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Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management

Su Youn Kim, Falk R Ochsendorf
The fixed-dose combination adapalene 0.1%/benzoylperoxide 2.5% (A/BPO) was introduced as an acne vulgaris therapeutic in 2007. It combines anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, and antibacterial properties. Thus, it addresses several pathophysiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of acne. This review highlights the rationale for the use of this fixed-dose combination product, its therapeutic efficacy including effects on adherence and quality of life, its use for different forms of acne, and the side-effect profile...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Rehab M El-Gharabawy, Amira S Ahmed, Amal H Al-Najjar
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of nitroglycerin in the pathogenesis of cataract. DESIGN: Prospective study. PATIENT AND METHODS: This study was performed in adults from tertiary Saudi Arabian hospitals (34 males and 26 females in each group, aged from 40 to 60 years), who were divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (control group, cardiac group, idiopathic cataract group, and a group of cardiac patients using nitroglycerin and with cataracts)...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Ling Zhao, Wei Wang, Jiwen Zhong, YaYun Li, YanZi Cheng, Zhenjiao Su, Wei Zheng, Xiang-Dong Guan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical effects of magnesium sulfate in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou and Zhuhai People's Hospital, Zhuhai, two trauma center hospitals. A total of 128 patients suffered from DAI, with initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores of 3-8. They were randomly divided into two groups: magnesium sulfate treatment (MST) group (n=64) and control group (n=64)...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Barbara Terelak-Borys, Katarzyna Zagajewska, Irmina Jankowska-Lech, Piotr Tesla, Iwona Grabska-Liberek
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe a combination treatment for choroidal neovascular (CNV) membrane, secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC). PATIENT AND METHODS: A 44-year-old female patient was diagnosed with PIC complicated by the development of recurrent juxtafoveal neovascular membrane. The treatment included a sequence of monotherapy regimens: systemic steroid therapy, photodynamic therapy, and intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor (anti-VEGF)...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Kuthan Kavakli, Nesrin Ocal, Deniz Dogan, Ali Fuat Cicek, Hakan Isik, Sedat Gurkok
BACKGROUND: Organizing pneumonia (OP) can be idiopathic or secondary to some clinical situations. If an etiological cause is not present, this phenomenon is called cryptogenic OP. Secondary OP is associated with various diseases that are known to induce the OP. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of the cases with OP and compare the patients diagnosed by bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsy with patients diagnosed by surgical lung biopsy...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Chao Liu, Zhi Mao, Mengmeng Yang, Hongjun Kang, Hui Liu, Liang Pan, Jie Hu, Jun Luo, Feihu Zhou
BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are significant indications for antibiotic treatment. Daptomycin, a novel antibiotic, has been registered and licensed to be used in the treatment of these infections. However, its efficacy and safety remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of daptomycin for the treatment of SSTIs and to analyze whether the available sample size has been large enough and is conclusive...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Zhi-Xin Qiu, Yue Cheng, Dan Liu, Wei-Ya Wang, Xia Wu, Wei-Lu Wu, Wei-Min Li
BACKGROUND: Lung nodules are being detected at an increasing rate year by year with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) being widely used. Ground-glass opacity nodule is one of the special types of pulmonary nodules that is confirmed to be closely associated with early stage of lung cancer. Very little is known about solitary ground-glass opacity nodules (SGGNs). In this study, we analyzed the clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of SGGNs on HRCT. METHODS: A total of 95 resected SGGNs were evaluated with HRCT scan...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Ching Kuo Tan, Gui Quan Say, James B Geake
Tiotropium bromide is a long-acting inhaled muscarinic antagonist used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. It has been available since 2002 as a single-dose dry powder formulation via the HandiHaler(®) dry powder inhaler (DPI) device, and since 2007 as the Respimat(®) SoftMist™ Inhaler (SMI). The latter is a novel method of medication delivery that utilizes a multidose aqueous solution to deliver the drug as a fine mist. Potential benefits include more efficient drug deposition throughout the respiratory tract, reduced systemic exposure, and greater ease of use and patient satisfaction compared with the use of HandiHaler DPI...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Abdel Naser Zaid, Masshour Ghanem, Dua'a Shweiki, Hala Shtewi, Raja' Shaheen, Sondos Al Helaly, Zeina Khayyat, Rowa'a Al Ramahi, Sa'ed H Zyoud
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the general quality of the most prescribed products of valsartan (VL; alone or in combination) and to evaluate their efficacy and safety among Palestinian population through in vivo postmarketing surveillance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first part was pharmacopeial quality control assay, including dissolution, disintegration, friability, and weight uniformity for VL. The second part was a 3-month cardiology clinics, observational, postmarketing surveillance pilot study that included 103 hypertensive patients who were prescribed 80 mg or 160 mg of VL as monotherapy or combination therapy...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Ching-Wei Hsu, Cheng-Hao Weng, Cheng-Chia Lee, Dan-Tzu Lin-Tan, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Tzung-Hai Yen, Wen-Hung Huang
BACKGROUND: The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommends that the serum aluminum level (SAL) should be below 20 µg/L for patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). However, serum aluminum may have toxic effects on MHD patients even when it is in the apparently acceptable range (below 20 µg/L). METHODS: The Medical Ethics Committee approved this study. Initially, 954 MHD patients in dialysis centers were recruited. A total of 901 patients met the inclusion criteria and were followed-up for 1 year...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Jiraporn Khorana, Jayanton Patumanond, Nuthapong Ukarapol, Mongkol Laohapensang, Pannee Visrutaratna, Jesda Singhavejsakul
