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Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424198/pneumococcal-capsular-polysaccharide-immunity-in-the-elderly
#1
Hugh Adler, Daniela M Ferreira, Stephen B Gordon, Jamie Rylance
Immunity against pneumococcal infections is impaired in older people, and current vaccines are poorly protective against pneumococcal disease in this population. Naturally-acquired immunity against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides develops during childhood and is robust in young adults, but deteriorates with advanced age. In particular, antibody levels and function are reduced in older people. Pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for people over 65 years of age. However, the benefits of polysaccharide and protein-conjugated vaccines in this population are small, due to both serotype replacement and incomplete protection against vaccine-serotype pneumococcal disease...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404574/parasitic-infections-in-pregnancy-decrease-placental-transfer-of-anti-pneumococcal-antibodies
#2
Noah D McKittrick, David M Vu, Indu Malhotra, Charles H King, Francis Mutuku, A Desiree LaBeaud
Many factors can influence maternal placental antibody transfer to the fetus, which confers important immune protection to the newborn infant. However, little is known about the effect of maternal parasitic infection on placental antibody transfer. To investigate this, we selected, from a parent study of 576 pregnant Kenyan women, four groups of women with term deliveries (≥37 weeks), including uninfected women (N=30) and women with solo infections of malaria (N=30), hookworm (N=30), or schistosomiasis (N=10)...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404573/cytomegalovirus-virions-shed-in-urine-have-a-reversible-block-to-epithelial-cell-entry-and-are-highly-resistant-to-antibody-neutralization
#3
Xiaohong Cui, Stuart P Adler, Mark R Schleiss, Ravit Arav-Boger, Gail J Demmler Harrison, Michael A McVoy
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes sensorineural hearing loss and developmental disabilities in newborns when infections are aquired in utero Pregnant women may acquire CMV from oral exposure to CMV in urine or saliva from young children. Neutralizing antibodies in maternal saliva have potential to prevent maternal infection and in turn fetal infection. As CMV uses different viral glycoprotein complexes to enter different cell types, the first cells to be infected in the oral cavity could determine the type of antibodies needed to disrupt oral transmission...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404572/an-hiv-envelope-gp120-fc-fusion-protein-elicits-effector-antibody-responses-in-rhesus-macaques
#4
Zhanna Shubin, Weizhong Li, Bhawna Poonia, Guido Ferrari, Celia LaBranche, David Montefiori, Xiaoping Zhu, C David Pauza
A goal for HIV prevention programs is to develop safe and effective vaccines that elicit durable and broadly protective antibodies. Many vaccine programs focus on the immune responses to critical epitopes in the gp120 portion of HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) and seek to improve the quality and quantity of antibodies by altering the sequence, conformation, oligomerization or glycosylation of gp120 to activate appropriate germline B cells and mimic the subsequent maturation pathways seen in infected individuals...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404571/early-detection-of-circulating-antigen-and-igm-associated-immune-complexes-during-experimental-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-cattle
#5
Konstantin P Lyashchenko, Rena Greenwald, Alina Sikar-Gang, Archana A Sridhara, Ashley Johnathan, Paul Lambotte, Javan Esfandiari, Mayara F Maggioli, Tyler C Thacker, Mitchell V Palmer, W Ray Waters
The presence of circulating antigen in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis was demonstrated using dual-path platform (DPP) technology. The antigen-capture immunoassays employed rabbit polyclonal antibody recognizing predominantly M. tuberculosis complex-specific epitopes and were able to detect soluble substances and whole cells of mycobacteria. The antigen found in serum appeared to be mostly bound to IgM, but not to IgG, within the immune complexes formed at early stages of M. bovis infection...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381403/decreased-vector-gene-expression-from-e2b-deleted-ad5-vaccines-intensifies-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses
#6
Dionisia Quiroga, Yasser A Aldhamen, Sarah Godbehere, Laura Harding, Andrea Amalfitano
Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors are promising vaccine candidates due to their intrinsic immunogenicity and potent transgene expression, however, widespread pre-existing Ad5 immunity has been considered a developmental impediment to the use of traditional, first-generation (Ad5[E1-]) vaccines. Even in the presence of anti-Ad5 immunity, recent murine and human studies have confirmed E2b-deleted Ad5 (Ad5[E1-,E2b-]) vaccines to be highly efficacious inducers of transgene-specific memory responses and significantly less toxic options than Ad5[E1-] vaccines...
