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Diagnostic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284501/nucleoli-cytomorphology-in-cutaneous-melanoma-cells-a-new-prognostic-approach-to-an-old-concept
#1
Piotr Donizy, Przemyslaw Biecek, Agnieszka Halon, Adam Maciejczyk, Rafal Matkowski
BACKGROUND: The nucleolus is an organelle that is an ultrastructural element of the cell nucleus observed in H&E staining as a roundish body stained with eosin due to its high protein content. Changes in the nucleoli cytomorphology were one of the first histopathological characteristics of malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the cytomorphological characteristics of nucleoli and detailed clinicopathological parameters of melanoma patients. Moreover, we analyzed the correlation between cytomorphological parameters of nucleoli and immunoreactivity of selected proteins responsible for, among others, regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (SPARC, N-cadherin), cell adhesion and motility (ALCAM, ADAM-10), mitotic divisions (PLK1), cellular survival (FOXP1) and the functioning of Golgi apparatus (GOLPH3, GP73)...
December 29, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273082/low-frequency-of-braf-and-kras-mutations-in-chinese-patients-with-low-grade-serous-carcinoma-of-the-ovary
#2
Yan Xu, Rui Bi, Yaoxing Xiao, Xiaoyu Tu, Ming Li, Anqi Li, Ling Shan, Shuling Zhou, Wentao Yang
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence has shown that KRAS and BRAF are somatic mutations associated with low grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) of the ovary. However, the frequency of KRAS or BRAF mutation was variable in literatures, with a frequency of 16-54% for KRAS mutation and 2-33% for BRAF mutation. Meanwhile, the prognostic significance of KRAS or BRAF mutation remains controversial. METHODS: Codons 12 and 13 of exon 2 of KRAS gene and exon 15 of BRAF gene were analyzed using direct Sanger sequencing in 32 cases of LGSC of the ovary...
December 22, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258531/malignant-rhabdoid-tumor-in-the-renal-allograft-of-an-adult-transplant-recipient-a-unique-case-of-a-rare-tumor
#3
Jing Xiong, Tiefen Su, Pengcheng Zhu, Qilin Ao, Qiurong Ruan, Guoping Wang
BACKGROUND: Renal transplant recipients have increased risk for developing malignant diseases because of immunosuppression or donor-to-recipient transmission. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare, highly aggressive and lethal tumor primarily affecting the kidney of infants and young children. MRT has not been reported in the renal allograft of an adult recipient after kidney transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, a 47-year-old woman who received a kidney transplantation from an infant donor and developed a mass in the transplanted kidney is presented...
December 19, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228981/composite-neuroendocrine-tumor-and-adenocarcinoma-of-the-rectum
#4
Hiromi Kanno-Okada, Tomoko Mitsuhashi, Katsuhiro Mabe, Tadakazu Shimoda, Yoshihiro Matsuno
BACKGROUND: Although adenocarcinomas showing neuroendocrine differentiation or those mixed with high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) are sometimes encountered, composite tumors comprising neuroendocrine tumor (NET) Grade 1 and adenocarcinoma are exceedingly rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old male presented after testing positive for fecal occult blood at a medical check-up. A biopsy demonstrated the presence of a NET and endoscopic submucosal dissection was undertaken...
December 11, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212517/is-hematoxylin-eosin-staining-in-rectal-mucosal-and-submucosal-biopsies-still-useful-for-the-diagnosis-of-hirschsprung-disease
#5
Suellen Serafini, Maria Mercês Santos, Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri, Maria Claudia Nogueira Zerbini, Maria Cecília de Mendonça Coelho, Josiane de Oliveira Gonçalves, Uenis Tannuri
BACKGROUND: Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining of a full-thickness rectal wall fragment is classically used for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease (HD). However, this technique requires large fragments for a better diagnosis. Additionally, the histochemical and immunohistochemical methods of staining small fragments of rectal mucosal and submucosal biopsies are not available in all centers. Therefore, the possibility of diagnosing HD through HE staining in these biopsies could be a valuable alternative for centers that do not have more specific techniques...
December 6, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187222/unusual-presentation-of-plasmablastic-lymphoma-involving-ovarian-mature-cystic-teratoma-a-case-report
#6
Ita Hadžisejdić, Emina Babarović, Luka Vranić, Antica Duletić Načinović, Ksenija Lučin, Maja Krašević, Nives Jonjić
BACKGROUND: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is relatively new clinical entity described as a distinct subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is characterized by its aggressive nature and proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling immunoblasts including cells with more obvious plasmacytic differentiation. In this case report, we describe an unexpected finding of PBL associated with a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary in a young immune competent woman. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year old woman was admitted to the hospital with generalized lymphadenopathy, a pelvic tumor mass measuring 35 × 30 cm and a 4 cm lump in her right breast...
