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Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228395/antibody-responses-to-zika-virus-infections-in-flavivirus-endemic-environments
#1
Sarah L Keasey, Christine L Pugh, Stig M R Jensen, Jessica L Smith, Robert D Hontz, Anna P Durbin, Dawn M Dudley, David H O'Connor, Robert G Ulrich
Zika virus (ZIKV) infections occur in areas where dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV), and other viruses of the genus Flavivirus co-circulate. The envelope protein (E) of these closely related flaviviruses induces specific long-term immunity, yet subsequent infections are associated with cross-reactive antibody responses that may enhance disease susceptibility and severity. To gain a better understanding of ZIKV infections against a background of similar viral diseases, we examined serological immune responses to ZIKV, WNV, DENV and YFV infections of humans and non-human primates (NHP)...
February 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228394/update-in-chlamydia-trachomatis-vaccinology
#2
Luis M de la Maza, Guangming Zhong, Robert C Brunham
Attempts to produce a vaccine to protect against Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) induced trachoma were initiated more than 100 years ago and continued for several decades. Using whole organisms protective responses were obtained. However, upon exposure to C. trachomatis, disease exacerbation developed in some immunized individuals precluding the implementation of the vaccine. Evidence of the role of C. trachomatis as a sexually transmitted pathogen started to emerge in the 1960's and soon became evident that it can cause acute infections and long term-sequelae in women, men and newborns...
February 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179404/a-plasmodium-vivax-plasmid-dna-and-adenovirus-vectored-malaria-vaccine-encoding-blood-stage-antigens-ama1-and-msp142-in-a-prime-boost-heterologous-immunization-regimen-partially-protects-aotus-monkeys-against-blood-stage-challenge
#3
Nicanor Obaldia, Michael G Stockelman, William Otero, Jennifer A Cockrill, Harini Ganeshan, Esteban N Abot, Jianfeng Zhang, Keith Limbach, Yupin Charoenvit, Denise L Doolan, De-Chu C Tang, Thomas L Richie
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted to humans by the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. After the elimination of P. falciparum it is predicted that Plasmodium vivax will remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality outside of Africa, stressing the importance of developing a vaccine against malaria. In this study we assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two P. vivax antigens, AMA1 and MSP142 in a recombinant DNA plasmid prime/adenoviral vector (Ad) boost regimen in Aotus monkeys...
February 8, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179403/evaluation-of-pvceltos-as-a-pre-erythrocytic-p-vivax-vaccine
#4
Eduardo Alves, Ahmed M Salman, Fabiana Leoratti, Cesar Lopez-Camacho, Martha Eva Viveros-Sandoval, Amar Lall, Aadil El-Turabi, Martin F Bachmann, Adrian V S Hill, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval
Four different vaccine platforms each targeting the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PvCelTOS) were generated and assessed for protective efficacy. These platforms consisted of a recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral vector ChAd63-PvCelTOS (Ad); a recombinant MVA-PvCelTOS (MVA); a bacteriophage Qβ-PvCelTOS virus-like particle (VLP); and recombinant PvCelTOS protein expressed in eukaryotic HEK293T cells (protein). Inbred BALB/c and outbred CD-1 mice were immunized using the following prime/boost regimens: Ad-MVA, Ad-VLP and Ad-protein...
February 8, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151410/australian-aboriginal-children-with-otitis-media-have-reduced-antibody-titres-to-specific-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-vaccine-antigens
#5
Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann S Kirkham, Karli J Corscadden, Selma P Wiertsema, Angela Fuery, B Jan Jones, Harvey L Coates, Shyan Vijayasekaran, Guicheng Zhang, Anthony Keil, Peter C Richmond
Indigenous populations experience high rates of otitis media (OM), with increased chronicity and severity compared to that experienced by their non-Indigenous counterparts. Data are lacking on immune responses to otopathogenic bacteria in these high-risk populations. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the predominant otopathogen in Australia. Currently no vaccines are licensed to target NTHi, however Protein D (PD) from NTHi is included as a carrier protein in the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PHiD10-CV, and other promising protein vaccine candidates exist, including outer membrane proteins P4 and P6...
