-ACLF patients were prospectively studied. Among these patients, 11 received both plasma exchange (PE) and a single transplantation of UC-MSCs (group A), while 34 received only PE (group B)...
December 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665291/hyaluronic-acid-ha-scaffolds-and-multipotent-stromal-cells-mscs-in-regenerative-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Elena Dai Prè, Giamaica Conti, Andrea Sbarbati
Traditional methods for tissue regeneration commonly used synthetic scaffolds to regenerate human tissues. However, they had several limitations, such as foreign body reactions and short time duration. In order to overcome these problems, scaffolds made of natural polymers are preferred. One of the most suitable and widely used materials to fabricate these scaffolds is hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is the primary component of the extracellular matrix of the human connective tissue. It is an ideal material for scaffolds used in tissue regeneration, thanks to its properties of biocompatibility, ease of chemical functionalization and degradability...
December 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665290/distinct-immunoregulatory-mechanisms-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-role-of-the-cytokine-environment
#19
Vladimir Holan, Barbora Hermankova, Pavla Bohacova, Jan Kossl, Milada Chudickova, Michaela Hajkova, Magdalena Krulova, Alena Zajicova, Eliska Javorkova
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a population of cells which have the ability to regulate reactivity of T and B lymphocytes by multiple mechanisms. The immunoregulatory activities of MSCs are strictly influenced by the cytokine environment. Here we show that two functionally distinct cytokines, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), significantly potentiate the ability of MSCs to inhibit IL-10 production by activated regulatory B cells (Bregs). However, MSCs in the presence of IL-4 or IFN-γ inhibit the IL-10 production by different mechanisms...
December 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663915/underlying-mechanisms-that-restore-spermatogenesis-on-transplanting-healthy-niche-cells-in-busulphan-treated-mouse-testis
#20
Sandhya Anand, Deepa Bhartiya, Kalpana Sriraman, Alpna Mallick
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) exist among spermatogonial stem cells and survive chemotherapy in both mice and human testes because of their relatively quiescent nature. Our earlier study revealed that inter-tubular transplantation of niche (Sertoli or bone marrow derived mesenchymal) cells can restore spermatogenesis from endogenous surviving VSELs. Present study was undertaken to delineate the effect of busulphan on testicular stem/germ/Sertoli cells and to comprehend the underlying mechanisms of how transplanted niche cells restore spermatogenesis...
December 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
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