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Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946345/imp-gtp-balance-modulates-cytoophidium-assembly-and-impdh-activity
#1
Gerson Dierley Keppeke, Chia Chun Chang, Min Peng, Li-Yu Chen, Wei-Cheng Lin, Li-Mei Pai, Luis Eduardo Coelho Andrade, Li-Ying Sung, Ji-Long Liu
Background: Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo GTP biosynthesis, plays an important role in cell metabolism and proliferation. It has been demonstrated that IMPDH can aggregate into a macrostructure, termed the cytoophidium, in mammalian cells under a variety of conditions. However, the regulation and function of the cytoophidium are still elusive. Results: In this study, we report that spontaneous filamentation of IMPDH is correlated with rapid cell proliferation...
2018: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796058/eg5-orchestrates-porcine-oocyte-maturational-progression-by-maintaining-meiotic-organelle-arrangement
#2
Yan Xie, Minghui Cheng, Shan Lu, Qilong Yuan, Dongyu Yang, Ying Chen, Chen Pan, Yurong Qiu, Bo Xiong
Background: Kinesin superfamily proteins are microtubule-based molecular motors essential for the intracellular transport of various cargos, including organelles, proteins, and RNAs. However, their exact roles during mammalian oocyte meiosis have not been fully clarified. Results: Herein, we investigated the critical events during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation with the treatment of Eg5-specific inhibitor monastrol. We found that Eg5 inhibition resulted in oocyte meiotic failure by displaying the poor expansion of cumulus cells and reduced rate of polar body extrusion...
2018: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568320/protein-arginine-methylation-an-emerging-regulator-of-the-cell-cycle
#3
REVIEW
Anita E Raposo, Sabine C Piller
Protein arginine methylation is a common post-translational modification where a methyl group is added onto arginine residues of a protein to alter detection by its binding partners or regulate its activity. It is known to be involved in many biological processes, such as regulation of signal transduction, transcription, facilitation of protein-protein interactions, RNA splicing and transport. The enzymes responsible for arginine methylation, protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), have been shown to methylate or associate with important regulatory proteins of the cell cycle and DNA damage repair pathways, such as cyclin D1, p53, p21 and the retinoblastoma protein...
2018: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467813/subunits-of-human-condensins-are-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-cancers
#4
Hong-Zhen Wang, Si-Han Yang, Gui-Ying Li, Xudong Cao
The main role of condensins is to regulate chromosome condensation and segregation during cell cycles. Recently, it has been suggested in the literatures that subunits of condensin I and condensin II are involved in some human cancers. This paper will first briefly discuss discoveries of human condensins, their components and structures, and their multiple cellular functions. This will be followed by reviews of most recent studies on subunits of human condensins and their dysregulations or mutations in human cancers...
2018: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416553/phasing-in-on-the-cell-cycle
#5
REVIEW
Steven Boeynaems, Peter Tompa, Ludo Van Den Bosch
Just like all matter, proteins can also switch between gas, liquid and solid phases. Protein phase transition has claimed the spotlight in recent years as a novel way of how cells compartmentalize and regulate biochemical reactions. Moreover, this discovery has provided a new framework for the study of membrane-less organelle biogenesis and protein aggregation in neurodegenerative disorders. We now argue that this framework could be useful in the study of cell cycle regulation and cancer. Based on our work on phase transitions of arginine-rich proteins in neurodegeneration, via combining mass spectroscopy with bioinformatics analyses, we found that also numerous proteins involved in the regulation of the cell cycle can undergo protein phase separation...
