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Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724524/assignment-of-weight-based-antibody-units-for-four-additional-serotypes-to-a-human-anti-pneumococcal-standard-reference-serum-007sp
#1
D Goldblatt, A McKeen, P Burbidge, S McElhiney, L McLaughlin, A Johnson, M Rauh, P C Giardina
The pneumococcal ELISA reference standard serum, Lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced with a new reference standard serum, 007sp in 2013. This serum was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol, where 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II®, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma, filled at 6ml per vial and lyophilised. Five independent laboratories participated in bridging the serotype specific IgG assignments for 89SF to 007sp to establish equivalent reference values for 13 pneumococcal capsular serotypes (1,3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F) using the WHO reference ELISA...
July 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701468/rubella-surveillance-and-diagnostic-testing-among-a-low-prevalence-population-new-york-city-2012-2013
#2
Beth M Isaac, Jane R Zucker, Francesca R Giancotti, Emily Abernathy, Joseph Icenogle, Jennifer L Rakeman, Jennifer B Rosen
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) receives clinical and laboratory reports for rubella. Because rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays may produce false positive results and rubella infections may be asymptomatic, interpretation of positive IgM results can be challenging. Rubella reports received by DOHMH in 2012-2013 were reviewed. Rubella IgM testing purpose was determined through case investigation. Results of IgM testing by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were compared to determine positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity...
July 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701467/the-cross-species-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-assay-mgia-project-2010-2014
#3
Michael J Brennan, Rachel Tanner, Sheldon Morris, Thomas J Scriba, Jacqueline M Achkar, Andrea Zelmer, David Hokey, Angelo Izzo, Sally Sharpe, Ann Williams, Adam Penn-Nicholson, Mzwandile Erasmus, Elena Stylianou, Daniel F Hoft, Helen McShane, Helen A Fletcher
The development of a functional biomarker assay in the tuberculosis (TB) field would be widely recognized as a major advance in efforts to efficiently develop and test novel TB vaccine candidates. We present preliminary studies using mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIAs) to detect a BCG vaccine response across species, and extend this work to determine if a standardized MGIA can be applied in characterizing new generation TB vaccines. The comparative MGIA studies reviewed here aimed to evaluate robustness, reproducibility, and ability to reflect in vivo responses...
July 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679495/dose-selection-for-an-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-f-protein-vaccine-for-older-adults-based-on-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses
#4
Judith Falloon, Keipp Talbot, Craig Curtis, John Ervin, Diane Krieger, Filip Dubovsky, Therese Takas, Jing Yu, Li Yu, Stacie L Lambert, Tonya Villafana, Mark T Esser
This is the second phase 1 study of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine containing RSV fusion protein (sF) adjuvanted with glucopyranosyl lipid A in 2% stable emulsion (GLA-SE). In this randomized, double-blind study (NCT02289820, clinicaltrials.gov), 261 subjects aged ≥60 years received inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) or a vaccine containing 120 μg sF with escalating doses of GLA (1, 2.5, or 5 μg) in SE or a vaccine containing 80 μg sF with 2.5 μg GLA in SE. Subjects receiving 120 μg sF with 2...
July 5, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659326/a-cation-binding-surface-protein-as-a-vaccine-antigen-to-prevent-moraxella-catarrhalis-otitis-media-and-infections-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Timothy F Murphy, Aimee L Brauer, Antoinette Johnson, Gregory E Wilding, Mary Koszelak-Rosenblum, Michael G Malkowski
Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human respiratory tract pathogen that is a common cause of otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent these infections would have a major impact in reducing the substantial global morbidity and mortality in these populations. Through a genome mining approach, we identified AfeA, an ∼32 kDa substrate binding protein of an ABC transport system as an excellent candidate vaccine antigen...
