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Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI

Marcela F Pasetti, Steven D Douglas, Susan F Plaeger
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (CVI) will be merged with the ASM open-access journal mSphere in January 2018. We commemorate this transition by exploring the history of CVI and its predecessor Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology (CDLI) and by acknowledging their contributors. Research on vaccine, clinical immunology, and clinical diagnostic immunology published through mSphere will be available to an ever larger audience and facilitate progress in field. The ASM remains committed to supporting its members and the research community facilitating the dissemination of scientific knowledge in these important areas...
October 25, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Marcela F Pasetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Susanna Schmink, Deanna Kruszon-Moran, Sheila C Dollard, Tatiana M Lanzieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Michael W Pride, Kathrin U Jansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Shuying S Li, Nidhi K Kochar, Marnie Elizaga, Christine M Hay, Gregory J Wilson, Kristen W Cohen, Stephen C De Rosa, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Daryl Morris, Greg Finak, Mary Allen, Hong-Van Tieu, Ian Frank, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Drew Hannaman, Raphael Gottardo, Peter B Gilbert, Georgia D Tomaras, Lawrence Corey, David K Clarke, Michael A Egan, John H Eldridge, M Juliana McElrath, Nicole Frahm
The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 087 vaccine trial assessed the effect of increasing doses of pIL-12 (interleukin-12 delivered as plasmid DNA) adjuvant on the immunogenicity of an HIV-1 multiantigen (MAG) DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation and boosted with a vaccine comprising an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus expressing HIV-1 Gag (VSV-Gag). We randomized 100 healthy adults to receive placebo or 3 mg HIV-MAG DNA vaccine (ProfectusVax HIV-1 gag/pol or ProfectusVax nef/tat/vif, env) coadministered with pIL-12 at 0, 250, 1,000, or 1,500 μg intramuscularly by electroporation at 0, 1, and 3 months followed by intramuscular inoculation with 3...
November 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Levi G Cleare, Daniel Zamith-Miranda, Joshua D Nosanchuk
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved biomolecules that are constitutively expressed and generally upregulated in response to various stress conditions (biotic and abiotic). Hsps have diverse functions, categorizations, and classifications. Their adaptive expression in fungi indicates their significance in these diverse species, particularly in dimorphic pathogens. Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi that are the causative agents of histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis, respectively...
November 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Anja Jäschke, Boubacar Coulibaly, Edmond J Remarque, Hermann Bujard, Christian Epp
Naturally acquired immunity against malaria is largely mediated by serum antibodies controlling levels of blood-stage parasites. A limited understanding of the antigenic targets and functional mechanisms of protective antibodies has hampered the development of efficient malaria vaccines. Besides directly inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium parasites, antibodies can opsonize merozoites and recruit immune effector cells such as monocytes and neutrophils. Antibodies against the vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) are acquired during natural infections and have been associated with protection against malaria in several epidemiological studies...
November 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Eric K Dumas, Timothy Gross, Jason Larabee, Lance Pate, Hannah Cuthbertson, Sue Charlton, Bassam Hallis, Renata J M Engler, Limone C Collins, Christina E Spooner, Hua Chen, Jimmy Ballard, Judith A James, A Darise Farris
Edema toxin (ET), composed of edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA), is a virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis that alters host immune cell function and contributes to anthrax disease. Anthrax vaccine precipitated (AVP) contains low but detectable levels of EF and can elicit EF-specific antibodies in human recipients of AVP. Active and passive vaccination of mice with EF can contribute to protection from challenge with Bacillus anthracis spores or ET. This study compared humoral responses to ET in recipients of AVP (n = 33) versus anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA; n = 66), matched for number of vaccinations and time postvaccination, and further determined whether EF antibodies elicited by AVP contribute to ET neutralization...