April 5, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381402/transcutaneous-immunization-with-a-bandaid-prevents-experimental-otitis-media-in-a-polymicrobial-model
#7
Laura A Novotny, John D Clements, Steven D Goodman, Lauren O Bakaletz
Otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric disease and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the predominant pathogen in chronic OM, recurrent OM and OM associated with treatment failure. OM is also a polymicrobial disease, wherein an upper respiratory tract viral infection predisposes to ascension of NTHI from the nasopharynx, the site of colonization, to the normally sterile middle ear, resulting in disease. Using a clinically relevant viral-bacterial co-infection model of NTHI-induced OM, we performed transcutaneous immunization (TCI) via a bandaid delivery system to administer each of three promising NTHI vaccine candidates derived from bacterial adhesive proteins and biofilm mediators: rsPilA, chimV4 and integration host factor...
April 5, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356257/exploring-human-antimicrobial-antibody-responses-on-a-single-b-cell-level
#8
Daniel Hofmann, Jonathan R Lai
Analysis of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from single B cell cloning has been highly beneficial for antimicrobial immunotherapy, vaccine design, and advancing our understanding of pathogen-triggered effects on the human immunoglobulin repertoire. Sequencing of single B cells variable domains, and characterization of binding and functional activities of mAbs derived from those sequences, provides in-depth insight into not only sites of susceptibility for antibody-mediated neutralization or opsonization of the pathogen, but also on the dynamics of protective antibody evolution during infection...
March 29, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356256/recent-progress-in-the-prevention-of-serogroup-b-meningococcal-disease
#9
Ian M Feavers, Martin C J Maiden
The widespread use of meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has highlighted the challenge of providing protection against serogroup B disease. Over a period of four decades vaccine development has focused on sub-capsular, protein antigens, first with outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines against epidemic outbreaks, and more recently on new multicomponent vaccines designed to offer better cross-protection against the antigenically diverse strains responsible for endemic disease. Because of the low incidence of meningococcal disease, the protective efficacy of these vaccines has not been determined in clinical studies and their licensure has been based on serological data; however, the serological assays used to predict protective coverage have limitations...
March 29, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331079/characterization-and-vaccine-potential-of-membrane-vesicles-produced-by-francisella-noatunensis-sup-orientalis-in-an-adult-zebrafish-model
#10
Leidy Lagos, Julia I Tandberg, Urska Repnik, Preben Boysen, Erik Ropstad, Deepa Varkey, Ian T Paulsen, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
Vaccine development against extracellular bacteria has been important for the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. In contrast, infections with intracellular pathogens remain largely an unresolved problem. Francisella noatunensis subspecies orientalis (Fno) are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause the disease francisellosis in fish. Francisellosis is commonly characterized as a chronic granulomatous disease with high morbidity and can result in high mortality depending on the host...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331078/tuberculin-skin-testing-boosts-interferon-gamma-responses-to-diva-reagents-in-mycobacterium-bovis-infected-cattle
#11
Gareth J Jones, Mick Coad, Bhagwati Khatri, Javier Bezos, Natalie A Parlane, Bryce M Buddle, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos, R Glyn Hewinson, H Martin Vordermeier