June 28, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659325/identification-of-an-atypical-enzootic-bovine-leukosis-in-japan-by-using-a-novel-classification-of-bovine-leukemia-based-on-immunophenotypic-analysis
#6
Asami Nishimori, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Ayako Nakahara, Yuzumi Chiba, Masaho Ikeda, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Bovine leukemia is classified into two types: enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) and sporadic bovine leukosis (SBL). EBL is caused by infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) which induces persistent lymphocytosis and B-cell lymphoma in cattle after a long latent period. Although it has been demonstrated that BLV-associated lymphoma occurs predominantly in adult cattle >3--5 years, suspicious cases of EBL onset in juvenile cattle were recently reported in Japan. To investigate the current status of bovine leukemia in Japan, we performed immunophenotypic analysis of samples from 50 cattle that were clinically diagnosed as having bovine leukemia...
June 28, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637806/the-pneumococcal-serotype-15c-capsule-is-partially-o-acetylated-and-allows-for-limited-evasion-of-ppv23-elicited-anti-serotype-15b-antibodies
#7
Brady L Spencer, Anukul T Shenoy, Carlos J Orihuela, Moon H Nahm
As a species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) utilizes a diverse array of capsular polysaccharides to evade the host. In contrast to large variations in sugar composition and linkage formation, O-acetylation is a subtle capsular modification that nonetheless has a large impact on capsular shielding and recognition of the capsule by vaccine-elicited antibodies. Serotype 15B, which is included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), encodes the putative O-acetyltransferase gene wciZ...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637805/conjugation-of-pspa4pro-with-capsular-streptococcus-pneumoniae-polysaccharide-serotype-14-does-not-reduce-the-induction-of-cross-reactive-antibodies
#8
Míriam A da Silva, Thiago R Converso, Viviane M Gonçalves, Luciana C C Leite, Martha M Tanizaki, Giovana C Barazzone
Current pneumococcal vaccines are composed of bacterial polysaccharides as antigens plain or conjugated to carrier proteins. While efficacious against vaccine serotypes, epidemiologic data shows increasing incidence of infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The use of Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a carrier protein in a conjugate vaccine could help preventing serotype replacement by increasing vaccine coverage and reducing selective pressure of S. pneumoniae serotypes...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637804/bioactive-immune-components-of-anti-diarrheagenic-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-etec-hyperimmune-bovine-colostrum-products
#9
Khandra T Sears, Sharon M Tennant, Mardi K Reymann, Raphael Simon, Nicky Konstantopoulos, William C Blackwelder, Eileen M Barry, Marcela F Pasetti
Diarrhea is a common illness among travelers to resource-limited countries, the most prevalent attributable agent being enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). There are presently no vaccines licensed specifically for the prevention of ETEC-induced traveler's diarrhea (TD), and this has propelled investigation of alternative preventive methods. Colostrum, the first milk expressed after birthing, is rich in immunoglobulins and innate immune components for protection of newborns against infectious agents. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) produced by immunization of cows during gestation (and containing high levels of specific antibodies) is a practical and effective prophylactic tool against gastrointestinal illnesses...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637803/protein-malnutrition-alters-tryptophan-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-homeostasis-and-adaptive-immune-responses-in-human-rotavirus-infected-gnotobiotic-pigs-transplanted-with-human-infant-fecal-microbiota
#10
David D Fischer, Sukumar Kandasamy, Francine C Paim, Stephanie N Langel, Moyasar A Alhamo, Lulu Shao, Juliet Chepngeno, Ayako Miyazaki, Huang-Chi Huang, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of five. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets with infected with virulent human rotavirus. After human rotavirus infection, protein deficient pigs had decreased human rotavirus antibody titers and total IgA concentrations, systemic T helper (CD3+CD4+) and cytotoxic T (CD3+CD8+) lymphocyte frequencies and serum tryptophan and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592628/chemiluminescence-immunoassay-for-the-detection-of-antibodies-against-the-2c-and-3abc-nonstructural-proteins-induced-by-infecting-pigs-with-the-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus
#11
Zezhong Liu, Junjun Shao, Furong Zhao, Guangqing Zhou, Shandian Gao, Wei Liu, Jianliang Lv, Xiumei Li, Yangfan Li, Huiyun Chang, Yongguang Zhang
The potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) has been accepted in recent years, although its use for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) diagnostics has not been reported. Full-length 3ABC and 2C proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from vaccinated pigs (DIVA). The recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two CLIAs for the detection of antibodies against nonstructural viral proteins...