2018: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090014/the-emerging-roles-of-cdk12-in-tumorigenesis
#6
REVIEW
Hana Paculová, Jiří Kohoutek
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of both cell cycle progression and transcription. Since dysregulation of CDKs is a frequently occurring event driving tumorigenesis, CDKs have been tested extensively as targets for cancer therapy. Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) is a transcription-associated kinase which participates in various cellular processes, including DNA damage response, development and cellular differentiation, as well as splicing and pre-mRNA processing. CDK12 mutations and amplification have been recently reported in different types of malignancies, including loss-of-function mutations in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas, and that has led to assumption that CDK12 is a tumor suppressor...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855958/proteins-associated-with-the-doubling-time-of-the-nci-60-cancer-cell-lines
#7
Michael Polymenis
The varied nature of human cancers is recapitulated, at least to some extent, in the diverse NCI-60 panel of human cancer cell lines. Here, I used a basic, continuous variable of proliferating cells, their doubling time, to stratify the proteome across the NCI-60 cell lines. Among >7000 proteins quantified in the NCI-60 panel previously, the levels of 84 proteins increase in cells that proliferate slowly. This set overlapped with the hallmark molecular signature "epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)" (p value = 1...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729880/erratum-to-rpl22-is-required-for-ime1-mrna-translation-and-meiotic-induction-in-s-cerevisiae
#8
Stephen K Kim, Randy Strich
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13008-016-0024-3.].
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680457/erratum-to-electrostatic-forces-drive-poleward-chromosome-motions-at-kinetochores
#9
L John Gagliardi, Daniel H Shain
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13008-016-0026-1.].
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293272/multiple-molecular-interactions-redundantly-contribute-to-rb-mediated-cell-cycle-control
#10
Michael J Thwaites, Matthew J Cecchini, Srikanth Talluri, Daniel T Passos, Jasmyne Carnevale, Frederick A Dick
BACKGROUND: The G1-S phase transition is critical to maintaining proliferative control and preventing carcinogenesis. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor is a key regulator of this step in the cell cycle. RESULTS: Here we use a structure-function approach to evaluate the contributions of multiple protein interaction surfaces on pRB towards cell cycle regulation. SAOS2 cell cycle arrest assays showed that disruption of three separate binding surfaces were necessary to inhibit pRB-mediated cell cycle control...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077953/systematic-epistatic-mapping-of-cellular-processes
#11
EDITORIAL
Maximilian Billmann, Michael Boutros
Genetic screens have identified many novel components of various biological processes, such as components required for cell cycle and cell division. While forward genetic screens typically generate unstructured 'hit' lists, genetic interaction mapping approaches can identify functional relations in a systematic fashion. Here, we discuss a recent study by our group demonstrating a two-step approach to first screen for regulators of the mitotic cell cycle, and subsequently guide hypothesis generation by using genetic interaction analysis...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077952/the-irr1-scc3-protein-implicated-in-chromosome-segregation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-has-a-dual-nuclear-cytoplasmic-localization
#12
Piotr Kowalec, Jan Fronk, Anna Kurlandzka
BACKGROUND: Correct chromosome segregation depends on the sister chromatid cohesion complex. The essential, evolutionarily conserved regulatory protein Irr1/Scc3, is responsible for the complex loading onto DNA and for its removal. We found that, unexpectedly, Irr1 is present not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm. RESULTS: We show that Irr1 protein is enriched in the cytoplasm upon arrest of yeast cells in G1 phase following nitrogen starvation, diauxic shift or α-factor action, and also during normal cell cycle...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807465/electrostatic-forces-drive-poleward-chromosome-motions-at-kinetochores
#13
EDITORIAL
L John Gagliardi, Daniel H Shain
BACKGROUND: Recent experiments regarding Ndc80/Hec1 in force generation at kinetochores for chromosome motions have prompted speculation about possible models for interactions between positively charged molecules at kinetochores and negative charge at and near the plus ends of microtubules. DISCUSSION: A clear picture of how kinetochores and centrosomes establish and maintain a dynamic coupling to microtubules for force generation during the complex motions of mitosis remains elusive...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761151/erratum-to-the-loop-less-tm-cdc34-e2-mutant-defective-polyubiquitination-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-supports-yeast-growth-in-a-manner-dependent-on-ubp14-and-cka2
#14
Agnieszka Lass, Ross Cocklin, Kenneth M Scaglione, Michael Skowyra, Sergey Korolev, Mark Goebl, Dorota Skowyra
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/1747-1028-6-7.].
