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Current Diabetes Reviews

Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a vastly prevalent metabolic disorder with escalating global health concerns. Particularly when mismanaged, chronic micro- and macrovascular complications may highly impair physiological systems while immunodeficiency disposes us to infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigate infections, localized complications, and neoplasms of the genitourinary system secondary to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and the genitourinary system...
October 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Ejiofor T Ugwu, Casmir Jg Orjioke, Ekenechukwu E Young
BACKGROUND: Self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a useful adjunct to lifestyle modification and medications for optimal management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was aimed at evaluating the practice, cost and associations of SMBG in subjects with type 2 DM in Enugu, Nigeria. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey conducted at the diabetes clinic in three hospitals, 366 type 2 diabetic subjects aged 18-65 years were consecutively interviewed. Socio-demographic and clinical information were documented and glycated hemoglobin was performed for all the participants...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Aziz Homayouni Rad, Farnaz Sahhaf, Tohid Hassanalilou, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Negar Motayagheni, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Mina Javadi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Leila Khalili
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. OBJECTIVE: This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Jeffery G Grigsby, Donald M Allen, Ana S Ferrigno, Sandeep Vellanki, Cindy E Pouw, Whitney A Hejny, Andrew T C Tsin
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well established as the main agent responsible for vascular leakage and angiogenesis in the diabetic retina. While VEGF can have positive effects on hyperglycemia stressed retinal tissues, it also plays a role in events progressing to the oxygen-stressed, i.e. hypoxic, diabetic retina. Some VEGF makes it way to the retina from systemic sources and some is produced locally within the eye. Hyperglycemia, oxidants, inflammation, and advanced glycation end-products are all stimulants to VEGF production, both in the hypoxic and the pre-hypoxic retina...
October 7, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Alyson Myers, Madhukar H Trivedi
Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death for Americans of all ages. Presence of a chronic medical illness (e.g. Diabetes mellitus) increases the risk of suicide. The goal of this review is to examine the relationship between diabetes and depression, as well as diabetes and suicide. Earlier this year, the U.S. Preventive Task Force (USPTF) escalated their recommendation for depression to include not only routine screening for depression but additional focus on active follow up that requires measurement based care...
October 5, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Tina Costacou
In the era following the publication of results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial / Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study, care for patients with type 1 diabetes has dramatically improved. Despite these significant advancements in knowledge regarding the management of this chronic disease, however, individuals with type 1 diabetes continue to experience increased morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. The present review specifically focused on the epidemiology of cardiovascular complications among adults with type 1 diabetes, summarizing evidence on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, as well as on predictors of cardiovascular disease in this population...
September 27, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Maya Fayfman, Sonya Haw
Diabetes is a growing health epidemic in the United States. Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by diabetes and associated comorbidities and complications. The present review article aims to characterize the various ways in which minority populations are affected by diabetes. We address differences in prevalence of diabetes and associated conditions that include cardiovascular disease, hypertension, microvascular complications, and mortality. Additionally, we discuss factors that contribute to disparate diabetes-related outcomes, including physiology, culture and health-systems...
September 26, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Shokoufeh Bonakdaran, Ghazaleh Azami, Fatemeh Tara, Leila Poorali
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common endocrine complication in pregnancy. While it has been established that age, family history of diabetes, insulin resistance and several biomarkers are associated with GDM but significant gaps remain in understanding risk factors for GDM. Soluble pro-renin receptor (s [Pro] RR) as a biomarker reflects the activation of renin- angiotensin system in tissues which may be related to insulin resistance Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the role of (s [pro] RR) in predicting GDM...
September 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Santosh Jain Passi
INTRODUCTION: Developing countries are currently afflicted with the dual burden of disease with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) becoming a major public health challenge. It is projected that in near future, NCDs will account for nearly 70% of the mortality in developing world. Caused due to lifestyle related factors, there is an upsurge in the incidence of overweight/obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancers, respiratory diseases etc. Appropriate dietary practices, increased physical activity, weight management, abstinence from tobacco/substance misuse and alcohol abuse play an important role in their prevention and management...
September 5, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Sherly Parackal
BACKGROUND: South Asians (SA) have a four to five fold higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in comparison to other Asian migrant groups. Dietary patterns have been attributed as an important independent modifiable risk factor. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to document the dietary patterns of SA migrants in Western countries and to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary patterns with T2DM and its pre-disposing factors. METHODS: Using key search words articles from 1990 onwards were sourced from MEDLINE ProQuest and PubMed (not MEDLINE) databases for this narrative review...
August 31, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Rajgopal Gayathri, Vaidya Ruchi, Viswanathan Mohan
INTRODUCTION: Nutrition transition is an adverse outcome of rapid economic development and globalization. The present review documents the pattern of nutrition and health transition among different food groups leading to the growing global and national epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). METHODS: Studies published in various national and international journals were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines from the year 2000 to 2015. Literature was reviewed to gather data pertaining to nutrition and health transition and economic burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs)...
