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Current Diabetes Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201968/common-drugs-for-stabilization-of-renal-function-in-the-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy-and-their-relations-with-hypertension-therapy
#1
Yuxuan Wang, Chengcheng Wang, Xiuli Zhang, Harvest F Gu, Liang Wu
Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by hypertension, progressive albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis and declines in glomerular filtration rate leading to end stage renal disease. Although the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is not fully understood, current treatment of the patients with diabetic nephropathy is mainly based upon the control of hyperglycaemia and management of blood pressures. Several drugs, which are originally developed for hypertension therapy, have been adopted for stabilization of renal function in diabetic nephropathy...
February 14, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201967/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-induced-angioedema-an-overlooked-and-potentially-lethal-adverse-drug-reaction
#2
Susanne Irene Scott, Michelle Fog Andersen, Lise Aagaard, Christian Von Buchwald, Eva Rye Rasmussen
Introduction Angioedema is a potentially fatal adverse drug reaction of some medications, as swellings of the upper airways can cause death by asphyxiation. Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors are widely known to cause angioedema but less is known about the association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins) and angioedema. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are anti-diabetic drugs used to improve glycaemic control. They, as a class effect, inadvertently affect the degradation of the vasoactive kinins bradykinin and substance P, both of which can cause angioedema due to vasodilatation and increase in vascular permeability in the capillaries...
February 14, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164750/educational-strategies-of-diabetes-group-medical-visits-a-review
#3
Julienne K Kirk, Hannah Marie Devoid, Carmen Strickland
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a demanding disease that is growing in prevalence. Improved outcomes for patients with diabetes are highly dependent on self-management skills and the ability to make lifestyle changes. Innovative healthcare approaches are necessary to meet these specific patient needs. A group care medical visit (GMV) combines diabetes check-ups with diabetes education in a supportive and patient centered environment that promotes effective self-management. GMVs are associated with improved diabetes outcomes including hemoglobin A1C, weight, and self-efficacy; however details of the methods by which content is delivered to achieve these outcomes remain vague...
February 3, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128051/functional-imaging-in-the-evaluation-of-diabetic-gastroparesis
#4
Prasanna Santhanam, Wael Marashdeh, Lilja B Solnes
Introduction Gastroparesis (a complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus) is delayed gastric emptying in the absence of a mechanical obstruction. Overall prevalence of Gastroparesis is close to 5 % in type 1 diabetes and 1 % in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if good glycemic control leads to delay of development and progression of gastroparesis. Methods Gastric enteric neurons as well as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are depleted, truncated and are surrounded by immune infiltrates composed of macrophages...
January 26, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120713/traditional-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Sze Lyn Jeanne Wong, Kim Christine Donaghue
Cardiovascular disease as a result of macrovascular changes is the leading cause of mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). While CVD complications are seen predominantly in adulthood, the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and is accelerated in patients with T1DM. This review focuses on the epidemiology of traditional CVD risk factors in adolescents with T1DM, its association with markers of CVD and an overview of studies looking into each individual risk factor. The risk factors that are reviewed here are hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, lack of exercise, hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy...
January 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124607/prostate-specific-antigen-levels-in-moroccan-diabetic-males-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Abdelhakim Ainahi, Abdelhamid Barakat, Lahcen Wakrim, Hicham Mohammadi, Naima El Mdaghri, Sayeh Ezzikouri
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown an inverse relationship between diabetes and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to evaluate the PSA levels in serum of diabetic and non-diabetic Moroccan males. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, four hundred and seventy diabetic and 869 non-diabetic males were screened from January 2015 to April 2016 at Pasteur institute of Morocco. Hemoglobin A1c and Fasting Blood Glucose were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and dry chemistry, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088892/interventions-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#7
Jose A Canas, Samuel S Gidding, Nelly Mauras
Despite recent advances in improved glycemic control, the magnitude of lifetime risk from premature cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes remains at least 10 fold higher than in the general population. The availability of lipoprotein fractionation has allowed the spotlight for this increased risk to shift from dysglycemia to diabetes-induced dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance. Interventions designed to simultaneously improve both factors can have distinct and additive effects on slowing the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions...