February 1, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122790/cytokine-profiles-in-malawian-children-presenting-with-uncomplicated-malaria-severe-malarial-anemia-and-cerebral-malaria
#6
Wilson L Mandala, Chisomo L Msefula, Esther N Gondwe, Mark T Drayson, Malcolm E Molyneux, Calman A MacLennan
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in clearance of Plasmodium falciparum, and very high levels of these cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. In order to determine how cytokines vary with disease severity and syndrome, we enrolled Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria (CM), severe malarial anaemia (SMA) and uncomplicated malaria (UCM), and healthy controls. We analysed serum cytokine concentrations in acute infection, and in convalescence. With the exception of IL-5, cytokine concentrations were highest in acute CM, followed by SMA, and were only mildly elevated in UCM...
January 25, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100498/the-predominant-cd4-th1-cytokine-elicited-to-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-women-is-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-not-interferon-gamma
#7
Stephen J Jordan, Kanupriya Gupta, Brian M O Ogendi, Rakesh K Bakshi, Richa Kapil, Christen G Press, Steffanie Sabbaj, Jeannette Y Lee, William M Geisler
Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and can cause significant reproductive morbidity in women. There is insufficient knowledge of C. trachomatis-specific immune responses in humans, which could be important in guiding vaccine development efforts. In contrast, murine models have clearly demonstrated the essential role of Type 1 T helper cells (Th1), especially interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) producing CD4(+) T-cells, in protective immunity to chlamydia. To determine the frequency and magnitude of Th1 cytokine responses elicited to C...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100497/avian-derived-and-human-seasonal-derived-hemagglutinin-proteins-elicit-cd4-t-cell-responses-that-are-comparable-in-epitope-abundance-and-diversity
#8
Anthony DiPiazza, Katherine Richards, Nicholas Poulton, Andrea J Sant
Avian influenza viruses remain a significant concern due to their pandemic potential. Vaccine trials have suggested that humans respond poorly to avian influenza vaccines, relative to seasonal vaccines. It is important to understand, first, if there is a general deficiency in the ability of avian HA proteins to generate immune responses and if so, what underlies this defect. This question is of particular interest because it has been suggested that in humans, the poor immunogenicity of H7 vaccines may be due to a paucity of CD4 T cell epitopes...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100496/preexisting-immunity-not-frailty-phenotype-predicts-influenza-post-vaccination-titers-among-older-veterans
#9
Puja Van Epps, Terrence Tumpey, Melissa B Pearce, Hana Golding, Patricia Higgins, Thomas Hornick, Christopher Burant, Brigid M Wilson, Richard Banks, Stefan Gravenstein, David H Canaday
Both preexisting immunity to influenza and age have been shown to be a correlate of influenza vaccine response. Frailty, an indicator of functional impairment in older adults, has also been shown in one study to predict lower influenza vaccine responses among non-veterans. In the current study we aimed to determine the association between frailty, preexisting immunity and immune response to influenza vaccine in older veterans. We analyzed 117 subjects (age range 62-95 years; median 81) divided into 3 cohorts based on the Fried frailty test: non-frail (NF: N=23; median age 68), pre-frail (PF: N=50; median age 80) and frail (F:N=44; median age 82) during the 2010-2011 and 11-12 influenza seasons...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077441/predicting-ifn-%C3%AE-responses-after-bcg-vaccination-in-humans-from-macaques-a-proof-of-concept-study-of-immunostimulation-immunodynamic-modelling-methods
#10
Sophie J Rhodes, Charlotte Sarfas, Gwenan M Knight, Andrew White, Ansar A Pathan, Helen McShane, Thomas G Evans, Helen Fletcher, Sally Sharpe, Richard G White
INTRODUCTION: Macaques play a central role in human tuberculosis(TB) vaccine development. Immune and challenge responses differ across macaque and human subpopulations. We determined which macaque subpopulations best predicted immune responses in different human subpopulations, using novel immunostimulation/immunodynamic modelling methods in a proof of concept study. METHODS: Data on IFN-γ secreting CD4+ T cells over time after recent BCG vaccination were available for 55 humans and 81 macaques...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077440/monophosphoryl-lipid-a-enhances-efficacy-of-a-francisella-tularensis-lvs-catanionic-nanoparticle-subunit-vaccine-against-f-tularensis-schu-s4-challenge-by-augmenting-both-humoral-and-cellular-immunity