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708688/the-csl-proteins-versatile-transcription-factors-and-context-dependent-corepressors-of-the-notch-signaling-pathway
#15
REVIEW
Humberto Contreras-Cornejo, Germán Saucedo-Correa, Javier Oviedo-Boyso, Juan José Valdez-Alarcón, Víctor Manuel Baizabal-Aguirre, Marcos Cajero-Juárez, Alejandro Bravo-Patiño
The Notch signaling pathway is a reiteratively used cell to cell communication pathway that triggers pleiotropic effects. The correct regulation of the pathway permits the efficient regulation of genes involved in cell fate decision throughout development. This activity relies notably on the CSL proteins, (an acronym for CBF-1/RBPJ-κ in Homo sapiens/Mus musculus respectively, Suppressor of Hairless in Drosophila melanogaster, Lag-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans) which is the unique transcription factor and DNA binding protein involved in this pathway...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486476/interferon-gamma-induced-apoptosis-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-is-connected-to-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-via-mitochondrial-and-er-stress-associated-pathways
#16
Siraj M El Jamal, Erin B Taylor, Zakaria Y Abd Elmageed, Abdulhadi A Alamodi, Denis Selimovic, Abdulaziz Alkhateeb, Matthias Hannig, Sofie Y Hassan, Simeon Santourlidis, Paul L Friedlander, Youssef Haikel, Srinivasan Vijaykumar, Emad Kandil, Mohamed Hassan
BACKGROUND: Tumor response to immunotherapy is the consequence of a concerted crosstalk between cytokines and effector cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is one of the common cytokines coordinating tumor immune response and the associated biological consequences. Although the role of IFNγ in the modulation of tumor immunity has been widely documented, the mechanisms regulating IFNγ-induced cell death, during the course of immune therapy, is not described in detail. RESULTS: IFNγ triggered apoptosis of CLS-354 and RPMI 2650 cells, enhanced the protein expression and activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and suppressed the basal expression of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478489/rpl22-is-required-for-ime1-mrna-translation-and-meiotic-induction-in-s-cerevisiae
#17
Stephen J Kim, Randy Strich
BACKGROUND: The transition from mitotic cell division to meiotic development in S. cerevisiae requires induction of a transient transcription program that is initiated by Ime1-dependent destruction of the repressor Ume6. Although IME1 mRNA is observed in vegetative cultures, Ime1 protein is not suggesting the presence of a regulatory system restricting translation to meiotic cells. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that IME1 mRNA translation requires Rpl22A and Rpl22B, eukaryotic-specific ribosomal protein paralogs of the 60S large subunit...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418942/insights-into-apc-c-from-cellular-function-to-diseases-and-therapeutics
#18
REVIEW
Zhuan Zhou, Mingjing He, Anil A Shah, Yong Wan
Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multifunctional ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets different substrates for ubiquitylation and therefore regulates a variety of cellular processes such as cell division, differentiation, genome stability, energy metabolism, cell death, autophagy as well as carcinogenesis. Activity of APC/C is principally governed by two WD-40 domain proteins, Cdc20 and Cdh1, in and beyond cell cycle. In the past decade, the results based on numerous biochemical, 3D structural, mouse genetic and small molecule inhibitor studies have largely attracted our attention into the emerging role of APC/C and its regulation in biological function, human diseases and potential therapeutics...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293474/cullin-ring-ligases-in-regulation-of-autophagy
#19
REVIEW
Danrui Cui, Xiufang Xiong, Yongchao Zhao
Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), the largest E3 ubiquitin ligase family, promote ubiquitination and degradation of various cellular key regulators involved in a broad array of physiological and pathological processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, transcription, cardiomyopathy, and tumorigenesis. Autophagy, an intracellular catabolic reaction that delivers cytoplasmic components to lysosomes for degradation, is crucial for cellular metabolism and homeostasis. The dysfunction of autophagy has been proved to associate with a variety of human diseases...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222660/the-structure-and-regulation-of-cullin-2-based-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-and-their-biological-functions
#20
REVIEW
Weijia Cai, Haifeng Yang
BACKGROUND: Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes play a central role in targeting cellular proteins for ubiquitination-dependent protein turnover through 26S proteasome. Cullin-2 is a member of the Cullin family, and it serves as a scaffold protein for Elongin B and C, Rbx1 and various substrate recognition receptors to form E3 ubiquitin ligases. MAIN BODY OF THE ABSTRACT: First, the composition, structure and the regulation of Cullin-2 based E3 ubiquitin ligases were introduced...
2016: Cell Division
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