November 29, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141672/a-novel-git2-braf-fusion-in-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#7
Jeffrey Helgager, Hart G Lidov, Navin R Mahadevan, Mark W Kieran, Keith L Ligon, Sanda Alexandrescu
BACKGROUND: KIAA1549-BRAF fusion is the most common genetic event in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and leads to activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Fusions of BRAF with other partner genes, as well as other genetic alterations not involving BRAF but also leading to MAPK pathway activation have been described rarely. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a new fusion partner in the low-grade glioma of a 10-year-old male, who presented with headaches and recent episodes of seizures...
November 15, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137657/p53-aberrations-in-low-grade-endometrioid-carcinoma-of-the-endometrium-with-nodal-metastases-possible-insights-on-pathogenesis-discerned-from-immunohistochemistry
#8
Oluwole Fadare, Vinita Parkash
BACKGROUND: TP53 mutations are rarely identified in low grade endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium, and their pathogenic significance in such tumors is evidenced by the fact that TP53 aberrations have been associated with reduced recurrence-free survival in this subset of tumors. However, TP53 aberrations may not always represent a driving molecular event in a given endometrial cancer with a mutation. In this case study, the immunophenotype of a distinctive low grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma with an unusual pattern of lymph node metastases is used to explore the possible roles for underlying TP53-related molecular events in its pathogenesis...
November 14, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132399/automated-quantification-of-steatosis-agreement-with-stereological-point-counting
#9
André Homeyer, Patrik Nasr, Christiane Engel, Stergios Kechagias, Peter Lundberg, Mattias Ekstedt, Henning Kost, Nick Weiss, Tim Palmer, Horst Karl Hahn, Darren Treanor, Claes Lundström
BACKGROUND: Steatosis is routinely assessed histologically in clinical practice and research. Automated image analysis can reduce the effort of quantifying steatosis. Since reproducibility is essential for practical use, we have evaluated different analysis methods in terms of their agreement with stereological point counting (SPC) performed by a hepatologist. METHODS: The evaluation was based on a large and representative data set of 970 histological images from human patients with different liver diseases...
November 13, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126417/sclerosing-angiomatoid-nodular-transformation-of-the-spleen-in-a-patient-with-maffucci-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
Xiao-Dan Huang, Hao-Sen Jiao, Zheng Yang, Chuang-Qi Chen, Yu-Long He, Xin-Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Maffucci syndrome is a congenital, non-hereditary mesodermal dysplasia characterized by multiple enchondromas and hemangiomas. The presence of visceral vascular lesions in this syndrome is exceedingly rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 26-year-old female who was diagnosed with Maffucci syndrome along with sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen. The patient underwent a laparoscopic splenectomy. Immunostaining of the excised specimen revealed 3 distinct types of vessels in the angiomatoid nodules: CD34-/CD8-/CD31+ small veins, CD34-/CD8+/CD31+ sinusoids, and CD34+/CD8-/CD31+ capillaries, leading to the diagnosis of SANT of the spleen...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116005/composite-intestinal-adenoma-microcarcinoid-in-the-colon-and-rectum-a-case-series-and-historical-review
#11
Mi-Jung Kim, Eun-Jung Lee, Do Sun Kim, Doo Han Lee, Eui Gon Youk, Hyun-Jung Kim
BACKGROUND: Composite intestinal adenoma-microcarcinoid (CIAM) is a rare colorectal lesion that mostly comprises a conventional adenomatous component with a minute proportion of neuroendocrine (NE) component. Although microcarcinoids are well-recognized in the setting of chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, large intestinal microcarcinoids associated with intestinal adenoma are exceedingly rare and their clinicopathologic characteristics are yet to be elucidated...
November 7, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096655/complete-mimicry-a-case-of-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-masquerading-as-acute-leukemia
#12
Osamu Imataki, Makiko Uemura, Shumpei Uchida, Shigeyuki Yokokura, Akihiro Takeuchi, Ryo Ishikawa, Akihiro Kondo, Kayoko Seo, Norimitsu Kadowaki
BACKGROUND: A small number of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cases involve the bone marrow. A leukemic presentation of RMS has been reported in a few case series, although almost all cases of leukemic RMS are not completely mimicking leukemia. We encountered a case with RMS cell infiltration of the bone marrow that resembled floating hematological cells. CASE PRESENTATION: We encountered a rare case of a 15-year-old boy with a 2-week history of left femoral pain. Upon admission, he was afebrile with no other symptoms...
November 2, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096639/renal-clear-cell-carcinoma-metastasis-to-the-breast-ten-years-after-nephrectomy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Yanjun Xu, Rui Hou, Qijie Lu, Yifan Deng, Bin Hu
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma most commonly metastasizes to the lungs, skeleton or liver. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the breast is very rare, especially for clear cell carcinoma, and few cases regarding this condition have been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: The case we presented was a 68-year-old Chinese female with metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma of the left breast 10 years after a nephrectomy. Identification of the metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma in the breast required multiple breast imaging modalities...
