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Current Diabetes Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924722/distinct-biomarkers-for-early-diagnosis-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#1
Lalit Kishore, Navpreet Kaur, Randhir Singh
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the foremost causes of mortality in diabetic patients as a result of increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate and compromised renal function. INTRODUCTION: Determination of increased excretion of albumin in urine chiefly attribute to the onset and progression of DN. However, due to certain limitations of albuminuria, the search for more sensitive, specific and reliable renal biomarkers is required for early prediction of DN...
December 7, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924723/clinical-management-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-older-adult-patient
#2
Nana Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
BACKGROUND: In 2009, approximately 40 million people were 65 years or older. Majority of persons over the age of 65 have at least one chronic medical condition. In 2002-2003, the most frequently occurring conditions among older adults were hypertension (51%), arthritis (48%), heart disease (31%), cancer of any type (21%), and diabetes (16%). The cost of diabetes care, both direct and indirect, was $245 billion in 2012. Fifty-nine percent of the direct medical cost was for the population aged 65 and over...
December 6, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915979/nontraditional-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-pediatric-type-1-diabetes
#3
Robert P Hoffman
If we are to gain a full and complete understanding of mechanisms of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent type 1 diabetes mechanistic risk markers must be developed that predict risk accurately and which can be used as endpoints for short or intermediate term intervention studies aimed at reducing risk. A variety of biochemical and vascular markers have potential to meet these requirements. Biochemical markers include markers of inflammation, oxidation, and endothelial damage. Vascular markers include static and dynamic measures of arterial function...
December 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908250/hypoglycemia-and-cardiac-arrhythmia-mechanisms-evidence-base-and-current-recommendations
#4
Sitara Gulrukh Khan, Mohammed Shahriar Huda
BACKGROUND: With the use of intensive insulin therapy and insulin secretagogues to optimize glycemic control in diabetes, hypoglycemia continues to present a clinical challenge. Hypoglycemia has been implicated in nocturnal sudden death in type 1 diabetes, and the mechanism underlying this is postulated to be cardiac arrhythmia. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the evidence surrounding hypoglycemia and cardiac arrhythmia. METHODS: A structured search of the Pubmed bibliographic database was undertaken, and relevant peer-reviewed articles on the topic were included in the review...
December 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908249/automated-system-for-referral-of-cotton-wool-spots
#5
Syed Ali Gohar Naqvi, Hafiz Muhammad Faisal Zafar, Ihsan Ul Haq
BACKGROUND: Cotton-wool spots also referred as soft exudates are the early sign of complications in the eye fundus of the patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy. Early detection of exudates helps in diagnosis of the disease and provides better medical attention. METHODS: In the paper an automated system for detection of soft exudates has been suggested. The system has been developed by the combination of different techniques like scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), Visual Dictionaries, K-means clustering and support vector machine (SVM)...
December 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897108/diagnostic-validity-and-clinical-utility-of-hba1c-tests-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Arthur Hamie Owora
Individual and population level inference about risk and burden of diabetes is often made using diagnostic tests that are imperfect and prone to misclassification error (i.e. false positives and negatives). These errors or biases are rarely accounted for and could lead to inappropriate clinical decisions, inefficient allocation of scarce resources, and poor planning of disease prevention and treatment interventions. The objective of this article is to describe how misclassification error due to imperfect diagnostic tests affects individual and population level inference, particularly involving the role of hemoglobin HbA1c in diagnosing Type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 29, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881054/transition-of-care-for-patients-with-diabetes
#7
Patricia Garnica
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a common chronic condition among adults that can complicate the transition from the hospital to the community. Hospital readmission is an important contributor to total medical expenditures and is an emerging indicator of quality of care. Failure to acknowledge diabetes transition of care is associated with increased emergency department visits and 30-day readmissions. METHODS: Literature review of transition of care models, sample tools and processes are presented...
November 22, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875947/skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-as-a-precursor-to-diabetes-beyond-glucoregulation
#8
Nicholas P Greene, Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Tyrone A Washington
Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic levels in Western societies. T2DM begins with the development of peripheral insulin resistance which prior research suggests may commonly originate within skeletal muscle. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the development of muscle insulin resistance including those of classical glucose handling, but also other cellular derangements observed in this disease which include mitochondrial degeneration, alterations in muscle protein turnover and early evidences for dysregulation of microRNAs...
November 22, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875946/the-role-of-sexual-dysfunction-and-infertility-on-reproductive-health-in-diabetics-pathogenesis-evaluation-and-management
#9
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled or long-term diabetes mellitus is conducive to vascular and oxidative stress disturbances that impede several physiological systems, which may in turn elicit psychological symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We assess the sexual and hormonal complications of diabetes mellitus that impair reproductive function in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and reproductive health...
November 22, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829330/diabetes-and-nutritional-screening-in-post-bariatric-patients
#10
Maria E Pena, Trisha B Newaz
With the rise of obesity there has been a concomitant increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). As a result, the term "diabesity" has become a popular disease entity in the past several years. When lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy fail to achieve successful weight loss and diabetes control, bariatric surgery is a recommended treatment option. Bariatric surgery has been shown to promote sustained T2DM remission in 30-63% of patients and improve other components of metabolic syndrome; thus a preferred term has been "metabolic surgery"...
