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Organogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598297/the-neuronal-differentiation-microenvironment-is-essential-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#1
Yannan Zhao, Zhifeng Xiao, Bing Chen, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to substantial disability due to loss of motor function and sensation below the lesion. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a promising strategy for SCI repair. However, NSCs rarely differentiate into neurons; they mostly differentiate into astrocytes because of the adverse microenvironment present after SCI. We have shown that myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) inhibited neuronal differentiation of NSCs. Given that MAIs activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, we used a collagen scaffold-tethered anti-EGFR antibody to attenuate the inhibitory effects of MAIs and create a neuronal differentiation microenvironment for SCI repair...
June 9, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598258/the-epidemiology-of-supernumerary-teeth-and-the-associated-molecular-mechanism
#2
Xi Lu, Fang Yu, Junjun Liu, Wenping Cai, Yumei Zhao, Shouliang Zhao, Shangfeng Liu
Supernumerary teeth are common clinical dental anomalies. Although various studies have provided abundant information regarding genes and signalling pathways involved in tooth morphogenesis, which include Wnt, FGF, BMP, and Shh, the molecular mechanism of tooth formation, especially for supernumerary teeth, is still unclear. In the population, some cases of supernumerary teeth are sporadic, while others are syndrome-related with familial hereditary. The prompt and accurate diagnosis of syndrome related supernumerary teeth is quite important for some distinctive disorders...
June 9, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598248/enamel-matrix-derivative-enhances-the-proliferation-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-on-the-titanium-implant-surface
#3
Guang Li, Jing Hu, Hui Chen, Liang Chen, Na Zhang, Lisheng Zhao, Ning Wen, Yongjin Yang
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have mesenchymal-stem-cells-like qualities, and are considered as one of the candidates of future clinical application in periodontal regeneration therapy. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is widely used in promoting periodontal regeneration. However, the effects of EMD on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs grown on the Ti implant surface are still no clear. Therefore, this study examined the effects of EMD on human PDLSCs in vitro. Human PDLSCs were isolated from healthy participants, and seeded on the surface of Ti implant disks and stimulated with various concentrations of EMD...
June 9, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548903/microenvironment-of-a-tumor-organoid-system-enhances-hepatocellular-carcinoma-malignancy-related-hallmarks
#4
Yang Wang, Kazuki Takeishi, Zhao Li, Eduardo Cervantes-Alvarez, Alexandra Collin de l'Hortet, Jorge Guzman-Lepe, Xiao Cui, Jiye Zhu
Organ-like microenviroment and 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture conformations have been suggested as promising approaches to mimic in a micro-scale a whole organ cellular functions and interactions present in vivo. We have used this approach to examine biologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In this study, we demonstrate that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix can generate organoid-like spheroids that enhanced numerous features of human HCC observed in vivo...
May 26, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486048/endometriosis-origin-from-primordial-germ-cells
#5
Zograb Makiyan
Endometriosis is defined by the presence of endometrial ectopia. Multiple hypotheses have been postulated to explain the etiology of endometriosis to understand various clinical evidences. The etiology of endometriosis is still unclear.The primary question to understanding the etiology of endometrial ectopia (endometriosis) is determining the origin of eutopic (normally cited) endometrium.According to the new theory, primordial germ cells migrate from hypoblast (yolk sac close to the allantois) to the gonadal ridges...
May 9, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277890/analysis-of-spatiotemporal-pattern-and-quantification-of-gastrointestinal-slow-waves-caused-by-anticholinergic-drugs
#6
Kelvin K L Wong, Lauren C Y Tang, Jerry Zhou, Vincent Ho
Anticholinergic drugs are well-known to cause adverse effects, such as constipation, but their effects on baseline contractile activity in the gut driven by slow waves is not well established. In a video-based gastrointestinal motility monitoring (GIMM) system, a mouse's small intestine was placed in Krebs solution and recorded using a high definition camera. Untreated controls were recorded for each specimen, then treated with a therapeutic concentration of the drug, and finally, treated with a supratherapeutic dose of the drug...
April 3, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102777/comparison-of-early-vascular-morphological-changes-between-bioresorbable-poly-l-lactic-acid-scaffolds-and-metallic-stents-in-porcine-iliac-arteries
#7
Yasuhito Sekimoto, Hideaki Obara, Kentaro Matsubara, Naoki Fujimura, Hirohisa Harada, Yuko Kitagawa
Bioresorbable scaffolds have the potential to overcome several problems associated with metallic stents. Bioresorbable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold implantation for the treatment of peripheral artery disease has already been reported in animal models and clinical trials; however, no studies comparing PLLA scaffolds and bare metal stents (BMSs) with regard to early vascular morphological changes, identified using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis, have been reported. In this study, PLLA scaffolds and BMSs were implanted bilaterally in iliac arteries of five miniature pigs...