PURPOSE: The nonoperative reduction of intussusception in children can be performed safely if there are no contraindications. Many risk factors associated with failed reduction were defined. The aim of this study was to develop a scoring system for predicting the failure of nonoperative reduction using various determinants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The data were collected from Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients with intussusception aged 0-15 years with no contraindications for nonoperative reduction...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Kazuki Ide, Hiroshi Yamada, Yohei Kawasaki, Marika Noguchi, Mamoru Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi Chiba, Yoshiyuki Kagawa, Keizo Umegaki
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements are used by >50% of the adult population in Japan, and adverse events related to these products have been reported with their increased use. Thus, an efficient system to gather and report data on these adverse events is essential. To date, however, reporting has been limited. The aim of this study was to address this deficiency by exploring the routine reporting practices of the medical staff employed at clinics or pharmacies in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a survey of the procedures used by the medical staff to report adverse events related to dietary supplement intake to public health centers in Japan...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Adile Ortakoyluoglu, Betul Boz, Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar, Deniz Avcı, Ali Cetinkaya, Osman Baspınar
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a very important cause of morbidity and mortality. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a biomarker of oxidative stress and associated with increased risk of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum GGT level, which is an early marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, with the deterioration of the diurnal rhythm of the blood pressure. METHODS: A total of 171 patients with hypertension were included in this study...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Arash Moghaddam, Viola Graeser, Fabian Westhauser, Ulrike Dapunt, Till Kamradt, Stefan M Woerner, Gerhard Schmidmaier
INTRODUCTION: Osteitis is one of the most serious complications in orthopedic surgery. Expert Tibia Nail (ETN) PROtect™ coated with a biodegradable layer of gentamicin-laden polymer was developed for prophylaxis of osteomyelitis. In systemic administration, gentamicin has only a small therapeutic index and serious side effects; it is potentially nephrotoxic as well as ototoxic. It is not yet known if relevant gentamicin concentrations are released into the systemic circulation after implantation of gentamicin-coated nails...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Jirakrit Leelarungrayub, Thirasak Borisuthibandit, Araya Yankai, Kritsana Boontha
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to show the changes in oxidative stress and clinical condition from either chest physical therapy (CPT) or CPT with aerosol treatment in infant patients with pneumonia. METHODS: From 52 intubated patients, three groups were composed: groups A, B, and C comprising 21 patients aged 5.3±0.6 months (CPT program), 20 patients aged 5.6±0.7 months (aerosol treatment before CPT program), and eleven patients aged 5.0±0.35 months (control), respectively...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Alessandro Colletti, Giuseppe Derosa, Arrigo Fg Cicero
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the main risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. The treatment is based on the modification of the diet and lifestyle and if necessary on a pharmacological therapy. The most widely used drugs are the inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (statins); nevertheless, many patients do not reach optimal levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) even with maximal dosage of statins (eventually associated to ezetimibe) or present side effects, which do not allow them to continue the treatment...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Ming-Chang Ku, Victor C Kok, Ming-Yung Lee, Soa-Min Hsu, Pei-Yu Lee, Che-Wei Chang, Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Chi-Wen Juan
OBJECTIVES: Gallbladder opacification (GBO) on computed tomography (CT) imaging may obscure certain pathological or emergent conditions in the gallbladder, such as neoplasms, stones, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical contributing factors that could predict the presence of delayed GBO determined by CT. METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated 243 consecutive patients who received enhanced CT or intravenous pyelography imaging and then underwent abdominal CT imaging within 5 days...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Moosang Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Jose A Vazquez, Anthony C Arnold, Robert N Swanson, Pinaki Biswas, Matteo Bassetti
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the long-term safety of linezolid in patients with chronic infections requiring treatment for ≥6 weeks. Enhanced monitoring for optic neuropathy was included to characterize the early development of this side effect and to identify ophthalmologic tests that might be valuable in early detection of this event. METHODS: This was a multicenter, open-label, pilot study of patients aged ≥18 years on long-term linezolid therapy...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Bahram Biglari, Christopher Child, Timur Mert Yildirim, Tyler Swing, Tim Reitzel, Arash Moghaddam
BACKGROUND: The proper timing for surgery in patients with acute spinal cord injury is controversial. This study was conducted to detect if there is an advantage in early (within the first 4 hours after trauma) compared to late (between 4 and 24 hours after trauma) surgery on neurological outcome. METHODS: In this single institution prospective cohort study, data were analyzed from 51 spinal cord injured patients with an average age of 43.4 (±19.2) years. The influence of early (29 patients within the first 4 hours) as opposed to late (22 patients between 4 and 24 hours) decompression was evaluated by comparing data for neurological outcome...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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