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Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI

Joshua C Eby, Mary C Gray, Jason M Warfel, Tod J Merkel, Erik L Hewlett
ACT is an essential virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis and antibodies to ACT protect against B. pertussis infection in mice. The toxin is, therefore, a strong candidate antigen for addition to future acellular pertussis vaccines. In order to characterize the functionality of the immunologic response to ACT after infection, we have developed an assay for testing the ability of serum samples from subjects infected with B. pertussis to neutralize ACT-induced cytotoxicity in J774 macrophage cells. Baboons develop neutralizing anti-ACT antibodies following infection with B...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Wei-Ju Lee, Eng-Yen Huang, Chih-Min Tsai, Kuang-Che Kuo, Yi-Chuan Huang, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is important so that appropriate antibiotic treatment can be initiated to reduce the misuse of drugs and resistance rates. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of recent primary infection, but can persist for several months after initial infection. It has been suggested that anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin A (IgA) can be a reliable indicator for recent M...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Diane G Edmondson, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Steven J Norris, Amy J Ullmann, Joe Piesman, Marc Dolan, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Winfried Stöcker, Lars Komorowski
Lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a 23 kDa outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. In a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of OspC (D-OspC) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immunization with commonly employed monomeric OspC...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Siroon Bekkering, Bastiaan A Blok, Leo A B Joosten, Niels P Riksen, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
BACKGROUND: Innate immune memory or 'trained immunity' has recently been described as an important property of cells of the innate immune system. Due to the increased interest in this important new field of immunological investigation we sought to determine the optimal conditions for an in-vitro experimental protocol of monocyte training using three of the most commonly used training stimuli from the literature: β-glucan, the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL)...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Wilbur H Chen, Marcela F Pasetti, Rajan P Adhikari, Holly Baughman, Robin Douglas, Jill El-Khorazaty, Nancy Greenberg, Frederick W Holtsberg, Grant C Liao, Mardi K Reymann, Xiaolin Wang, Kelly L Warfield, M Javad Aman
: Staphylococcus aureus produces several enterotoxins and superantigens, exposure to which can elicit profound toxic shock. A recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin B (rSEB), containing 3 distinct mutations in the MHCII binding site, was combined with Alhydrogel as a potential parenteral vaccine named STEBVax.Consenting healthy adult volunteers, age 23-38 years, participated in a first-in-human open label dose-escalation study of parenteral doses of STEBVax ranging from 0.01 μg up to 20 μg...
October 5, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Wilbur H Chen, Karen L Kotloff
Shigella sp. represent the second most common etiologic pathogen causing childhood diarrhea in developing countries. There are no licensed Shigella vaccines and their progress has been limited. In this issue of Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Riddle and colleagues report results from a phase 1 study of a parenterally administered monovalent O-polysaccharide "bioconjugate" directed against S. flexneri 2a. Ultimately the goal is to develop a broad-spectrum Shigella vaccine to address this public health concern...
October 5, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Nicholas H Carbonetti, Carl Heinz Wirsing von König, Ruiting Lan, Francoise Jacob-Dubuisson, Peggy A Cotter, Rajendar Deora, Tod J Merkel, Cécile A van Els, Camille Locht, Daniela Hozbor, Maria E Rodriguez
Pertussis is a severe respiratory disease caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis The disease affects individuals of all ages but is particularly severe and sometimes fatal in unvaccinated young infants. Other Bordetella species cause diseases in humans, animals and birds. Scientific, clinical, public health, vaccine company and regulatory agency experts on these pathogens and diseases gathered in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 5 to 8 April 2016 for the 11th International Bordetella Symposium to discuss recent advances in our understanding of the biology of these organisms, the diseases they cause and development of new vaccines and other strategies to prevent these diseases...