January 13, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081698/treatment-avenues-for-type-2-diabetes-and-current-perspectives-on-adipokines
#8
Sayantani Pramanik, Nirali Rathwa, Roma Patel, A V Ramachandran, Rasheedunnisa Begum
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has turned into a pandemic disorder that is affecting millions of people worldwide. Industries are aggressively racing and pursuing research towards the discovery of antidiabetic drug and the current global sale of such drugs are ever on the increase. However, in spite of such massive level and expenditure thereof, WHO projects that by 2030, diabetes will rank as the 7th leading cause of mortality. OBJECTIVE: It is in this context that we have reviewed here the various approaches available and possible towards diabetes management...
January 12, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081697/cytokine-gene-variants-as-predictors-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Madhukar Saxena, Neena Srivastava, Monisha Banerjee
Diabetes is third widespread after heart disease and cancer. We have investigated genetic polymorphisms in cytokine genes viz. IL-4, IL-1Ra, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and ADIPOQ. The aim of study was to investigate the haplotypes, gene-gene interactions and their role in determining individual susceptibility to T2DM of family members with diabetic history. Haplotype analysis of 2 SNPs each in IL-6 and adiponectin genes showing Pairwise Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was done by SHEsis software. Logistic regression was used to study various combinations of gene-gene interactions...
January 12, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081696/effect-of-metformin-therapy-on-serum-fetuin-levels-in-insulin-resistant-type-1-diabetics
#10
Nermin A Sheriba, Iman Z Ahmed, Mona M Abdesalam, Yara M Eid, Maram M Mahdy, Hany K Mansour
: Insulin resistance may develop with Type 1 diabetes. Insulin resistance is currently recognized by estimated glucose disposal rate. Serum fetuin has been accused as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. AIM: To determine the relationship between serum fetuin and insulin resistance in Type 1 diabetes subjects and the effect of short-term Metformin therapy on this relationship. METHOD: 40 T1DM male ≥ 18 years of age were screened for insulin resistance (defined using estimated glucose disposal rate)...
January 12, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034290/marine-algae-as-a-prospective-source-for-antidiabetic-compounds-a-brief-review
#11
S P Unnikrishnan, A M Jayasri
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed by several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM...
December 29, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031016/androgen-deficiency-in-aging-male-questionnaire-for-the-clinical-detection-of-testosterone-deficiency-in-a-population-of-black-sub-saharan-african-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-is-it-a-reliable-tool
#12
Ejiofor T Ugwu, Rosemary T Ikem
BACKGROUND: Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire is increasingly popular for the evaluation of testosterone deficiency (TD) in Sub-Saharan African men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, its reliability in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability of the ADAM questionnaire for the clinical detection of testosterone deficiency in Sub-Saharan African men with T2DM Methods: Total testosterone < 8nmol/L was used as gold standard for diagnosis of TD in a cross-sectional survey of 200 males with T2DM aged 30-69 years...
December 28, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000545/systemic-cytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-chronic-periodontitis
#13
Anirudh B Acharya, Srinath Thakur, M V Muddapur, Raghavendra D Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Cytokine dysregulation plays an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic periodontitis (CP) with a commonality in pathogenic mechanisms. CP is considered the sixth complication of diabetes and may have an increased influence on systemic levels of cytokines in individuals with T2DM. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated two pro-, and two presumed anti-inflammatory cytokines and their ratios in the serum of healthy individuals, in chronic periodontitis with and without T2DM with, and without CP and in CP alone aimed at evaluating the systemic inflammatory burden of a local oral infection...
