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Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931520/dna-priming-increases-frequency-of-t-cell-responses-to-a-vsv-hiv-vaccine-with-specific-enhancement-of-cd8-t-cell-responses-by-il-12-pdna
#1
Shuying S Li, Nidhi K Kochar, Marnie Elizaga, Christine M Hay, Gregory J Wilson, Kristen W Cohen, Stephen C De Rosa, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Daryl Morris, Greg Finak, Mary Allen, Hong-Van Tieu, Ian Frank, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Drew Hannaman, Raphael Gottardo, Peter B Gilbert, Georgia D Tomaras, Lawrence Corey, David K Clarke, Michael A Egan, John H Eldridge, M Juliana McElrath, Nicole Frahm
HVTN 087 assessed the effect of increasing doses of pIL-12 adjuvant on the immunogenicity of a HIV-1 multi-antigen (MAG) DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation and boosted with an attenuated VSV-Gag vaccine. We randomized 100 healthy adults to receive placebo, or 3mg HIV-MAG (gag/pol, env, nef/tat/vif) DNA vaccine co-administered with pIL-12 at 0μg, 250μg, 1,000μg or 1,500μg intramuscularly by electroporation at 0, 1 and 3 months followed by intramuscular inoculation with 3.4×10(7) PFU VSV-Gag vaccine at 6 months...
September 20, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903988/the-use-of-reverse-vaccinology-in-the-design-and-construction-of-nano-glycoconjugate-vaccines-against-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#2
Laura A Muruato, Daniel Tapia, Christopher L Hatcher, Mridul Kalita, Paul J Brett, Anthony E Gregory, James E Samuel, Richard W Titball, Alfredo G Torres
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) is a Gram negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease melioidosis in humans and other mammals. Respiratory infection with B. pseudomallei leads to a fulminant and often fatal disease. It has previously been shown that glycoconjugate vaccines can provide significant protection against lethal challenge; however, the limited number of known Burkholderia antigens has slowed progress towards vaccine development. The objective of this study was to identify novel antigens and evaluate their protective capacity when incorporated into a nano-glycoconjugate vaccine platform...
September 13, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903987/heat-shock-proteins-in-histoplasma-and-paracoccidioides-a-minireview
#3
Levi G Cleare, Daniel Zamith Miranda, Joshua D Nosanchuk
Heat shock proteins (hsps) are highly conserved biomolecules that are constitutively expressed and generally up-regulated in response to various stress conditions (biotic and abiotic). Hsps have diverse functions, categorizations, and classifications. Their adaptive expression in fungi indicates their significance in these diverse species, particularly in dimorphic pathogens. Histoplasma capsulatum, and Paracoccidioides species pluralis are dimorphic fungi that are the causative agents of histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877929/merozoite-surface-protein-1-from-p-falciparum-is-a-major-target-of-opsonizing-antibodies-in-individuals-with-acquired-immunity-against-malaria
#4
Anja Jäschke, Boubacar Coulibaly, Edmond J Remarque, Hermann Bujard, Christian Epp
Naturally acquired immunity against malaria is largely mediated by serum antibodies controlling levels of blood stage parasites. A limited understanding of the antigenic targets and functional mechanisms of protective antibodies has hampered so far the development of efficient malaria vaccines. Besides directly inhibiting growth of Plasmodium parasites, antibodies can opsonize merozoites and recruit immune effector cells such as monocytes or neutrophils. Antibodies against the vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) are acquired during natural infection and have been associated with protection against malaria in several epidemiological studies...