#11
Katharina Richard, Barbara J Mann, Aiping Qin, Eileen M Barry, Robert K Ernst, Stefanie N Vogel
Francisella tularensis, a bacterial biothreat agent, has no approved vaccine in the USA. Previously, we showed that incorporating lysates from partially attenuated F. tularensis LVS or fully virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 strains into catanionic surfactant vesicle (V) nanoparticles (LVS-V and Schu S4-V, respectively) protected fully against F. tularensis LVS intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge in mice. However, we achieved only partial protection against F. tularensis Schu S4 intranasal (i.n.) challenge, even when employing heterologous prime/boost immunization strategies...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031178/otitis-prone-children-produce-functional-antibodies-to-pneumolysin-and-pneumococcal-polysaccharides
#12
Lea-Ann S Kirkham, Selma P Wiertsema, Karli J Corscadden, Tulia Mateus, Gemma L Mullaney, Guicheng Zhang, Peter C Richmond, Ruth B Thornton
BACKGROUND: The pneumococcus is a major otitis media (OM) pathogen but data are conflicting on whether otitis-prone children have impaired humoral immunity to pneumococcal antigens. We and others have shown that otitis-prone and healthy children have similar antibody titres to pneumococcal proteins and polysaccharides (vaccine and non-vaccine type), however the quality of antibodies from otitis-prone children has not been investigated. Antibody function, rather than titre, is considered to better correlate with protection from pneumococcal disease...
December 28, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003216/challenges-in-interpretation-of-diagnostic-test-results-in-a-mumps-outbreak-in-a-highly-vaccinated-population
#13
L A Trotz-Williams, N J Mercer, K Paphitis, J M Walters, D Wallace, E Kristjanson, J Gubbay, T Mazzulli
In spite of a greatly reduced incidence rate due to vaccination, mumps outbreaks continue to occur in several areas of the world, sometimes in vaccinated populations. This article describes an outbreak in a highly vaccinated population in southwestern Ontario, Canada, and the challenges encountered in interpreting the results of diagnostic tests used in the outbreak. During the outbreak, patients were interviewed and classified according to the outbreak case definition, and specimens were collected for diagnostic testing according to Ontario guidelines...
February 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974399/serological-analysis-of-tuberculosis-in-goats-by-use-of-the-enferplex-caprine-tb-multiplex-test
#14
Amanda O'Brien, Clare Whelan, John B Clarke, Alastair Hayton, Neil J Watt, Gordon D Harkiss
Tuberculosis in goats is usually diagnosed clinically, at postmortem, or by a positive skin test. However, none of these approaches detects all infected animals. Serology offers an additional tool to identify infected animals missed by current tests. We describe the use of the Enferplex Caprine TB serology test to aid the management of a large dairy goat herd undergoing a tuberculosis breakdown. Initial skin and serology testing showed that IgG antibodies were present in both serum and milk from 100% of skin test-positive animals and in serum and milk from 77...
February 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974398/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-recombinant-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-vaccine-vpm1002-in-hiv-unexposed-newborn-infants-in-south-africa
#15
André G Loxton, Julia K Knaul, Leander Grode, Andrea Gutschmidt, Christiane Meller, Bernd Eisele, Hilary Johnstone, Gian van der Spuy, Jeroen Maertzdorf, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Anneke C Hesseling, Gerhard Walzl, Mark F Cotton
Tuberculosis is a global threat to which infants are especially vulnerable. Effective vaccines are required to protect infants from this devastating disease. VPM1002, a novel recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine previously shown to be safe and immunogenic in adults, was evaluated for safety in its intended target population, namely, newborn infants in a region with high prevalence of tuberculosis. A total of 48 newborns were vaccinated intradermally with VPM1002 (n = 36) or BCG Danish strain (n = 12) in a phase II open-labeled, randomized trial with a 6-month follow-up period...