December 20, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000544/the-complex-inter-relationship-between-diabetes-and-schizophrenia
#14
Jeffery Rado
Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating brain disorder. It is associated with increased mortality, primarily due to elevated cardio-metabolic risk. Affected patients have higher rates of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes [1]. Intrinsic factors contributing to this increased risk include a shared underlying pathophysiology between schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus involving stress, inflammation and genetics. Extrinsic contributing factors include diet, lifestyle, health care access, low socioeconomic status and overburden of traditional diabetes risk factors...
December 20, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981898/the-role-of-carbonic-anhydrase-in-hepatic-glucose-production
#15
Ibrahim Salihu Ismail
Considerable efforts are being made daily to discover novel therapeutic targets to better understand the mechanism for designing drugs in treating diabetes. Inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by metformin remains the first line of oral therapy for managing type 2 diabetes. The link between rise in blood lactate level and reduction of hepatic glucose production with metformin usage remains to be determined. Carbonic anhydrase is proposed to be the link connecting blood lactate accumulation and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and thus could serve as a new therapeutic target for reducing hepatic glucose production...
December 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981897/the-correlation-between-urinary-8-iso-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-and-hydrogen-peroxide-toward-renal-function-in-t2dm-patients-consuming-sulfonylurea-and-combination-of-metformin-sulfonylurea
#16
Rani Sauriasari, Fitri Wulandari, Rahmaningtyas Nurifahmi, Andisyah Putri Sekar, Veronika Yulianti Susilo
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction is a common complication in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients associated with oxidative damage which could be characterized by 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and hydrogen peroxide level as oxidative stress markers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to determine if there is a difference in 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and hydrogen peroxide levels between sulfonylurea and combination of metformin-sulfonylurea in diabetic patients. We also wanted to determine if these oxidative stress markers correlate with the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)...
December 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924722/distinct-biomarkers-for-early-diagnosis-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Lalit Kishore, Navpreet Kaur, Randhir Singh
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the foremost causes of mortality in diabetic patients as a result of increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate and compromised renal function. INTRODUCTION: Determination of increased excretion of albumin in urine chiefly attribute to the onset and progression of DN. However, due to certain limitations of albuminuria, the search for more sensitive, specific and reliable renal biomarkers is required for early prediction of DN...
December 7, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924723/clinical-management-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-older-adult-patient
#18
Nana Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
BACKGROUND: In 2009, approximately 40 million people were 65 years or older. Majority of persons over the age of 65 have at least one chronic medical condition. In 2002-2003, the most frequently occurring conditions among older adults were hypertension (51%), arthritis (48%), heart disease (31%), cancer of any type (21%), and diabetes (16%). The cost of diabetes care, both direct and indirect, was $245 billion in 2012. Fifty-nine percent of the direct medical cost was for the population aged 65 and over...
December 6, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915979/nontraditional-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-pediatric-type-1-diabetes
#19
Robert P Hoffman
If we are to gain a full and complete understanding of mechanisms of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent type 1 diabetes mechanistic risk markers must be developed that predict risk accurately and which can be used as endpoints for short or intermediate term intervention studies aimed at reducing risk. A variety of biochemical and vascular markers have potential to meet these requirements. Biochemical markers include markers of inflammation, oxidation, and endothelial damage. Vascular markers include static and dynamic measures of arterial function...
December 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908250/hypoglycemia-and-cardiac-arrhythmia-mechanisms-evidence-base-and-current-recommendations
#20
Sitara Gulrukh Khan, Mohammed Shahriar Huda
BACKGROUND: With the use of intensive insulin therapy and insulin secretagogues to optimize glycemic control in diabetes, hypoglycemia continues to present a clinical challenge. Hypoglycemia has been implicated in nocturnal sudden death in type 1 diabetes, and the mechanism underlying this is postulated to be cardiac arrhythmia. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the evidence surrounding hypoglycemia and cardiac arrhythmia. METHODS: A structured search of the Pubmed bibliographic database was undertaken, and relevant peer-reviewed articles on the topic were included in the review...
December 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
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