September 6, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877928/anthrax-vaccine-precipitated-induces-edema-toxin-neutralizing-edema-factor-specific-antibodies-in-human-recipients
#5
Eric K Dumas, Timothy Gross, Jason Larabee, Lance Pate, Hannah Cuthbertson, Sue Charlton, Bassam Hallis, Renata J M Engler, Limone C Collins, Christina E Spooner, Hua Chen, Jimmy Ballard, Judith A James, A Darise Farris
Edema Toxin (ET), composed of Edema Factor (EF) and Protective Antigen (PA), is a virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis that alters host immune cell function and contributes to anthrax disease. Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated (AVP) contains low but detectable EF and can elicit EF-specific antibodies in human recipients of AVP. Active and passive vaccination of mice with EF can contribute to protection from challenge with Bacillus anthracis spores or ET. This study compared humoral responses to ET in recipients of AVP (n=33) versus Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA; n=66) matched for number of vaccinations and time post-vaccination and furthermore determined whether EF antibodies elicited by AVP contribute to ET neutralization...
September 6, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877927/protective-vaccine-efficacy-of-the-complete-form-of-ppe39-protein-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-k-strain-in-mice
#6
Ahreum Kim, Yun-Gyoung Hur, Sunwha Gu, Sang-Nae Cho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of MTBK_24820, a complete form of PPE39 protein derived from a predominant Beijing/K strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Korea. Mice were immunized with MTKB_24820, M. bovis Bacilli Calmette-Guérin, or adjuvant prior to a high-dosed Beijing/K strain aerosol infection. After 4 and 9 weeks, bacterial loads were determined and histopathologic and immunologic features in the lungs and spleens of the M. tb-infected mice were analyzed. Putative immunogenic T-cell epitopes were examined using synthetic overlapping peptides...
September 6, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835360/chlamydia-trachomatis-the-persistent-pathogen
#7
Steven S Witkin, Evelyn Minis, Aikaterini Athanasiou, Julie Leizer, Iara M Linhares
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium whose only natural host is man. Although asymptomatic in most women, genital tract chlamydial infections are a leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. C. trachomatis has evolved successful mechanisms to avoid destruction by autophagy and the host immune system and persist within host epithelial cells. The intracellular form of this organism, the reticulate body, can enter into a persistent non-replicative but viable state under unfavorable conditions...
August 23, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835359/mother-newborn-pairs-in-malawi-have-similar-antibody-repertoire-to-diverse-malaria-antigens
#8
Sarah Boudová, Jenny A Walldorf, Jason A Bailey, Titus Divala, Randy Mungwira, Patricia Mawindo, Jozelyn Pablo, Algis Jasinskas, Rie Nakajima, Amed Ouattara, Matthew Adams, Philip L Felgner, Christopher V Plowe, Mark A Travassos, Miriam K Laufer
BACKGROUND: Maternal antibodies may play a role in protecting newborns against malaria disease. Plasmodium falciparum parasite surface antigens are diverse and protection from infection requires allele-specific immunity. Although malaria-specific antibodies have been shown to cross the placenta, the extent to which antibodies that respond to the full repertoire of diverse antigens are transferred from the mother to the infant has not been explored. Understanding the breadth of maternal antibody responses and to what extent these antibodies are transferred to the child can inform vaccine design and evaluation...
August 23, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835358/combined-action-of-human-commensal-bacteria-and-amorphous-silica-nanoparticles-on-the-viability-and-immune-responses-of-dendritic-cells
#9
Giulia Malachin, Elisa Lubian, Fabrizio Mancin, Emanuele Papini, Regina Tavano
Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate the host-microbe balance in gut and skin, tissues likely exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) present in drugs, food and cosmetics. We analysed the viability and the activation of DCs incubated with extracellular media (EMs) obtained from cultures of commensal (E. coli, S. epidermidis) or pathogenic (P. aeruginosa, S. aureus) bacteria, in the presence of amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs). EMs synergised cytotoxicity and cytokines production with different nanoparticle dose-response characteristics, depending on the bacterial species...