BCG vaccination sensitises cattle to bovine tuberculin which compromises the use of the current bovine TB surveillance tests. Although the performance of a blood test (that utilises antigens expressed by Mycobacterium bovis but not by BCG) capable of discriminating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA interferon-gamma test, DIT) has been evaluated in naturally infected TB field reactors, there is a need to perform similar analysis in a BCG vaccinated/M. bovis infected population. Furthermore, we explored different scenarios under which a DIT may be implemented alongside BCG vaccination: (i) serial testing to resolve potential false positive skin test results; or (ii) standalone test to replace the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin skin test (SICCT)...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331077/novel-mechanisms-revealed-in-the-trachea-transcriptome-of-resistant-and-susceptible-chicken-lines-following-infection-with-newcastle-disease-virus
#12
Melissa S Deist, Rodrigo A Gallardo, David A Bunn, Terra R Kelly, Jack C M Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J Lamont
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has a devastating impact on poultry production in developing countries. This study examined the transcriptome of tracheal epithelial cells from two inbred chicken lines that differ in NDV susceptibility after challenge with a high-titer inoculum of lentogenic NDV. The Fayoumi line had a significantly lower NDV load post-challenge relative to the Leghorn line, demonstrating the Fayoumi's classification as a relatively NDV resistant breed. Examining the trachea transcriptome showed a large increase in immune cell infiltration in the trachea in both lines at all times post-infection...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298291/plasmablast-response-to-primary-rhesus-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-a-monkey-model-of-congenital-cmv-transmission
#13
Qihua Fan, Cody S Nelson, Kristy M Bialas, Flavia Chiuppesi, Joshua Amos, Thaddeus C Gurley, Dawn Jones Marshall, Joshua Eudailey, Holly Heimsath, Jonathon Himes, Ashlesha Deshpande, Mark R Walter, Felix Wussow, Don J Diamond, Peter A Barry, M Anthony Moody, Amitinder Kaur, Sallie R Permar
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection worldwide, and the leading infectious cause of neurologic deficits and hearing loss in newborns. Development of a maternal HCMV vaccine to prevent vertical virus transmission is a high priority, yet protective maternal immune responses following acute infection are poorly understood. To characterize the maternal humoral immune response to primary CMV infection, we investigated the plasmablast and early antibody repertoire using a nonhuman primate model with two acutely rhesus CMV (RhCMV) infected animals - a CD4+ T cell-depleted dam that experienced fetal loss shortly after vertical RhCMV transmission and an immunocompetent dam that did not transmit RhCMV to her infant...
March 15, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298290/a-prime-boost-pfcs14k-m-mva-spfcs-m-vaccination-protocol-generates-robust-cd8-t-cell-and-antibody-responses-to-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein-and-protects-mice-against-malaria
#14
Aneesh Vijayan, Ernesto Mejías-Pérez, Diego A Espinosa, Suresh C Raman, Carlos Oscar S Sorzano, Fidel Zavala, Mariano Esteban
Vaccines against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria are appealing, since the parasite can be eliminated before disease onset and since they offer the unique possibility of targeting the parasite with both antibodies and T cells. Although the role CD8(+) T cells in pre-erythrocytic malaria stages is well documented, a highly effective T cell-inducing vaccine remains to be advanced. Here we report the development of a prime-boost immunization regimen with the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCS) fused to the oligomer-forming vaccinia virus A27 protein and a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing PfCS...
March 15, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274937/mass-spectrometry-approaches-for-identification-and-quantitation-of-therapeutic-monoclonal-antibodies-in-the-clinical-laboratory
#15
Paula M Ladwig, David R Barnidge, Maria A V Willrich
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an important class of drugs used to treat diseases ranging from autoimmune disorders to B cell lymphomas to other rare conditions thought to be untreatable in the past. Many advances have been made in the characterization of immunoglobulins as a result of pharmaceutical companies investing in technologies that allow them to better understand mAbs during the development phase. Mass spectrometry is one of the new advancements utilized extensively by pharma to analyze mAbs, and is now beginning to be applied in the clinical laboratory setting...