June 7, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592627/cytokines-are-markers-of-the-clostridium-difficile-induced-inflammatory-response-and-predict-disease-severity
#12
Hua Yu, Kevin Chen, Ying Sun, Mihaela Carter, Kevin W Garey, Tor C Savidge, Sridevi Devaraj, Mary Elizabeth Tessier, Erik C von Rosenvinge, Ciaran P Kelly, Marcela F Pasetti, Hanping Feng
The host immune response affects pathogen virulence in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Thus, cytokine responses to CDI are likely associated with disease initiation and progression. Understanding the molecular drivers of inflammation and biochemical markers of disease severity are important for developing novel therapies and predicting the disease prognosis. In this study, we investigated cytokine production in patients with CDI and evaluated the potential of cytokines to serve as biomarkers for CDI and predictors of disease severity...
June 7, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592626/longitudinal-ip-10-serum-levels-are-associated-with-the-course-of-disease-activity-and-remission-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Anouk van Hooij, Debbie M Boeters, Elisa M Tjon Kon Fat, Susan J F van den Eeden, Paul L A M Corstjens, Annette H M van der Helm-van Mil, Annemieke Geluk
Although Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, persistent autoimmune disease 10-15% of the RA patients achieve sustained disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD)-free remission over time. Biological mechanisms underlying the resolution of persistent inflammation in RA are yet unidentified and prognostic markers are lacking.It is well established that increased serum levels of IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) are associated with (acute) increased inflammatory responses (e.g. in leprosy). In order to assess the potential of IP-10 as a diagnostic tool for inflammatory episodes in RA, we performed a retrospective study and assessed IP-10 levels in longitudinally banked serum samples of patients upon first diagnosis of RA...
June 7, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566336/maternal-humoral-immune-correlates-of-peripartum-transmission-of-clade-c-hiv-1-in-the-setting-of-peripartum-antiretrovirals
#14
Charmaine P Mutucumarana, Joshua Eudailey, Erin P McGuire, Nathan Vandergrift, Gerald Tegha, Charles Chasela, Sascha Ellington, Charles van der Horst, Athena P Kourtis, Sallie R Permar, Genevieve G Fouda
Despite widespread use of antiretrovirals (ARV), more than 150,000 pediatric HIV-1 infections continue to occur annually. Supplemental strategies are necessary to eliminate pediatric HIV infections. We previously reported that maternal HIV envelope-specific anti-V3 IgG, CD4 binding site-directed antibodies, and tier 1 virus neutralization predicted reduced risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (MTCT) in the pre-ARV era US-based Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) cohort. As the majority of ongoing pediatric HIV infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa, we sought to determine if the same maternal humoral immune correlates predicted MTCT in a subset of the Malawian Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) cohort of HIV-infected mothers (n=88, 45 transmitting and 43 non-transmitting)...
May 31, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566335/breadth-and-duration-of-meningococcal-serum-bactericidal-activity-in-healthcare-workers-and-microbiologists-immunized-with-the-menb-fhbp-vaccine
#15
Eduardo Lujan, Elizabeth Partridge, Serena Giuntini, Sanjay Ram, Dan M Granoff
Background. MenB-FHbp is a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine with two Factor H binding protein (FHbp) antigens from subfamilies A and B. For licensure, efficacy was inferred from serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) responses against four reference strains. Only limited information is available on breadth or duration of protective SBA responses against genetically diverse disease-causing strains.Methods. Seventeen healthcare or laboratory workers were immunized with two (N=2) or three (N=15) doses of MenB-FHbp at 0, 2 and 6 months...
