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Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515136/loss-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-to-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-during-current-or-convalescent-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-malawian-children
#1
Tonney S Nyirenda, James T Nyirenda, Dumizulu L Tembo, Janet Storm, Queen Dube, Chisomo L Msefula, Kondwani C Jambo, Henry C Mwandumba, Robert S Heyderman, Melita A Gordon, Wilson L Mandala
Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are commonly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infections, but the immunologic basis for this linkage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that P. falciparum infection compromises the hosts' humoral and cellular immunity to NTS which increases their susceptibility to iNTS infection. We prospectively recruited children aged between 6 and 60 months at a Community Health Centre in Blantyre, Malawi and allocated them to the following groups; febrile with uncomplicated malaria, febrile malaria-negative, non-febrile malaria-negative...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515135/not-all-antigens-are-created-equally-progress-challenges-and-lessons-associated-with-developing-a-vaccine-for-leishmaniasis
#2
Malcolm S Duthie, Steven G Reed
From experimental models and the analyses of patients, it is well documented that antigen-specific T cells are critical for protection against Leishmania infection. Effective vaccines require both targeting to the pathogen and an immune stimulant to induce maturation of appropriate immune responses. While a great number of antigens have been examined as vaccine candidates across various Leishmania species, few have advanced to human or canine clinical trials. With emphasis on antigen expression, in this minireview we discuss some the vaccine platforms that are currently being explored for the development of Leishmania vaccines...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515134/identification-of-novel-seroreactive-antigens-in-johne-s-disease-cattle-using-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-array
#3
John P Bannantine, Joseph J Campo, Lingling Li, Arlo Randall, Jozelyn Pablo, Craig A Praul, Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay, Judith R Stabel, Vivek Kapur
Johne's Disease, a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), is endemic in dairy cattle and other ruminants worldwide and remains a challenge to diagnose using traditional serological methods. Given the close phylogenetic relationship between Map and the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), we here applied a whole proteome Mtb protein array to identify seroreactive and diagnostic Map antigens. A genome-scale pairwise analysis of amino acid identity between orthologous proteins in Map and Mtb showed an average of 62% identity, with more than half the orthologous proteins sharing > 75% identity...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515133/development-of-a-novel-virus-like-particle-vaccine-platform-that-mimics-immature-form-of-alphavirus
#4
Akane Urakami, Atsuko Sakurai, Momoko Ishikawa, Moh Lan Yap, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Yasunari Haseda, Taiki Aoshi, Fidel P Zavala, Michael G Rossmann, Sachiko Kuno, Ryuji Ueno, Wataru Akahata
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are non-infectious multiprotein structures that are engineered to self-assemble from viral structural proteins. Here, we developed a novel VLP-based vaccine platform utilizing VLPs from the Chikungunya virus. We identified two regions within the envelope protein, a structural component of Chikungunya, where foreign antigens can be inserted without compromising VLP structure. Our VLP displays 480 copious copies of an inserted antigen on the VLP surface in a highly symmetric manner, thus capable of inducing strong immune responses against any inserted antigen...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490424/waning-immunity-and-microbial-vaccines-workshop-of-the-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases
#5
Xin-Xing Gu, Stanley A Plotkin, Kathryn M Edwards, Alessandro Sette, Kingston H G Mills, Ofer Levy, Andrea J Sant, Annie Mo, William Alexander, Kristina T Lu, Christopher E Taylor
Since the middle of the 20th century, vaccines have made a significant public health impact controlling infectious diseases globally. Although long-term protection has been achieved with some vaccines, immunity wanes over time with others, resulting in outbreaks or epidemics of infectious diseases. Long-term protection against infectious agents with complex life cycles and antigenic variation remains a key challenge. Novel strategies to characterize the short and long-term immune responses to vaccines, and to induce immune responses that mimic natural infection have recently emerged...
May 10, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468981/hnl-human-neutrophil-lipocalin-in-activated-whole-blood-is-a-specific-and-rapid-diagnostic-biomarker-of-bacterial-infections-in-the-respiratory-tract
#6
Per Venge, Ann-Katrin Eriksson, Lena Douhan-Håkansson, Karlis Pauksen
The distinction between bacterial and viral causes of infections of the respiratory tract is a major but important clinical challenge. We investigated the diagnostic performance of Human Neutrophil Lipocalin (HNL) in respiratory tract infections in comparison to CRP and procalcitonin (PCT). METHODS: Patients were recruited from the emergency department and from a primary care unit (n=162). The clinical diagnosis as to bacterial or viral causes of the infection was complemented with objective microbiological/serological testing...