March 8, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249842/tb-lymphadenitis-is-associated-with-enhanced-baseline-and-antigen-specific-induction-of-type-1-and-type-17-cytokines-and-reduced-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-18-at-the-site-of-infection
#16
Gokul Raj Kathamuthu, Kadar Moideen, Dhanaraj Baskaran, Vaithilingam V Banurekha, Dina Nair, Gomathi Sekar, Rathinam Sridhar, Bharathi Vidyajayanthi, Ganeshan Gajendraraj, Dinesh Kumar Parandhaman, Alena Srinivasan, Subash Babu
Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL) is characterized by an expansion of Th1 and Th17 cells with altered serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the cytokine profile at the site of infection i.e. the affected lymph nodes, has not been examined in detail. To estimate the baseline and mycobacterial antigen - stimulated cytokine concentrations of Type 1, Type 17 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines in TBL, we examined both the baseline and the antigen - specific concentrations of these cytokines in TBL (n = 14) before and after chemotherapy and compared them with pulmonary tuberculosis infection (PTB, n = 14)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249841/b-cell-responses-to-intramuscular-administration-of-a-bivalent-virus-like-particle-human-norovirus-vaccine
#17
Sasirekha Ramani, Frederick H Neill, Jennifer Ferreira, John J Treanor, Sharon E Frey, David J Topham, Robert R Goodwin, Astrid Borkowski, Frank Baehner, Paul M Mendelman, Mary K Estes, Robert L Atmar
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. A virus-like particle (VLP) candidate vaccine induces the production of serum histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking antibodies, the first identified correlate of protection from HuNoV gastroenteritis. Recently, virus-specific IgG memory B-cells were identified as another potential correlate of protection against HuNoV gastroenteritis. We assessed B-cell responses following intramuscular administration of a bivalent (GI.1/GII...
March 1, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228395/antibody-responses-to-zika-virus-infections-in-environments-of-flavivirus-endemicity
#18
Sarah L Keasey, Christine L Pugh, Stig M R Jensen, Jessica L Smith, Robert D Hontz, Anna P Durbin, Dawn M Dudley, David H O'Connor, Robert G Ulrich
Zika virus (ZIKV) infections occur in areas where dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and other viruses of the genus Flavivirus cocirculate. The envelope (E) proteins of these closely related flaviviruses induce specific long-term immunity, yet subsequent infections are associated with cross-reactive antibody responses that may enhance disease susceptibility and severity. To gain a better understanding of ZIKV infections against a background of similar viral diseases, we examined serological immune responses to ZIKV, WNV, DENV, and YFV infections of humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs)...
April 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228394/update-on-chlamydia-trachomatis-vaccinology
#19
REVIEW
Luis M de la Maza, Guangming Zhong, Robert C Brunham
Attempts to produce a vaccine to protect against Chlamydia trachomatis-induced trachoma were initiated more than 100 years ago and continued for several decades. Using whole organisms, protective responses were obtained. However, upon exposure to C. trachomatis, disease exacerbation developed in some immunized individuals, precluding the implementation of the vaccine. Evidence of the role of C. trachomatis as a sexually transmitted pathogen started to emerge in the 1960s, and it soon became evident that it can cause acute infections and long-term sequelae in women, men, and newborns...
April 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179404/a-plasmodium-vivax-plasmid-dna-and-adenovirus-vectored-malaria-vaccine-encoding-blood-stage-antigens-ama1-and-msp142-in-a-prime-boost-heterologous-immunization-regimen-partially-protects-aotus-monkeys-against-blood-stage-challenge
#20
Nicanor Obaldia, Michael G Stockelman, William Otero, Jennifer A Cockrill, Harini Ganeshan, Esteban N Abot, Jianfeng Zhang, Keith Limbach, Yupin Charoenvit, Denise L Doolan, De-Chu C Tang, Thomas L Richie
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which are transmitted to humans by the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. After the elimination of Plasmodium falciparum, it is predicted that Plasmodium vivax will remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality outside Africa, stressing the importance of developing a vaccine against P. vivax malaria. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two P. vivax antigens, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142) in a plasmid recombinant DNA prime/adenoviral (Ad) vector boost regimen in Aotus monkeys...
April 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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