May 31, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566334/antibody-based-correlates-of-protection-against-cholera-analysis-of-a-challenge-study-in-a-cholera-na%C3%A3-ve-population
#16
Douglas J Haney, Michael D Lock, Jakub K Simon, Jason Harris, Marc Gurwith
Immunologic correlates of protection can be used to infer vaccine efficacy for populations in which challenge trials or field studies are infeasible. In a recent cholera challenge trial (WH Cohen et al, Clinical Infectious Disease 62: 1329-1335, 2016), 134 North American cholera-naïve volunteers were randomized to receive either the live, attenuated single-dose cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR or placebo, and titers of vibriocidal antibodies against classical Inaba were assessed 10 days after treatment. Subsequent to the immunologic evaluation, each subject ingested a fixed quantity of virulent V...
May 31, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515136/loss-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-to-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-during-current-or-convalescent-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-malawian-children
#17
Tonney S Nyirenda, James T Nyirenda, Dumizulu L Tembo, Janet Storm, Queen Dube, Chisomo L Msefula, Kondwani C Jambo, Henry C Mwandumba, Robert S Heyderman, Melita A Gordon, Wilson L Mandala
Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are commonly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infections, but the immunologic basis for this linkage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that P. falciparum infection compromises the humoral and cellular immunity of the host to NTS, which increases the susceptibility of the host to iNTS infection. We prospectively recruited children aged between 6 and 60 months at a Community Health Centre in Blantyre, Malawi, and allocated them to the following groups; febrile with uncomplicated malaria, febrile malaria negative, and nonfebrile malaria negative...
July 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515135/not-all-antigens-are-created-equally-progress-challenges-and-lessons-associated-with-developing-a-vaccine-for-leishmaniasis
#18
REVIEW
Malcolm S Duthie, Steven G Reed
From experimental models and the analyses of patients, it is well documented that antigen-specific T cells are critical for protection against Leishmania infection. Effective vaccines require both targeting to the pathogen and an immune stimulant to induce maturation of appropriate immune responses. While a great number of antigens have been examined as vaccine candidates against various Leishmania species, few have advanced to human or canine clinical trials. With emphasis on antigen expression, in this minireview we discuss some of the vaccine platforms that are currently being explored for the development of Leishmania vaccines...
July 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515134/identification-of-novel-seroreactive-antigens-in-johne-s-disease-cattle-by-using-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-array
#19
John P Bannantine, Joseph J Campo, Lingling Li, Arlo Randall, Jozelyn Pablo, Craig A Praul, Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay, Judith R Stabel, Vivek Kapur
Johne's disease, a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is endemic in dairy cattle and other ruminants worldwide and remains a challenge to diagnose using traditional serological methods. Given the close phylogenetic relationship between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, here, we applied a whole-proteome M. tuberculosis protein array to identify seroreactive and diagnostic M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens...
July 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515133/development-of-a-novel-virus-like-particle-vaccine-platform-that-mimics-the-immature-form-of-alphavirus
#20
Akane Urakami, Atsuko Sakurai, Momoko Ishikawa, Moh Lan Yap, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Yasunari Haseda, Taiki Aoshi, Fidel P Zavala, Michael G Rossmann, Sachiko Kuno, Ryuji Ueno, Wataru Akahata
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are noninfectious multiprotein structures that are engineered to self-assemble from viral structural proteins. Here, we developed a novel VLP-based vaccine platform utilizing VLPs from the chikungunya virus. We identified two regions within the envelope protein, a structural component of chikungunya, where foreign antigens can be inserted without compromising VLP structure. Our VLP displays 480 copious copies of an inserted antigen on the VLP surface in a highly symmetric manner and is thus capable of inducing strong immune responses against any inserted antigen...
July 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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