August 23, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814389/equine-arteritis-virus-elicits-a-mucosal-antibody-response-in-the-reproductive-tract-of-persistently-infected-stallions
#10
Mariano Carossino, Bettina Wagner, Alan T Loynachan, R Frank Cook, Igor F Canisso, Lakshman Chelvarajan, Casey L Edwards, Bora Nam, John F Timoney, Peter J Timoney, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish persistent infection in the reproductive tract of the stallion (carrier) and is continuously shed in its semen. We have recently demonstrated that EAV persists within stromal cells and a subset of lymphocytes in the stallion accessory sex glands in the presence of a significant local inflammatory response. In the present study, we demonstrated that EAV elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract during persistent infection with homing of plasma cells into accessory sex glands...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814388/the-impact-of-poxvirus-vector-priming-protein-co-administration-and-vaccine-intervals-on-hiv-gp120-vaccine-elicited-antibody-magnitude-and-function-in-infant-macaques
#11
Bonnie Phillips, Genevieve G Fouda, Josh Eudailey, Justin Pollara, Alan D Curtis, Erika Kunz, Maria Dennis, Xiaoying Shen, Camden Bay, Michael Hudgens, David Pickup, S Munir Alam, Amir Ardeshir, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Guido Ferrari, M Anthony Moody, Sallie Permar, Kristina De Paris
Despite success in reducing vertical HIV transmission by maternal antiretroviral therapy, several obstacles limit its efficacy during breastfeeding, and breast-milk transmission is now the dominant mode of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in infants. Thus, a pediatric vaccine is needed to eradicate oral HIV infections in newborns and infants. Utilizing the infant rhesus macaque model, we compared 3 different vaccine regimens: (i) HIV Env protein only; (ii) a poxvirus vector (MVA)-HIV Env prime/HIV Env protein boost, and (iii) co-administration of HIV Env protein and MVA-HIV Env at all time points...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794055/effect-of-vaccine-elicited-antibodies-on-colonization-of-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-b-and-c-strains-in-a-human-bronchial-epithelial-cell-culture-model
#12
Vianca Vianzon, Beate Illek, Gregory R Moe
Capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines protect individuals from invasive disease and decrease carriage, which reduces spread of the organism in the population. In contrast, antibodies elicited by plain polysaccharide or protein antigen-based meningococcal (Men) vaccines have little or no effect on decreasing carriage. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which vaccine-induced human IgG antibodies affect colonization by serogroup B (MenB) or C (MenC) strains using a human bronchial epithelial cell culture model (16HBE14o-)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768669/immunogenicity-of-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-outer-membrane-vesicles-and-protective-ability-in-the-chinchilla-model-of-otitis-media
#13
Linda E Winter, Stephen J Barenkamp
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria are enriched in several outer membrane components, including major and minor outer membrane proteins and lipooligosaccharide. We assessed the functional activity of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) OMV-specific antisera and the protective ability of NTHi OMVs as vaccine antigens in the chinchilla otitis media model. OMVs were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, two of which were also engineered to overexpress Hia proteins...
August 2, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768668/a-combination-of-recombinant-bcg-expressing-pneumococcal-proteins-induces-cellular-and-humoral-immune-responses-and-protects-against-pneumococcal-colonization-and-sepsis
#14
Cibelly Goulart, Dunia Rodriguez, Alex I Kanno, Thiago Rojas Converso, Ying-Jie Lu, Richard Malley, Luciana C Leite
Pneumococcal diseases remain a substantial cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. The development of potentially serotype-transcending vaccines has been extensively studied; ideally such a vaccine should include antigens that are able to induce protection against colonization (likely mediated by IL-17A) and protection against invasive disease (likely mediated by antibody). The use of strong adjuvants or alternative delivery systems that are able to improve the immunological response of recombinant proteins has been proposed, but poses potential safety and practical concerns in children...
August 2, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747311/an-n-terminal-pfs230-domain-produced-in-baculovirus-as-a-biological-active-transmission-blocking-vaccine-candidate
#15
Shwu-Maan Lee, Chia-Kuei Wu, Jordan L Plieskatt, Kazutoyo Miura, John M Hickey, C Richter King
Transmission-blocking vaccines have the potential to accelerate malaria parasite elimination by inducing antibodies that block parasite transmission from humans to mosquitoes. Pfs230, a gametocyte surface protein involved in gamete function, has long been a promising candidate. Due to the large size (3,135 amino acids), complex domains, and repeating six-cysteine (6-Cys) motifs with a multitude of disulfide bonds, the feasibility of expression of a full-length protein has been difficult. A priority focus, therefore, has been on the generation of single domains, including N-terminal fragments...
