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Current Diabetes Reviews

Valdemar Grill, Bjorn O Asvold
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in the Adult, LADA has been investigated less than "classical" type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the criteria for and the relevance of a LADA diagnosis has been challenged. Despite the absence of a genetic background that is exclusive for LADA this form of diabetes displays phenotypic characteristics that distinguishes it from other forms of diabetes. LADA is heterogeneous in terms of the impact of autoimmunity and life style factors, something that poses problems as to therapy and follow-up perhaps particularly in those with marginal positivity...
July 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Valdemar Grill
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in the Adult, LADA has been investigated less than "classical" type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the criteria for and the relevance of a LADA diagnosis has been challenged. Despite the absence of a genetic background that is exclusive for LADA this form of diabetes displays phenotypic characteristics that distinguishes it from other forms of diabetes. LADA is heterogeneous in terms of the impact of autoimmunity and life style factors, something that poses problems as to therapy and follow-up perhaps particularly in those with marginal positivity...
July 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Sofia Carlsson
Background To prevent diabetes it is important to identify common, modifiable risk factors in the population. Such knowledge is extensive for type 2 diabetes but limited for autoimmune forms of diabetes. Objective This review aims at summarizing the limited literature on potential environmental (lifestyle) risk factors for LADA. Method A pubmed search identified 15 papers that estimated the risk of LADA in relation to lifestyle. These were based on data from two population-based studies; a Swedish case-control study or a Norwegian cohort-study...
July 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Ingrid K Hals
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), although formally classified as type 1 diabetes (T1D), very often (at least in Western countries) appear clinically with type 2 diabetes (T2D)-like features as overweight and insulin resistance. LADA patients do not need exogenous insulin at the time they are diagnosed with diabetes, but a large percentage will within a few years develop need for such treatment. The decline in beta cell function progresses much faster in LADA than in T2D, presumably because of the ongoing autoimmune assault in LADA, and therefore necessitates insulin therapy much earlier in LADA than in T2D...
July 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Robin L Black, Courtney Duval
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a growing problem in the United States. Increasing hospital admissions for diabetes patients demonstrate the need for evidence based care of diabetes patients by inpatient providers, as well as the importance of continuity of care when transitioning patients from inpatient to outpatient providers. METHOD: A focused literature review of discharge planning and transitions of care in diabetes, conducted in PubMed is presented. Studies were selected for inclusion based on content focusing on transitions of care in diabetes, risk factors for readmission, impact of inpatient diabetes education on patient outcomes, and optimal medication management of diabetes during care transitions...
July 11, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
L Rayner, A McGovern, B Creagh-Brown, C Woodmansey, S de Lusignan
Background and objective Obesity is an important contributor to the risk of both asthma and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, it has been suggested that T2DM and asthma are also independently associated. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the evidence for an independent relationship between T2DM and asthma. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting the relationship between asthma and T2DM in adults. Given a potential bidirectional relationship, articles relating to T2DM as a risk factor for asthma, and asthma as a risk factor for T2DM were examined separately...
July 10, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Hussein A El Oraby, Mona M Abdelsalam, Yara M Eid, Rana El Hilaly, Heba A Marzouk
INTRODUCTION: Charcot arthropathy is one of the disabling diabetes complications. There are enigmatic areas concerning its underlying pathophysiology and risk predictors. Osteoporosis and local osteopenia has been postulated to have a role in Charcot arthropathy development, but it is still controversial AIM: To Compare bone mineral density among type 2 diabetics with and without Charcot arthropathy. METHODOLOGY: Two groups with type 2 diabetes participated in this study...
July 10, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Norfazilah Ahmad, Rahman Jamal, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Abdul Halim Abdul Gafor, Nor Azian Abdul Murad
BACKGROUND: The association of polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system candidate genes, namely angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1) A1166C with diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been studied for decades. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the updated pooled effects of these polymorphisms with DN among Asian populations with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
July 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Wafaa Moustafa M Abo El Fotoh, Dina Abd El Razek Midan, Abeer Hamdy El Shalakany
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease. The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) gene is an important negative regulator of signal transduction through the T-cell receptors (TCR). A PTPN22 polymorphism, C1858T, has been found to be a risk determinant for several autoimmune diseases, including T1DM, in different populations. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to analyze a possible association between the C1858T polymorphism in Egyptian children with T1DM...
July 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Zahra Mazloum Khorasani, Mahmood Tara, Zahra Ebnehoseini, Kobra Etminani, Zohreh Moosavi
Background The documentation of medical records of diabetic patients is very important for the treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to conduct quantitative evaluations of the Diabetic Medical Record (DMR) and Documentation Completeness Rate (DCR). Methods In this retrospective study, we evaluated the DCR of DMRs in the Comprehensive Diabetes Center of Imam Reza Hospital (CDRIRH). A checklist was prepared to evaluate the DCR. The overall assessment of the DCR was represented according to the following rating: 95-100% as strong, 75-94% as moderate, and less than 75% as weak...