April 3, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055309/current-strategies-to-generate-mature-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-cholangiocytes-and-future-applications
#8
Eduardo Cervantes-Alvarez, Yang Wang, Alexandra Collin de l'Hortet, Jorge Guzman-Lepe, Jiye Zhu, Kazuki Takeishi
Stem cell research has significantly evolved over the last few years, allowing the differentiation of pluripotent cells into almost any kind of lineage possible. Studies that focus on the liver have considerably taken a leap into this novel technology, and hepatocyte-like cells are being generated that are close to resembling actual hepatocytes both genotypically and phenotypically. The potential of this extends from disease models to bioengineering, and even also innovative therapies for end-stage liver disease...
January 2, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029279/recellularization-via-the-bile-duct-supports-functional-allogenic-and-xenogenic-cell-growth-on-a-decellularized-rat-liver-scaffold
#9
Wessam Hassanein, Mehmet C Uluer, John Langford, Jhade D Woodall, Arielle Cimeno, Urmil Dhru, Avraham Werdesheim, Joshua Harrison, Carlos Rivera-Pratt, Stephen Klepfer, Ali Khalifeh, Bryan Buckingham, Philip S Brazio, Dawn Parsell, Charlie Klassen, Cinthia Drachenberg, Rolf N Barth, John C LaMattina
Recent years have seen a proliferation of methods leading to successful organ decellularization. In this experiment we examine the feasibility of a decellularized liver construct to support growth of functional multilineage cells. Bio-chamber systems were used to perfuse adult rat livers with 0.1% SDS for 24 hours yielding decellularized liver scaffolds. Initially, we recellularized liver scaffolds using a human tumor cell line (HepG2, introduced via the bile duct). Subsequent studies were performed using either human tumor cells co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, introduced via the portal vein) or rat neonatal cell slurry (introduced via the bile duct)...
January 2, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841695/par-1b-is-required-for-morphogenesis-and-differentiation-of-myoepithelial-cells-during-salivary-gland-development
#10
Elise M Gervais, Sharon J Sequeira, Weihao Wang, Stanley Abraham, Janice H Kim, Daniel Leonard, Kara A DeSantis, Melinda Larsen
The salivary epithelium initiates as a solid mass of epithelial cells that are organized into a primary bud that undergoes morphogenesis and differentiation to yield bilayered acini consisting of interior secretory acinar cells that are surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells in mature salivary glands. How the primary bud transitions into acini has not been previously documented. We document here that the outer epithelial cells subsequently undergo a vertical compression as they express smooth muscle α-actin and differentiate into myoepithelial cells...
October 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579861/il-7-suppresses-osteogenic-differentiation-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-through-inactivation-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway
#11
Cong-Xiang Jian, Quan-Shui Fan, Yong-He Hu, Yong He, Ming-Zhe Li, Wei-Yin Zheng, Yu Ren, Chen-Jun Li
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are tissue-specific mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), having an important role in regenerative therapy for teeth loss. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a key cytokine produced by stromal cells including MSCs, and exhibits specific roles for B and T cell development and osteoblasts differentiation of multiple myeloma. However, the effect of IL-7 on osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study we determined whether IL-7 affects the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in vitro and explored the associated signaling pathways for IL-7-mediated cell differentiation...
October 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391116/systematization-of-ambiguous-genitalia
#12
Zograb Makiyan
Sex assignment in newborns depends on the anatomy of the external genitalia, despite this stage being the final in embryogenesis. According to the current view, the genital tubercle is the embryonic precursor of penis and clitoris. It originates from mesenchymal tissue, but mesenchymal cells are arranged across the embryonal body and do not have specific androgen receptors. The nature of the signal that initiates early derivation of the indifferent genital tubercle is unknown at present. The aims of this article are to improve surgical management of intersex disorders and investigate the development of the genital tubercle...