August 31, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Seema Puri
Optimal infant and young child feeding, which includes initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for first six months, age appropriate complementary feeding after six months along with continued breastfeeding for 2 years and beyond, is a public health intervention to prevent child morbidity, mortality and malnutrition (1). In India, even though institutional delivery rates are increasing, only 44% women are able to breastfeed their babies within one hour of delivery. While 65% children are exclusively breast fed for the first six months, the median duration of breastfeeding is 24...
August 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Seema Gulati, Anoop Misra, Meenu Sharma
Background India is undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increase in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). From a healthy traditional home-cooked high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, there is a shift towards increasing consumption of packaged, ready-to-eat foods which are calorie-dense and contain refined carbohydrates, high fat, salt and sugar and less fiber. Although fats and oils have been an integral part of our diets, there is a change in the pattern of consumption, in terms of both quality and quantity...
August 11, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Ranil Jayawardena, Priyanga Ranasinghe, Maheshi Wijayabandara, Andrew P Hills, Anoop Misra
Introduction Obesity among teenagers/adolescents and young adults is associated with significant adverse short and longer-term effects on health. To date, no narrative reviews have evaluated nutrition transition and its contribution to the obesity epidemic among adolescents and young adults in the South Asian (SA) region. Methods Data were retrieved by a four-stage systematic search process. A search of the online PubMed/Medline, SciVerse Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed. The age groups were defined as follows; teenage:13-19 years, adolescence:10-18 years and young adult:19-24 years...
August 8, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Usha Shrivastava, Anoop Misra, V Mohan, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, D Bachani
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs; including coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes) are rapidly increasing in India causing nearly 5.8 million deaths per year annually. Primary reasons for rise in NCDs in India are nutrition and lifestyle transitions. Further, presence of higher body fat, abdominal fat, liver and pancreatic fat and lower lean mass than whites, contribute to heightened metabolic and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians. Importantly, conversion from pre-diabetes to diabetes occurs more rapidly, and reversion to normal glucose regulation with appropriate lifestyle measures is more difficult in Asian Indians than white population...
August 5, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Joao Paulo Monteiro Carvalho Mori Cunha, Conny Gysemans, Pieter Gillard, Chantal Mathieu
Beta-cell replacement by human islets or whole pancreas offers a life-saving therapeutic remedy for patients suffering from type 1 diabetes, providing considerable advantages with respect to diminishing total daily insulin dose and lowering frequencies of debilitating hypoglycemic reactions as well as preventing chronic micro- and macrovascular complications. Although remarkable progress has been made in this area, several hurdles remain, hampering its wide-spread applicability. Such hurdles include a limiting supply of islets, the necessity of several donors to achieve enough islet mass for insulin independence, and graft failure because of metabolic pressure, continued autoimmunity, alloimmunity, high concentrations of immunosuppressive drugs as well as oxidative stress caused by hypoxia or inflammation...
June 28, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Pia Montanucci, Teresa Pescara, Ilaria Pennoni, Alessia Alunno, Onelia Bistoni, Elisabetta Torlone, Giovanni Luca, Roberto Gerli, Giuseppe Basta, Riccardo Calafiore
BACKGROUND: Adult human mesenchymal stem cells retrieved, from the post-partum human umbilical cord Wharton jelly (hUCMS), have recently gained growing interest due to their morphological and functional properties. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of our work was to examine morphology and functional properties of hUCMS retrieved from healthy women as compared to those with obesity, or gestational or type 2 diabetes mellitus, under fair metabolic control. Possible differences between groups could shed light into the potential use of these cells for the cell therapy of a variety of diseases, regardless of the obesity/diabetes status of the donor mothers...
June 28, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Nadia Hussain, Thomas E Adrian
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. It adversely affects the lives of most diabetics. It is the leading cause of non-traumatic limb amputation. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy can target any system and increases morbidity and mortality. Treatment begins with adequate glycemic control but despite this, many patients go on to develop neuropathy which suggests there are additional and unidentified, as yet, pathological mechanisms in place. Although several theories exist, the exact mechanisms are not yet established...
June 24, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Lucy Jayne Partridge, Satyan Rajbhandari
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic problems and is characterized by persistent hyperglycaemia. Exposure to chronic hyperglycaemia can affect many tissues including the Achilles Tendon, which is one of the largest tendons in the body. The current literature on the effects of hyperglycaemia on tendons is sparse, though evidence on rat models does suggest a process of chronic degeneration, which is increased in the presence of neuropathy and deformity. There is no epidemiological data on rupture of Achilles tendon in diabetes...
June 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Vitor Caiaffo, Belisa Duarte Ribeiro de Oliveira, Fabrício Bezerra de Sá, Joaquim Evêncio Neto, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Júnior
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic hyperglycemic condition with major health concern on a global scale. DM is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder stemming from defective insulin secretion and/or resistance to action of insulin. Diabetes is recognized cause of male sexual dysfunction and affects reproductive function in humans and animal models, including the endocrine control of spermatogenesis, erectile dysfunction and ejaculation disorder. Testicular disorder is characteristically marked by reductions of testicle weight, sperm count and motility, as well as changes in the morphology of the seminiferous epithelium...
June 18, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
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