November 7, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804850/interval-exercise-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes
#11
Hidetaka Hamasaki
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular risk and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Continuous moderate- to high-intensity exercise has been recommended to manage type 2 diabetes; however, only approximately 30% of diabetic patients achieve the recommended levels of physical activity. The reasons for not engaging in regular exercise vary; however, one of the common reasons is lack of time. Recently, the effectiveness of short-duration interval exercise such as high-intensity interval training and interval walking has been observed...
November 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774877/genitourinary-complications-of-diabetes-mellitus-an-overview-of-pathogenesis-evaluation-and-management
#12
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a vastly prevalent metabolic disorder with escalating global health concerns. Particularly when mismanaged, chronic micro- and macrovascular complications may highly impair physiological systems while immunodeficiency disposes us to infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigate infections, localized complications, and neoplasms of the genitourinary system secondary to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and the genitourinary system...
October 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758706/self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-eastern-nigeria-need-for-multi-strategic-interventions
#13
Ejiofor T Ugwu, Casmir Jg Orjioke, Ekenechukwu E Young
BACKGROUND: Self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a useful adjunct to lifestyle modification and medications for optimal management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was aimed at evaluating the practice, cost and associations of SMBG in subjects with type 2 DM in Enugu, Nigeria. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey conducted at the diabetes clinic in three hospitals, 366 type 2 diabetic subjects aged 18-65 years were consecutively interviewed. Socio-demographic and clinical information were documented and glycated hemoglobin was performed for all the participants...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758705/diabetes-management-by-probiotics-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#14
Aziz Homayouni Rad, Farnaz Sahhaf, Tohid Hassanalilou, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Negar Motayagheni, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Mina Javadi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Leila Khalili
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. OBJECTIVE: This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748176/autocrine-and-paracrine-secretion-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-the-pre-hypoxic-diabetic-retina
#15
Jeffery G Grigsby, Donald M Allen, Ana S Ferrigno, Sandeep Vellanki, Cindy E Pouw, Whitney A Hejny, Andrew T C Tsin
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well established as the main agent responsible for vascular leakage and angiogenesis in the diabetic retina. While VEGF can have positive effects on hyperglycemia stressed retinal tissues, it also plays a role in events progressing to the oxygen-stressed, i.e. hypoxic, diabetic retina. Some VEGF makes it way to the retina from systemic sources and some is produced locally within the eye. Hyperglycemia, oxidants, inflammation, and advanced glycation end-products are all stimulants to VEGF production, both in the hypoxic and the pre-hypoxic retina...
October 7, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719630/death-by-insulin-management-of-self-harm-and-suicide-in-diabetes-management
#16
Alyson Myers, Madhukar H Trivedi
Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death for Americans of all ages. Presence of a chronic medical illness (e.g. Diabetes mellitus) increases the risk of suicide. The goal of this review is to examine the relationship between diabetes and depression, as well as diabetes and suicide. Earlier this year, the U.S. Preventive Task Force (USPTF) escalated their recommendation for depression to include not only routine screening for depression but additional focus on active follow up that requires measurement based care...
October 5, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678065/the-epidemiology-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#17
Tina Costacou
In the era following the publication of results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial / Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study, care for patients with type 1 diabetes has dramatically improved. Despite these significant advancements in knowledge regarding the management of this chronic disease, however, individuals with type 1 diabetes continue to experience increased morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. The present review specifically focused on the epidemiology of cardiovascular complications among adults with type 1 diabetes, summarizing evidence on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, as well as on predictors of cardiovascular disease in this population...
September 27, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678066/diabetes-in-racial-and-ethnic-minorities-in-the-united-states-individualizing-approaches-to-diagnosis-and-management
#18
Maya Fayfman, Sonya Haw
Diabetes is a growing health epidemic in the United States. Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by diabetes and associated comorbidities and complications. The present review article aims to characterize the various ways in which minority populations are affected by diabetes. We address differences in prevalence of diabetes and associated conditions that include cardiovascular disease, hypertension, microvascular complications, and mortality. Additionally, we discuss factors that contribute to disparate diabetes-related outcomes, including physiology, culture and health-systems...
September 26, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654965/soluble-pro-renin-receptor-is-a-predictor-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Shokoufeh Bonakdaran, Ghazaleh Azami, Fatemeh Tara, Leila Poorali
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common endocrine complication in pregnancy. While it has been established that age, family history of diabetes, insulin resistance and several biomarkers are associated with GDM but significant gaps remain in understanding risk factors for GDM. Soluble pro-renin receptor (s [Pro] RR) as a biomarker reflects the activation of renin- angiotensin system in tissues which may be related to insulin resistance Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the role of (s [pro] RR) in predicting GDM...
September 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593512/prevention-of-non-communicable-diseases-by-balanced-nutrition-population-specific-effective-public-health-approaches-in-developing-countries
#20
Santosh Jain Passi
INTRODUCTION: Developing countries are currently afflicted with the dual burden of disease with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) becoming a major public health challenge. It is projected that in near future, NCDs will account for nearly 70% of the mortality in developing world. Caused due to lifestyle related factors, there is an upsurge in the incidence of overweight/obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancers, respiratory diseases etc. Appropriate dietary practices, increased physical activity, weight management, abstinence from tobacco/substance misuse and alcohol abuse play an important role in their prevention and management...
September 5, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
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