November 2, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041930/renal-cell-like-carcinoma-of-the-nasal-cavity-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Zhenwei-Chen, Zhaoming-Wang, Hongqi-Shi, Qinwei-Liu
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal renal cell-like carcinoma (SRCLC) is an extremely rare low malignant tumor arising in the sinonasal tract, with histological mimicry of renal cell carcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of sinonasal renal cell-like carcinoma in a 63-year-old male patient. Computer tomography(CT) scanning revealed a soft tissue mass at the left nasal cavity and choana. Histologically, the predominant tumor architecture was follicular to glandular with intervening fibrous septa...
October 17, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037200/spontaneous-isolated-dissection-of-the-superior-mesenteric-artery-and-aneurysm-formation-resulting-from-segmental-arterial-mediolysis-a-case-report
#15
Nobuhiro Akuzawa, Makoto Kurabayashi, Tsukasa Suzuki, Daisuke Yoshinari, Mitsunobu Kobayashi, Yoshifumi Tanahashi, Fujio Makita, Ryusei Saito
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) can lead to bowel ischemia, aneurysm rupture, or even death. Studies have suggested that mechanical or hemodynamic stress on the vascular wall of the SMA may be a contributor, but its pathogenesis is unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old Japanese man with a history of untreated hypertension and hyperuricemia was admitted to our hospital with the sudden onset of severe epigastric pain...
October 16, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017601/mass-like-dieulafoy-s-lesion-associated-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-at-the-antrum-of-stomach-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Hsi-Lan Huang, Chi Yan Leung, Chien-Jui Cheng
BACKGROUND: Dieulafoy's lesion, also known as a caliber-persistent artery, is a shallow, small, and rare lesion that occurs along the lesser curvature of proximal stomach. It is rare for a Dieulafoy's lesion to present as a mass-like lesion that coexists with gastric cancer. To our best knowledge, we report the first case and histopathological pictures of a mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion coexisting with advanced gastric cancer in the antrum of the stomach. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of intermittent epigastric dull pain and dyspepsia...
October 10, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974264/pd-l1-and-pd-1-expression-are-correlated-with-distinctive-clinicopathological-features-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#17
Yanhua Bai, Dongfeng Niu, Xiaozheng Huang, Ling Jia, Qiang Kang, Fangyuan Dou, Xinqiang Ji, Weicheng Xue, Yiqiang Liu, Zhongwu Li, Qin Feng, Dongmei Lin, Kennichi Kakudo
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1/PD-L1 has shown efficacy in several types of cancers. However, the correlation between PD-L1/PD-1 expression and the specific clinicopathological features in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been investigated. METHODS: We examined the immunohistochemical expression of PD-L1, PD-1, and BRAF V600E on whole-tissue sections from 126 cases of primary PTC more than 1 cm in size. The correlation between the PD-L1/PD-1 expression and the clinicopathological features was evaluated...
October 3, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974238/cmyc-expression-in-thyroid-follicular-cell-derived-carcinomas-a-role-in-thyroid-tumorigenesis
#18
Hany I Sakr, Deborah J Chute, Christian Nasr, Charles D Sturgis
BACKGROUND: cMYC regulates approximately 15% of human genes and is involved in up to 20% of all human cancers. Reports discussing cMYC protein expression in thyroid carcinomas are limited, with controversies pertaining to cMYC expression patterns noted in the literature. The aims of the current study were to clarify patterns and intensities of cMYC expression in follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinomas across a spectrum of cancer morphologies and disease aggressivities, to correlate cMYC with BRAF(V600E) expression, and to evaluate the potential role of cMYC in progression of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas into less well-differentiated carcinomas...
October 3, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946910/primary-paranasal-sinus-hyalinizing-clear-cell-carcinoma-a-case-report
#19
Batool M AlAli, Mohammed J Alyousef, Ahmad Salah Kamel, Mohammad A Al Hamad, Mohammad H Al-Bar, Roaa M Algowiez
BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare low-grade tumour of salivary glands that was first described as a distinct entity in 1994 by Milchgrub et al. EWSR1-ATF1 fusion was found to be specific for this tumour. The majority of the reported cases of HCCC arise from minor salivary glands within the oral cavity. Primary HCCC of the paranasal sinus is extremely uncommon. To our knowledge, only three cases have been reported in the English literature. Herein, we present a case of HCCC of the posterior ethmoid/maxillary sinus...
September 25, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923119/alk-positive-gastric-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumor-in-an-adult-with-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-and-diffuse-fundic-polyposis
#20
Jun Fan, Bo Huang, Xiuping Yang, Ming Yang, Jun He, Xiu Nie
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the stomach is extremely rare in adults and exhibits a variable biological behavior that ranges from frequently benign lesions to more aggressive variants. Here we report a case of gastric IMT with lymph node metastasis in an adult who had undergone total colectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old man presented gradual-onset epigastric discomfort; he had undergone total colectomy for FAP 6 years before...
September 18, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
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