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Current Diabetes Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081698/treatment-avenues-for-type-2-diabetes-and-current-perspectives-on-adipokines
#1
Sayantani Pramanik, Nirali Rathwa, Roma Patel, A V Ramachandran, Rasheedunnisa Begum
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has turned into a pandemic disorder that is affecting millions of people worldwide. Industries are aggressively racing and pursuing research towards the discovery of antidiabetic drug and the current global sale of such drugs are ever on the increase. However, in spite of such massive level and expenditure thereof, WHO projects that by 2030, diabetes will rank as the 7th leading cause of mortality. OBJECTIVE: It is in this context that we have reviewed here the various approaches available and possible towards diabetes management...
January 12, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081697/cytokine-gene-variants-as-predictors-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Madhukar Saxena, Neena Srivastava, Monisha Banerjee
Diabetes is third widespread after heart disease and cancer. We have investigated genetic polymorphisms in cytokine genes viz. IL-4, IL-1Ra, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and ADIPOQ. The aim of study was to investigate the haplotypes, gene-gene interactions and their role in determining individual susceptibility to T2DM of family members with diabetic history. Haplotype analysis of 2 SNPs each in IL-6 and adiponectin genes showing Pairwise Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was done by SHEsis software. Logistic regression was used to study various combinations of gene-gene interactions...
January 12, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081696/effect-of-metformin-therapy-on-serum-fetuin-levels-in-insulin-resistant-type-1-diabetics
#3
Nermin A Sheriba, Iman Z Ahmed, Mona M Abdesalam, Yara M Eid, Maram M Mahdy, Hany K Mansour
: Insulin resistance may develop with Type 1 diabetes. Insulin resistance is currently recognized by estimated glucose disposal rate. Serum fetuin has been accused as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. AIM: To determine the relationship between serum fetuin and insulin resistance in Type 1 diabetes subjects and the effect of short-term Metformin therapy on this relationship. METHOD: 40 T1DM male ≥ 18 years of age were screened for insulin resistance (defined using estimated glucose disposal rate)...
January 12, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034290/marine-algae-as-a-prospective-source-for-antidiabetic-compounds-a-brief-review
#4
S P Unnikrishnan, A M Jayasri
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed by several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM...
December 29, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031016/androgen-deficiency-in-aging-male-questionnaire-for-the-clinical-detection-of-testosterone-deficiency-in-a-population-of-black-sub-saharan-african-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-is-it-a-reliable-tool
#5
Ejiofor T Ugwu, Rosemary T Ikem
BACKGROUND: Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire is increasingly popular for the evaluation of testosterone deficiency (TD) in Sub-Saharan African men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, its reliability in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability of the ADAM questionnaire for the clinical detection of testosterone deficiency in Sub-Saharan African men with T2DM Methods: Total testosterone < 8nmol/L was used as gold standard for diagnosis of TD in a cross-sectional survey of 200 males with T2DM aged 30-69 years...
December 28, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000545/systemic-cytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-chronic-periodontitis
#6
Anirudh B Acharya, Srinath Thakur, M V Muddapur, Raghavendra D Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Cytokine dysregulation plays an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic periodontitis (CP) with a commonality in pathogenic mechanisms. CP is considered the sixth complication of diabetes and may have an increased influence on systemic levels of cytokines in individuals with T2DM. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated two pro-, and two presumed anti-inflammatory cytokines and their ratios in the serum of healthy individuals, in chronic periodontitis with and without T2DM with, and without CP and in CP alone aimed at evaluating the systemic inflammatory burden of a local oral infection...
December 20, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000544/the-complex-inter-relationship-between-diabetes-and-schizophrenia
#7
Jeffery Rado
Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating brain disorder. It is associated with increased mortality, primarily due to elevated cardio-metabolic risk. Affected patients have higher rates of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes [1]. Intrinsic factors contributing to this increased risk include a shared underlying pathophysiology between schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus involving stress, inflammation and genetics. Extrinsic contributing factors include diet, lifestyle, health care access, low socioeconomic status and overburden of traditional diabetes risk factors...
December 20, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981898/the-role-of-carbonic-anhydrase-in-hepatic-glucose-production
#8
Ibrahim Salihu Ismail
Considerable efforts are being made daily to discover novel therapeutic targets to better understand the mechanism for designing drugs in treating diabetes. Inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by metformin remains the first line of oral therapy for managing type 2 diabetes. The link between rise in blood lactate level and reduction of hepatic glucose production with metformin usage remains to be determined. Carbonic anhydrase is proposed to be the link connecting blood lactate accumulation and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and thus could serve as a new therapeutic target for reducing hepatic glucose production...
December 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981897/the-correlation-between-urinary-8-iso-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-and-hydrogen-peroxide-toward-renal-function-in-t2dm-patients-consuming-sulfonylurea-and-combination-of-metformin-sulfonylurea
#9
Rani Sauriasari, Fitri Wulandari, Rahmaningtyas Nurifahmi, Andisyah Putri Sekar, Veronika Yulianti Susilo
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction is a common complication in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients associated with oxidative damage which could be characterized by 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and hydrogen peroxide level as oxidative stress markers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to determine if there is a difference in 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and hydrogen peroxide levels between sulfonylurea and combination of metformin-sulfonylurea in diabetic patients. We also wanted to determine if these oxidative stress markers correlate with the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)...
