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Current Diabetes Reviews

Elizabeth M Vaughan, Craig A Johnston, Katherine R Arlinghaus, David J Hyman, John P Foreyt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have supported the efficacy of diabetes group visits. However, the benefit of diabetes group visits for low-income and underserved individuals is not clear. The purpose of this study was to conduct a narrative review in order to clarify the efficacy of diabetes group visits in low-income and underserved settings. METHODS: The authors performed a narrative review, categorizing studies into nonrandomized and randomized. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies were identified...
November 12, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Zahra Mazloum Khorasani, Shokoufeh Bonakdaran, Hasan Pour Rafieie
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most common medical disorders in pregnancy. The possibility of vitamin D deficiency as a pathogenesis for impaired glucose tolerance testes shows a probable role of vitamin D in insulin secretion and reduction of insulin resistance. This study was assigned to evaluate relation between serum vitamin D level and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). METHODS: This cross sectional study was done throughout one year between 2015-2016 in GDM patients (age,20-40 years)...
November 1, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Navid Rabiee, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, Mohammad Rabiee
Substantial terms have been recognized on the associated risk elements, comorbidities as well as, putative pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRDs) as well as, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a few from greatest important disease from the moments. Very much is considered regarding that biology and chemistry of each predicament, nevertheless regardless of T2DM and ADRDs are actually similar pattern developing from the similar origins of maturing or synergistic conditions connected by aggressive patho-corporeal terms continues to be ambiguous...
October 31, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
A Y Onaolapo, O J Onaolapo
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, the development and use of an array of prescription medications has considerably improved the clinical management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the quality of life of patients. However, as our knowledge of the associated risk factors and approaches to its management increases, the increasing roles of diet and the composition of the diet in the aetiology and successful management of diabetes mellitus are being illuminated. Presently, a lot of attention is being given to nutraceuticals and certain phytochemicals that are integral parts of the human diet...
October 30, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Ihasn Salah Rabea, Karrar Al-Gburi, Ihsan Adnan, Bilal Hasan, Massa Mohammed, Mariam Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, there is an accumulated data about the relation between hypomagnesemia (low Serum Mg level < 0.7 mmol/l) and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of hypomagnesemia in a carefully diagnosed diabetes patients and to show how some factors could contribute to the prevalence of low serum Mg level among the population under study. METHOD: In short, 62 patients of both type 1 and 2, who attended AL-Sadir medical city/ diabetes and endocrinology centre during the period of the study were included in the study...
October 25, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Manuel Giraldo-Grueso, Dario Echeverri
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus has increased drastically over time, especially in more populous countries such as the United States, India, and China. Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of major cardiovascular events such as acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Arterial stiffness is a process related to aging and vascular, metabolic, cellular and physiological deterioration. In recent years it has been described as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and coronary artery disease...
October 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Brian M Schmidt, Crystal M Holmes, Wen Ye, Rodica Pop-Busui
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes foot complications remain very prevalent in US and worldwide, and a major risk for devastating amputations. We evaluated the impact of establishing a fully integrated and specialized Podiatry service into a large tertiary academic health system to implement structured and targeted preventative foot care on limb salvage rates. METHODS: Cross-sectional cohorts' data mining analysis of all encounters for diabetes and any foot complications between 2000-2005 and 2010-2015, preceding and after full implementation of podiatry service, respectively...
October 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Salini Scaria Joy, Khalid Siddiqui
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is considered as most common microvascular complication of diabetes affected by one in three people who are suffered for diabetes. Several pathophysiological mechanisms and adhesion molecules may play an etiologic role in the development of diabetes and its complications. The adhesion molecules located on both leucocytes and endothelial cells and considered as important molecules which can assessed the endothelial function. The functions of adhesion molecules involved in the cellular margination, slow rolling and transmigration of leukocytes...
October 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Geeta Shamnani, Shekhawat S Bhartiy, Rekha Jiwane, Vani Gupta, Narsingh Verma, Dileep Verma
BACKGROUND: Globalization has lead to such lifestyle changes which have produced increase in incidence and prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Magnesium is found to have some role in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum magnesium levels with insulin resistance in apparently healthy adults. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate correlation of serum magnesium with fasting blood sugar, insulin level and Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (indicator of insulin resistance) on the basis of the hypothesis that subjects with hypomagnesaemia are more prone to develop hyperglycemia and insulin resistance...
October 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Maria M Adeva-Andany, Eva Ranal-Muino, Carlos Fernandez-Fernandez, Cristina Pazos-Garcia, Matilde Vila-Altesor
BACKGROUND: both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance due to glucagon secretion cause fasting and post-prandial hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. INTRODUCTION: metformin enhances insulin sensitivity, being used to prevent and treat diabetes, although its mechanism of action remains elusive. RESULTS: patients with diabetes fail to store glucose as hepatic glycogen via the direct pathway (glycogen synthesis from dietary glucose during the post-prandial period) and via the indirect pathway (glycogen synthesis from "de novo" synthesized glucose) owing to insulin deficiency and glucagon-induced insulin resistance...