October 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391218/a-concise-review-of-common-animal-models-for-the-study-of-limb-regeneration
#13
Zayd Farah, Huimin Fan, Zhongmin Liu, Jia-Qiang He
Correct selection of an appropriate animal mode to closely mimic human extremity diseases or to exhibit desirable phenotypes of limb regeneration is the first critical step for all scientists in biomedical and regenerative researches. The commonly-used animals in limb regeneration and repairing studies, such as axolotl, mice, and rats, are discussed in the review and other models including cockroaches, dogs, and horses are also mentioned. The review weighs the general advantages, disadvantages, and precedent uses of each model in the context of limb and peripheral injury and subsequent regeneration...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326759/involvement-of-igf-2-igf-1r-igf-2r-and-pten-in-development-of-human-tooth-germ-an-immunohistochemical-study
#14
Darko Kero, Livia Cigic, Ivana Medvedec Mikic, Tea Galic, Mladen Cubela, Katarina Vukojevic, Mirna Saraga-Babic
Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) is a peptide hormone essential for prenatal growth and development. IGF-2 exerts its mitogenic effects via Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R), and is eliminated by binding to Insulin-Like Growth Receptor 2 (IGF-2R). IGF-2 is also negatively regulated by Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN), a phosphatase mutated in various tumors. Not much is known about the interplay between these factors during human odontogenesis. In this study, expression patterns of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN were analyzed by double immunofluorescence in incisor human tooth germs during the foetal period of development between the 7(th) and 20(th) gestational week...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322672/current-challenges-in-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-research
#15
Mickey Shah, Richard L George, M Michelle Evancho-Chapman, Ge Zhang
Dedifferentiated fat cells show great promises as a novel cell source for stem cell research. It has many advantages when used for cell-based therapeutics including abundance, pluripotency, and safety. However, there are many obstacles researchers need to overcome to make the next big move in DFAT cells research. In this review, we summarize the current main challenges in DFAT cells research including cell culture purity, phenotypic properties, and dedifferentiation mechanisms. The common methods to produce DFAT cells as well as the cell purity issue during DFAT cell production have been introduced...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231022/vitamin-c-promotes-the-proliferation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-via-p53-p21-pathway
#16
Peihua Zhang, Jin Li, Yawei Qi, Yaqing Zou, Li Liu, Xudong Tang, Jianfeng Duan, Hongwei Liu, Guofang Zeng
Although adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have demonstrated a promising potential for the applications of cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) are harmful to ADSCs cell survival and proliferation. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant, and is often added into culture media as an essential micronutrient. However, its roles on the proliferation of human ADSCs have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, human ADSCs were isolated, and detected by flow cytometry for the analysis of their cell surface antigens...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158925/decellularized-spleen-matrix-for-reengineering-functional-hepatic-like-tissue-based-on-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Junxi Xiang, Xinglong Zheng, Peng Liu, Lifei Yang, Dinghui Dong, Wanquan Wu, Xuemin Liu, Jianhui Li, Yi Lv
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Decellularized liver matrix (DLM) hold great potential for reconstructing functional hepatic-like tissue (HLT) based on reseeding of hepatocytes or stem cells, but the shortage of liver donors is still an obstacle for potential application. Therefore, an appropriate alternative scaffold is needed to expand the donor pool. In this study, we explored the effectiveness of decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) for culturing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and promoting differentiation into hepatic-like cells...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116676/membrane-channel-gene-expression-in-human-costal-and-articular-chondrocytes
#18
A Asmar, R Barrett-Jolley, A Werner, R Kelly, M Stacey
Chondrocytes are the uniquely resident cells found in all types of cartilage and key to their function is the ability to respond to mechanical loads with changes of metabolic activity. This mechanotransduction property is, in part, mediated through the activity of a range of expressed transmembrane channels; ion channels, gap junction proteins, and porins. Appropriate expression of ion channels has been shown essential for production of extracellular matrix and differential expression of transmembrane channels is correlated to musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoarthritis and Albers-Schönberg...
April 2, 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27078170/the-fatty-acid-chain-elongase-elovl1-is-required-for-kidney-and-swim-bladder-development-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#19
Sushil Bhandari, Joon No Lee, Young-Il Kim, In-Koo Nam, Su-Jung Kim, Se-Jin Kim, SeongAe Kwak, Gi-Su Oh, Hyung-Jin Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Hong-Seob So, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
Very long chain fatty acids are required for sphingolipid synthesis, lipid homeostasis, myelin formation, epidermal permeability, and retinal function. Seven different enzymes are known to be involved in the elongation cycle of fatty acids, with different chain-length specificities. Elovl1 is one of those enzymes whose function has been linked mainly to the synthesis of sphingolipids and the epidermal barrier. However, the role of Elovl1 in organogenesis is not clear. In zebrafish, 2 Elovl1 genes, elovl1a and elovl1b, are highly expressed in the swim bladder, and elovl1b is also expressed in the kidney...
April 2, 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27078042/the-expression-profiles-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-9-and-its-receptors-in-developing-mice-testes
#20
Meng-Shao Lai, Chia-Yih Wang, Shang-Hsun Yang, Chia-Ching Wu, H Sunny Sun, Shaw-Jenq Tsai, Jih-Ing Chuang, Yung-Chia Chen, Bu-Miin Huang
An expressional lack of fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) would cause male-to-female sex reversal in the mouse, implying the essential role of FGF9 in testicular organogenesis and maturation. However, the temporal expression of FGF9 and its receptors during testicular development remains elusive. In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to identify the localization of FGF9 and its receptors at different embryonic and postnatal stages in mice testes. Results showed that FGF9 continuously expressed in the testis during development...
April 2, 2016: Organogenesis
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