December 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924722/distinct-biomarkers-for-early-diagnosis-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#10
Lalit Kishore, Navpreet Kaur, Randhir Singh
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the foremost causes of mortality in diabetic patients as a result of increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate and compromised renal function. INTRODUCTION: Determination of increased excretion of albumin in urine chiefly attribute to the onset and progression of DN. However, due to certain limitations of albuminuria, the search for more sensitive, specific and reliable renal biomarkers is required for early prediction of DN...
December 7, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924723/clinical-management-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-older-adult-patient
#11
Nana Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
BACKGROUND: In 2009, approximately 40 million people were 65 years or older. Majority of persons over the age of 65 have at least one chronic medical condition. In 2002-2003, the most frequently occurring conditions among older adults were hypertension (51%), arthritis (48%), heart disease (31%), cancer of any type (21%), and diabetes (16%). The cost of diabetes care, both direct and indirect, was $245 billion in 2012. Fifty-nine percent of the direct medical cost was for the population aged 65 and over...
December 6, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915979/nontraditional-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-pediatric-type-1-diabetes
#12
Robert P Hoffman
If we are to gain a full and complete understanding of mechanisms of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent type 1 diabetes mechanistic risk markers must be developed that predict risk accurately and which can be used as endpoints for short or intermediate term intervention studies aimed at reducing risk. A variety of biochemical and vascular markers have potential to meet these requirements. Biochemical markers include markers of inflammation, oxidation, and endothelial damage. Vascular markers include static and dynamic measures of arterial function...
December 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908250/hypoglycemia-and-cardiac-arrhythmia-mechanisms-evidence-base-and-current-recommendations
#13
Sitara Gulrukh Khan, Mohammed Shahriar Huda
BACKGROUND: With the use of intensive insulin therapy and insulin secretagogues to optimize glycemic control in diabetes, hypoglycemia continues to present a clinical challenge. Hypoglycemia has been implicated in nocturnal sudden death in type 1 diabetes, and the mechanism underlying this is postulated to be cardiac arrhythmia. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the evidence surrounding hypoglycemia and cardiac arrhythmia. METHODS: A structured search of the Pubmed bibliographic database was undertaken, and relevant peer-reviewed articles on the topic were included in the review...
December 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908249/automated-system-for-referral-of-cotton-wool-spots
#14
Syed Ali Gohar Naqvi, Hafiz Muhammad Faisal Zafar, Ihsan Ul Haq
BACKGROUND: Cotton-wool spots also referred as soft exudates are the early sign of complications in the eye fundus of the patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy. Early detection of exudates helps in diagnosis of the disease and provides better medical attention. METHODS: In the paper an automated system for detection of soft exudates has been suggested. The system has been developed by the combination of different techniques like scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), Visual Dictionaries, K-means clustering and support vector machine (SVM)...
December 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897108/diagnostic-validity-and-clinical-utility-of-hba1c-tests-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Arthur Hamie Owora
Individual and population level inference about risk and burden of diabetes is often made using diagnostic tests that are imperfect and prone to misclassification error (i.e. false positives and negatives). These errors or biases are rarely accounted for and could lead to inappropriate clinical decisions, inefficient allocation of scarce resources, and poor planning of disease prevention and treatment interventions. The objective of this article is to describe how misclassification error due to imperfect diagnostic tests affects individual and population level inference, particularly involving the role of hemoglobin HbA1c in diagnosing Type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 29, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881054/transition-of-care-for-patients-with-diabetes
#16
Patricia Garnica
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a common chronic condition among adults that can complicate the transition from the hospital to the community. Hospital readmission is an important contributor to total medical expenditures and is an emerging indicator of quality of care. Failure to acknowledge diabetes transition of care is associated with increased emergency department visits and 30-day readmissions. METHODS: Literature review of transition of care models, sample tools and processes are presented...
November 22, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875947/skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-as-a-precursor-to-diabetes-beyond-glucoregulation
#17
Nicholas P Greene, Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Tyrone A Washington
Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic levels in Western societies. T2DM begins with the development of peripheral insulin resistance which prior research suggests may commonly originate within skeletal muscle. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the development of muscle insulin resistance including those of classical glucose handling, but also other cellular derangements observed in this disease which include mitochondrial degeneration, alterations in muscle protein turnover and early evidences for dysregulation of microRNAs...
November 22, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875946/the-role-of-sexual-dysfunction-and-infertility-on-reproductive-health-in-diabetics-pathogenesis-evaluation-and-management
#18
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled or long-term diabetes mellitus is conducive to vascular and oxidative stress disturbances that impede several physiological systems, which may in turn elicit psychological symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We assess the sexual and hormonal complications of diabetes mellitus that impair reproductive function in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and reproductive health...
November 22, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829330/diabetes-and-nutritional-screening-in-post-bariatric-patients
#19
Maria E Pena, Trisha B Newaz
With the rise of obesity there has been a concomitant increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). As a result, the term "diabesity" has become a popular disease entity in the past several years. When lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy fail to achieve successful weight loss and diabetes control, bariatric surgery is a recommended treatment option. Bariatric surgery has been shown to promote sustained T2DM remission in 30-63% of patients and improve other components of metabolic syndrome; thus a preferred term has been "metabolic surgery"...
November 7, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804850/interval-exercise-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes
#20
Hidetaka Hamasaki
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular risk and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Continuous moderate- to high-intensity exercise has been recommended to manage type 2 diabetes; however, only approximately 30% of diabetic patients achieve the recommended levels of physical activity. The reasons for not engaging in regular exercise vary; however, one of the common reasons is lack of time. Recently, the effectiveness of short-duration interval exercise such as high-intensity interval training and interval walking has been observed...
November 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
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