October 9, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Osama B Albasheer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of depressive symptoms on the quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM). METHOD: A cross sectional study of 332 T2DM patients aged ≥18 years living in Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Validated questionnaire was used for demographic and disease characteristics. Depressive symptoms of the participants were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire - Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) was utilized to assess the degree of life enjoyment and satisfaction...
October 1, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Rabia Nabi, Sahir Sultan Alvi, Mohd Saeed, Saheem Ahmad, M Salman Khan
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) acts as an absolute mediator of cardiovascular risk, prompting the prolonged occurrence, size and intricacy of atherosclerotic plaques via enhanced advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) formation. Moreover, hyperglycemia is associated with enhanced glyco-oxidized and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) possessing greater atherogenicity and decreased ability to regulate HMG-CoA reductase (HMG-R). Although aminoguanidine (AG) prevents the AGE-induced protein cross-linking due to its anti-glycation potential, it exerts several unusual pharmaco-toxicological effects thus restraining its desirable therapeutic effects...
September 24, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Kamran Mahmood Ahmed Aziz
INTRODUCTION: In research elevated blood pressure (BP) has been demonstrated to be a risk for the development of nephropathy and chronic renal disease (CKD) or diabetic kidney disease(DKD) among diabetics. However, no study has find correlation for the spot urine protein (UPr) excretion with elevated BP, pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure MAP). This technique was invented in the current study. 10,270 were recruited for more than 12 years. Demographically, 43% , 38%, and 16% showed hypertension, nephropathy and chronic renal disease, respectively...
September 24, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
D E Barre, K A Mizier-Barre
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) cases continue to rise dramatically despite efforts to get people to exercise and eat with a view to health and combatting the cluster of 7 issues (elevated waist circumference, hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, pro-thrombotic state, increased oxidation (including low density lipoprotein (LDL)) and the pro-inflammatory state associated with pre- and post-onset T2D. BACKGROUND: There are numerous medications available to deal with these seven major issues...
September 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Junyan Li, Xiaohong Niu, JianBo Li, Qingzhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphisms of Pro12Ala located within the PPARG gene were significantly associated with the T2DM. Recently, the genetic studies on Pro12Ala were conducted in the different ethnic groups and the results of each study were shown to be inconsistent. Moreover, the systematic review has not been updated since 2000. OBJECTIVE: To further validate the risk of Pro12Ala for T2DM disease based on the genetic data...
September 12, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Anoop Kumar, Divya Rana
Background and Introduction: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, whose incidences are increasing day by day. Various classes of anti-diabetic drugs are clinically approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of diabetes mellitus, but unfortunately, none of them is able to treat this condition. Thus, the exploration of novel mechanistic pathways of existing molecules may help to develop more safe and effective anti-diabetic agents. Sodium orthovanadate is well known common laboratory agent used to preserve the protein tyrosyl phosphorylation state of the protein...
September 3, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Mubashra Butt, Adliah Mhd Ali, Mohd Makmor Bakry
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the association of self reported adherence with concurrent and subsequent glycemic control amongst type 2 diabetes patients at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. METHOD: Demographic and clinical variables were assessed at baseline, after three and six months in 73 type 2 diabetes patients. Regression analysis, using SPSS, evaluated the concurrent and longitudinal association of medication adherence and glycemic control. Potential confounders of variables were identified using bi-variate correlation analyses...
August 28, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Emily Cox, Shelley E Keating, Jeff S Coombes, Nicola W Burton
Exercise is essential for managing type 2 diabetes, however approximately only 40% of people with the condition meet guidelines. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence regarding the use self-report measures of affect to understand and predict exercise adherence. Self-reported affect has been successfully used to regulate exercise intensity, monitor training load, prevent injury, and predict future physical activity participation in otherwise healthy and some clinical populations. Specific recommendations are provided for research to explore the utility of self-report measures of affect to promote exercise adherence in people with type 2 diabetes...
August 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Mousab Yousef Al-Ayed, Mutasem Ababneh, Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Ahmed Salman, Abdulghani Al Saeed, Mohamed Abdulaziz Al Dawish
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Considering that diabetic foot ulceration is one of the major health issues globally, we aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with foot ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 81 T2DM patients (age range: 40-80 years) registered at the Diabetes Treatment Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between April and September 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study after purposive selection and assigning of patient numbers...
August 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Eugenio Cersosimo, John M Miles
BACKGROUND & INTRODUCTION: The advent of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors [SGLT-2i] provides an additional tool to combat diabetes and complications. The use of SGLT-2i leads to effective and durable glycemic control with important reductions in body weight/fat and blood pressure. These agents may delay beta-cell deterioration and improve tissue insulin sensitivity, which might slow the progression of the disease. METHODS & RESULTS: In response to glycosuria, a compensatory rise in endogenous glucose production, sustained by a decrease in plasma insulin with an increase in glucagon has been described...
August 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
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