November 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Ahreum Kim, Yun-Gyoung Hur, Sunwha Gu, Sang-Nae Cho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of MTBK_24820, a complete form of PPE39 protein derived from a predominant Beijing/K strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Korea. Mice were immunized with MTKB_24820, M. bovis Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), or adjuvant prior to a high-dosed Beijing/K strain aerosol infection. After 4 and 9 weeks, bacterial loads were determined and histopathologic and immunologic features in the lungs and spleens of the M. tuberculosis-infected mice were analyzed...
November 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Madison Zuverink, Joseph T Barbieri
Select Agents (SA) pose unique challenges towards licensing vaccines and therapies. In the case of toxin-mediated diseases, Health and Human Services assign guidelines for SA use, oversee vaccine and therapy development, and approve animal models and approaches to identify mechanism(s) for toxin neutralization. In this commentary, we discuss next generation vaccines and therapies against ricin toxin and botulinum toxin, SA-regulated toxins, which utilize structure-based approaches for counter measures to guide rapid response to future biothreats...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Madushini N Dharmasena, Manuel Osorio, Kazuyo Takeda, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
We have been exploring the use of the live, attenuated, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a vaccine strain as a versatile oral vaccine vector for the expression and delivery of multiple foreign antigens, including Shigella O-antigens. In this study, we separately cloned genes necessary for the biosynthesis of the S. flexneri serotype 2a and 3a O-antigens, which have been shown previously to provide broad cross-protection to multiple, disease-predominant S. flexneri serotypes. The cloned S. flexneri 2a rfb operon along with, bgt and gtrII, encoded on the SfII bacteriophage were sufficient in Ty21a to express the heterologous S...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Mark R Schleiss, Sallie R Permar, Stanley A Plotkin
A vaccine against congenital human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major public health priority. Congenital CMV causes substantial long-term morbidity in newborns, particularly sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and the public health impact of this infection on maternal and child health is under-recognized. Although progress toward development of a vaccine has been limited by an incomplete understanding of the correlates of protective immunity for the fetus, knowledge about some of the key components of the maternal immune response necessary for preventing trans-placental transmission is accumulating...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Ronald Toth, Siva Krishna Angalakurthi, Greta Van Slyke, David J Vance, John M Hickey, Sangeeta B Joshi, C Russell Middaugh, David B Volkin, David D Weis, Nicholas J Mantis
RiVax is a promising recombinant ricin toxin A subunit (RTA) vaccine antigen that has been shown to be safe and immunogenic in humans and effective at protecting Rhesus macaques against lethal dose aerosolized toxin exposure. We previously used a panel of RTA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to demonstrate, by competition ELISA, that RiVax elicits similar serum antibody profiles in both humans and macaques. However, the actual mAb binding sites on RiVax have yet to be defined. In this study, we employed hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry (HX-MS) to localize the epitopes on RiVax recognized by nine toxin-neutralizing mAbs and one non-neutralizing mAb...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Thomas H King, Crystal A Shanley, Zhimin Guo, Donald Bellgrau, Timothy Rodell, Synthia Furney, Marcela Henao-Tamayo, Ian M Orme
As yet, very few vaccine candidates with activity in animals against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection have been tested as therapeutic "post-exposure" vaccines. We recently described two pools of mycobacterial proteins with this activity and here we describe further studies in which four of these proteins (Rv1738, Rv2032, Rv3130, and Rv3841) were generated as a fusion polypeptide, and then delivered in a novel yeast-based platform ("Tarmogen®") which itself has immunostimulatory properties including activation of Toll-like receptors...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Don Changsom, Li Jiang, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Rungrueng Kitphati, Phisanu Pooruk, Prasert Auewarakul, Pilaipan Puthavathana
