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Elise M Gervais, Sharon J Sequeira, Weihao Wang, Stanley Abraham, Janice H Kim, Daniel Leonard, Kara A DeSantis, Melinda Larsen
The salivary epithelium initiates as a solid mass of epithelial cells that are organized into a primary bud that undergoes morphogenesis and differentiation to yield bilayered acini consisting of interior secretory acinar cells that are surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells in mature salivary glands. How the primary bud transitions into acini has not been previously documented. We document here that the outer epithelial cells subsequently undergo a vertical compression as they express smooth muscle α-actin and differentiate into myoepithelial cells...
November 14, 2016: Organogenesis
Cong-Xiang Jian, Quan-Shui Fan, Yong-He Hu, Yong He, Ming-Zhe Li, Wei-Yin Zheng, Yu Ren, Chen-Jun Li
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are tissue-specific mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), having an important role in regenerative therapy for teeth loss. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a key cytokine produced by stromal cells including MSCs, and exhibits specific roles for B and T cell development and osteoblasts differentiation of multiple myeloma. However, the effect of IL-7 on osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study we determined whether IL-7 affects the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in vitro and explored the associated signaling pathways for IL-7-mediated cell differentiation...
August 31, 2016: Organogenesis
Zograb Makiyan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2016: Organogenesis
Zayd Farah, Huimin Fan, Zhongmin Liu, Jia-Qiang He
Correct selection of an appropriate animal mode to closely mimic human extremity diseases or to exhibit desirable phenotypes of limb regeneration is the first critical step for all scientists in biomedical and regenerative researches. The commonly-used animals in limb regeneration and repairing studies, such as axolotl, mice, and rats, are discussed in the review and other models including cockroaches, dogs, and horses are also mentioned. The review weighs the general advantages, disadvantages, and precedent uses of each model in the context of limb and peripheral injury and subsequent regeneration...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Darko Kero, Livia Cigic, Ivana Medvedec Mikic, Tea Galic, Mladen Cubela, Katarina Vukojevic, Mirna Saraga-Babic
Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) is a peptide hormone essential for prenatal growth and development. IGF-2 exerts its mitogenic effects via Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R), and is eliminated by binding to Insulin-Like Growth Receptor 2 (IGF-2R). IGF-2 is also negatively regulated by Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN), a phosphatase mutated in various tumors. Not much is known about the interplay between these factors during human odontogenesis. In this study, expression patterns of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN were analyzed by double immunofluorescence in incisor human tooth germs during the foetal period of development between the 7(th) and 20(th) gestational week...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Mickey Shah, Richard L George, M Michelle Evancho-Chapman, Ge Zhang
Dedifferentiated fat cells show great promises as a novel cell source for stem cell research. It has many advantages when used for cell-based therapeutics including abundance, pluripotency, and safety. However, there are many obstacles researchers need to overcome to make the next big move in DFAT cells research. In this review, we summarize the current main challenges in DFAT cells research including cell culture purity, phenotypic properties, and dedifferentiation mechanisms. The common methods to produce DFAT cells as well as the cell purity issue during DFAT cell production have been introduced...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Peihua Zhang, Jin Li, Yawei Qi, Yaqing Zou, Li Liu, Xudong Tang, Jianfeng Duan, Hongwei Liu, Guofang Zeng
Although adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have demonstrated a promising potential for the applications of cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) are harmful to ADSCs cell survival and proliferation. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant, and is often added into culture media as an essential micronutrient. However, its roles on the proliferation of human ADSCs have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, human ADSCs were isolated, and detected by flow cytometry for the analysis of their cell surface antigens...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Junxi Xiang, Xinglong Zheng, Peng Liu, Lifei Yang, Dinghui Dong, Wanquan Wu, Xuemin Liu, Jianhui Li, Yi Lv
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Decellularized liver matrix (DLM) hold great potential for reconstructing functional hepatic-like tissue (HLT) based on reseeding of hepatocytes or stem cells, but the shortage of liver donors is still an obstacle for potential application. Therefore, an appropriate alternative scaffold is needed to expand the donor pool. In this study, we explored the effectiveness of decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) for culturing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and promoting differentiation into hepatic-like cells...
July 2, 2016: Organogenesis
A Asmar, R Barrett-Jolley, A Werner, R Kelly, M Stacey
Chondrocytes are the uniquely resident cells found in all types of cartilage and key to their function is the ability to respond to mechanical loads with changes of metabolic activity. This mechanotransduction property is, in part, mediated through the activity of a range of expressed transmembrane channels; ion channels, gap junction proteins, and porins. Appropriate expression of ion channels has been shown essential for production of extracellular matrix and differential expression of transmembrane channels is correlated to musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoarthritis and Albers-Schönberg...
