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Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855958/proteins-associated-with-the-doubling-time-of-the-nci-60-cancer-cell-lines
#1
Michael Polymenis
The varied nature of human cancers is recapitulated, at least to some extent, in the diverse NCI-60 panel of human cancer cell lines. Here, I used a basic, continuous variable of proliferating cells, their doubling time, to stratify the proteome across the NCI-60 cell lines. Among >7000 proteins quantified in the NCI-60 panel previously, the levels of 84 proteins increase in cells that proliferate slowly. This set overlapped with the hallmark molecular signature "epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)" (p value = 1...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729880/erratum-to-rpl22-is-required-for-ime1-mrna-translation-and-meiotic-induction-in-s-cerevisiae
#2
Stephen K Kim, Randy Strich
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13008-016-0024-3.].
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680457/erratum-to-electrostatic-forces-drive-poleward-chromosome-motions-at-kinetochores
#3
L John Gagliardi, Daniel H Shain
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13008-016-0026-1.].
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293272/multiple-molecular-interactions-redundantly-contribute-to-rb-mediated-cell-cycle-control
#4
Michael J Thwaites, Matthew J Cecchini, Srikanth Talluri, Daniel T Passos, Jasmyne Carnevale, Frederick A Dick
BACKGROUND: The G1-S phase transition is critical to maintaining proliferative control and preventing carcinogenesis. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor is a key regulator of this step in the cell cycle. RESULTS: Here we use a structure-function approach to evaluate the contributions of multiple protein interaction surfaces on pRB towards cell cycle regulation. SAOS2 cell cycle arrest assays showed that disruption of three separate binding surfaces were necessary to inhibit pRB-mediated cell cycle control...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077953/systematic-epistatic-mapping-of-cellular-processes
#5
EDITORIAL
Maximilian Billmann, Michael Boutros
Genetic screens have identified many novel components of various biological processes, such as components required for cell cycle and cell division. While forward genetic screens typically generate unstructured 'hit' lists, genetic interaction mapping approaches can identify functional relations in a systematic fashion. Here, we discuss a recent study by our group demonstrating a two-step approach to first screen for regulators of the mitotic cell cycle, and subsequently guide hypothesis generation by using genetic interaction analysis...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077952/the-irr1-scc3-protein-implicated-in-chromosome-segregation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-has-a-dual-nuclear-cytoplasmic-localization
#6
Piotr Kowalec, Jan Fronk, Anna Kurlandzka
BACKGROUND: Correct chromosome segregation depends on the sister chromatid cohesion complex. The essential, evolutionarily conserved regulatory protein Irr1/Scc3, is responsible for the complex loading onto DNA and for its removal. We found that, unexpectedly, Irr1 is present not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm. RESULTS: We show that Irr1 protein is enriched in the cytoplasm upon arrest of yeast cells in G1 phase following nitrogen starvation, diauxic shift or α-factor action, and also during normal cell cycle...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807465/electrostatic-forces-drive-poleward-chromosome-motions-at-kinetochores
#7
EDITORIAL
L John Gagliardi, Daniel H Shain
BACKGROUND: Recent experiments regarding Ndc80/Hec1 in force generation at kinetochores for chromosome motions have prompted speculation about possible models for interactions between positively charged molecules at kinetochores and negative charge at and near the plus ends of microtubules. DISCUSSION: A clear picture of how kinetochores and centrosomes establish and maintain a dynamic coupling to microtubules for force generation during the complex motions of mitosis remains elusive...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761151/erratum-to-the-loop-less-tm-cdc34-e2-mutant-defective-polyubiquitination-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-supports-yeast-growth-in-a-manner-dependent-on-ubp14-and-cka2
#8
Agnieszka Lass, Ross Cocklin, Kenneth M Scaglione, Michael Skowyra, Sergey Korolev, Mark Goebl, Dorota Skowyra
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/1747-1028-6-7.].