May 3, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468980/identification-of-protective-b-cell-epitopes-within-the-novel-malaria-vaccine-candidate-p-falciparum-schizont-egress-antigen-1
#7
Christina E Nixon, Sangshin Park, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Dipak Raj, Lynn E Lambert, Sachy Orr-Gonzales, Emma K Barnafo, Jennifer F Friedman, Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy, Jonathan D Kurtis
Naturally-acquired antibodies to PfSEA-1A are associated with protection against severe malaria in children. Vaccination of mice with PbSEA-1A decreases parasitemia and prolongs survival following Plasmodium berghei ANKA challenge. To enhance the immunogenicity of PfSEA-1A, we identified five linear, B-cell epitopes using peptide microarrays probed with anti-sera from rPfSEA-1A-vaccinated non-human primates. We evaluated the relationship between epitope-specific antibody levels and protection from parasitemia in a longitudinal treatment-reinfection cohort in Western Kenya...
May 3, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446441/long-term-persistence-of-cell-mediated-and-humoral-responses-to-a-h1n1-pdm09-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-the-role-of-the-as03-adjuvant-system-in-adults-during-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Robbert G van der Most, Frédéric Clément, Julie Willekens, Walthère Dewé, Karl Walravens, David W Vaughn, Geert Leroux-Roels
We investigated the role of AS03, an α-tocopherol oil-in-water-emulsion-based Adjuvant System, on the long-term persistence of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines. In two studies (NCT00968539/NCT00989287), a total of 261 healthy adults (age ≤60 years) were randomized to receive two doses of AS03-adjuvanted vaccine containing 3.75 μg hemagglutinin, or non-adjuvanted vaccine containing 15 μg hemagglutinin (in Study A) or 3.75 μg hemagglutinin (in Study B), 21 days apart...
April 26, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424198/pneumococcal-capsular-polysaccharide-immunity-in-the-elderly
#9
Hugh Adler, Daniela M Ferreira, Stephen B Gordon, Jamie Rylance
Immunity against pneumococcal infections is impaired in older people, and current vaccines are poorly protective against pneumococcal disease in this population. Naturally-acquired immunity against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides develops during childhood and is robust in young adults, but deteriorates with advanced age. In particular, antibody levels and function are reduced in older people. Pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for people over 65 years of age. However, the benefits of polysaccharide and protein-conjugated vaccines in this population are small, due to both serotype replacement and incomplete protection against vaccine-serotype pneumococcal disease...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404574/parasitic-infections-in-pregnancy-decrease-placental-transfer-of-anti-pneumococcal-antibodies
#10
Noah D McKittrick, David M Vu, Indu Malhotra, Charles H King, Francis Mutuku, A Desiree LaBeaud
Many factors can influence maternal placental antibody transfer to the fetus, which confers important immune protection to the newborn infant. However, little is known about the effect of maternal parasitic infection on placental antibody transfer. To investigate this, we selected, from a parent study of 576 pregnant Kenyan women, four groups of women with term deliveries (≥37 weeks), including uninfected women (N=30) and women with solo infections of malaria (N=30), hookworm (N=30), or schistosomiasis (N=10)...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404573/cytomegalovirus-virions-shed-in-urine-have-a-reversible-block-to-epithelial-cell-entry-and-are-highly-resistant-to-antibody-neutralization
#11
Xiaohong Cui, Stuart P Adler, Mark R Schleiss, Ravit Arav-Boger, Gail J Demmler Harrison, Michael A McVoy
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes sensorineural hearing loss and developmental disabilities in newborns when infections are aquired in utero Pregnant women may acquire CMV from oral exposure to CMV in urine or saliva from young children. Neutralizing antibodies in maternal saliva have potential to prevent maternal infection and in turn fetal infection. As CMV uses different viral glycoprotein complexes to enter different cell types, the first cells to be infected in the oral cavity could determine the type of antibodies needed to disrupt oral transmission...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404572/an-hiv-envelope-gp120-fc-fusion-protein-elicits-effector-antibody-responses-in-rhesus-macaques
#12
Zhanna Shubin, Weizhong Li, Bhawna Poonia, Guido Ferrari, Celia LaBranche, David Montefiori, Xiaoping Zhu, C David Pauza
A goal for HIV prevention programs is to develop safe and effective vaccines that elicit durable and broadly protective antibodies. Many vaccine programs focus on the immune responses to critical epitopes in the gp120 portion of HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) and seek to improve the quality and quantity of antibodies by altering the sequence, conformation, oligomerization or glycosylation of gp120 to activate appropriate germline B cells and mimic the subsequent maturation pathways seen in infected individuals...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404571/early-detection-of-circulating-antigen-and-igm-associated-immune-complexes-during-experimental-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-cattle
#13
Konstantin P Lyashchenko, Rena Greenwald, Alina Sikar-Gang, Archana A Sridhara, Ashley Johnathan, Paul Lambotte, Javan Esfandiari, Mayara F Maggioli, Tyler C Thacker, Mitchell V Palmer, W Ray Waters
The presence of circulating antigen in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis was demonstrated using dual-path platform (DPP) technology. The antigen-capture immunoassays employed rabbit polyclonal antibody recognizing predominantly M. tuberculosis complex-specific epitopes and were able to detect soluble substances and whole cells of mycobacteria. The antigen found in serum appeared to be mostly bound to IgM, but not to IgG, within the immune complexes formed at early stages of M. bovis infection...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381403/decreased-vector-gene-expression-from-e2b-deleted-ad5-vaccines-intensifies-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses
#14
Dionisia Quiroga, Yasser A Aldhamen, Sarah Godbehere, Laura Harding, Andrea Amalfitano
Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors are promising vaccine candidates due to their intrinsic immunogenicity and potent transgene expression, however, widespread pre-existing Ad5 immunity has been considered a developmental impediment to the use of traditional, first-generation (Ad5[E1-]) vaccines. Even in the presence of anti-Ad5 immunity, recent murine and human studies have confirmed E2b-deleted Ad5 (Ad5[E1-,E2b-]) vaccines to be highly efficacious inducers of transgene-specific memory responses and significantly less toxic options than Ad5[E1-] vaccines...