The kinetics, longevity and breadth of antibodies to influenza neuraminidase (NA) in archival, sequential serum/plasma samples from influenza A virus (IAV) H5N1 survivors, and from patients infected with the 2009 pandemic IAV (H1N1) virus were determined using an enzyme linked lectin based assay. The reverse genetics-derived H4N1 viruses harboring an hemagglutinin (HA) segment from A/duck/Shan Tou/461/2000 (H4N9) and an NA segment derived from either IAV H5N1 clade 1, IAV H5N1 clade 2.3.4, the 2009 pandemic IAV (H1N1) (H1Npdm) or A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus were used as the test antigens...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Breanna Hodgins, Karen K Yam, Kaitlin Winter, Stephane Pillet, Nathalie Landry, Brian J Ward
Background: Virus-like-particle (VLP) influenza vaccines can be given intramuscularly (IM) or intranasally (IN) and may have advantages over split-virion formulations in the elderly. We tested a plant-made VLP vaccine candidate bearing the viral hemagglutinin (HA) delivered either IM or IN in young and aged mice. Methods: Young adult (5-8 weeks) and aged (16-20 months) female BALB/c mice received a single 3μg dose based on HA (A/California/07/2009 H1N1) content of a plant-made H1-VLP (IM or IN), split-virion vaccine (IM) or left naïve...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Cindy Shambaugh, Sarieh Azshirvani, Li Yu, Jared Pache, Stacie L Lambert, Fengrong Zuo, Mark T Esser
Neutralizing antibodies specific for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represent a major protective mechanism against RSV infection as demonstrated by the efficacy of the immune-prophylactic monoclonal antibody, Palivizumab, in preventing RSV associated lower respiratory tract infections in premature infants. Accordingly, the RSV neutralization assay has become a key functional method to assess the neutralizing activity of serum antibodies in pre-clinical animal models, epidemiology studies and clinical trials...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Anne E Tebo
The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a hallmark feature of a number of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD) and testing is usually performed as part of the initial diagnostic workup when suspicion of an underlying autoimmune disorder is high. The indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) technique is the preferred method for detecting ANA as it demonstrates binding to specific intracellular structures within the cells resulting in a number of staining patterns that are usually categorized based on the cellular components recognized and the degree of binding reflected by the fluorescent intensity or titer...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
David J Vance, Jacqueline M Tremblay, Yinghui Rong, Siva Krishna Angalakurthi, David B Volkin, C Russell Middaugh, David D Weis, Charles B Shoemaker, Nicholas J Mantis
We previously produced a heavy chain-only antibody VH domain (VHH)-displayed phage library from two alpacas that had been immunized with ricin toxoid and non-toxic mixtures of ricin's enzymatic (RTA) and binding (RTB) subunits (Vance et al J. Biol. Chem. 288:36538-47. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.519207). Initial and subsequent screens of that library by direct ELISA yielded more than two dozen unique RTA- and RTB-specific VHHs, including 10 whose structures were subsequently solved in complex with RTA. To generate a more complete antigenic map of ricin toxin and define the epitopes associated with toxin-neutralizing activity, we subjected the VHH-displayed phage library to additional pannings on both receptor bound and antibody-captured ricin...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Samba O Sow, Milagritos D Tapia, Wilbur H Chen, Fadima C Haidara, Karen L Kotloff, Marcela F Pasetti, William C Blackwelder, Awa Traoré, Boubou Tamboura, Moussa Doumbia, Fatoumata Diallo, Flanon Coulibaly, Uma Onwuchekwa, Mamoudou Kodio, Sharon M Tennant, Mardi Reymann, Diana F Lam, Marc Gurwith, Michael Lock, Thomas Yonker, Jonathan Smith, Jakub K Simon, Myron M Levine
Reactive immunization with a single-dose cholera vaccine that could rapidly (within days) protect immunologically-naïve individuals during "virgin soil" epidemics would facilitate cholera control. One dose of attenuated Vibrio cholerae O1 classical Inaba vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora™) containing ≥2x108 colony forming units (cfu) induces vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (correlate of protection) in >90% of U.S. adults. A previous CVD 103-HgR commercial formulation required ≥2x109 cfu to elicit high seroconversion in developing country populations...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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