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708688/the-csl-proteins-versatile-transcription-factors-and-context-dependent-corepressors-of-the-notch-signaling-pathway
#9
REVIEW
Humberto Contreras-Cornejo, Germán Saucedo-Correa, Javier Oviedo-Boyso, Juan José Valdez-Alarcón, Víctor Manuel Baizabal-Aguirre, Marcos Cajero-Juárez, Alejandro Bravo-Patiño
The Notch signaling pathway is a reiteratively used cell to cell communication pathway that triggers pleiotropic effects. The correct regulation of the pathway permits the efficient regulation of genes involved in cell fate decision throughout development. This activity relies notably on the CSL proteins, (an acronym for CBF-1/RBPJ-κ in Homo sapiens/Mus musculus respectively, Suppressor of Hairless in Drosophila melanogaster, Lag-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans) which is the unique transcription factor and DNA binding protein involved in this pathway...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486476/interferon-gamma-induced-apoptosis-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-is-connected-to-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-via-mitochondrial-and-er-stress-associated-pathways
#10
Siraj M El Jamal, Erin B Taylor, Zakaria Y Abd Elmageed, Abdulhadi A Alamodi, Denis Selimovic, Abdulaziz Alkhateeb, Matthias Hannig, Sofie Y Hassan, Simeon Santourlidis, Paul L Friedlander, Youssef Haikel, Srinivasan Vijaykumar, Emad Kandil, Mohamed Hassan
BACKGROUND: Tumor response to immunotherapy is the consequence of a concerted crosstalk between cytokines and effector cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is one of the common cytokines coordinating tumor immune response and the associated biological consequences. Although the role of IFNγ in the modulation of tumor immunity has been widely documented, the mechanisms regulating IFNγ-induced cell death, during the course of immune therapy, is not described in detail. RESULTS: IFNγ triggered apoptosis of CLS-354 and RPMI 2650 cells, enhanced the protein expression and activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and suppressed the basal expression of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478489/rpl22-is-required-for-ime1-mrna-translation-and-meiotic-induction-in-s-cerevisiae
#11
Stephen J Kim, Randy Strich
BACKGROUND: The transition from mitotic cell division to meiotic development in S. cerevisiae requires induction of a transient transcription program that is initiated by Ime1-dependent destruction of the repressor Ume6. Although IME1 mRNA is observed in vegetative cultures, Ime1 protein is not suggesting the presence of a regulatory system restricting translation to meiotic cells. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that IME1 mRNA translation requires Rpl22A and Rpl22B, eukaryotic-specific ribosomal protein paralogs of the 60S large subunit...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418942/insights-into-apc-c-from-cellular-function-to-diseases-and-therapeutics
#12
REVIEW
Zhuan Zhou, Mingjing He, Anil A Shah, Yong Wan
Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multifunctional ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets different substrates for ubiquitylation and therefore regulates a variety of cellular processes such as cell division, differentiation, genome stability, energy metabolism, cell death, autophagy as well as carcinogenesis. Activity of APC/C is principally governed by two WD-40 domain proteins, Cdc20 and Cdh1, in and beyond cell cycle. In the past decade, the results based on numerous biochemical, 3D structural, mouse genetic and small molecule inhibitor studies have largely attracted our attention into the emerging role of APC/C and its regulation in biological function, human diseases and potential therapeutics...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293474/cullin-ring-ligases-in-regulation-of-autophagy
#13
REVIEW
Danrui Cui, Xiufang Xiong, Yongchao Zhao
Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), the largest E3 ubiquitin ligase family, promote ubiquitination and degradation of various cellular key regulators involved in a broad array of physiological and pathological processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, transcription, cardiomyopathy, and tumorigenesis. Autophagy, an intracellular catabolic reaction that delivers cytoplasmic components to lysosomes for degradation, is crucial for cellular metabolism and homeostasis. The dysfunction of autophagy has been proved to associate with a variety of human diseases...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222660/the-structure-and-regulation-of-cullin-2-based-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-and-their-biological-functions
#14
REVIEW
Weijia Cai, Haifeng Yang
BACKGROUND: Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes play a central role in targeting cellular proteins for ubiquitination-dependent protein turnover through 26S proteasome. Cullin-2 is a member of the Cullin family, and it serves as a scaffold protein for Elongin B and C, Rbx1 and various substrate recognition receptors to form E3 ubiquitin ligases. MAIN BODY OF THE ABSTRACT: First, the composition, structure and the regulation of Cullin-2 based E3 ubiquitin ligases were introduced...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110270/the-t-box-transcription-factor-tbx3-drives-proliferation-by-direct-repression-of-the-p21-waf1-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor
#15
Tarryn Willmer, Shannagh Hare, Jade Peres, Sharon Prince
BACKGROUND: TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1) plays a pivotal role in a myriad of processes including cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis and here we provide a detailed mechanism to show that it is a direct and biologically relevant target of TBX3...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042198/cul3-klhl20-ubiquitin-ligase-physiological-functions-stress-responses-and-disease-implications
#16
REVIEW
Hsin-Yi Chen, Chin-Chih Liu, Ruey-Hwa Chen
Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases are the largest Ubiquitin ligase family in eukaryotes and are multi-protein complexes. In these complexes, the Cullin protein serves as a scaffold to connect two functional modules of the ligases, the catalytic subunit and substrate-binding subunit. KLHL20 is a substrate-binding subunit of Cullin3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase. Recent studies have identified a number of substrates of KLHL20-based ubiquitin ligase. Through ubiquitination of these substrates, KLHL20 elicits diverse cellular functions, some of which are associated with human diseases...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042197/new-insights-into-posttranslational-modifications-of-hippo-pathway-in-carcinogenesis-and-therapeutics
#17
REVIEW
Mingjing He, Zhuan Zhou, Anil A Shah, Yang Hong, Qianming Chen, Yong Wan
PTMs (posttranslational modifications) such as ubiquitylation, sumoylation, acetylation and protein methylation are pivotal modifiers that determine the activation, deactivation or subcellular localization of signaling proteins, facilitating the initiation, amplification and transduction of signaling. Accumulating evidence suggest that several key signaling molecules in Hippo signaling pathway are tightly regulated by various types of PTMs. Malfunction of these critical signaling modules such as YAP/TAZ, MAT1/2 and LATS1/2 due to deregulated PTMs has been linked to a variety of human diseases such as cancer...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030796/mitochondria-cytoskeleton-associations-in-mammalian-cytokinesis
#18
E J Lawrence, E Boucher, C A Mandato
BACKGROUND: The role of the cytoskeleton in regulating mitochondrial distribution in dividing mammalian cells is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that mitochondria are transported to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis in a microtubule-dependent manner. However, the exact subset of spindle microtubules and molecular machinery involved remains unknown. METHODS: We employed quantitative imaging techniques and structured illumination microscopy to analyse the spatial and temporal relationship of mitochondria with microtubules and actin of the contractile ring during cytokinesis in HeLa cells...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030795/c1d-family-proteins-in-coordinating-rna-processing-chromosome-condensation-and-dna-damage-response
#19
REVIEW
Rebecca A Jackson, Jocelyn Shumei Wu, Ee Sin Chen
Research on the involvement of C1D and its yeast homologues Rrp47 (S. cerevisiae) and Cti1 (S. pombe) in DNA damage repair and RNA processing has remained mutually exclusive, with most studies predominantly concentrating on Rrp47. This review will look to reconcile the functions of these proteins in their involvement with the RNA exosome, in the regulation of chromatin architecture, and in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, focusing on non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. We propose that C1D is situated in a central position to maintain genomic stability at highly transcribed gene loci by coordinating these processes through the timely recruitment of relevant regulatory factors...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030794/the-role-of-cullin-5-containing-ubiquitin-ligases
#20
REVIEW
Fumihiko Okumura, Akiko Joo-Okumura, Kunio Nakatsukasa, Takumi Kamura
The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) box consists of the BC box and the cullin 5 (Cul5) box, which interact with Elongin BC and Cul5, respectively. SOCS box-containing proteins have ubiquitin ligase activity mediated by the formation of a complex with the scaffold protein Cul5 and the RING domain protein Rbx2, and are thereby members of the cullin RING ligase superfamily. Cul5-type ubiquitin ligases have a variety of substrates that are targeted for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here, we review the current knowledge on the identification of Cul5 and the regulation of its expression, as well as the signaling pathways regulated by Cul5 and how viruses highjack the Cul5 system to overcome antiviral responses...
2016: Cell Division
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