September 21, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Kara Jensen, Myra Grace Dela Pena-Ponce, Michael Piatak, Rebecca Shoemaker, Kelli Oswald, William R Jacobs, Glenn Fennelly, Carissa Lucero, Katie R Mollan, Michael G Hudgens, Angela Amedee, Pamela A Kozlowski, Jacob D Estes, Jeffrey D Lifson, Koen K A Van Rompay, Michelle Larsen, Kristina De Paris
Our goal is to develop a pediatric combination vaccine to protect the vulnerable infant population against HIV-1 and tuberculosis (TB) infections. The vaccine consists of an auxotroph Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain that co-expresses HIV antigens. Utilizing an infant rhesus macaque model, we have previously shown that this AMtb-SIV vaccine is immunogenic, and, although the vaccine did not prevent oral SIV infection, a subset of vaccinated animals was able to partially control virus replication. However, unexpectedly, vaccinated infants required fewer SIV exposures to become infected when compared to naïve controls...
September 21, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Suryakant D Waghela, Jocelyn Bray, Cameron L Martin, Neha Sangewar, Chloe Charendoff, Rashmi Shetti, Clay Ashley, Chang-Hsin Chen, Luc R Berghman, Duncan Mwangi, Paul J Dominowski, Dennis L Foss, Sharath Rai, Shaunak Vora, Lindsay Gabbert, Thomas G Burrage, David Brake, John Neilan, Waithaka Mwangi
The African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine and, at present, no treatment or vaccine is available. Natural and gene-deleted, live attenuated strains protect against closely related virulent strains, however, they are yet to be deployed and evaluated in the field to rule out chronic persistence and potential for reversion to virulence. Previous studies suggest that antibodies play a role in protection, but induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) could be the key to complete protection...
September 14, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Igor C Borges, Dafne C Andrade, Maria Regina A Cardoso, Jorma Toppari, Mari Vähä-Mäkilä, Jorma Ilonen, Mikael Knip, Heikki Hyöty, Riitta Veijola, Olli Simell, Tuomas Jartti, Helena Käyhty, Olli Ruuskanen, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
Conserved protein antigens have been investigated as vaccine candidates against respiratory pathogens. We evaluated the natural development of antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis proteins during childhood. Fifty healthy children had serum samples collected from their first months up to the age of 13 years (median sampling interval 6 months). We also analyzed sera from 24 adults. Serum IgG against eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply, CbpA, PspA1 and 2, PcpA, PhtD, StkP-C, and PcsB-N), three H...
August 31, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Subhashis Mitra, Gary E Stein, Shyam Bhupalam, Daniel H Havlichek
Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease. We evaluated the immunogenicity of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in this population. Eligible patients with ESRD on dialysis were given a single dose of PCV13 vaccine. Serum antibody concentrations against 13 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides were measured at baseline, 2 months (m) and 12m post-vaccination. Response to vaccine was defined as a ≥ 2-fold increase in antibody concentration from baseline and an absolute post-vaccination value of at least 1 μg/ml...
August 31, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Michael Eisenhut, Alexander Chesover, Ronald Misquith, Nisha Nathwani, Andrew Walters
BACKGROUND: Type I diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with abnormalities of T-cells. Objective was to assess whether antibody responses to T-cell dependent and independent antigens in children with DM are lower compared to children without DM. METHODS: Case control study matching children with DM with children without DM by age and assessing antibody levels to pneumococcal serotypes, Haemophilus influenzae, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and reassessment of antibody levels in patients with antibody levels below protective thresholds after booster immunisation...
August 31, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Ellen K Wagner, Xianzhe Wang, Andre Bui, Jennifer A Maynard
Bispecific antibodies are a rapidly growing class of therapeutic molecules, originally developed for the treatment of cancer but recently explored for the treatment of autoimmune and infectious diseases. B. pertussis is a re-emerging pathogen, with several key symptoms caused by the pertussis toxin (PTx). Two humanized antibodies, hu1B7 and hu11E6, bind distinct epitopes on PTx and mitigate disease severity in murine and baboon models of infection when co-administered. Herein, we describe generation of a bispecific human IgG1 molecule combining the hu1B7 and hu11E6 binding sites via a knobs-in-holes design...