February 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974397/assignment-of-opsonic-values-to-pneumococcal-reference-serum-007sp-for-use-in-opsonophagocytic-assays-for-13-serotypes
#16
R L Burton, J Antonello, D Cooper, D Goldblatt, K H Kim, B D Plikaytis, L Roalfe, D Wauters, F Williams, G L Xie, M H Nahm, M Akkoyunlu
Opsonophagocytic assays (OPAs) are routinely used for assessing the immunogenicity of pneumococcal vaccines, with OPA data often being utilized for licensure of new vaccine formulations. However, no reference serum for pneumococcal OPAs is available, making evaluation of data among different laboratories difficult. This international collaboration was initiated to (i) assign consensus opsonic indexes (OIs) to FDA pneumococcal reference serum lot 007sp (here referred to as 007sp) and a panel of serum samples used for calibration of the OPA and (ii) determine if the normalization of the OPA results obtained with test samples to those obtained with 007sp decreases the variability in OPA results among laboratories...
February 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927680/functional-and-antigen-specific-serum-antibody-levels-as-correlates-of-protection-against-shigellosis-in-a-controlled-human-challenge-study
#17
Avital A Shimanovich, Amanda D Buskirk, Shannon J Heine, William C Blackwelder, Rezwanul Wahid, Karen L Kotloff, Marcela F Pasetti
Shigella is an important cause of diarrheal disease in young children living in developing countries. No approved vaccines are available, and the development of vaccine candidates has been hindered by the lack of firm immunological correlates of protection, among other reasons. To address this gap in knowledge, we established quantitative assays to measure Shigella-specific serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and opsonophagocytic killing antibody (OPKA) activities and investigated their potential association with protection against disease in humans...
February 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881489/kinetics-of-meningococcal-serogroup-c-specific-functional-antibody-levels-up-to-15-years-after-a-single-immunization-with-a-meningococcal-serogroup-c-conjugate-vaccine-during-adolescence
#18
Susanne P Stoof, Mariëtte B van Ravenhorst, Debbie M van Rooijen, Richarda M de Voer, Fiona R M van der Klis, Greet J Boland, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Peter F Teunis
Adolescent vaccination is now considered the key factor for offering direct protection against meningococcal disease but also for reducing carriage and transmission and, in this way, establishing herd protection. This study estimated age-dependent patterns in functional meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody kinetics after primary MenC conjugate (MenCC) vaccination in adolescents. Serum samples (n = 1,676) were drawn from 2006 to 2011 from individuals aged 9 to 18 years at the time of primary MenCC vaccination in 2002...
February 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881488/an-opsonic-phagocytosis-assay-for-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites
#19
Ryan W J Steel, Brandon K Sack, Moriya Tsuji, Mary Jane L Navarro, Will Betz, Matt E Fishbaugher, Erika L Flannery, Stefan H I Kappe
Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains the deadliest parasitic disease worldwide. Vaccines targeting the preerythrocytic sporozoite and liver stages have the potential to entirely prevent blood-stage infection and disease, as well as onward transmission. Sporozoite surface and secreted proteins are leading candidates for inclusion in a preerythrocytic stage-specific, antibody-based vaccine. Preclinical functional assays to identify humoral correlates of protection in vitro and to validate novel sporozoite protein targets for inclusion in multisubunit vaccines currently do not consider the interaction of sporozoite-targeting antibodies with other components of the immune system...
February 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852634/calibration-and-evaluation-of-quantitative-antibody-titers-for-measles-virus-by-using-the-bioplex-2200
#20
Todd F Hatchette, Heidi Scholz, Shelly Bolotin, Natasha S Crowcroft, Colleen Jackson, Elizabeth McLachlan, Alberto Severini
The BioPlex 2200 (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a rapid, automated platform, which can screen large numbers of specimens for antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. Although approved for producing qualitative results, in this study we validated the test (off-label) to allow reporting of quantitative results. To do this, we used the third anti-measles World Health Organization standard to generate a calibration curve that allowed relative fluorescence intensity to be translated into quantitative antibody titer (antibody units [AU]/ml)...
January 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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