June 22, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Irfan Anjum Manarvi, Nader Mahr Matta
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that newly diagnosed diabetic patients need a lot of information about medical examinations, checkups, tests and precautions for its control besides its disastrous effects on heart, kidneys, eyes, foot and nerves etc. Patients in Saudi Arabia are generally not aware of most of the information they may need which is one the major reasons of its increasing number of patients. Past studies conducted are based on clinical data of hospitals and health care centers only discussed its effects...
June 11, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Badhma Valaiyapathi, Barbara Gower, Ambika P Ashraf
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in children is disturbingly increasing in parallel with increasing childhood obesity. Better knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of type 2 DM in children is paramount to devise an effective management plan. OBJECTIVE: Discuss the pathophysiology of type 2 DM in children and adolescents Methods and results: This is a comprehensive review of the literature on this topic. Type 2 DM in childhood is viewed as a continuum of insulin resistance (IR) which is determined by an underlying genetic predisposition, intrauterine environment, excessive food consumption, continued rapid weight gain, and poor lifestyle...
June 7, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Sepideh Ahmadi, Navid Rabiee, Mohammad Rabiee
Aptamers have several positive advantages that made them eminent as a potential factor in diagnosing and treating diseases such as their application in prevention and treatment of diabetes. In this opinion-based mini review article, we aimed to investigate the DNA and RNA-based hybrid molecules specifically aptamers and had a logical conclusion as a promising future prospective in early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.
June 6, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Siddardha G Chandrupatla, Ranadheer Ramachandra, Satyanaraya Dantala, K Pushpanjali, Mary Tavares
OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to assess the utilization of medical and dental services by dental patients at two dental school hospitals and to approximate the number of patients having no known previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes but are¬ at high risk of acquiring it. METHODS: ¬A cross sectional study was conducted at two dental school hospitals in India. A 20-item questionnaire was administered as interviews among the dental patients aged 35 to 55 years...
May 31, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Besher Akram Sweidan, Momen Mohammad Al Ajlouni, Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Aus A Alzaid
BACKGROUND: Correct insulin injection practice is essential for better diabetic control. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of competency of prefilled insulin pen usage (injection technique and storage) among diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey between March 2017 to July 2017 of randomly selected patients with diabetes attending Diabetes Treatment Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia, who's actively using prefilled insulin pen, patients were interviewed to complete pre-structured questionnaire to assess competency of using the insulin pen...
May 27, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Salam Alqudah, Anan S Jarab, Eman A Alefishat, Fadia Mayyas, Maher Khdour, Sharrel Pinto
Background The limited implementation of clinical pharmacy service programs and the lack of studies identifying barriers to achieve blood glucose control have all attributed to the increased proportion of type 2 diabetes patients who have poor glycemic control in Jordan. Objective To explore factors associated with higher HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Method Variables including socio-demographics, disease and treatment factors were collected from171 patients with type2 diabetes at an outpatient diabetes clinic in Amman...
May 10, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Nitin Joseph, Shreya Sharma, Vinisha Modi, Sanath Majunatha, Saad Arshad Siddiqui, Mihika Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is one of the most common endocrine disease in childhood. However, very limited information is available on this disease. OBJECTIVES: This study was done to assess risk factors, clinical features and management practices in T1D patients. METHODS: A review of records of 39 T1D cases admitted over the past five years in two hospitals was done. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis among males was 19...
April 24, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Mortaza Fatehi Hassanabad, Mohammad Fatehi
BACKGROUND: For more than three decades, it has been known that manipulation of dopaminergic system could affect glucose homesotasis in experimental animals. The notion that glucose homeostasis in human might be influenced by dopaminergic drugs has attracted a great deal of attention in the past two decades. In spite of rapid advancements in revealing involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in insulin release, glucose up-take and pancreatic beta cell function in general through centrally and peripherally controlled mechanisms, there are discrepancies among observations on experimental animals and human subjects...
April 24, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Salwa S Hosny, Ahmed M Bahaaeldin, Mohamed S Khater, Meram M Bekhet, Hayam A Hebah, Ghada A Hasanin
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. The etiology of cognitive impairment in people with T2DM is uncertain but, chronic hyperglycemia, cerebral micro vascular disease, severe hypoglycemia, and increased prevalence of macro vascular disease are implicated. OBJECTIVES: to determine the serum levels of soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in elderly type 2 diabetics with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
April 22, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Angus Gill, Stephen P Gray, Karin A Jandeleit-Dahm, Anna M D Watson
BACKGROUND: The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is primarily located within S1 of the renal proximal tubule being responsible for approximately 90% of glucose re-uptake in the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 is an exciting new pharmacological approach for the reduction of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients via inhibition of tubular glucose reabsorption. In addition to lowering glucose, this group of drugs has shown significant cardiovascular and renal protective effects. CONCLUSION: This review aims to outline the current state of preclinical research and clinical trials for different SGLT2 inhibitors and outline some of the proposed mechanisms of action, including possible effects on sympathetic nerve activity, which may contribute to the unexpected beneficial cardiovascular and reno-protective effects of this class of compounds...
April 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
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