July 26, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724524/assignment-of-weight-based-antibody-units-for-four-additional-serotypes-to-a-human-anti-pneumococcal-standard-reference-serum-007sp
#16
D Goldblatt, A McKeen, P Burbidge, S McElhiney, L McLaughlin, A Johnson, M Rauh, P C Giardina
The pneumococcal ELISA reference standard serum, Lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced with a new reference standard serum, 007sp in 2013. This serum was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol, where 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II®, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma, filled at 6ml per vial and lyophilised. Five independent laboratories participated in bridging the serotype specific IgG assignments for 89SF to 007sp to establish equivalent reference values for 13 pneumococcal capsular serotypes (1,3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F) using the WHO reference ELISA...
July 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659326/a-cation-binding-surface-protein-as-a-vaccine-antigen-to-prevent-moraxella-catarrhalis-otitis-media-and-infections-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Timothy F Murphy, Aimee L Brauer, Antoinette Johnson, Gregory E Wilding, Mary Koszelak-Rosenblum, Michael G Malkowski
Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human respiratory tract pathogen that is a common cause of otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent these infections would have a major impact in reducing the substantial global morbidity and mortality in these populations. Through a genome mining approach, we identified AfeA, an ∼32 kDa substrate binding protein of an ABC transport system as an excellent candidate vaccine antigen...
June 28, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701468/rubella-surveillance-and-diagnostic-testing-among-a-low-prevalence-population-new-york-city-2012-2013
#18
Beth M Isaac, Jane R Zucker, Francesca R Giancotti, Emily Abernathy, Joseph Icenogle, Jennifer L Rakeman, Jennifer B Rosen
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) receives clinical and laboratory reports for rubella. Because rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays may produce false-positive results and rubella infections may be asymptomatic, interpretation of positive IgM results can be challenging. Rubella reports received by DOHMH in 2012 to 2013 were reviewed. The rubella IgM testing purpose was determined through case investigation. Results of IgM testing by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were compared to determine positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity...
September 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701467/the-cross-species-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-assay-mgia-project-2010-2014
#19
REVIEW
Michael J Brennan, Rachel Tanner, Sheldon Morris, Thomas J Scriba, Jacqueline M Achkar, Andrea Zelmer, David A Hokey, Angelo Izzo, Sally Sharpe, Ann Williams, Adam Penn-Nicholson, Mzwandile Erasmus, Elena Stylianou, Daniel F Hoft, Helen McShane, Helen A Fletcher
The development of a functional biomarker assay in the tuberculosis (TB) field would be widely recognized as a major advance in efforts to develop and to test novel TB vaccine candidates efficiently. We present preliminary studies using mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIAs) to detect Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine responses across species, and we extend this work to determine whether a standardized MGIA can be applied in characterizing new TB vaccines. The comparative MGIA studies reviewed here aimed to evaluate robustness, reproducibility, and ability to reflect in vivo responses...
September 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679495/dose-selection-for-an-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-f-protein-vaccine-for-older-adults-based-on-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses
#20
Judith Falloon, H Keipp Talbot, Craig Curtis, John Ervin, Diane Krieger, Filip Dubovsky, Therese Takas, Jing Yu, Li Yu, Stacie L Lambert, Tonya Villafana, Mark T Esser
This is the second phase 1 study of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine containing RSV fusion protein (sF) adjuvanted with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) in a squalene-based 2% stable emulsion (GLA-SE). In this randomized, double-blind study, 261 subjects aged ≥60 years received inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), a vaccine containing 120 μg sF with escalating doses of GLA (1, 2.5, or 5 μg) in SE, or a vaccine containing 80 μg sF with 2.5 μg GLA in SE. Subjects receiving 120 μg sF with 2.5 or 5 μg GLA were also randomized to receive IIV or placebo...
September 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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