August 31, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Maddison Jade Griffin, Hayley Louise Letson, Geoffrey Phillip Dobson
Innovative host-directed drug therapies are urgently required to treat sepsis. We tested the effect of small-volume 0.9% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine and Mg(2+) (ALM) bolus and 4 hour intravenous infusion on survivability in the rat model of polymicrobial sepsis over 6 days. ALM treatment led to a significant increase in survivability (88%) compared to controls (25%). Four controls died on Days 2-3 and two died on Day 5. Early death was associated with elevated plasma and lung inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1ß, C-reactive protein), reduced white blood cell count (WBC), hypoxemia, hypercapnia, acidosis, hyperkalemia and elevated lactate, whereas late death was associated with a massive cytokine storm, a neutrophil dominated WBC rebound/overshoot, increased lung oxidant injury, edema and persistent ischemia...
August 31, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Mark S Riddle, Robert W Kaminski, Claudio Di Paolo, Chad K Porter, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Kristen A Clarkson, Hailey E Weerts, Christopher Duplessis, Amy Castellano, Cristina Alaimo, Kristopher Paolino, Robert Gormley, Veronica Gambillara Fonck
BACKGROUND: Several candidate vaccines against Shigellae are in development, but the lack of a clear correlate of protection and challenges with the induction of adequate immune responses among the youngest age-groups in the developing world has hampered Shigella vaccine development over the past several decades. The bio-conjugation technology, exploited here for the S. flexneri 2a candidate vaccine, offers a novel and potentially a cost effective way to develop and produce vaccines against a major pathogen of global health importance...
August 31, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Katharina B Lauer, Ray Borrow, Thomas J Blanchard
The presentation and delivery of antigens is crucial for inducing immunity and, desirably, lifelong protection. Recombinant viral vectors - proven safe and successful in veterinary vaccine applications - are ideal shuttles for delivering foreign proteins to induce an immune response with protective antibody levels, by mimicking natural infection. Some examples of viral vectors are adenoviruses, measles virus or poxviruses. The required attributes to qualify as a vaccine vector are: Stable insertion of coding sequences into the genome, induction of a protective immune response, a proven safety record and the potential for large scale production...
August 17, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Min Z Levine, Judith M Martin, F Liaini Gross, Stacie Jefferson, Kelly Stefano Cole, Crystal Ann Archibald, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael Susick, Krissy Moehling, Sarah Spencer, Jessie R Chung, Brendan Flannery, Richard K Zimmerman
Human influenza A(H3N2) viruses that predominated during the moderately severe 2014-2015 influenza season differed antigenically from the vaccine component, resulting in reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). To examine antibody responses to 2014-2015 inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among children and adolescents, we collected sera before and after vaccination from 150 children aged 3 to 17 years enrolled at health care facilities. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody responses to vaccine strains...
October 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Harry E Prince, Michelle L Altrich, Marek J Nowicki
The identification of nearly 3,500 cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in U.S. residents returning in 2014 and 2015 from areas in which it is endemic has raised concerns within the transplant community that, should recently infected individuals become organ and/or tissue donors, CHIKV would be transmitted to transplant recipients. Thus, tests designed to detect recent CHIKV infection among U.S. organ and tissue donors may become necessary in the future. Accordingly, we evaluated 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for CHIKV IgM readily available in the United States using 1,000 deidentified serum or plasma specimens collected from donors between November 2014 and March 2015...
October 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Leonar Arroyo, Mauricio Rojas, Kees L M C Franken, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Luis F Barrera
Multifunctional T cells have been shown to be protective in chronic viral infections. In mycobacterial infections, however, evidence for a protective role of multifunctional T cells remains inconclusive. Short-term cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1 antigens 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) and 10-kDa culture filtrate antigen (CFP10), which are induced in the early infection phase, have been mainly used to assess T cell multifunctionality, although long-term culture assays have been proposed to be more sensitive than short-term assays for assessment of memory T cells, which are essential for long-term immunity...
October 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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