April 5, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381402/transcutaneous-immunization-with-a-bandaid-prevents-experimental-otitis-media-in-a-polymicrobial-model
#15
Laura A Novotny, John D Clements, Steven D Goodman, Lauren O Bakaletz
Otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric disease and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the predominant pathogen in chronic OM, recurrent OM and OM associated with treatment failure. OM is also a polymicrobial disease, wherein an upper respiratory tract viral infection predisposes to ascension of NTHI from the nasopharynx, the site of colonization, to the normally sterile middle ear, resulting in disease. Using a clinically relevant viral-bacterial co-infection model of NTHI-induced OM, we performed transcutaneous immunization (TCI) via a bandaid delivery system to administer each of three promising NTHI vaccine candidates derived from bacterial adhesive proteins and biofilm mediators: rsPilA, chimV4 and integration host factor...
April 5, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476732/correction-for-bekkering-et-al-in-vitro-experimental-model-of-trained-innate-immunity-in-human-primary-monocytes
#16
Siroon Bekkering, Bastiaan A Blok, Leo A B Joosten, Niels P Riksen, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476731/erratum-for-carbonetti-et-al-highlights-of-the-11th-international-bordetella-symposium-from-basic-biology-to-vaccine-development
#17
Nicholas H Carbonetti, Carl Heinz Wirsing von König, Ruiting Lan, Francoise Jacob-Dubuisson, Peggy A Cotter, Rajendar Deora, Tod J Merkel, Cécile A van Els, Camille Locht, Daniela Hozbor, Maria E Rodriguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356257/exploring-human-antimicrobial-antibody-responses-on-a-single-b-cell-level
#18
Daniel Hofmann, Jonathan R Lai
Analysis of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) derived from single B cell cloning has been highly beneficial for antimicrobial immunotherapy, vaccine design, and advancing our understanding of pathogen-triggered effects on the human immunoglobulin repertoire. Sequencing of variable domains of single B cells, and characterization of binding and functional activities of MAbs derived from those sequences, provides in-depth insight not only into sites of susceptibility for antibody-mediated neutralization or opsonization of the pathogen but also into the dynamics of protective antibody evolution during infection...
May 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356256/recent-progress-in-the-prevention-of-serogroup-b-meningococcal-disease
#19
REVIEW
Ian M Feavers, Martin C J Maiden
The widespread use of meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has highlighted the challenge of providing protection against serogroup B disease. Over a period of 4 decades, vaccine development has focused on subcapsular protein antigens, first with outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines against epidemic outbreaks, and more recently on new multicomponent vaccines designed to offer better cross-protection against the antigenically diverse strains responsible for endemic disease. Because of the low incidence of meningococcal disease, the protective efficacy of these vaccines has not been determined in clinical studies, and their licensure has been based on serological data; however, the serological assays used to predict protective coverage have limitations...
May 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331079/characterization-and-vaccine-potential-of-membrane-vesicles-produced-by-francisella-noatunensis-subsp-orientalis-in-an-adult-zebrafish-model
#20
Leidy Lagos, Julia I Tandberg, Urska Repnik, Preben Boysen, Erik Ropstad, Deepa Varkey, Ian T Paulsen, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
Vaccine development against extracellular bacteria has been important for the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. In contrast, infections with intracellular pathogens remain largely an unresolved problem. Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease francisellosis in fish. Francisellosis is commonly characterized as a chronic granulomatous disease with high morbidity and can result in high mortality depending on the host. In this study, we explored the potential of bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) as a vaccine agent against F...
May 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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