April 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Sushil Bhandari, Joon No Lee, Young-Il Kim, In-Koo Nam, Su-Jung Kim, Se-Jin Kim, SeongAe Kwak, Gi-Su Oh, Hyung-Jin Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Hong-Seob So, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
Very long chain fatty acids are required for sphingolipid synthesis, lipid homeostasis, myelin formation, epidermal permeability, and retinal function. Seven different enzymes are known to be involved in the elongation cycle of fatty acids, with different chain-length specificities. Elovl1 is one of those enzymes whose function has been linked mainly to the synthesis of sphingolipids and the epidermal barrier. However, the role of Elovl1 in organogenesis is not clear. In zebrafish, 2 Elovl1 genes, elovl1a and elovl1b, are highly expressed in the swim bladder, and elovl1b is also expressed in the kidney...
April 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Meng-Shao Lai, Chia-Yih Wang, Shang-Hsun Yang, Chia-Ching Wu, H Sunny Sun, Shaw-Jenq Tsai, Jih-Ing Chuang, Yung-Chia Chen, Bu-Miin Huang
An expressional lack of fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) would cause male-to-female sex reversal in the mouse, implying the essential role of FGF9 in testicular organogenesis and maturation. However, the temporal expression of FGF9 and its receptors during testicular development remains elusive. In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to identify the localization of FGF9 and its receptors at different embryonic and postnatal stages in mice testes. Results showed that FGF9 continuously expressed in the testis during development...
April 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Young Hwan Choi, Il Ho Jang, Soon Chul Heo, Jae Ho Kim, Nathaniel S Hwang
WKYMVm hexapeptide has been identified as a strong FPR2 agonist through a library screening of synthetic peptides. The FPR2 has been reported to play a crucial role in inflammation and angiogenic responses via stimulation of chemotaxis, migration, cell proliferation, wound healing and vessel growth. Recently, the therapeutic effects of WKYMVm have been reported in various disease models. In cutaneous wound model in diabetic mice, WKYMVm facilitated wound healing processes by stimulating the formation of capillary and arteriole and re-epithelialization...
April 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Elizabeth R Zielins, Ryan C Ransom, Tripp E Leavitt, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
Limb regeneration is a complex yet fascinating process observed to some extent in many animal species, though seen in its entirety in urodele amphibians. Accomplished by formation of a morphologically uniform intermediate, the blastema, scientists have long attempted to define the cellular constituents that enable regrowth of a functional appendage. Today, we know that the blastema consists of a variety of multipotent progenitor cells originating from a variety of tissues, and which contribute to limb tissue regeneration in a lineage-restricted manner...
January 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Alicia Del Toro-Arreola, Ana Karina Robles-Murillo, Adrian Daneri-Navarro, Jorge David Rivas-Carrillo
Islet transplantation has become a widely accepted therapeutic option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, in order to achieve insulin independence a great number of islets are often pooled from 2 to 4 pancreata donors. Mostly, it is due to the massive loss of islets immediately after transplant. The endothelium plays a key role in the function of native islets and during the revascularization process after islet transplantation. However, if a delayed revascularization occurs, even the remaining islets will also undergo to cell death and late graft dysfunction...
January 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Zograb Makiyan
Gonadal differentiation has a determinative influence on sex development in human embryos. Disorders of sexual development (DSD) have been associated with persistent embryonal differentiation stages. Between 1998 and 2015, 139 female patients with various (DSD) underwent operations at the Scientific Center of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Perynatology in Moscow, Russia. Clinical investigations included karyotyping, ultrasound imaging, hormonal measurement and investigations of gonadal morphology. The male characteristics in the embryo are imposed by testicular hormones...
January 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Julie Bejoy, Liqing Song, Yan Li
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have shown the ability to self-organize into different types of neural organoids (e.g., whole brain organoids, cortical spheroids, midbrain organoids etc.) recently. The extrinsic and intrinsic signaling elicited by Wnt pathway, Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) pathway, and extracellular microenvironment plays a critical role in brain tissue morphogenesis. This article highlights recent advances in neural tissue patterning from hPSCs, in particular the role of Wnt pathway and YAP activity in this process...
January 2, 2016: Organogenesis
Zograb Makiyan
BACKGROUND: The explanation of uterine and vaginal embryogenesis in humans still poses many controversies, because it is difficult to assess early stages of an embryo. The literature review revealed many disagreements in Mullerian theory, inciting some authors to propose new embryological hypotheses. In the original Mullerian theory: the paramesonephral ducts form the Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina; the mesonephral ducts regress in female embryos. AIMS: The aim of this article is to investigate the development of Mullerian ducts in humans, using comparative analysis of fundamental embryological theory and various utero-vaginal anomalies...
January 2, 2016: Organogenesis
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Organogenesis
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Organogenesis
Fu-Yu Hsieh, Shan-hui Hsu
Acute traumatic injuries and chronic degenerative diseases represent the world's largest unmet medical need. There are over 50 million people worldwide suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are only a few treatment options available for acute traumatic injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. In this commentary, the newly developed 3D bioprinting technique involving neural stem cells (NSCs) embedded in the thermoresponsive biodegradable polyurethane (PU) bioink is reviewed...
2015: Organogenesis
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